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Industrialization

Eliminationofbarrierstointernationaltrade,jointstockinvestmentbackshelpedto
expandmarkets
Workingclassformedunions(controversial)
Marxism
CommunistManifesto(MarxandEngels)waswrittenasastatementofideasfor
CommunistLeague
Historyisdeterminedbymaterialforces(classstrugglesforexample)
Bourgeoisie(Capitalists)vsProletariat(Lowerworkingclass)
Classlesssocietywithadictator
ManagedtheFirstInternational(failure)
OrganizationofWorkingClasses
GermanSocialDemocraticParty(LiebknechtandBebel)Marxist,continuedtogrow
JeanJaursinspiredbyFrenchrevolutionarytraditiontojustifyrevolutionarysocialism.
TriedtoorganizeSecondInternational;MayDay(May1)
RevisionismandNationalismpreventedaglobalunification
EduardBernstein(EvolutionarySocialism)GermaninfluencedbymoderateEnglish
socialism;evolutionbydemocraticmeans,notrevolution
Nationalism>Socialism
TradeUnions
GrewquicklyinBritain,slowlyinFrance
Oftenlinkedwithsocialism
GermanyTradeUnionsweresuccessful>forgorevolution
Anarchy
Prominentinlessindustrialized,lessdemocraticcountries
Initially,notaviolentmovement
MichalBakuninsmallgroupsofrevolutionariescanperpetratesomuchviolenceasto
disintegrateinstitutions
SocialImpactofTotalWar
Highemployment,tradeunionshavemorepoliticalpower
Womenworkedinjobsthatweretraditionallythoseofmales
Causedtensionamonggendersbecausemenfeltthreatened
Realisticallylittlesecuritybutstillprogress
Reducedgapsbetweenclasses(sortof)
Largeindustriesprofitedsignificantly
Inflation,lossofpurchasingpower
RussianRevolution
TsarNicholasIIfailed;notreadyfortheindustrializedtotalwarofWW1;suspicious
government;revokedpoliticalconcessionsmadeinRevolutionof1905
AlexandraheavilyinfluencedbyRasputin
MarchRevolution
Feb.Gov'tintroducedbreadrationing

Womencalledforageneralstrike;Nicholascouldn'tcontrol;Dumaforcedhimto
abdicate
ModerateConstitutionalDemocratsestablishedProvisionalGovernment(middle/liberal
classminority;wantedtocarryoutwar;notpopular)
Soviet's:councilofworker's;radical;wantedtoseizeestatesandformruraldemocracy
MarxistSocialDemocraticParty:Mensheviks(masselectoralsocialistpartybasedon
Westernmodel;usedemocracytoachievesocialiststate),Bolsheviks(Lenin;violent
revolution;vanguardofactivistsmustformsmallpartyofrevolutionariestoaccomplish
task)
AprilTheses(Lenin):blueprintbasedonMarxisttheory;movedirectlyintosocialism;
Peace,LandBread
BolshevikRevolution
AlexanderKerensky(primeministerofProvGov)releasedBolsheviks
Trotsky+Leninorganizedrevolution(November,WinterPalace)Success
PowertotheCongressofSoviets,reallytheCouncilofPeople'sCommissars;brokeapart
theConstituentAssembly
Gavelandtolocalruralsoviets;factoriestotheworkers
AlexandraKollontaiinitiatedwomen'srightsandsocialwelfare
TreatyofBrestLitovsk:gaveupland,nomatterbecausesocialistrevolutionwillspread
CivilWar
Bolshevik(red)vsantiBolshevik(white)
Redwon;welldisciplined,Trotskydidgoodjoborganizing;Whitehadnounity
Warcommunismnationalizationofbanks,industries,requisitionofgrain,centralization
RevolutionaryTerrorCheka(classenemiesbourgeoisie)
Alliedtroops(initiallysenttokeepRussiansinthewar)foughtonantiBolshevikside;
Bolshevikssaid"let'sfighttheforeigners!"
LastYearofWar
Germany'svictoryoverRussia>Ludendorfflaunchedgrandoffensiveinthewestbut
lost>triedtoinstituteliberalreformsbecauseAlliesdidn'twanttomakepeacewith
autocraticgov't>angeredGermanpublic>GermanversionsofRussiansoviets
FrenchPolicyofCoercion(19191924)
TriedtomakeGermany(policyofpassiveresistance)payreparations;occupiedRuhr
valley;lateroptedformoreconciliatoryapproach
HopefulYears(19241929)
GustavStresemanncommittedtocarryoutmostofTreatyofVersailles
DawesPlanreducedreparations,loanforGermanrecovery(heavyAmerican
investments)
Internationalcooperation!TreatyofLocarno:Newwesternborders,beginningof
Europeanpeace;lackedthemilitarypowertoalteritsborders
GermanyentersLeagueofNations
KelloggBriandPact:renouncedwarasaninstrumentofnationalpolicy
Disarmamentdidn'treallywork

CoexistenceofWestandSovietUnion
TheGreatDepression
Downturnindomesticeconomies&FinancialcrisiscreatedbycollapseofAmerican
stockmarket
AmericaninvestorswithdrewfundsfromGermany
Communismbecamepopular;Fascismtoo