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The Journal



Welcome to this sample version of the Journal of the

Society of Twentieth Century Wargamers (SOTCW).
The Society has been in existence since 1989 and
throughout that time members have produced this
magazine where they share knowledge, research and
ideas about wargaming conflicts from 1900 onwards.
All of the articles included here are from past Journals
but examples of some articles have been deliberately
omitted. Ordinarily, in addition to the types of article
presented here, you will find reviews of books, figures
and models in all scales and some advertisements.
Consequently this sample is only around half the size of
a normal issue (also you will be pleased to note that
there are no big white spaces in the real thing). Most
issues will have a few wargaming scenarios and the
editor tries to give reasonable coverage to conflicts on
land or sea or in the air across the whole of the period
covered by the Society (pre-1914 air warfare articles are,
admittedly, sparse). The magazine is not bound to any
specific rulesets though invariably articles will betray the
favourites of their authors not that these will
necessarily be the current flavour of the month.
Furthermore, if you get the bug, you might find the
budding author in yourself. The Editor is always pleased
to receive articles and reviews on anything of a
wargaming nature from 1900 onwards. I think it is
reasonably safe to say that there will be few conflicts
which have not been at least touched upon in the
magazines history.
For more information about the society, visit our website
at www.sotcw.co.uk. You are also welcome to join our
forum at forum.sotcw.co.uk.

Sample Issue


Page 1

Ismailia Road

Page 2

Arab/Israeli 1967 scenario

Battle of Ap Bac

Page 4

Vietnam 1963 for Force on Force rules

Quick and Dirty House-to-House

Page 7

Fast, simple rules for house-to-house fighting

Dogfight over Pakistan 1971

Page 8

AAR by Ian Dewar

The Battle of Khenifra

Page 10

Morocco, November 13th 1914

Arms for Spain!

Page 13

Arms shipments to the Republic

West of Polanow

Page 15

Poland 1939 scenario

Black Wednesday

Page 16

The Battle of Krasny Bor (10-11th February 1942)

Aegean Breakpoint

Page 21

Modern naval scenario

Operation Dreamland

Page 25

An Airwar: C21 mission

Action at Neugarten

Page 27

A Cold War Commander scenario

Membership of the SOTCW is through subscription to

the Journal. Both paper and PDF subscriptions are
available. Paper subscriptions are available from the
society website at www.sotcw.co.uk/subscribe. PDF
subscriptions are available from Wargame Vault.
I hope you enjoy what you see here and willing to part
with your money for a full subscription. If so, welcome
aboardand can I have your first article by next week
Andrew Laing

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Page 1

The Journal

Ismailia Road
An Arab/Israeli scenario set in 1967 by Sam Scott
This scenario is adapted from an account in Shabtai
Teveths hugely entertaining (if somewhat erratic) The
Tanks of Tammuz about Israeli actions during the Six
Day War. By the night of June 7, Egyptian positions in
the Sinai had crumbled and the first Israeli units were
breaking out to the west and into Egypt. One of these
units was the M/100 armoured battalion advancing down
the paved road towards the Egyptian city of Ismailia.
M/100 was a reconnaissance unit in the division
commanded by General Israel Tal and was equipped
with French AMX-13 light tanks armed with a 75mm
gun. As the day drew to a close, M/100 was the
westernmost Israeli unit of all the forces in the Sinai and
was between most of the retreating Egyptian units and
the Suez Canal. Lieutenant-Colonel Zeev, commander of
M/100, drew his forces into an all-around defensive
laager because of the possibility of encountering both
fresh enemy units from the west as well as retreating
Egyptian units coming out of the east.

Reconnaissance Company
2 Jeeps (1 MG, 1 106 mm Rec. Rifle)
2 Halftrack- each with 1 rifle squad (3 FN, Uzi)
3 Armour Companies
3 AMX-13s each
Set Up: The Israelis must set up an all-around defensive
position in the centre of the table. No units may move until
enemy forces have been detected.
Objective: Prevent any Egyptian units from crossing the table
from west to east or east to west.

M/100 Battalion is in its night laager astride the Ismailia
road. At 0300 on June 8th, Zeev receives a warning
order that some Egyptian forces - including tanks - have
broken through Israeli positions to the east and are
heading towards the battalions positions. Just as contact
is made with the retreating Egyptians, other forces are
detected approaching from the direction of Ismailia.
The Ismailia road snakes across the table from one short
side to the other. The table is a mix of shallow dunes and
patches of scrub. I played this game in 20mm on a 10 x
5 table the action would, however, be equally suitable
for 15mm or microarmor.
Israeli Forces
I have provided a bathtub version of the battalion TOE,
but it works well for game purposes.
M/100 Armour Battalion:
Bn HQ:
M3 halftrack w/ 120 mm mortar
Command Halftrack
2 Radio Jeeps (may spot for the 120mm mortar)
1 AMX-13
Armoured Infantry Company
Command Halftrack - Command Squad (2 Uzi,
1 GPMG, LAW, Light Mortar)
Radio Jeep
2 Halftrack APCs - each with 1 heavy squad
(GPMG, Blindicide, 2 FN) and a rifle squad (3
FN, Uzi)

Page 2

Egyptian Forces
The retreating forces coming out of the Sinai should enter the
table first. These units will enter in random order and will
have distinctly fragile morale.
Retreating Elements of the Egyptian Army in the Sinai
(approaching from the east)
1 Tank Company
3 T-34/85
1 Assault Gun Company
2 SU-100
1 Recon Company
1 Mechanised Company
2 Zil Trucks
4 Rifle Squads, each with 2 AK-47, 1 RPK LMG, 1
Set Up: Enter along the Ismailia Road at the east end of the
Objective: To punch through Israeli positions and exit the
west side of the board.
And what about those units detected approaching from the
west? They were elements of the Egyptian 4th Armoured
division - one of the better formations in the Egyptian army at
the time. The 4th Armoured was equipped with new T-55
tanks whose 100mm main gun would normally would be more

The Journal
than a match for M/100s light AMXs. However, the
advancing Egyptians had no idea what lay in their path
or that any Israeli units were this far west.
Elements of the 4th Armoured Division
(approaching from the west)
5 Armour Companies
3 T-55 each
Armoured Infantry Company
3 BTR-152, each with 2 Rifle Squads (2 AK47, 1 RPK LMG, 1 RPG)
Set Up: These units should be thought of as approaching
the west side of the table in road column. It will take a
while for all the units to get on table. I would
recommend allowing 2 units to enter per turn.
Objective: To exit as many units as possible off the east
end of the table.
Night Battle Special Rules
This action takes place at night so it should be very
difficult to spot an enemy unit. The rules I used had
several different target size categories, and I used the
smallest one for all acquisition and firing unless the
target was illuminated. The Israelis have 2 units that can
fire illumination rounds; the light mortar in the
Armoured Infantry Company HQ and the 120mm mortar
in the Battalion HQ. I had the smaller rounds last only 1
turn and the 120mm rounds last 3 turns but it will
depend on what rules you use. Additionally, the T-55 can
use its spotlight to illuminate targets. However that will
also reveal the T-55. I also gave spotting bonuses if the
target was silhouetted by a burning vehicle.
Night actions are confusing and to replicate this to a
certain extent I came up with the following table that I
made players roll on if they missed their shot horribly.
Table of Firing Wildly
Roll 1d6:
1- Fire at closest vehicle
2- Fire at 1st vehicle to the right of target
3- Fire at 1st vehicle to the left of target
4, 5- Fire at the Shot Magnet
6- Pass the Shot Magnet
The Shot Magnet is an old helmet with Shot Magnet
painted on the front. This got passed around among the
players during the game. If Fire at the Shot Magnet
was rolled, the target must be one of the units under that
players command.

Historical Outcome
According to Teveth, the first units to contact M/100 were
some truck-borne infantry that came out of the Sinai. These
vehicles were quickly destroyed and set afire. The next units
encountered were T-55s coming from the direction of
Ismailia. Some of the first Israeli vehicles hit by 100mm
rounds were the 120mm mortar halftrack and an engineering
vehicle carrying explosives. These two vehicles blew up
spectacularly, illuminating much of the battlefield for a while.
Some Israeli units began to waver under Egyptian pressure
before being steadied by their officers. The tremendous
morale and motivation of the Israeli tank crews allowed them
to recover and begin to find ways of hitting back. The battle
raged for a number of hours before the bewildered Egyptians
pulled back a few kilometres to take stock of the situation.
Early the following day, M/100 battalion was reinforced by
Ishermans and Centurion tanks and the advance westward
continued to the Canal.
The Refights
I have run this game twice and the best the Egyptians have
been able to do was to exit 2 T-55s off the table. The rules I
used (a homebrew called Shot) give the Israelis a great
advantage over their Arab opponents in both acquiring and
hitting targets. Many times the Egyptians were unable to fire
because they could not acquire any targets. This kind of
balancing mechanism is crucial to this scenario. If your rules
are more hardware focused, the Egyptians should roll over
the Israelis fairly easily. When I ran this game at a convention,
I had all the players who signed up play the Israelis. They
were able to discuss their dispositions and tactics before hand.
The Egyptians were handed out in penny packets to walk up
players, so naturally they were very uncoordinated in action.
The heart of this game is balance the superior Israeli training
and morale against the confusion of a night action and the
technological superiority of the Egyptians.

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75mm Gun Vs. T-55

The Israelis found to their dismay that the gun of the
AMX-13 was useless against the T-55 from the front.
This should be reflected in the rules of the game. The
only chance they had of destroying the heavy tanks was
to hit them from the side or rear at point blank range. A
number of T-55s were destroyed or abandoned because
of this tactic. (It should be noted that the heaviest gun on
the Israeli side is the 106mm recoilless carried by the
Recon Company.)
Page 3

The Journal

Battle of Ap Bac
2nd January 1963, a scenario for Force on Force by Piers Brand and Joe Trevithick,
authors of Ambush Valley
In January 1963 the Army of the Republic of Vietnam
(ARVN) launched an operation to neutralise a Peoples
Liberation Armed Forces (PLAF; better known as the
Viet Cong) unit operating near Ap Tan Thoi. The ARVN
decided to attack the unit, believed to be company size,
by deploying forces north of Ap Tan Thoi and to Ap Bac
to the south. The bulk of the 7th Infantry Divisions 11th
Infantry Regiment, deployed by helicopter to the north,
would then drive the enemy toward Ap Bac into a
provisional regiment consisting of the 4th Troop, 2nd
Armoured Cavalry Squadron and two battalions of local
Civil Guard.
The operation began uneventfully but what transpired
provided a wealth of lessons learned for both sides. It
was in many ways indicative of the subsequent decade of
conflict in South Vietnam. A victory for the ARVN, it
came at the cost of two hundred casualties, including the
deaths of three American advisors. In addition, five H-21
Shawnee helicopters were shot down and a number of
4/2nd Cavalrys M113s were immobilized.
The operation was immediately hampered by poor
intelligence on the part of the South Vietnamese. The
company sized unit turned out to, in fact, be the Viet
Congs 261st Battalion. Possibly alerted to the attack
through its own infiltration, the unit had fortified its
position between Ap Tan Thoi and Ap Bac along the
Cong Luong Canal. Moving in from the south, the Civil
Guard forces encountered the enemy lines first. In the
opening moments of the battle provisional task force
commander was wounded. Their advance was
immediately halted and the units were told to form
blocking positions.
In an attempt to continue the advance from the south as
planned a reserve battalion from 11th Infantry Regiment,
the 1st Battalion, was airlifted in. Landing in the rice
paddies to the west of Ap Bac the force was exposed to
the concentrated fire from the enemy positions. Fourteen
of the fifteen helicopters were damaged and five were
shot down. In a second attempt to regain the initiative
4/2nd Cavalry was committed to try and secure the crash
sites. The troop commander initially balked at the
prospect of moving across the open paddies but was
prodded forward by his American advisor.
As they approached the first helicopter the M113s came
under enemy fire. The troop commander Captain Ly
Tong Ba was knocked unconscious and his troops
immediately refused to advance any further. After being
revived the unit attempted to advance into the enemy
positions, but with little coordination, allowing enemy
gunners to focus on individual vehicles. With no
protection from the waist up, the M113 gunners were
especially exposed. During the battle, fourteen personnel
Page 4

manning the vehicles main gun would be killed, severely

degrading their capabilities.
Again, attempting to seize the initiative, ARVN leaders
ordered the air drop of a battalion of paratroopers into the
battle. The drop zone, however, was on top of the embattled
4/2nd Cavalry instead of the unoccupied position to the east of
Ap Bac. The paratroopers from 8th Airborne Battalion, 1st
Airborne Brigade were still organising themselves when the
battle effectively ended.
During the night of 2-3 January, the Viet Cong force
abandoned their position in the face of ARVN reinforcements,
artillery fire and air strikes. They had suffered some seventy
casualties. On 3 January the ARVN attacked the now empty
enemy positions and conducted an operation to secure Ap
Bac, which had also been abandoned. They encountered no
The battle exposed serious issues with ARVN leadership and
strategy. It also showed that enemy forces had been vastly
underestimated - in size, armament and capability. All these
would remain issues throughout the conflict. The Viet Cong
came away from the battle with a better understanding of how
to tackle the armoured and airmobile capabilities of the
ARVN. The ARVNs failure to deal decisively with the enemy
subsequently proved problematic and another operation, with
a considerably larger force, was launched against Ap Tan Thoi
in March.
The vulnerability of helicopters and the M113 personnel
carrier would not go unnoticed. Armed escort helicopters had
been employed in Vietnam as early as 1962 and Ap Bac only
reinforced the need for fire support and protection for
airmobile operations. More importantly, in spring 1963, the
US Army Concept Team in Vietnam began a study of the
operations of ARVN mechanised rifle elements. The study
examined various ways of protecting M113 gunners, including
fully armoured turrets and armoured shields. It also examined
the utilisation of gunners firing from the rear hatch, which had
been part of ARVN mechanised operations since they had first
received the vehicles in 1962. This study and others would
lead to the development of the US Armys Armoured Cavalry
Assault Vehicle armour kits that would become a standard
feature of M113 vehicles in Vietnam.
The following scenario reflects the operations of a platoon
from 4/2nd Cavalry in the rice paddies to the West of Ap Bac.
Scenario Information
Duration of Game: 12 Turns
Initiative: ARVN on Turn 1. Roll for subsequent turns
Special Conditions: None.
Fog of War: Draw normally as dictated by Reaction Tests
Asset Cards: The ARVN Player receives 2 Asset Cards for
this scenario.

The Journal
Table Set Up - 6x4

ARVN 4th Troop, 2nd Armoured Cavalry Squadron

Your platoon from the 7th Infantry Division has been
tasked with making a final charge at the VC lines in your
M113 APCs. To date no VC troops have stood up to an
armoured charge, and after heavy bombing and
helicopter attacks the VC seem to be about to break.
Your charge should put an end to their defence. After
pausing to re-supply and evacuate downed helicopter
crews, your men begin the attack Charge across the
paddy fields and take the village of Ap Bac.

the section leaders. Your men, now replenished, seem

more confident and as the enemy attack begins your men
greet it with heavy fire! Hold Ap Bac. All troops start in

Victory Points
Each building captured + 10 points
ARVN Basic Force Attributes
Initiative Level:
Confidence Level:
Supply Level:
Troop Quality/Morale: D8/D8
ARVN Infantry Platoon
Platoon HQ in M113
2x Rifle Squads in M113s
Viet Cong 261st Battalion Mission
Your troops are from the 261st Viet Cong Battalion and
for the whole day have been under heavy enemy attack
from both the ground and air. You have so far held them
off all but the heavy artillery and air attacks and your
troops running low on ammunition has caused the line to
waver. Just as you think your men are about to break the
enemy pauses its attack while it recovers wounded crews
from crashed helicopters. This lull in the fighting gives
you time to distribute more ammunition and speak with

Victory Points
Each building held at end of game +10 points
Viet Cong Basic Force Attributes
Initiative Level:
Confidence Level:
Supply Level:
Troop Quality/Morale: D8/D8
Main Force Command
1 x Force Leader with MAT-49 SMG
1 x Runner with M1 Carbine
1 x Vietcong with Moisin-Nagant M1944 Carbine

Page 5

The Journal
3 X Main Force Cadres
(One cadre may be equipped with anti-tank grenades)
Rifle Cell
1 x Leader with MAT-49 SMG
5 x Vietcong with Moisin-Nagant M1944 Carbines
Support Cell
1 x Leader with M1 Carbine
1 x Gunner with DPM Machine Gun
1 x Loader with Mousin-Nagant M1944 Carbine

Special Rules
ARVN Leaders - If at any time the ARVN leader is
killed or taken out of action ARVN Morale drops to D6.
This is to reflect the historical event where Captain Ly
Tong Ba, leading the attack, was knocked unconscious.
Until he recovered his men refused to advance and sat
under heavy fire suffering casualties. Many of those
casualties were senior NCOs whose traditional role was
as gunner on the M113 .50 cal Machine Gun, the loss of
which robbed the ARVN of one of their most potent
weapons on the field that day.

Page 6

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The Journal

Quick and Dirty House-to-House

Sam Scott
House-to-house fighting, like hidden movement and
counteracting the Gods eye view of players is one of
the chronic banes of wargame design. How can you
replicate its complexity in a satisfactory way? What
about accounting for troops on different floors? Or the
location of stairways? Or furniture? Or locked doors?
And can I or cant I fire my panzerfaust in here? The
headaches of simulating this kind of combat are
My friend Martin Baber and I ran smack up against this
quandary when we were designing our 20mm MarketGarden mega-game which was played at HMGS
conventions in 2003 and 2005. The game was played on
a nearly 70 foot table that included the built-up areas of
Oosterbeek, Arnhem, Nijmegen and Eindhoven, as well
as many smaller villages. We knew that extensive
fighting in and around buildings was inevitable - not to
mention integral to the battle. We wanted the play action
to be fast and furious throughout game. We had already
developed a very stripped down combat system that was
working very well but our rules were bogging down
whenever anyone assaulted a house or building. What to
do? Were we really going to have to develop an entire
parallel rule set for this kind of action? Well, yes, to be
honest, but the solution was far easier than we imagined.
Our first idea was to treat each building as a single
objective and not to worry about its internal structure.
There would be a certain number of figures inside the
building defending against the assault and a certain
number outside trying to get in. That opposition would
be the basis of the combat and whoever won took over
the building and whoever lost ended up outside. Most
wargame buildings (at 20mm or smaller) are small
enough for this to seem appropriate. We divided the few
larger structures we had into sections for the purposes of
But how to play out the assault itself? We did feel that
most house-to-house fighting is a matter of personal
weapons and guts, so the presence of any crewed or antitank weapons was not a major factor. For us it came
down to the numbers inside vs. the numbers outside. A
straight up dice off was dull and mechanical and lacked
excitement. After dozens of phone calls back and forth,
Martin had the totally original idea of adapting the card
game Uno for our purposes. For those of you not
familiar with the game, Uno is played with a custom
deck using cards with numbers and colours on them. The
basic rule of play is that to play a card it must match
either the number or colour of the previous card. We
decided to use the same rule but with a standard deck of
playing cards with play following number or suit. The
face cards and aces in the deck gave us a mechanism for
casualties. Each face card played would cause 1 casualty
and each ace would cause 2. At the beginning of the
assault each side would be dealt as many cards as they

had figures participating in the combat. Defenders would

get one extra card for the advantage of position and
would play first. The assault would be resolved through
Uno-like cards play. Whoever plays the last card wins
and has control of the building.
This system gave us a way of resolving several building
assaults in a single turn without having the game grind to
a screeching halt. Now of course this system is as gross
an abstraction as the dice off mentioned earlier but the
uncertainty of what cards you might get in your hand,
the back and forth of play and the speed of resolution
injected excitement and dramatic tension back into the
combat. Sometimes the results were determined in 3-4
cards and other times each side might play up to 8 cards
before one side or the other capitulated. Outnumbered
defenders can pray for that one card to which the hoards
of attackers are unable to respond. A see-saw street battle
where buildings change hands multiple times in a game
becomes a reality. Now 2 Paras dogged defence of the
north ramp of Arnhem Bridge was actually playable; as
was the hard fighting of XXX Corps through the streets
of Nijmegen.
Another nice aspect of this system is that it can be bolted
on to a number of different rules systems. It can be
dropped in at whatever point in the turn that an
assaulting force moves into contact with an enemy
occupied building. The assault gets resolved and the
game moves on. The role of defensive positions in
buildings shifts slightly in game play with this system.
The positions are still terrific protection for stand-off
fire, but they become much less stable once your
opponent has manoeuvred close enough to conduct a
direct assault. If house-to-house fighting has been a
headache in your games, give this a try!
Basic House-to-House Rules
When an assault force moves into contact with a
defended building, deal each side as many cards as they
have figures attacking or defending.
Deal the defenders one extra card

Defender plays 1st card

Play must follow suit or number
Face cards cause 1 casualty, Aces cause 2
Whoever plays the last card controls the

There are a number of variants you can play around


If your rules have morale checks, make the

losing side to take a morale check at the end of
the assault
Give elite troops an extra card
Give the defenders multiple extra cards for a
fortified house

Page 7

The Journal

Dogfight over Pakistan 1971

Report on a 1:600 air combat by Ian Dewar
I have wargamed WW2 air combat in 1:300 scale for
many years but recently decided to develop my existing
home grown rules into a set suitable for the jet and
missile age. At the same time I decided to change scale,
as 1:600 seemed more suitable for the larger jet fighter
aircraft and the increased ranges of missiles.
The Indo-Pakistan war of 1971 lasted only two weeks.
But the air war aspect of this short conflict has
fascinated me ever since I was given some 1970s
magazines with a couple of articles on the war. It is
interesting because of the wide selection of British, US,
French, Russian, Chinese and even indigenous Indian
aircraft types involved. These range from subsonic F-86
Sabres and Hunters, to Mach 2 F-104 Starfighters and
MiG-21s. The air-to-air weapons used were mainly guns,
but included the early AIM-9B Sidewinder infra-red
homing missiles and their Russian copy, the K-13

Determined to defend their airfield the Pakistanis have

scrambled a pair of Canadair Sabre Mk 6s and one of
their handful of F-104A Starfighters. The two Sabres
have their internal gun armament of six 0.50 Brownings,
with plenty of ammunition and the Sabre leader also has
a pair of AIM-9B Sidewinders. The Starfighter is also
armed with a pair of Sidewinders, in addition to its
internal M61A1 20mm Gatling gun.
The MiG leader started the fight with an aggressive head
on attack on Sabre No. 2, while the gunless MiG 2 tried
to work around into a missile launch position. The MiG
leader managed to damage Sabre 2, but the lead Sabre
returned the compliment with a front quarter gun shot
which damaged the MiG.

This game was one of the first I played with my new

rules, using 1:600 aircraft from Tumbling Dice
Miniatures. My rules use movement in squares, with a
D20 next to the model to denote altitude, in levels of
1000 feet. In this game, gun ammunition and missiles
remaining were recorded by small D6s placed next to the
The game scenario was an Indian attack on a Pakistani
airfield. A pair of Indian HF-24 Maruts each loaded
with 2 x 1000lb bombs, are on their way to attack a
Pakistani airfield, which is off the far side of the table.
The Starfighter, which wasnt involved in the initial
engagement, started to work his way round to the rear of
the two Maruts. The lead Sabre broke away from the
dogfight with the MiGs and also headed for the Maruts.
This gave MiG 2 the opportunity he had been waiting for
and, moving into a perfect missile launch position
behind the Sabre, he fired one of his two Atolls. The
Sabre was able to evade the missile, but only by turning
hard away from the Maruts and aborting his attack on
them. Unfortunately for the MiG, while he was
concentrating on his missile shot, the second Sabre was
able to turn onto his tail and damage him with a long
range gun shot!

The Marut was an Indian design but the design

consultant was one Kurt Tank, the designer of the FockeWulf 190!
The Maruts are escorted by a pair of MiG-21FLs. Both
MiGs are armed with a pair of K-13 Atoll infra-red
homing missiles, the Russian copy of the AIM-9B
Sidewinder. The lead MiG also has a GP-9 23mm
gunpack, albeit with only four seconds worth of
ammunition, but his wingman has no guns.
Page 8

A few moves later, the Maruts were forced to turn right

to prevent the Starfighter setting up a missile shot behind
them. This brought them towards the Sabres, which were
able to position themselves perfectly for offset head on
passes, which they planned to follow by inward turns
onto the Maruts tails. Determined to put a stop to this,
the MiG leader, who had been shadowing the Starfighter,
turned back towards the more immediate threat of the
Meanwhile, MiG 2 was nicely positioned to fire his
second (and last!) Atoll against the Sabre leader.

The Journal
Starfighter at bay, the MiG used the last of his gun
ammunition to finish off the crippled Sabre.
The Starfighter and the MiG then manoeuvred against
each other for a few moves. But it was clear that the
Starfighter, with no missiles left, would be unlikely to
achieve a gun shot against the more agile MiG.
Similarly, the MiG, with no cannon ammunition left, was
faced with trying to set up a missile shot against the
undamaged Starfighter. Both sides decided to break off
and return home, thus ending the combat.
Sabre Mk.6
The next few moves were quite eventful! The MiG
leader dropped onto Sabre 2s tail and gunned him down
with close range 23mm fire - the first kill of the game.
However, this manoeuvre exposed the MiG leaders tail
to the Starfighter, who fired both his Sidewinders at the
MiG. The MiG broke hard left and to the disbelief of all
who saw it, managed to evade both missiles! Meanwhile
MiG 2s second Atoll missed the lead Sabre again, but
once again forced the Sabre to evade and to break off his
attack on the Maruts.
Unfortunately for the MiGs their valiant efforts to
protect the Maruts were in vain as, in the next move, the
Starfighter moved in to close gun range and shot down
the Marut leader. The weaponless MiG 2 now had no
choice but to climb out of the fight and turn for home.
This left the Sabre leader free to turn onto the tail of the
second Marut, which, still loaded with bombs, was
unable to manoeuvre sufficiently and was an easy gun
The MiG leader, now alone, feinted towards the
Starfighter but then took his revenge by turning back
towards the remaining Sabre and crippling it with a front
quarter gun attack. After a second feint to keep the

And the outcome? Well the kills were even, with two
Indian Maruts and two Pakistani Sabres shot down. But
both Indian MiGs were damaged and the Indian mission
to attack the Pakistani airfield had clearly failed.
We therefore agreed that the combat was a tactical
victory for the Pakistanis.
Overall the game seemed to play well, and we've since
had more combat in Indian and Pakistani skies at my
local Derby club. This will hopefully soon be followed
by Arab-Israeli air combat from 1967 onwards. Just as
soon as I get those models painted...

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Page 9

The Journal

The Battle of Khenifra

Morocco, November 13th 1914, by Richard Baber
The French colonial campaigns in Africa during the late
19th century through the early years of the 20th Century
is a period often ignored by wargamers who prefer the
far better documented British campaigns of that period
(Zulu wars, Sudan, The Boar war etc). I was looking for
something different, Hollywood has produced a number
of inspiring (and many not so) films about The French
Foreign Legion in North Africa and it was through these
that I drifted into this interesting region of military
history. The period covers a vast range of technology and
you can go from fielding French units with native troops
of Franco-Prussian war vintage, through early WW1
types up to the mechanized columns with air support of
the late 1920s early `30s.
My main problem is to find reasonable yet challenging
scenarios, where the natives have more than a walk-on
and Cannon-fodder role. This leads me to look for
actions where the French (or Spanish or British) lost, so
to create a scenario with better odds for the native player.
This research is often more challenging than usual as
when there were defeats, they were often covered up or
glossed over to avoid hostile press reports back at home.
As part of their ongoing pacification of Morocco, in
1914 the French moved to secure the Zaian
Confederation. The Zaian were by this time hemmed in
by The Middle Atlas Mountains to the east and the
already pacified (read conquered) lands to north, south
and west. On the map the conquest seemed simple, three
converging columns from north, south and east driving
inland to the Zaian capital Khenifra.
Khenifra whilst not a beautiful place had a majestic
presence, with its huge stone and mud-brick Kasbah
(Ksar in the local language) dominating the blood red
dusty plain. In fact the first European visitor called
khenifra a red city in a red land. Surrounded by
gardens and orchards the city is divided by the Oum er
Rbia River, narrow but swift running and fathoms deep
which is crossed by an ancient stone bridge.
The Zaians were a nomadic tribe following their flocks
of sheep and goats from the mountains (during the hot
summer months) to the great plain of Khenifra (for
winter grazing). They were a fiercely independent
people, as are all nomads.
Their leader Moha ou Hammou was adept in both
political strategy and military force; he came to power
within the tribe in 1877 when just a young man of
twenty. Quickly establishing himself over his rivals by
force of arms and was considered to one of the most
influential men in Morocco at the time. The Sultan
Moulai Hassan had recognized his Caidship and had
provided him with a standing army of four hundred men
and three cannon to maintain the authority of the
Maghzen (Moroccan government) in his country.
Page 10

This was however little appreciated by the French; many

young French officers saw colonial service and Morocco
in particular the way to quick promotion. It was well
known that service in the colonies particularly during a
military campaign could lead to promotion and better
postings later. Service in Morocco (often called The
Bled by veterans after the native word for land) was an
active often-dangerous posting during the years of
French expansion.
The French campaign started on June 10 and in two days
with virtually no opposition they succeeded in seizing
Khenifra. Unfortunately the campaign was carried out as
if it was a problem at Staff College, advance your army
to a point on the map, seize your objective and win the
game. The Zaians were a nomadic people and the
capture of their capital meant nothing to them, in fact
after Khenifra was occupied resistance actually
The natives began attacking French wood gathering
parties and only water supplies close to Khenifra were
secure, supply columns were also ambushed. By the
middle of July casualties mounted and the tension
increased; morale particularly within the native colonial
units began to suffer, whole outposts deserted taking
their rifles and cartridges with them after killing the
French or Algerian sergeant. The French were forced to
disarm an entire squadron of Moroccan Spahis and take
away their horses, this to stop them abandoning their
allies and joining the rebels.
Then news of the outbreak of war in Europe reach the
colony, the French government gave orders to the
Governor General Hubert Lyautey that he was to send
troops back to France and withdraw his remaining forces
back to the easily defendable coastal enclaves. Lyautey
gathered his area commanders together and in a brilliant
stroke of foresight changed the orders to one of holding
the line instead of withdrawal. His reasoning was simple,
a withdrawal would be a signal for the rebellious
mountain tribes to move out and ravage all the
abandoned lands, all the effort and blood that had been
spent over the last forty years would be thrown away.
His officers agreed, no ground would be lost and when
the troops returned from the war the pacification would
continue as before (it should of course be noted no one
in 1914 expected the war to last very long). Lyautey then
issued orders to his garrison commanders that offensive
action was to stop and that nothing should be done to
provoke hostile tribes whilst there was a war going on in
Europe. Eventually Morocco west of the Atlas
Mountains was reduced to just eighteen French and
colonial battalions. Some of the French officers left in
Morocco were exceedingly bitter at being left out of the
new war (it should be remembered that the Great War
that started in 1914 was the first war in Europe since

The Journal
On August 4 two battalions were stripped from the
Khenifra garrison to be eventually returned to France.
This weakened the garrison to the extent that Khenifra
itself was virtually in state of siege for nearly a month.
The garrison commander one Colonel Laverdure was
particularly bitter about his exclusion from the new war
in Europe. To add to his frustration he was ordered just
to maintain his garrison and not provoke the natives. As
winter approached Moha ou Hammou brought his camp
down from the mountains to the plain as his people had
done for centuries. Soon there were several islands of
tents dotted across the great plain the largest of which
was only seven miles from Khenifra. Colonel Laverdure
saw this as a chance to bring himself to the attention of
the French high command. We must understand that
French military tradition often encouraged individual
bravery and action especially by officers (Napoleons
Marshal Ney being a good historic example of this
With this in mind it is not a surprise that on the night of
November 12, Laverdure divided virtually his entire
command into four groups (each consisting of infantry,
cavalry and a field gun or two). His plan was for the four
columns to proceed across the plain during the night and
converge on the Zaian camp just before dawn, at which
point all the columns would assault the camp from three
sides and hopefully destroy Zaian resistance for good.
The plan worked well and on the morning of November
13, French shells and machine guns sweeping through
the tents awaked the Zaian camp. The natives were taken
completely by surprise by the attack and fled in panic,
Moha ou Hammou was rescued by his sons during the
confusion. Once what little resistance there was had been
suppressed, the Algerian soldiers and Goumiers
ransacked, looted and finally burnt the encampment,
during which two of Moha ou Hammous wives was
The Game
It is at this point the game starts, the French officers took
quite a while to re-organise their columns. Ive given
rough strengths based on the information to hand and
built around the wargame orbats we use during our
Column 1
Col. Laverdure + staff (10 officers and men)
A company of colonial Zouaves 30 men with 1
A troop of Spahis Algerian (cavalry) 10 mounted
1 65mm mountain gun (6 crew + mules)
Column 2
A company of Tirailleurs (riflemen) Algerian 30 men
with 1 MMG
A troop of Spahis Moroccain 10 mounted
1 65mm mountain gun (6 crew + mules)
Column 3
A company of colonial Zouaves 30 men with 1 - MMG
A troop from Chasseurs d` Afrique 10 mounted
A 75mm howitzer (6 crew + limber & horses)

Column 4
A company of Tirailleurs Algerian 30 men with 1
A troop of Spahis Moroccain 10 mounted
A 75mm howitzer (6 crew + limber & horses)
The game calls for the four French columns to make
their way back across the table to the safety of Khenifra,
the game runs for 30 turns; during which the column
may either move or fight. Unfortunately for the French
Moha ou Hammou quickly began to organize his
warriors and these immediately begin sharp counter
Since we first played this game I ran the SOTCW game
at Gauntlet 2010, where I used event cards to simulate
the randomness of warfare. In re-visiting this battle I
decided to try the same system.
Each turn the umpire should role 1D6 for each column
this will indicate if there is an encounter or not.
1-5 indicates an event card must be drawn
6 = no encounter and the column may move
Another role of 1D6 will indicate the direction: (on a
D6: 1 north; 2 - south; 3, 4 west and 5, 6 east). This
represents natives moving from other encampments the
largest portion coming from the original camp (west) or
moving to block the French (east).
Simply printed off on my PC and laminated,
approximately the size of a playing card (you can get
about 10 out of an A4 sheet).
False Alarm no encounter
Foot Warriors 10-20 warriors (50% rifled armed)
Riflemen 10-15 riflemen pop up and give a volley.
Harka 20-30 warriors both on foot and mounted (50%
rifle armed) attack column
Confused orders unit stops and forms square for 1 turn
Bad ammunition unit fires at half effectiveness for the
rest of game (only effects each column once)
Cavalry 20 or so mounted warriors (50% rifle armed)
Large War-band 40-60 warriors
Each column must fight and destroy their attacker, thus
completing the turn; we played on a 6 foot by 4 table and
allowed a column to move 6 inches (a total of 12 moves
to cross the table). The table was mostly flat with low
hills and a couple of dry streambeds, these allowed the
natives to appear on all sides of the columns and also
isolated the columns from one another. The terrain might
also encourage the French players to fight defensively,
which will prove fatal for them.
There are a couple of additional things to keep track of
for the umpire:
Artillery: The French have already used most of their
shells against the camp this morning and each gun will
Page 11

The Journal
only have 2-3 turns of ammo left, after which they
cannot fire.
Machine guns: As with artillery these weapons have
limited ammo 2-4 turns, but this can be increased using
rifle bullets (rifles and MMGs use the same cartridge)
this will give an additional 2 turns for the MGs but
reduce the riflemen by 3 turns (see below).
Rifle ammo: Each man only had the ammo he carried
and a lot of this has already been used, each column can
only fire fully for 6-8 turns and after this only every
other turn or at half strength depending on your rules.
Cavalry: Mounted units can move faster than infantry, if
these abandon their comrades they may move twice the
distance (12 inches). However if this is done this new
additional column must also dice for an encounter each
Relief: After turn 10 a relief column from Khenifra
moves from the east to link up with Laverdures columns.
This Column consists of a troop of Spahis (10 mounted
men) and two half companies of infantry, one Zouaves,
the other Tirailleurs Moroccaine (15 figures of each
type). This column will attempt to link up with their
comrades and hopefully assist the withdrawal back to the
Morale: A very important factor will be the morale of the
various French and colonial troops, particularly the
native elements. The Algerians are basically mercenaries
here for pay and loot; their morale will start fair but
suffer as casualtys mount. The Moroccans are also
Mercenaries but were often pressed into service;
therefore their morale starts lower and will quickly
collapse in the face of the Zaian onslaught. The French
units (Zouaves and Chasseurs d` Afrique) have better
weapons and training, which should be reflected in their
The game continues until the French either cross the
board or are destroyed.
Historic outcome Laverdures command began its
withdrawal back across the plain to the city; it was now
fully daylight. The French had not expected the Zaian to
react so quickly, they had obviously also not thought
about the other encampments either. Bands of Zaian
came from all over and began attacking the strung out
French and colonial troops. For a while French fire
power held back the attackers, but ammunition began to
run out and the natives could close with the French, who
had in some instances formed squares against the native
horsemen. A relief column formed from what remained
of the garrison attempted a sortie but proved too weak
and was forced back to the city, leaving the columns to
their fate. Colonel Laverdure and some 700 men were
killed and the Zaian captured a huge haul of rifles,
horses, eight cannon of various calibers and ten machine

Page 12

Emboldened by their success the Zaian moved against

Khenifra itself, only a desperate defence and the arrival
of General Henrys relief column saved the day (a
further French defeat may have led to a larger uprising).
This was the worst defeat by far suffered by the French
in Morocco. General Lyautey did not blame the Zaian
and Moha ou Hammou for the disaster but the staff
officers in Paris and their traditions of bravery and
honor. He arranged the trade of Moha ou Hammous
captured wives for the bodies of Col. Laverdure and five
other French officers and gave specific orders that no
reprisals should be taken against the Zaian.
The defeat left Khenifra is state of basic siege, well an
uneasy truce anyway as long as each side kept out of
range from the other. This lasted throughout the war
years with the garrison being re-supplied twice a year by
a strong Group Mobile from Casba Talda.
My main source for this scenario comes from The
Conquest 0f Morocco by Douglas Porch (ISBN 088064-057-X); an excellent book on the French in
Morocco up to the Great War, well worth getting by
anyone interested in colonial North Africa.
With additional information from:
The Conquest of Morocco by Vice-Admiral CV
Usborne (Stanley Paul & Co Ltd, 1936)
France, Soldiers and Africa by Anthony Clayton
(ISBN 0-08-034748-7)
Paths of Glory (The French Army 1914-18) by Anthony
Clayton (ISBN 0-304-36652-8)
Les Troupes de Marine (Quatre Siecles d`historie) by
Charles Lavauzelle (French text)
An article on the fighting square Vs cavalry in an old
issue of Wargames Digest (an American glossy
wargames publication from the early 1970s) which
mentions this action as an example of where the square
failed due to bad tactics. (The issue number escapes me
at present sorry).
Playing the game
We used 20mm figures from my collection:
Tirailleurs Algerian are tumbling Dice;
Tirailleurs Moroccaine a mixture of FAA and Toms Tins
plus the odd Friend or Foe Goumier.
For Zouaves I use FFL figures a mix of Tumbling Dice,
B&B Miniatures with the odd Italeri and Airfix plastic.
My `75s are B&B, SHQ and Bandera, the limbers and
horse teams Italeri.
My 65mm mountain guns are Bandera with mules from
all over the place (B&B, Combat Miniatures, Friend or
Foe and others); all the gun crews are either converted
plastics or Tumbling Dice.

The Journal

Arms for Spain!

Soviet arms shipments for SCW Republican land forces by Rob Morgan. Additional
material from Richard Thorpe of La Columna- SCW living history group
Between September 1936 and February 1939 the USSR
supplied a substantial, some might say an enormous,
volume of weapons, munitions and war materials for the
use of the Spanish Republic. The list is interesting and
provides ample evidence of what must have been a
Quartermasters nightmare in the army and militias of
Republican Spain.
Remarkably few in number, only 1,030 of all types were
shipped. Spain, of course, was using the Astra Modelo
400 9mm pistol as its indigenous hand gun and the
Soviet military pistols were not at a premium. They
included Nagant 1895s, old Austrian 8mm Steyr-Hahns
and a number of captured WW1 weapons.
Moisin-Nagant 7.62mm
Mauser Rifles
Mannlicher 8mm
Winchester 7.62mm
RiflesOld, Foreign
Rifles. Unidentified
Moisin-Nagant M34 and M91/30
Rifles of Czech origin
Lee Enfield .303


The list is awesome, almost 440,000 rifles in all, but

what an assortment! The Moisin Nagants, the largest
single group, were the old 1891g models for the most
part, though some of the shorter, handier M91/30s and
carbines were also supplied. Old but sturdy and reliable,
not prone to jamming and a sound weapon for a raw
recruit - a typical Russian weapon. As for the others
well many were captured from the White armies or the
Poles in the years of the Russian Civil wars from 1917 to
1923, such as the small number of Lee Enfields and the
large number of Czech origin. The Mannlichers were old
Austria-Hungary Imperial army rifles of the Modell
1895, another unspectacular but sound weapon, suited to
conscripts and a gun which displayed few problems in
service with many armies.
The Mausers again were WW1 and RCW captures, this
number probably included carbine models. The Gewehr
1898 had in fact been produced by Spanish armaments
factories for decades and this was a standard Spanish
army rifle; Spain even exported their version to China!
As for the Winchesters, well these were lever action
model 1895s supplied by the US Government in 1914
and chambered for the standard Russian 7.62mm
cartridge. An amazing 294,000 were delivered to the
Tsar's army and so it is a little surprising that only 9,000
were sent to Spain. The old foreign and unidentified
weapons included some Japanese Arisakas and French
Lebels, though others were undoubtedly fit for very little
beyond carrying a bayonet and sentry duty. The original

La Columna list includes the suggestion that some

Gras-Kropochek rifles were included in this group.
Machine Guns
Austria-Hungarian Schwarlose 8mm HMGs
Machine guns of Czech origin
Chauchat machine rifles
Lewis LMGs
Degtyarev DP LMGs
Colt Browning M1895/14
Maxim machine guns
Maxim-Tokarev LMGs
Unidentified LMGs
Unidentified HMGs


Another nightmare list as far as spares, tools and

ammunition were concerned. Surprising perhaps that
only around 13,000 MGs of all types were sent to Spain,
though again the Red Army seems to have emptied every
fortress arsenal it possessed to accrue the range of
weapons it sent! The Lewis 7.7mm was of course
supplied to Imperial Russian and White forces from
1915 onwards and, like the Degtyarevs, was an
excellent, reliable LMG. As was the Schwarzlose 8mm,
heavy to move around, but an excellent weapon in
trained hands.
The 300 Colts were almost certainly 7.62mm survivors
of a large batch supplied to Russia well before WW1 and
used by the Russians throughout the war and into the
1920s. The 8mm Chauchat machine gun M1915, was
of course nothing of the sort! Probably the worst weapon
ever devised in war, totally unreliable, prone to jamming
and cheaply made, they found their way into many
armies arsenals but not for long.
The Maxim-Tokarev was the useful MT1926, a well
known gun and as reliable as the Lewis in action, but at
this point the list becomes a little vague to say the least.
The 3,000 Czech MGs are certainly Zb vz.26s and the
improved Zb vz.30 models. These were robust weapons
of 7.92mm and an export staple of the Czech armaments
industry the progenitor of the Bren of course. Spain
had bought numbers of these LMGs before 1936 and the
Czech design later became the Spanish FAO. The overall
number may also have included a few ZK 383s, which.
though in reality an SMG, was regarded as an LMG by
the Czechs and had a bi-pod mount fitted.
The Maxim MGs and heavy machine guns, total some
3,200 in all; there were incredible numbers of the little
wheeled Maxims of the 1910 model produced up to early
1943. Given its widespread use in WW1 and the
subsequent wars in Eastern Europe, this number (1,626)
seems rather low. The overall HMG figure probably
includes M1910s as well as a few Vickers guns, exported
from British stocks to bolster anti-Red factions. The
original lists also suggest some of the unsuccessful
Page 13

The Journal
French mle 1907 St. Etienne 8mm HMG, which was
given away to less fortunate allies as soon as sufficient
Hotchkiss guns could be provided. Since this latter
machine gun, the Hotchkiss 1914 8mm, was also
supplied to the White armies in Southern Russia a small
number of these turned up to bolster existing Spanish
army's M1922 versions of the gun. The La Columna list
suggests that among the 1,700 LMGs were Hotchkiss
mle 1909s, which appeared in several forms in many
WW1 Allied armies and air forces. Some however were
the ubiquitous Danish 8mm Madsen LMG, another
superb, rugged machine gun, originally used by Tsarist
cavalry in the Russo-Japanese War. As far as heavy and
light machine guns supplied by the USSR are concerned.
A substantial number were undoubtedly weapons which
had been thrown into the anti-Bolshevik struggles after
WW1 and which Stalin simply threw back!
Mortars And Grenades
The original list surprisingly contains no mortars, though
by the 1930s a number of 50mm Soviet light mortars
existed and the Brandt design was being actively copied
as the 82-PM-36. There are however a number of old
WW1 survivors in the list four mine throwing guns trench weapons in all probability, 50 Grenade
throwers and 240 German grenade throwers more
relics of the trenches. By the time this point in the list is
reached, the maxim beggars can't be choosers comes
to mind. There were a total of 120,000 hand grenades of
various types and vintages supplied to the Republicans
as well; not to mention 10,000 steel helmets.
Anti-tank Guns
Two calibres were supplied both Soviet in origin though
not surprisingly, there are no anti-tank rifles listed, since
the Red Army neglected this aspect of warfare almost
until 1941, as did most other armies. There were 430 of
the powerful 37mm M30 anti-tank guns, licence
produced copies of the German Pak 35/36 and a smaller
number 142 of the M1932 45mm anti-tank gun.
37mm infantry support guns
Schneider 76.2mm mountain guns


Krupp 77mm Field guns


Field guns. - 75mm and 76mm (mainly French)


Field guns unspecified


Field guns 107mm Japanese


Howitzers 105mm
Howitzers 115mm Vickers pre-1914


Field guns Armstrong 127mm


Howitzers 152mm


Field guns 155mm French


Page 14

Another rag bag collection of weaponry, some of

limited use. The little 37mm trench gun was a useful
small piece, easily transportable and developed by both
the French and Austrians in WW1; the type saw a great
deal of service with armies ranging from the US to the
Japanese. The Schneider Mountain guns were already in
service with the Spanish army and were used in
Morocco, these almost certainly were examples supplied
to Denekin and Wrangel and then captured by the Red
Army in Ukraine. The Krupps were obviously WW1
relics but still a good gun in 1936. The 75mm and 76mm
mainly French field guns and the unspecified guns of
no stated calibre, some 350 in all, may well have been
for the most part the legendary 75; used universally in
the revolutionary wars post 1917, as well as the
Russian's ageing 02/30s, a rather poor quality field gun
by 1936. Another gun which turned up, though the
numbers are not given, was the 100mm Skoda 1914 field
The 74 Japanese 107mm field guns are another odd
item in the list. It may well be that these were in fact
originally Russian made 107s of the 1910 model, of
which there were a mass surviving into the 1930s when
most were modernised. The Vickers 115mm pre-1914
Howitzers are undoubtedly survivors of the 400 QuickFiring 4.5 Howitzers donated by the British
Government to the Tsarist armies in 1916 to make up
severe losses in heavy artillery, an excellent gun. As was
the very heavy Vickers Armstrong 127mm 60pdr field
gun, probably the best field piece in use by either side in
the war in Spain. The unspecified 152mm howitzer was
almost certainly the 6 MkI British design which was
another WW1 gift to the Russians and considered
remarkably efficient. The 20 big Schneider 155s were
sent to Spain because they were examples of a weapon
already in Spanish service and the Red Army had no use
for them.
Remarkably little armour was sent to Spain, though what
was sent was good quality, the effect of say a couple of
hundred of the T27 tankettes may have proved decisive
in the earlier battles of the war. There were some 314
T26 light tanks, of various marks, a capable tank for the
1930s, along with only 50 BT fast tanks which were
the best AFVs in Spain and at a premium. Surprisingly
only 30 armoured cars BA-6s and BA-10s for the most
part, with a few older types were provided. Russian
armour was the strongest card in the Republican Army's
hand but there was not enough to change the course of
With the exception of the armoured vehicles and antitank guns, much of the Arms to Spain sent by the
Soviet Union was either old Tsarist Army or WW1
Allied donations captured from the Whites and most of it
could certainly be spared from the Red Army's arsenal.
Recommended reading on this subject is La Guerra
Civil Espanol, Armas y Pertrechos I by M. Gonzales,
Barcelona 1981.

The Journal

West of Polanow
Poland 1939, 20mm scenario by Leigh Jackson
Historical Background
The great myth of the Polish campaign of September
1939 is that Polish cavalry mounted a charge against
German tanks. As best as my research suggests, what
actually happened was that the Poles encountered a
German patrol resting in a clearing and launched a very
successful cavalry charge against them. A number of
German Armoured Cars responded to the noise and, on
arrival, quickly began to cause casualties amongst the
cavalry. They dispersed and fled to the nearest woods,
which, for some of them, was past the Armoured Cars.
Some time later some Italian War Correspondents
arrived and were recounted a slightly embellished story,
which grew from thereand the myth was born. This
scenario is designed to recreate a similar event.
Polish Entry


Polish Entry
Polish Briefing
2nd Lieutenant Rydz, Pomerania cavalry brigade, you
are to take your platoon forward and locate and record
the size and extent on the initial German advances.
It is the 3rd September 1939 and you are at war. The
ruthless Germans have invaded. As a regular army
officer you are trusted by your superiors and so have
been sent out to locate the enemy. You finally find
approximately a platoon of Germans resting by a road
junction just west of Polanow. The Germans are unaware
of your presence so you dispatch a messenger to you
superiors and draw up the rest of the platoon along the
edge of the woods, leaving the BAR section to cover the
withdrawal and the Bofors 37mm anti tank gun to watch
the road the rest of the platoon prepares to perform a
sabre charge against the doomed Germans
Your command consists of yourself, your second in
command, the three other members of your command
squad (less the messenger you have sent) and four
sections. Three of the sections consist of six men each,
which dismount to four foot troopers. The second section
includes an anti tank rifle and the third a medic. The
fourth section is the BAR section which is five men and
a packhorse. It dismounts to three men including the

BAR gunner. All men are rifle armed and carry bayonets
and entrenching tools and have sabres on their horse
furniture. You also have a Bofors 37mm anti tank gun
with four crew. The gun has twenty rounds.
The Poles are good regular army troops defending their
homeland from the invader. I would count them as TAC
6, Morale 5 in Arc of Fire terms.
German Briefing
Hauptmann Kluger, 3rd infantry division. You are to
move off the road by the junction to permit the passage
of elements of the 2nd motorised division.
3rd September 1939, and you, and your platoon are
taking part in Fall Weis, the invasion of Poland. Your
men are already weary and are glad of the rest when you
are ordered off the road to permit tanks and motorised
infantry to bypass them.
Your force consists of three slightly under strength
sections, a MMG34 and a couple of mortars (the support
weapons are not set-up). You are deployed in groups
around the junction. The men are relaxed and drinking or
eating rations.
The force from 2nd division consists of a troop of
Panzers (specifically two Pz II and one Pz I) the force is
commanded by a Pz III (as a command vehicle - the
main gun is dummy. DO NOT let the Polish player know
this). It also includes a section of infantry in half-tracks
and a towed 37mm anti tank gun plus a selection of men
on cycles and motorcycles.
Morale is high, as so far little resistance has been
encountered. I would count them as TAC 6, Morale 6.
Umpires Notes
The Poles can spend up to seven turns moving into
position. The Germans must roll under this number on
D6 to be alerted, roll once per group. These turns count
towards the number of turns until the armour arrives.
When the Poles charge, if not alert, the group must roll
under the distance the Poles moved on a D20 to react. I
would also impose a 2 morale roll on any Germans who
receive the unexpected Polish Cavalry charge. The
German 2nd Division armour takes twelve turns to
The Refight
In my refight the Poles were just plain unlucky. The
Germans spotted them moving into position, responded
excellently (and where a little lucky with the cards) and
proceded to massacre the disorganised cavalry. The
arrival of the German armour should have sealed things,
but for a plucky Polish gunner who hit everything he
fired at and made the German armour very hesitant about
moving forward.

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Black Wednesday - the Spanish in WW2

The battle of Krasni Bor (10-11th February1943) by Richard Clarke. Additional notes
by Richard Baber
Like many battles the fight for Krasni Bor is less of a
coherent single battle and more a succession of various
phases, with peaks and lulls in the fighting making it
nicely dissectible for rule sets that focus on the detail of
combat at Company level, which is where my preference
lies. It is, of course, a matter of horses for courses, but
for me I like to know that the three men on the MG34
are exactly that and not simply representative of a
battalion asset.
I first researched the battle for the TooFatLardies
Christmas Special in 2004 and settled on representing
the battle in the shape of three scenarios that I felt best
encapsulated three of the key phases of the battle. First is
the action on the Moscow-Leningrad highway around
El Bastin which is ideal for a solo game. Second is
Save the Hospital which is a much lower level game
which was originally written for I Aint Been Shot,
Mum! but has here been re-written for Troops, Weapons
& Tactics - our Platoon level rules (by which I mean the
gamer controls a force of up to and around platoon size).
Finally there is the Defence of the Paper Mill which is
a more typical size for a game of IABSM. Hopefully all
will provide something a little different and challenging
for gamers.
Scenario One - The Onslaught
The game begins with one whole company of Spaniards
deployed along the main road and in the bastion
emplacement to the rear of the old anti-tank ditch. One
platoon should be placed in the bastion with two Pak 35
anti-tank guns, whilst the rest of the company should be
deployed along the road at regular intervals. The troops
are considered to be dug in, or at least making the most
of the shell holes for cover.

Big Men in the rules, survive but all squads and weapons
teams are diced for as follows:


1 or 2

Unit is intact

3 or 4

Unit is reduced by 50% strength

5 or 6

Unit is entirely destroyed

MMGs that roll the reduced to 50% strength should

have one figure removed from the team, whilst anti-tank
guns should be reduced to three men crew.
Unlike normal in IABSM this scenario allows partly
destroyed units to join together if they can assemble on
the same spot. Units reduced to half strength function
with the relevant dice appropriate for that number of
men, i.e. one for an infantry squad, until they are able to
link up with another in the same situation. This will
potentially mean that some units are overrun early in the
game, but thats all part of the fun. Infantrymen can be
used to crew AT guns and MMGs.
As the game progresses the Spaniards will get other
opportunites to reorganise their men, as the Big Men will
be able to use their turn to bring squads up to strength
with men from under-strength units.

The table, which in our game with 15mm figures was

76 by 6, should be a mass of craters. I have not drawn
these on the map due to a complete lack of artistic skill
but the Soviet bombardment had been so severe that the
anti-tank ditch had completely disappeared, so badly was
the ground churned up. The main road is slightly raised
so that troops around it will benefit from their dug-in
status whilst having excellent visibility across the
El Bastin is an earthwork position with a roof. It
counts as good cover, although all of its firing positions
face north, east and west, and not to the south which
could be an Achilles heel if the Soviets work around it.
The Spanish player will be aware of this - however the
Soviet one should not be.
Once the Spanish troops are deployed we need to
ascertain the effect of the Soviet bombardment. Like
most bombardments the effect seems to have been
varied, with some units completely destroyed whilst
others escaped intact. We assume that all named leaders,
Page 16

Once the above dice rolls have been made the game
commences. One player or the umpire, if present,
controls the Soviets. The objective is to break through
the Spanish defences and overwhelm the isolated units.
One company of Soviet infantry will start the game on
the northern table edge on blinds. A Soviet
Reinforcement card will be included in the deck and
once this is turned a second company will arrive on the
same edge.
At any point in time the Soviet player may have two
companies of infantry and a platoon of three tanks on the
table. When the Soviet reinforcement card is dealt the

The Journal
Soviet player may ignore this card if he is at full quota or
he may remove one of his existing companies and
replace it with a fresh one on the northern edge. Before
he does this he should roll a D6 to see what is potentially
arriving. A roll of 1 indicates a Platoon of three T34s, a
roll of 2 to 6 is an infantry company. This mechanism
will effectively represent the wave attacks employed by
the Soviets.
By way of example, player one has two companies of
Soviet infantry on the table. Thus far no tanks have
turned up. On his reinforcement card he rolls a 4, so he
can see that a fresh infantry company is available as
reinforcements. His lead company has been shot up by
the Spaniards, but one platoon that is relatively intact has
worked its way around the flank of the bastion. He now
needs to weigh up whether to remove that platoon and
the rest of the company and benefit in terms of numbers
from a fresh wave, or to stick with the potential for
success that the one platoon has.
Spanish Forces
Command Elements
Capitn Oroquieta D6+1
Teniente Blesa D6
Company HQ
One sniper
Tank Hunter team

During the game the Soviet player is limited to using a total of

five companies. It, at the end of that period, any Spanish
survivors are still on the table then the Soviets have failed in
their objective of totally breaking through in this sector.

The following deck is required for this scenario:

Spanish Big Men

Spanish Company HQ
Spanish Platoons 1-3
Spanish MMG Platoon
Spanish AT guns x 3 (including a bonus card)
Spanish Dynamic Leader
Soviet Big Men
Spanish Platoon cards x n
Spanish Armour cards x n
Soviet Heroic leader
Soviet Reinforcements
Spanish Blinds
Soviet Blinds
Tea Break
Scenario Two Save The Hospital
Probably the best briefing for this game is simply to
quote from Gerard Klienfelds book, Hitlers Spanish

Platoons 1 to 3
Three 8 man rifle squads each
MMG Platoon
Four MG34 teams (3 crew each)
AT section
Two Pak 35 AT guns (5 crew each)
The Spanish may have three anti-tank minefields
anywhere on the table, each being 6 by 3 in size.
Their troops are rated for IABSM as follows:


1, 2, 3

6, 7, 8

Soviet Forces
Command Elements
Three per company
Each Company
Platoons 1 to 3
Three rifle squads (8 men each)
Machine Gun Platoon
Four MMGs
Their troops are rated as follows:



6, 7

Lieutenant Constantino Goduidionachvili was with

Major Bellod when the attack started. Legionnaire Lt.
Constantino had just returned from scouting towards El
Bastin. Ever since the breakthrough the former Tsarist
cavalry Captain and veteran of the Spanish Civil War
had been scrambling to help hold the second line. He
was discussing the situation with Bellod in the Majors
CP when, at 1615, a KV-1 rounded the corner from
Sovietskii Prospekt and, firing its 76mm cannon, began
clanking down the street to Popovka Railway Station.
Capt. Muoz Garcia also saw it coming. He ordered his
sappers to strew the street with T mines, but the tank
commander, cautious without infantry escort, turned
around towards the two-storey hospital near Regimental
Headquarters. Inside the wooden schoolhouse
Lieutenant Garcia Lpez watched as the KV-1 advanced,
cannon booming and machine gun chattering. It was
rolling right towards the main door of the field hospital.
Many of the wounded, unable to move and fearing that
they were going to be squashed be the tremendous treads
as they lay on the floor or in their cots, began
screaming. Others dived out of the rear windows.
Individual divisionarios, gripped by the sheer horror of
the scene, tried to stop the iron monster by flinging
Molotov cocktails and affixing magnetic mines.
Invincible, the KV-1 crunched on. Suddenly, out of the
shadows, rose Bellods runner, Sapper Antonio Ponte
Anido. Seizing two T mines, he coolly slipped up to the
steel sides and shoved them into the whirling tracks and
bogies. A searing blast shook the street. Tracks flailing
like a dinosaur. Both Ponte and the tank were finished.
Confronted with courage such as this in dark, narrow,
rubble-strewn streets, the Soviets called off the attack.
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Essentially a game for Panzerknackers, this is a small
action but one that can be provide an amusing diversion.
We played this in an area of about 3 square in 15mm,
with 28mm Id increase that to 4.
Lieutenant Goduidionachvili has four Panzerknacker
teams who must try to stop the monster tank from
destroying the hospital. All of the sappers start on blinds
and once deployed will operate on one card per team.
The Soviet player will have one tank only which,
starting at point A, is specifically tasked with destroying
the railway station and the hospital. The Spanish will not
be aware just what the tanks objectives are.

Scenario Three Trouble At Mill

The paper mill at Iam Izhora lay on a peninsula almost
enclosed by the Izhora river. For much of the year the
only access was via the road that ran through the thin
neck of land that led to the high concrete walls that
surrounded the wood yard. Here the 1st Squadron of 250
Reconnaissance Battalion under Captain Ortega held out
against Soviet charges across the now solid ice of the

For the Spanish headquarters group to the rear, with no

communication with Krasni Bor, the preservation of
their positions southwards along the river was
considered critical, as Soviet penetration here would
expand the breach in their lines even further.
Spanish Forces
Lieutenant Constantino Goduidionachvili D6+1, Grade
Sapper Ponte Anido D6, Grade III
Three additional Big Men, all Grade II
Four panzerknacker teams
The panzerknackers have a total of six Teller mines and
six Molotov cocktails that they may allocate between the
teams as they wish at the start of the game.
Soviet Forces
Yefreitor Uri Glasnostovich D4, Grade I
One KV-1 tank
The hospital can be knocked down by driving through it,
as can most of the buildings. The town is made up of a
brick built high street, not represented here, and the
blocks or buildings and gardens are enclosed by wooden
fences. The station is brick built and needs to be reduced
by cannon fire.
Tactical Initiative Cards
Big Men cards
Soviet Blinds
Spanish Blinds
Tea Break
Panzerknacker Team cards
Heroic Spanish Leader
KV-1 card
Page 18

In this scenario Ortegas men are occupying the various

buildings of the paper-mill supported by a battery of
105mm guns firing over open sights. This scenario is
more of a traditional head to head game of IABSM, with
all the normal rules applying. The Spanish must maintain
their positions in the mill, the Soviets must remove them.
Like all winter battles the bareness of the terrain presents
problems for the attacker, but he can only hope that
weight of numbers can tell.
Spanish Forces
Command Elements
Capitn Jaime Ortega D6
Alfrez Ricardo Ospietta DAv
Two other Big Men, both D4
Squadron Headquarters
Two MG 34 teams (3 crew each)
Platoons 1 3
Three rifle squads with one PzB30 each
Artillery Battery
Alfrez Simon Porcino D4
Four 105mm Field Guns




The Journal
The Spanish may deploy anywhere on the table and may
be considered dug-in.
The buildings of the paper-mill are a mix of construction
types, the large mill building itself and the walls of the
yard being high grade reinforced concrete, whereas some
of the outlying ancillary buildings are of wood
construction. The mill itself can never receive a critical
hit, as it is considered too strong, whereas the wood
buildings will simply collapse if any critical hit is
achieved. Any troops inside them at the time will dice
for one hit on each man inside if that happens.
The artillery is dug into pits which provide good cover.
If they are over-run by the Soviets and close combat
occurs the gun crew will reduce their dice by 50% to
reflect their lack of close quarter weapons to deal with
this type of combat.
Soviet Forces
1st Company
Command Elements
Two Big Men
One sniper
Platoons 1 3
Three rifle squads each (8 men each)
Machine Gun Platoon
Four Maxim MMGs (3 crew each)
2nd Company
Command Elements
Three Big Men
Platoons 4 6
Three rifle squads each (8 men each)
Tank Platoon
Four T34-76 tanks
Four squads of SMG armed tank riders (8 men each)
Mortar Support
Three 82mm mortars (off table)
The Soviets will arrive in the north-eastern part of the
table as marked on the map at the start of turn one,
all on blinds. Tanks may cross the ice without a problem,
but to keep the player on his toes warn him that the ice
could well crack under the weight of the tank. A bogging
in test should be taken if a tank attempts to cross the ice
with failure meaning that the crew abandon their tank for
two turns, after which they may somewhat shamefacedly
This scenario requires the following cards:
Tea Break
Soviet Blinds
Spanish Blinds
Soviet Platoons 1-6
Soviet MMG Platoon

Soviet Armour One

Soviet Sniper
Soviet Big Men
Soviet Armour Bonus
Soviet Mortars
Spanish Big Men
Spanish Platoons 1-3
Spanish Support Weapons
Spanish Heroic Leader
Spanish Artillery 1-4
Spanish MMG Bonus
The three scenarios above, all quite different, will
hopefully allow the gamer to get the feel for the
Spaniards desperate struggle in that cold, inhospitable
part of northern Russia. I have rated the Spanish as being
relatively good, resilient troops. Even Hitler had to
The Spaniards are a crew of ragamuffins. They regard
the rifle as an instrument that should not be cleaned
under any pretext. Their sentries exist only in principle.
They dont take up their posts, or, if they do take them
up, they do so in their sleep. When the Russians arrive
the natives have to wake them up. But the Spaniards
have never yielded an inch of ground. One cant imagine
more fearless fellows. They scarcely take cover. They
flout death. I know, in any case, that our men are always
glad to have Spaniards as neighbours in their sector.
The Battle Of Krasni Bor Historic Notes By
Richard Baber
Throughout January 1943 it became noticeable to
divisional staff that enemy activity was on the increase
along the sector held by 262nd Regiment. The Spaniards
stepped up their golpes de mano in an attempt to gather
prisoners and to gain a better understanding of Soviet
intentions. It quickly became obvious that a major attack
was to fall upon the 262nd. In an attempt to reinforce the
sector division moved the 250th Reserve Battalion into a
position between the 262nd and the 269th. The 262nd
Regiments front now covered five kilometres from the
Ishora River to the railway line that ran from Krasni Bor
to Leningrad.
Day by day pressure upon the regiments front continued
to mount, intelligence identified that the Spanish faced
four Soviet divisions - 43rd, 72nd, 45th and 63rd. Also in
support of these units were two armoured regiments, 187
artillery batteries, two mortar battalions, two anti-tank
battalions, one motorised brigade and two ski
companies. Facing this the Spanish had an Infantry
Regiment, the reserve battalion, six batteries of 105mm
artillery and regimental anti-tank; infantry gun and
engineer units - a combined total of 5,600 men. Division
committed all the reserves it could; an assault engineer
company commanded by Capt. Aramburu was placed
between the reserve battalion and the 262nd Regiment
and a cavalry squadron was placed in immediate reserve.
The Germans too tried to provide assistance with
additional stocks of artillery ammunition, signallers and
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The Journal
intercept specialists and 3 - 75mm anti-tank guns crewed
by Norwegian SS men.

At 0800 on February 10th the storm broke and the whole

sector exploded. For a while the Spanish artillery (six
batteries) attempted to vainly counter the Soviet guns but
within thirty minutes nearly every Spanish gun was
knocked out! The front collapsed under the combined
tank/infantry attack, the Cavalry Company was almost
completely wiped out counter-attacking into the Russian
mass. 3rd Company, who were defending the October
Railway Station, had been decimated and was left with
only 40 men and they fought to the last. Their
commander Captain Ruiz de Huidrobo, who had been
offered the chance of leave a few days earlier, was killed
in the fighting. He was posthumously awarded the
Laureate Cross of St Ferdinand.
All around the Spanish were being cut down under
massed Soviet assaults but, by mid morning, a small
number of men had managed to break out of the
encirclement and retreat towards Krasni Bor. Despite
this, isolated units had managed to hold out on the
Moscow to Leningrad road and at Podolovo, repeatedly
fighting off Soviet attacks. In Krasni Bor itself the
artillery, engineer and other assorted stragglers came
under attack from Soviet infantry and armour. Soviet
tanks deliberately shelled retreating ambulances as well
as the hospital there, but the Spaniards, armed with
Molotov Cocktails and hand-grenades, eventually beat
off these tanks.
In the afternoon belated support came in the form of a
Luftwaffe fighter-bomber attack, that bombed Soviet
positions and troop concentrations around the town of
Kolpino. All around the situation looked grim for the
Spaniards. In and around Krasni Bor the small Spanish
pockets of resistance were gradually being overrun and it
was not until 4.30pm that day that the German 212th
Division supported by the new 112th Division which
was made up of Latvian and Flemish volunteers, came to
support the beleaguered Blue Division. The Spanish
Page 20

were ordered to deploy along the Ishora River and to

prevent an encirclement of their positions taking place
and all Soviet attempts to achieve just this were
repulsed. At Krasni Bor the last remnants of the 262nds
artillerymen and engineers retreated, leaving only the 1st
artillery group who were to retreat later that night.
More Soviet attacks took place early the next morning
along the River Ishora near the paper factory and men of
3rd Company, 262nd Regiment and other personnel from
various Spanish units drove all attacks back for the next
two days. Soviet assaults then abated somewhat and the
last major attack came on 19th March but that too was
beaten back by the Spanish. At the end of the battle the
Spanish losses were extremely heavy - 75%. In total
3,645 men had been wounded or killed and 300 taken
The battle can be fought in many ways, multi player
seems best with the Spanish commanders needing to
watch their flanks and to cover each other, whilst
withdrawing or counter-attacking. Units will find
themselves cut off and be forced to fight their way back.
A strict timetable should be placed on the Russian
players, rewarding the Spanish with German fighterbombers if they hold up the Russian advance. The four
accounts Ive read of the battle often mention the
bravery of the Spanish (they are all Spanish accounts!) in
taking on Russian tanks with mines, magnetic grenades
and Molotov cocktails, some allowance should be given
to aid the Spanish in this.
Wargaming The Battle
Now I wanted to write a scenario based on this large
important (to the Spanish) battle, but found that the scale
and complexity of the action was beyond my abilities.
Others however have been able to transfer this action
into forms through which we can re-enact those
desperate events of 10th 11th February 1943:
Richard Clarke was kind enough to re-write his excellent
original piece entitled Underpants of Dread which I
first read in the TooFatLardies Bumper Festive
Stocking Filler 2004 this was (and is) an impressive
attempt at writing a usable wargaming version of part of
this battle.
The Gamers Inc. produced a board game (No7 in their
Tactical Combat series) called Black Wednesday which
covers the battle in fair detail the maps alone make this
worth buying in my opinion. You can often find copies
appearing on Ebay, many in mint condition, unopened
and still shrink wrapped!
Another member Steve Thomas has a great website with
sections dedicated to all things Spanish:
This includes TO&E info and history on the Blue
Division plus some scenarios for Crossfire rules. Most
impressive of all is a very detailed, excellently laid out
mini-campaign for this battle check it out. Youll be
impressed, I know I was.

The Journal

Aegean Breakpoint
Modern naval game for Task Force by Scott Fisher
This scenario was developed for my favourite modern
naval boardgame, SPIs Task Force, which I converted
for miniatures, but can be easily modified for Shipwreck
or any other modern naval game. Optimally this scenario
should be played with a game-master so that the secret
elements (both Greek and Turk) can be represented (to
add confusion for both sides). The map is represented in
the classic Task Force hex and Megahex fashion but for
other rules could be converted away from hexes. Enjoy!
Scott Fisher
Operational Situation
In the spring of 2000, responding to increasing tensions
around Cyprus, the new (Conservative Party) Greek
government has decided to fortify its island possessions
along the frontier with Turkey. Recently, Turkey
challenged the deployment of Greek Cypriot anti-aircraft
missiles to Cyprus by military force. The confrontation
that followed cost both sides many lives. The
Government is fearful that Turkish aggression in Cyprus
will be the precedent for further challenges to Greek
sovereignty in the south Aegean. It is becoming more
and more clear that Turkey does not recognise the
transfer of these islands from Italy to Greece in 1947 (in
fact, the Turks never signed any agreement recognising
Greek sovereignty over the islands). In reaction to this
latest Turkish aggression, Athens has ordered that
several air-defence systems as well as significant Army
supplies should be secretly deployed to the south-east
Aegean. The Conservative Party has been elected on a
nationalist platform of holding firm on Greek control
of the southern Aegean. To keep the current government
in power, it is critical that Turkey not be given any
reason to believe that they may profit from military
Tactical Situation
Certain islands in the southeast Aegean have been
identified by the Greek General Staff as Primary
Defensive Points (PDP). These islands are to receive
shipment of anti-aircraft systems, prepositioned military
supplies, advanced communication equipment and landbased anti-ship missiles. Ayios (MH 9g) and Kalimnos
(MH19g) have been identified as PDP islands. Some
shipments of this material were made to the PDP on
Ayios on 1 September. This shipment is currently
unloading. Another critical shipment of equipment and
supplies has been loaded onto Greek military transports
and is due to arrive at Kalimnos on 2 September. It is
imperative at this stage to keep these shipments secret.
It is 1 September, at 1800. The Sea State is 2, visibility is
normal and there is a half-moon. Wind is 15 knots from
200 degrees (true). The forecast for the next 24 hours is
for clear skies and consistent wind from the Southwest.
Visibility is same hex only (roll d6 (per action); 1-2
Precise Report, 3-4 Accurate Report) night turns 2000-

0600, automatic Precise Report in same hex for day

A part of the forces taking part in the exercise will be
available to duty to escort the freighter and to run
interference with the Turks.
Task Force 12 (start in Megahex 1 or 2)
Commodore +1
Captain +0
Kimon (CF Adams)
Elli (Kortenaer)
Hydra (MEKO 200)
Mamatas (weapons transport, Flot 2, speed 2)
Emanuel (weapons transport, Flot 2, speed 2)
Task Force 34 (start in Megahex 10)
Adrias (Kortenaer)
Salamis (MEKO 200)
Task Force 27 (start in Megahex 16 or 20)
Aegeon (Kortenaer)
Limnos (Kortenaer)
Naxos Airbase (MH 3c)
1x P-3C Orion (ASW 1; unlimited range; night/all
2x Mirage 2000 (3 2, M-strike; 5 megahex radius;
daylight only)
-Naxos has 8x AS39 Exocet ASM (D missile) for one
Mirage 2000 strike (requires one of the two aircraft
Greek Orders
Greek orders are twofold:
Primary Objective: Secure safe transport of the military
shipment to Kalimnos. Both transports must be
convoyed safely to the harbour at Kalimnos (MH 19g)
and unloading begun before 0600 on 2 September.
Secondary Objective: Maintain sovereignty of Greek
Territory. Patrols must ensure the integrity of Greek
Rules Of Engagement
1) No Greek ship should enter Turkish land-sea hexes.
2) Greek ships may only fire if fired upon (exception,
see point three below). Ramming, threats of force and
other non-violent measures are sanctioned. If violent
actions commence, visual identification of targets is
mandatory - there is too much civilian traffic in this area
to risk undue civilian deaths that will complicate postconflict diplomatic negotiations. It is the position of
Greece that it is our right to arm our sovereign territory
in any way the government wishes - though we must
maintain the diplomatic and legal high ground.
3) Greek forces may fire on any unauthorized ships that
close within visual range (same hex) of the transports
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that are shipping the military supplies. The secrecy of
these shipments must be maintained.
Victory Conditions
For a decisive Greek victory, the Greeks must deliver the
military shipment to Kalimnos by 0800 on 2 September
and maintain the sovereignty of Greek territorial waters.
If both transports are sunk or the content of the
transports is revealed to the Turkish player (by boarding
or capture), Greece automatically loses the scenario.
Setup/Special Rules
AA Missiles in Ayios Shipment: The AA Missiles at
Ayios (MH 9g) will be operational at 0600 on 2
September. These are four mobile Crotale launchers that
will be deployed around the harbour at Ayios (AA value
of 3).
SSM Missiles in Ayios Shipment: The SSM missiles are
on two mobile launchers (4x Exocet each) and will be
deployed and operational around the harbor at Ayios
(MH 9g) by 0400 on 2 September.
Greek Coastwatchers: Every Greek harbour or port (the
stars on the map) have a Greek Coast Guard/Customs
station. These stations monitor all traffic within visual
range of the station (in the coastal hex at night and in
hex and one adjacent hex during daylight). They have
line-of-sight across sea hexes only (may not look across
land hexsides).
Helicopter Identification Flights: Helicopters may be
used for close-range fly-overs to determine the exact
nationality and type of ship in a hex. To conduct such a
Flight costs one action; the initiating player must pick
the specific hex to conduct the search. These flights are
subject to anti-aircraft fire; treat the helicopter as a
missile in AA combat. In daylight a helicopter may
identify the exact nature of the target from an adjacent
arc in the tactical display; at night the helicopter must fly
directly into the arc of the target to identify it.
Operational Situation
Recently, Turkey has challenged the deployment of
Greek Cypriot anti-aircraft missiles to Cyprus by
military force. The confrontation that followed cost both
sides many lives. In Turkey, this valiant stand against
Greek encirclement is seen as a precedent for future
actions. Turkey does not recognise that the islands in the
southeastern Aegean are Greek territory. Turkey
previously accepted Italian domination of these islands
(1923) but not the transition of these islands to Greece in
1947. In the weeks following the confrontation in
Cyprus, Turkish intelligence has obtained information of
increased Greek military movement in the southeastern
Aegean. Politically, the current Turkish government
must maintain its iron hand doctrine against Greek
encirclement, or it will surely be forced from office by
more conservative elements. Within a week of the
clash, the government
commencement of Operation SkreechOwl- aimed at
determining Greek intentions and capabilities in the
southeastern Aegean. Turkey will no longer accept a
Page 22

military containment of its frontiers at the hands of the

Greeks. To ensure the most complete basis for protest in
the UN, and, if necessary, to prepare for the military
defence of Turkish interests in the Aegean, SkreechOwl
must be a success.
Tactical Situation
Operation ScreechOwl commenced on 17 August with
several covert penetrations of Greek-claimed waters.
Several fishing trawlers and inter-island trawlers have
been converted by the Turkish government for
intelligence gathering in and around the islands of the
southeastern Aegean. The operation has been only
moderately successful up until this point. No key
information has been gained, though it is clear that
Greece has increased warship patrols in the area. Early
on 1 September the intelligence trawler Kaloss,
disguised as a Greek fishing vessel, was patrolling near
an island in the centre of the Dhodhekanisos Channel
(MH 15g). She was monitoring Greek naval shipping
when at 1400 she ran hard aground. With a falling tide
she is still hard aground and taking on water. Her captain
reported that he did not believe he could refloat before
dawn, if at all. He has darkened the boat and is awaiting
rescue. In addition, two Turkish submarines and one
surface ship are, at this time, en route to three locations
to disembark Turkish commando teams on several Greek
islands. The objective of these teams is to observe Greek
movement and military deployment. There is also
information that a Greek task force is being assembled
for some unknown mission and will be at sea by
morning - its intentions need to be assessed.
It is 1 September, at 1800. The Sea State is 2, visibility is
normal and there is a half-moon. Wind is 15 knots from
200 degrees (true). The forecast for the next 24 hours is
for clear skies and consistent wind from the Southwest.
Visibility is same hex only (roll d6 (per action); 1-2
Precise Report, 3-4 Accurate Report) night turns 20000600, automatic Precise Report in same hex for day
Turkish Forces
A part of the forces taking part in the exercise will be
available to duty to escort the freighter and to run
interference with the Turks.
Task Force 124 (start in Megahex 18)
Gemlik (Perry)
Zafer (Knox)
Task Force 52 (start in Megahex 13)
Comodore +1
GAzinatep (Perry)
Barbaros (MEKO 200TN)
Task Force 23 (start in Megahex 20)
Orucreis (MEKO 200TN)
Sub 1 (start in Megahex 22 or 23)
Sakarya (Type 209/1400) [Commando Team on board]
Sub 2 (start in Megahex 12, 17 or 18)
Preveze (Type 209/1400) [Commando Team on board]

The Journal
Akkoy Airbase (MH 18b)
2x F-5E (2 2, L-strike; 3 megahex radius; daylight
1x F-16A (3 4, M-strike; 4 megahex radius; daylight
2x Spy Aircraft (3 megahex radius, see special rules)
Special Team Delivery Unit (start in Megahex 18)
SC-107 (Scarab speedboat, speed 3, any hit destroys)
[Commando Team on board]
Spy Trawler 1 (start in any Megahex)
Bdrovny (fishing trawler, speed 1, any hit destroys)
Spy Trawler 2 (start in any Megahex)
Lavega (fishing trawler, speed 1, any hit destroys)
Spy Trawler 3 (start in any Megahex)
Kamino (fishing trawler, speed 1, any hit destroys)
Turkish orders have three objectives:
Primary Objective: Rescue the crew and code equipment
of Kaloss and destroy the vessel. The crew must be
rescued before Greek patrols discover her fate. They will
surely offer help and in doing so board the vessel and
discover her identity. In addition, the ship must be
destroyed (burned) to prevent any evidence of her real
purpose. It will take approximately two actions for the
crew of the Kaloss (MH15g) to set the fires, abandonship and row to a rescue vessel.
Primary Objective: Disembark three Commando Recon
teams. Three Commando Recon teams must be
deployed; one on Ayios (MH 9b, 9g, or 5c), one on
Kalimnos (MH 19a or 19g), and one on Amorgos (MH
11b, or 11g). These teams take one action to disembark
from any vessel (on the surface).
Secondary Objective: Discover the intent and capability
of the assembling Greek Task Force. Intelligence
information has discovered that a Greek Task Force will
be assembling in the region of Amorgos Island by dawn.
Discover the intent of the Task Force via visual means.
This will require closing to within close-visual distance
(1/2 of the current max visibility) of the force and
observing it for one action. This may be done by ship,
aircraft or submarine.
Rules Of Engagement
1) Absolute Priority: Turkish forces are authorised to use
any force necessary to repel Greek forces that have
entered Turkish territorial waters or airspace.
2) First Priority: Turkish ships should not open fire if
opening fire would reveal their identity. It is paramount
that the Kaloss rescue and the Commando Recon
deployments are kept absolutely secret. Greece will use
any evidence of military occupation (men landing on
shore) to discredit the Turkish position in any postconflict UN debate.
3) Second Priority: Turkish forces may only open fire to
prevent the capture of the Kaloss crew, the Kaloss
herself, and the capture of the Commando Recon teams.
It is deemed acceptable to use force to prevent the
capture or to effect the recapture these personnel. Other
use of force is prohibited.

Victory Conditions
For a decisive Turkish victory, the crew of the Kaloss
must be rescued (and the ship burned) and the
Commando teams must be deployed. A Turkish minor
victory may be achieved by rescuing the crew of Kaloss
(and burning the ship) and discovering the intent of the
assembling Greek Task Force. If the crew of the Kaloss
is captured alive or if any of the Commando Recon
Teams are captured alive, the Turkish player loses the
Setup/Special Rules
Spy Aircraft: Two converted civilian Twin Commanche
250 twin-turbo prop aircraft have been converted for use
with electronic direction finding equipment and night
vision devices to act as spy aircraft. Each turn these
aircraft fly the Turkish player may search one hex per
aircraft and receive a Precise Search Report if they enter
the same hex as the target ships. The aircraft have been
registered to Argos Aircraft in Athens and have been
leased through several front companies. These
companies include; 1) Conways Naval Vessels of the
World, 2) GeoMapp software, 3) Soros Investment Ltd.
Spraypaint and stencils are available on each aircraft to
repaint them in two actions. The pilots are some of the
best in the Turkish airforce. The planes are based in
Akkoy and have a 3-megahex flight radius.
Spy Trawlers: Three spy trawlers, equipped with radio
direction finding equipment, and night vision devices are
available; these vessels receive a Precise Search Report
if they enter the same hex as the target ships.
Commando Transport: Two submarines have been tasked
to deliver the Commando Recon teams, in addition, one
converted civilian high-speed powerboat (Scarab) has
been converted for delivery of a team. Each of these
platforms has been equipped with a special self-destruct
mechanism to destroy the vessel in case of imminent
Helicopter Identification Flights: Helicopters may be
used for close-range fly-over to determine the exact
nationality and type of ship in a designated hex. To
conduct such a Flight costs one action; the initiating
player must pick the specific hex to conduct the search.
These flights are subject to anti-aircraft fire; treat the
helicopter as a missile in AA combat. In daylight a
helicopter may identify the exact nature of the target
from an adjacent arc in the tactical display; at night the
helicopter must fly directly into the arc of the target to
identify it.

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The Journal

Operation Dreamland
An AirWar: C21 mission based on Red Storm Rising by Steve Blease
Tom Clancys Red Storm Rising is one of the most
readable Cold War invasion novels and chock full of
potential wargames scenarios for land, sea and air
Re-reading the book recently I was struck by the fact
that whilst many scenarios were easy enough to replicate
on the tabletop, this would only tell half the story,
especially for those involving air strikes. This was
clearly evident in the Frisbees of Dreamland chapter,
telling of the USAF strike on targets in East Germany in
the early hours of the war. Whilst the bombing of the
bridges across the Elbe at Hohenroarthe would be fairly
straight forward to recreate on the tabletop, the fun
would surely be in the flight across enemy territory to
the target zone and the return to base. Consequently I
was inspired to try and come up with some way of
incorporating this into the game.
Frisbees Of Dreamland
For those of you unfamiliar with what happens in Red
Storm Rising, NATO is on a heightened state of alert and
as soon as Soviet Spetsnaz units attack targets in West
Germany, and before Soviet armour crosses the West
German border, massive airstrikes are launched into East
Germany hitting ground targets in an attempt to prevent
the second echelon of the invasion being able to follow
the initial wave and depriving the Soviets of vital
support equipment and reinforcements for the early
battles in West Germany. Further attacks against Soviet
airfields would also give NATO parity in the air.
Operation Dreamland (as it is called in the book) is
undertaken mainly by US F-111F Aardvarks and
Luftwaffe GR1 Tornados, with a number of F19A
Ghostrider stealth aircraft (Clancys books predates the
official unveiling of the F-117A Nighthawk in 1988) and
in 27 minutes over 200 Soviet fighters have been
destroyed along with 30 bridges for the loss of 13 NATO

Operation Dreamland
The mission can be fought in a number of ways by
gamers, either as a club event or just between a couple of
regular friends. If playing with a number of gamers then
the NATO side can operate with all the flights listed
below, split between the players. If there is just one
player a side the NATO player should choose to control
four flights of aircraft from the list below (for variety
they can mix or match aircraft flights but not the aircraft
within a flight):
Four flights each of 4 x F-111F Aardvarks
Four flights each of 4 x GR1 Tornados
One flight of F-117A Nighthawks

They should be loaded with the appropriate munitions to

destroy the identified targets. The Soviet player takes the
suit of diamonds from a pack of playing cards and lays
them face down on a side table in a 4 x 3 pattern as
below (the spare card can be placed on top of any other
card). The three cards on one side will represent the
three main target zones (A, B & C). The NATO aircraft
will fly from airfields at points 1, 2 & 3 and each flight
needs to be represented by a marker or coin.

Clearly this should make for a great game with lots of

potential variation in outcome for the players, but what
is the best way to translate this into a wargame?

Inspiration was to come from an unusual source in the

form of Matthew Hartleys Scudbuster rules which
recreate the SAS missions against Saddams Scuds in the
First Gulf War. Matthew makes great use of a set of
playing cards in the rules to in rules to introduce
uncertainty and variety in games and the mechanism is
very flexible (I have used it for a Lord of the Rings game
and had been tinkering with it for some games of RB50B intelligence gathering off the Soviet coast in the
early days of the Cold War inspired by William E.
Burrows book By Any Means Necessary). The system
can result in some very one-sided situations on the odd
occasion, but then who ever said life was fair?

The NATO player takes the suit of spades and lays them
face down one each on top of the face down on top of
the diamonds.

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The Journal
The NATO player then moves his token one card at a
time (in whichever direction he chooses including
diagonally) across the cards. When a token is placed atop
a card, both the diamond and the spade card are
revealed. The players then consult the following tables
and play the game using their fight of strike aircraft and
whatever is revealed by the cards on a standard table.
The strike aircraft need to cross the table (losses are
cumulative). NATO and Soviet aircraft that are revealed
by the cards only remain in play for the game and do not
follow into the next game.




Two SA-8b

Two SA-10b batteries

One MiG-21MF

One MiG-25PD

One MiG-27

Two MiG-23BN

Two Su-24M

Two MiG-29

Two Su-25


Four MiG-21MF


Four MiG-21bis L


Four MiG-29S


Four Su-27

The targets are as follows:

A Mahlminkel airbase large runway, 12 Su-24 on
ground, four batteries SA-10a
B Hohenroarthe bridges two large concrete bridges,
four batteries SA-10a, two sections ZSU 23-4
C Soviet Bridging Unit five trucks, two APCs two
sections of ZSU23-4, four SA-13



No support available

E3A warning flight can retire to previous

card without engaging Soviets and try an
alternative route

Two F-16A Block 10 Export

Two F-4S Phantom II

Two Tornado IDS

Two F-15C Eagles

Three F-16C Block 25

Three Tornado GR.1 IDS

Three F-15C Eagles


Four F-4S Phantom II


Four F-16C Block 25


Four Tornado IDS


Four F-15C Eagles

Following the destruction of the targets (or not) the

return to the bases should be undertaken using the same
method with the heart and club cards. The above tables
can be used or alternative ones with reduced levels of
Soviet aircraft if desired to reflect the impact of the
NATO raids across East Germany.

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The Journal

Action at Neugarten
A Cold War Commander scenario by Paul Case
Date: 10th August 1989
Place: Somewhere in the south of 1(BR) Corps area,
West Germany
After smashing through the NATO forward line, the
Soviet 47th Guards Tank Division (3rd Shock Army)
replaces its lead unit, 153rd Guards Tank Regiment, with
the 245th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment, as the 153rd
has suffered heavily at the hands of the 16th/5th Lancers.
Now it is time to see if all that money spent on defence
was worth it, as 4th Armoured Division's 11th Brigade
tries to stop the onrushing invaders.

3rd Field Regt. Royal Horse Artillery:

3x FOO Stands
3x Btys each: 1x M109A2 Stand (Off Board)
1x AD Bty: 3x Spartan Stands, 3x Javelin Stands
1x AD Trp: 1x TR-1 Stand
1x Eng Sqn: 3x FV432 Stands
3x Combat Engineer Stands
Att: 1x Chieftain AVLB Stand
1x Centurion AVRE Stand

Focus And Briefing

NATO (BreakPoint = 45)

2x Heimatschutzkommando Coys each: 1x HQ (CV = 8)
3x Regular Infantry Stands (with M72 LAW Upgrade)
1x Milan 2 Stand
1x Field Arty Regt. (49th Field Regt RA):
3x Btys each: 1x M109A2 Stand (Off Board)
2x Atk Heli Flts each: 1x Lynx Stand

Brigadier John Smith:

Your Brigade [11th Armoured] has been ordered to stop
the enemy from breaking through.

Note: BreakPoint is 45 if the Mtrs are onboard. Adjust

down by 1 BP for each Mtr Plat kept offboard. Both
offboard, BP is 43.

While the Brigade's FV432 Battalion [2nd Queens] (with

a Sqn from 3RTR attached) is holding the west side of
the river, your Challenger Regiment [3rd RTR] and
MCV Battalion [1st A and SH] will be the counter-attack

Soviet (BreakPoint = 51)

The West German Heimatschutzkommando Companies

are for defence only. They are protecting the two
villages, their homes.
11th Armoured Brigade [British 4th Armoured
Bde HQ: 1x CO Stand (CV= 10) [Brigadier Smith]
3rd Btn, Royal Tank Regt:
2x HQ Stand (CV= 9)
4x Sqns each: 3x Challenger 1 Stands
1st Btn, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders:
2x HQ Stands (CV = 9)
3x Coys each: 3x MCV-80 Stands
3x Regular Infantry Stands (with LAW-80 Upgrade)
1x Fire Sup Coy: 1x Recce Plat: 2x Scimitar Stands
1x Mtr Plat: 2x FV432(m) Stands
1x AT Plat: 1x Spartan MCT Stand
2x FV432 Stands
4x Milan 2 Stands
2nd Btn, Queens:
2x HQ Stands (CV = 9)
3x Coys each: 3x FV432 Stands
3x Regular Infantry Stands (with LAW-80 Upgrade)
1x Fire Sup Coy: 1x Recce Plat: 2x Scimitar Stands
1x Mtr Plat: 2x FV432(m) Stands
1x AT Plat: 1x Spartan MCT Stand
2x FV432 Stands
4x Milan 2 Stands

Colonel Dimitri Petrov:

Your Regiment [245th Guards Motor Rifle] has been
ordered to take over the advance from the 153rd Guards
Tank Regiment, after its battering from the British light
armour. Your orders are simple - cross the river and drive
I have given you some of the remains of the 153rd
Guards Tank Regiment to help you. Their tanks and
BMPs have no ATGW.
Division has lent you a Battalion of its Artillery
Regiment (99th Guards) and some Frontal Aviation.
245th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment [Soviet 47th
Guards Tank Division]:
Regt HQ: 1x CO Stand (CV = 9) [Colonel Petrov]
3x MR Btns each: 1x HQ Stand (CV = 8)
3x Coys each: 3x BMP-2 Stands
3x Conscript Infantry Stands (with RPG-16 Upgrade)
1x Mtr Bty: 1x MT-LB Stand
1x 120mm Mtr Stand
1x AAGW Plat: 1x BMP-2 Stand (No ATGW)
2x SA-18 Stands
1x Tk Btn: 1x HQ Stand (CV = 8)
3x Coys each: 3x T.80 (ERA, ATGW) Stands
1x Arty Btn: 1x FOO Stand
3x Btys each: 1x 2S1 Stand (On or Off Board)
1x Recce Coy: 1x BRDM-2 Stand
1x BRM Stand
1x AA Coy: 1x 2S6 Stand
1x SA-13 Stand
1x ATGW Coy: 3x BRDM-3 Stands

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The Journal
1x Eng Coy: 1x MTU Stand
1x BTR-70 Stand
1x Combat Engineer Stand
153rd Gds Tk Regt remnants:
1x HQ Stand (CV = 7)
1x Tk Btn: 3x T.80 (ERA) Stands
1x Tk Btn: 2x T.80 (ERA) Stands
1x MR Btn: 4x BMP-2 Stands (No ATGW)
3x Conscript Infantry Stands (with RPG-16 Upgrade)
1x SA-18 Stand

If the 2S1s are used onboard, they are treated like

mortars, as long as they stay east of the river and behind
the hills. Their targets must be in the western half of the

1x Arty Btn (99th Gds Arty Regt):

3x Btys each: 1x 2S3 Stand (Off Board)
2x Atk Heli Flts each: 1x Mi-24 Hind F Stand
2x Aircraft Flts each: 1x SU-25 Stand
Note: BreakPoint is 51 if the 2S1s and Mtrs are on
board. If neither are onboard, then BP is 47. Adjust as
follows: each 2S1 Bty is 1/2 BP, and each Mtr Bty is 1
BP. Do not forget to round fractions up.
The British M109A2 [3rd RHA] Stands, and FV432(m)
Stands if used Off Board, each have 4x HE and 2x
The British attached Field Regt RA [49 Fld Regt] is for
Scheduled Arty fire only and each Stand has 8x HE and
no smoke assets.
The Soviet 2S1 and 120mm Mortar Stands have 6x HE
and 3x Smoke each, if left offboard.
The Soviet 2S3 Stands have 6x HE and no smoke each
to be plotted before the NATO set-up.
The Soviet SU-25 Stands each have 2x Cluster Bombs
per turn on the table, at least one turn gap before each
aircraft may be requested for again, (ie. both on turn 2,
next time they are on is turn 4. Or, 'A' on turn 2, 'B' on
on turn 3, 'A' on turn 4, and so on, you get the picture (I
The Heimatschutzkommando Coys deploy one Coy per
2nd Btn, Queens (with a Sqn of tanks) deploys in the
western third of the map.
The Lynx Flights are available on Turn 2, as is the
attached Fld Arty Regt.
The Counter-Attack force enters from either the north or
south edge (decided before game start), west of the river,
using Mobile Deployment, the turn after the Soviets
have crossed the river with tanks and/or Motor rifle
Warsaw Pact
The Soviets enter along the east board-edge, using
Mobile Deployment, on Turn One (Obviously!!!).
The Mi-24Fs are available on Turn 1. The SU-25s are
available from Turn 2.
Page 28

Victory Conditions
This is pretty simple really, the Warsaw Pact win by
exiting the west edge with at least 9 tanks/BMPs with
Infantry and an HQ. with any other result they lose.
Extra bragging rights if: 1) they control both bridges and
keep the roads heading west free of NATO forces and 2)
the more NATO stuff they kill (tanks count double).
I have designed this scenario using my slightly reduced
ground scale for 'CWC'. This, basically, reduces the
ground scale by 3/5, thereby giving a scale of 1 ft = 1 km
(approx). I did this because I use 6mm vehicles and
figures and I believe that Pete designed them for
10/12mm. Also, being your average wargamer, I had to
slightly alter the (very good set of) rules to my own
tastes. I now find that the rules work out just fine for me.
As played on a 6x4 table that is 6km x 4km (24sq km) of
playing area.
The reason that the British have 2 x HQs in each Btn is
simple, the second one represents the 2ic, who can also
command battle groups as and when needed (and allows
the British more flexibility, which is correct). If you are
not OK with this just reduce each Btn to 1x HQ - no
problem, whatever suits you.
The map provided is the terrain the scenario was
designed for and should not be altered all that much.
Leeway is granted but remember, West Germany is not
the Russian Steppes. Too open and it becomes a long
range spot-'em-and-kill. But on the other hand, too close
and it becomes the Ardennes and the game can bog
down. On the map most of the open ground is meadow.
The river is fordable only to Amphibious vehicles (and
despite what some people think, the FV432 was not
amphibious) and can be bridged by the MTU.
Fields should have gateways, obvious I know, but how
many times have you seen a wargames layout where the
fields have no entrances? Also, it is up to you if the
boundaries are hedges or fences or a bit of both.

The Journal
As you may have noticed, I have not included any points
totals. I believe that you should play with what you have,
no battle was ever fought by two evenly balanced sides,
and so, our wargames should be the same. After all, we
are supposed to be playing war, aren't we?
This has been an offering from the 'Gun-Pit' for use with
'ColdWar Commander' rules, and as is usual with my
offerings, not only has it not been playtested, but feel
free to change it to your favourite rules. Even change the
combatants, or even the war (Arab-Isreali wars or WW2
springs to mind).

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Page 29