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Fluent Software Training

TRN-99-003

Heat Transfer and Thermal Boundary


Conditions

Headlamp modeled with


Discrete Ordinates
Radiation Model

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Outline
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Introduction
Thermal Boundary Conditions
Fluid Properties
Conjugate Heat Transfer
Natural Convection
Radiation
Periodic Heat Transfer

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Introduction
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Energy transport equation is solved, subject to a wide range of thermal


boundary conditions.
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Energy source due to chemical reaction is included for reacting flows.


Energy source due to species diffusion included for multiple species flows.
n
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Energy source due to viscous heating:


n

Always included in coupled solver.


Can be disabled in segregated solver.
Describes thermal energy created by viscous shear in the flow.
s Important when shear stress in fluid is large (e.g., lubrication) and/or in
high-velocity, compressible flows.
Often negligible
s not included by default for segregated solver
s always included for coupled solver.

In solid regions, simple conduction equation solved.


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Convective term can also be included for moving solids.


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User Inputs for Heat Transfer


1. Activate calculation of heat transfer.
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Select the Enable Energy option in the Energy panel.


Define Models Energy...
Enabling a temperature dependent density model, reacting flow model, or a
radiation model will toggle Enable Energy on without visiting this panel.

2. Enable appropriate options:


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Viscous Heating in Viscous Model panel

Diffusion Energy Source option in the Species Model panel

3. Define thermal boundary conditions.


Define Boundary Conditions...

4. Define material properties for heat transfer.


Define Materials...
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Heat capacity and thermal conductivity must be defined.


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Solution Process for Heat Transfer


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Many simple heat transfer problems can be successfully solved using


default solution parameters.
However, you may accelerate convergence and/or improve the stability
of the solution process by changing the options below:
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Under-relaxation of energy equation.


Solve Controls Solution...
Disabling species diffusion term.
Define Models Species...
Compute isothermal flow first, then add calculation of energy equation.
Solve Controls Solution...

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Theoretical Basis of Wall Heat Transfer


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For laminar flows, fluid side heat transfer is approximated as:


q = k

T
n

k
wall

T
n

n = local coordinate normal to wall


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For turbulent flows:


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Law of the wall is extended to treat wall heat flux.


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The wall-function approach implicitly accounts for viscous sublayer.

The near-wall treatment is extended to account for viscous dissipation


which occurs in the boundary layer of high-speed flows.

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Thermal Boundary Conditions at Flow Inlets


and Exits
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At flow inlets, must supply


fluid temperature.
At flow exits, fluid
temperature extrapolated
from upstream value.
At pressure outlets, where
flow reversal may occur,
backflow temperature is
required.

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Thermal Conditions for Fluids and Solids


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Can specify an energy source


using Source Terms option.

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Thermal Boundary Conditions at Walls


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Use any of following thermal


conditions at walls:
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Specified heat flux


Specified temperature
Convective heat transfer
External radiation
Combined external radiation
and external convective heat
transfer

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Fluid Properties
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Fluid properties such as heat capacity, conductivity, and viscosity can


be defined as:
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Constant
Temperature-dependent
Composition-dependent
Computed by kinetic theory
Computed by user-defined functions

Density can be computed by ideal gas law.


Alternately, density can be treated as:
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Constant (with optional Boussinesq modeling)


Temperature-dependent
Composition-dependent
User Defined Function
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Conjugate Heat Transfer


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Ability to compute conduction of heat through solids, coupled with


convective heat transfer in fluid.
Coupled Boundary Condition:
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available to wall zone that


separates two cell zones.

Grid

Velocity vectors

Temperature contours
Example: Cooling flow over fuel rods

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Natural Convection - Introduction


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Natural convection occurs


when heat is added to fluid
and fluid density varies
with temperature.
Flow is induced by force of
gravity acting on density
variation.
When gravity term is
included, pressure gradient
and body force term is written
as:
p
p '

+ g
+ ( o ) g
x
x
where

p ' = p o gx

This format avoids potential roundoff error


when gravitational body force term is included.
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Natural Convection - Boussinesq Model


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Makes simplifying assumption that density is uniform.


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Except for body force term in momentum equation, which is replaced by:

( 0 ) g = 0 ( T T0 ) g
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Provides faster convergence for many natural-convection flows than


by using fluid density as function of temperature.
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Valid when density variations are small (i.e., small variations in T).

Constant density assumptions reduces non-linearity.


Use when density variations are small.
Cannot be used with species calculations or reacting flows.

Natural convection problems inside closed domains:


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For steady-state solver, Boussinesq model must be used.


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Constant density, o, allows mass in volume to be defined.

For unsteady solver, Boussinesq model or Ideal gas law can be used.
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Initial conditions define mass in volume.


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User Inputs for Natural Convection


1. Set gravitational acceleration.
Define Operating Conditions...

2. Define density model.


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If using Boussinesq model:


n

n
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Select boussinesq as the Density method


and assign constant value, o.
Define Materials...
Set Thermal Expansion Coefficient, .
Set Operating Temperature, To.

If using temperature dependent model,


(e.g., ideal gas or polynomial):
n
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Specify Operating Density or,


Allow Fluent to calculate o from a cell
average (default, every iteration).

3. Set boundary conditions.


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Radiation
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Radiation intensity transport equations (RTE) are solved.


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Local absorption by fluid and at boundaries links energy equation with RTE.

Radiation intensity is directionally and spatially dependent.


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Intensity along any direction can be reduced by:


n
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Intensity along any direction can be augmented by:


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Local absorption
Out-scattering (scattering away from the direction)
Local emission
In-scattering (scattering into the direction)

Four radiation models are provided in FLUENT:


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Discrete Ordinates Model (DOM)


Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM)
P-1 Radiation Model
Rosseland Model (limited applicability)
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Discrete Ordinates Model


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The radiative transfer equation is solved for a discrete number of finite


solid angles:
4
I s i

2 T
+ (a + s )I (r , s ) = an
+ s
4
xi

absorption
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I ( r , s ' ) ( s s ' )d '


0

scattering

Advantages:
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emission

Conservative method leads to heat balance for coarse discretization.


Accuracy can be increased by using a finer discretization.
Accounts for scattering, semi-transparent media, specular surfaces.
Banded-gray option for wavelength-dependent transmission.

Limitations:
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Solving a problem with a large number of ordinates is CPU-intensive.


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Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM)


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Main assumption: radiation leaving surface element in a specific range of


solid angles can be approximated by a single ray.
Uses ray-tracing technique to integrate radiant intensity along each ray:

dI
T 4
= I +
ds

Advantages:
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Relatively simple model.


Can increase accuracy by increasing number of rays.
Applies to wide range of optical thicknesses.

Limitations:
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Assumes all surfaces are diffuse.


Effect of scattering not included.
Solving a problem with a large number of rays is CPU-intensive.
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P-1 Model
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Main assumption: radiation intensity can be decomposed into series of


spherical harmonics.
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Advantages:
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Only first term in this (rapidly converging) series used in P-1 model.
Effects of particles, droplets, and soot can be included.
Radiative transfer equation easy to solve with little CPU demand.
Includes effect of scattering.
Works reasonably well for combustion applications where optical
thickness is large.
Easily applied to complicated geometries with curvilinear coordinates.

Limitations:
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Assumes all surfaces are diffuse.


May result in loss of accuracy, depending on complexity of geometry, if
optical thickness is small.
Tends to overpredict radiative fluxes from localized heat sources or sinks.
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Choosing a Radiation Model


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For certain problems, one radiation model may be more


appropriate in general.
Define Models Radiation...
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Computational effort: P-1 gives reasonable accuracy with


less effort.
Accuracy: DTRM and DOM more accurate.
Optical thickness: DTRM/DOM for optically thin media
(optical thickness << 1); P-1 better for optically thick media.
Scattering: P-1 and DOM account for scattering.
Particulate effects: P-1 and DOM account for radiation exchange between gas
and particulates.
Localized heat sources: DTRM/DOM with sufficiently large number of rays/
ordinates is more appropriate.

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Periodic Heat Transfer (1)


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Also known as streamwise-periodic or fully-developed flow.


Used when flow and heat transfer patterns are repeated, e.g.,
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Compact heat exchangers


Flow across tube banks

Geometry and boundary conditions repeat in streamwise direction.

inflow

outflow

Outflow at one periodic boundary


is inflow at the other
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Periodic Heat Transfer (2)


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Temperature (and pressure) vary in streamwise direction.


Scaled temperature (and periodic pressure) is same at periodic
boundaries.
For fixed wall temperature problems, scaled temperature defined as:

T Twall
=
Tb Twall
Tb = suitably defined bulk temperature
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Can also model flows with specified wall heat flux.

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Periodic Heat Transfer (3)


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Periodic heat transfer is subject to the following constraints:


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Either constant temperature or fixed flux bounds.


Conducting regions cannot straddle periodic plane.
Properties cannot be functions of temperature.
Radiative heat transfer cannot be modeled.
Viscous heating only available with heat flux wall boundaries.

Contours of Scaled Temperature

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Summary
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Heat transfer modeling is available in all Fluent solvers.


After activating heat transfer, you must provide:
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Thermal conditions at walls and flow boundaries


Fluid properties for energy equation

Available heat transfer modeling options include:


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Species diffusion heat source


Combustion heat source
Conjugate heat transfer
Natural convection
Radiation
Periodic heat transfer

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