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THE

OLD

AND

MIDDLE

ENGLISH

*5S5ivl

THE

OLD

AND

ENGLISH

MIDDLE

BY

T. L. KINGTON
1

OLIPHANT,

M.A.

OF

BALLIOL

COLLEGE

ANlJCO.

MACMILLAN
1878

All

rights

reserved

rf

\W
LONDON
AND

SPOTTI6WOODE
ANO

BY

PRINTED

CO.,

PARLIAMENT

NEW-STREET
STREET

SQUARR

PREFACE.

England

of

late

of

-copies

In

of

book

the

much

from

help

letter.

whimper
be

he

the

sound,

he

his

notes

to

made,

his

rod

and

should

next

readers

edition.

in

or

by
I

had

have

and

author

an

If

be

it

freely

by
need

the

for

inserting

of

notice

print

criticism

have

great

thankful

the

so.

whatever

Reviewers.

be

of

2,000

years

phrases.

why

If

book.

nearly

take

both

of

stages.

preserving

since

words

his

amuse

may

worth

portance
im-

sale

embodied

understand

under

'

four

have

criticism,

cannot

improving

its

rapid
;

within

was

English

3,000

off

work

been

the

English

gone

book

have

about

of

have

present

additions

for

all

in

the

to

up

tongue

Standard

'

former

the

old

waking

account

on

this

last

at

her

studying
otherwise

cannot

my

is

assuredly

cism
criti-

chance

absurd,

in

the

availed

Preface.

vi

of

myself

be

names

much

; I

observation

in

much

make

under

have

remark

to

and

Morris

Any

will

('Norman
He
of

One

tellingme
Saxon

to

from

Sanscrit.

would-be
that

This

was

say

philologer wrote
; I

was

derived

forget

in the

year

if he
of

went

grace

the

Dr.
best
on

Freeman
upon

me.

work

his

chapter

my

Anglo-Saxon,
1874

oi in

former

correct

on

portant
im-

chapter

had

wrote

from

mortal.
im-

and

Mr.

has

to

which

and

au

my

my

have

most

more

that

that
he

when

him

English

Gothic

to

of

once

V.)

is

pronunciation

reads

Vol.

Stratmann

influence

the

see

sounds

who

Conquest,'

use

some

Ellis ; it is

themselves

one

good enough

is

Mr.

Dr.

than

Littre

and

ancient

old

the

proved

leaders.

Cleasby

point

to

works,

our

England.

have

French

of

guidance

escape

volumes.

colossal

the

of

studied

to

ours

able

been

noble

to

names

of

English phrases

new

German's

the

the

France

the

for

mar,
English Gram-

idiom

sometimes

attention

of

have

Philology.

on

Matzner's

me

hardly one

earlier date

suggested

will

before

allows

which

paid

all

if

done,

is

late writers

certain

to

always had

an

harm

no

suppressed.1

owe

I have

out

privilege;

this

derive

to

false
and

Gothic

was

on

ideas,
Anglofrom

vii

Preface.
English language

the

with

myself

the

to

'

and

of

cant

let off

that

'

'

'

Individualism.

should

thought

Ovid, could

and

Caesar

Philology

noble

is too

be

I had

shrine, begirt by

narrow

Grrseco-Latin

who

use

into

the

highways

small

dialect.

and

hedges,

child,

and

woman,

used

heartily

in

word

any

reader

easily understand.

not

be

goddess 'to

in

Asyndetic Co-ordination,'

Diathesis.'
if I

is called

twelve-year-old English schoolboy, a

man,

repaid

school, good

what

for

Neoteristic

like

myself

of

ashamed

of

day,

our

saw,

little love

I have

Sequacious

'

or

I have

Old

'

venerable

the

fireworks

no

that

sure

am

usury.

I hold

school

; I

circle of
She
and

in

pent up

worshippers,

should

go

should

speak

tongue

forth

all

that

to

can

comprehend.
I take
the

mark

my

Advocate
the

stand

new-fangled vulgarity.

of

my

thing

heard

of

in

the

book, by pointing

Penny-a-lining.
fall

of

Adrianople

correspondents

abroad

delight

debandade

averted

by

was

We

in

and

Purist

the

of

date

sweet

half-way between

like

have

lately

the

English

phrases like

parlementaire ;

last

the

out

to

'

the

writers

Preface.

viii

at

home

of

personnel
Napier,

army

twenty

'

What

the

would

said

have

ago,

years

'

as

directing
Sir

to

William

this

new

jargon

advise

at

the

generals

the

of

speak

the

of

end

book.

readers

my

to

me

errata,

studying

corrections

or

of

list

my

before

Contents,

the

suggestions

Any

mark

to

may

be

my

warded
for-

at

Charlton

House,
Wimbledon.

three

hope

or

Rome

to

four

bring

years

out

hence.

February,

1878.

my

work

on

the

New

English

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

ENGLISH

IX

I.

EARLIEST

ITS

SHAPE.

-\.D.

PAGE

The

family

Aryan

Their

on

Sanscrit

and

The

Substantives

Old

Oxns

living

of

way

the

Words

English

compared

3,4
5

The

endings

The

Adjectives

of

Nouns

7
....

The

Verbs

The

Participles

9
.

The

Verbs

Irregular
and

Greek

Latin

10

akin

English

to

11
.

The

Slavonians

The

divisions

of

The

Teutonic

Substantive

Teutonic

Lithuanians

with

13

race

and

Verb

14

Suffixes

and

the

of

12

Teutonic

the

Prefixes

Expulsion
Conflict

and

15

Celts

16

Romans

the

17
.

450.

The

Beowulf

Conquest
600.

18

of

Christianity

Britain

by

brings

in

Substantives

the
new

English

19

words

20

21,

....

Adjectives

22

23
.....

Pronouns

24
.....

The

Strong

Verb

25
....

The

Weak

Verb

26
.

Contents.

a.d.

English Works

of

Da tos

The

sound

of y

The

sound

in

The

interchange

of

The

interchange

of Vowels

Proper

Names

Consonants
.

in Old

Variations

English

of Letters

Changes
890.

sound

their

English Vowels,

Pastoral

Alfred's

It forestalls

Care
modern

our

forms

of Latin

Influence

Corruption
The

of Cases
of Nouns

coupling

Adjectivesused
The

disuse

The

Verb

of

Substantives

as

un

....

The

of should

use

Tense

The

Future

The

do

The

Infinitive and

The

Past

employed

before

Verb

Optative

Participle

Pronouns
....

Dative

The

Reflexive

The

Definite

The

Demonstratives

The

Interrogativewhat

The

Relatives

The

Indefinite

Article

use

of

and

use

of what,

The

use

of other, half

The

points of

Article
.

The
The

Adverbs
The

man

who
.

first

the

formed

compass

by adding

here, there,yes

The

nay,

naught, none

The

both,

same,

The

now,

though,as

or

how, why
lie
.

Contents.

XI

PAGE

A.D.

The

so, that, since

Prepositions; their
The

of

The

by, loith

The
The

use

65

....

68
,

69

on

Interjections

....

meaning of

Twofold

Nouns
,

nearly obsolete

of them

and

Adverbs

into

Prepositionsturned
Some

an

English Word

Corruption of old Words


Good
pedigree of slangy

Words

Near, sport,pink, spirit

Decay
The
Our
Our

of Words

Degradation

Proper

and

names

of trades

names

Words

of old

secondary

of Words

sense

varied

70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80

losses

many

66

67

for,from, after
to, at,

64

81
....

construction

of

82

sentences
.

Alliterative
Influence

Poetry

of Poets

83

....

and

Priests

84
.

Conservative

effect of the Bible

85
.

CHAPTEE

TO

APPENDIX

Interchange of Consonants
The

Liquids

The

softeningof

86

87
Words

88

CHAPTEE
NORTHERN
EARLY

G80.

II.
680-1000.

ENGLISH,

1000-F120.

CORRUPTIONS,

The

English of

The

Euthwell

Northumbria
.

Cross
.

Peculiarities

of the

Inscription

90
91

Contents.

Xll

A.D.

737.

Cadmon's

850.

The

Poem
.....

Psalter

Northumbrian

and Southern

Northern

kinsmanship with
Slept,down, bread

The

876.

contrasted

forms
Latin

....

Inroads

of the Danes

Tokens

of their settlement

here
.

Edward's

re-conquest

Burghs

913.

King

941.

The

Five Danish

The

"Wessex

The

shires that formed

The

Lindisfarne

950.

Literature takes the lead


the New

The

Gospels
English
Genitive Singularand Nominative

New

sounds

Corruptionof Northern

The

Plural

of Words

is traceable

influence

Strong

Change

of

Perfect

Verbal

Business,

corrupted
in

meaning

While, whilom,
The

.....

"Danish

971.

English

owe

cove

in

Noun

ing

bundles

sneer,

BlicklingHomilies
Clippingof Consonants

The

Still,
so, by
1000.

The

Rushworth

The

paringof

New
The

Gospels
Prefixes

idioms of Relatives

of,dol, linn

iElfrics Grammar

Hail, law, Lammas


Charters.

Kemble's

"

Treatise

1050.

The

1090.

Changes in the Chronicle


The of supplantingon
The Legend of St. Edmund

on

Astronomy

Apollonius

Change

of Consonants

Changes

in

in the Chronicle

of,by,without

Contents.

Xlli

PAGK

A.D.

Substantives

Pronouns

The

Adjectivesand

130

Verbs

131
.

Book

Domesday
1100.

and

The

132

The

Peterborough Chronicle

The

sound

"

of the

Confusion

new

Relative

Article's

Cases

The

oi.

135
134

1120.

Changes that

to

were

come

CHAPTER

THE

135

III.

MIDDLE

ENGLISH.

I.

Period

136

Cultivation.

(1120-1220.)
Contrast

between

of Middle

Periods

Three

Midland

East

The

and

England

Italy

English

137
138

Dialect

130
.

The

1120.

The

Sundering

Great

Where

Line

140

corruptions arose

our

141
.

Peterborough Chronicle

142
.

in Vowels

Changes

143

....

in Consonants

And

144

....

The

The

break

of Case

up

and

Pronouns

endings

145
.

Verbs

The

great Shibboleth

Words

in

for

147

and

Southern
.

to

149

the

German

Low

with

And

Scandinavian

Specimen

1120.

The

of East

Contrast

to

150
151

1120.

148

with

common

of Dialects

Northern, Midland,

Therefore,anon,

146

"

The

Midland

Dialect

the East

152,

Midland

153
154

The

Southern

Homilies

155
.

in London

Perhaps compiled
Danish

The

changes
o

influence
.....

The

156
.

and

in Vowels

158
.

ch
.

157

159
.

Contents.

XIV

A.D.

The

letter y for g

The

of

1160.

for

is used

appear

Peterborough Chronicle

The

Changes

in Vowels

The

could

can,

Specimen

1160.

The

Contrast

The

Southern

The

changes

Consonants

prefixed

; ever

Midland

East
the

to

Dialect

Midland

East

Homilies
.

in Vowels

of Words

Specimen

altered
of ch and

encroachment

The

what

The

change

as

Relative

meaning of Words

in the

Lot, silly,shed, show


Danish

Subjunctive

of the

Idiom

New

The

Words

of the

1160.

The

and

Danish

new

Southern

and

Northern

Forms

The

Genitive

the

Relatives

New

Words
Ode

Moral

....

The

change

The

suffix

in Letters

ever.

in the

Change

Prepositions

"

meaning

and

Winchester

Kentish

of Words

Works
.

De
1180.

Moreville.

Norfolk

The

Southern

"

Rimes

Gospels

St. Thomas

on

Homilies

Essex

of Words

Specimen

altered
.

used

The

gh

is much

The

new

The

Substantives

sound

sh
....

The

Verbs

The

new

use

Compounds

of

one

with

here ; the

The

Prepositions

New

meanings

Scandinavian

of Words

Words

nonce
.

Contents.

xv

PAGE

1180.
1180.

of the East

Specimen

Dialect

199
,

Contrast

The

Midland

the East

to

Midland

200

Poem

the Soul

on

and

Changes in Vowels
1200.

King
The

and

201

Consonants

202

Nigel Wireker

of

Poems

Body-

Alfred's

203

Proverbs

204

for the hard

fondness

Corruption of
Change

in the

205

the Grenitive

206

Verb

207

may

Change in like,do, while


A

little French

Loss

of the

208
209

appears

Compounding

of

power

210
.

Poem

Orrmin's

211
....

The
He
The
The
The
The
The
The
The

place where
resembles

he wrote

the

Peterborough writer

change in Vowels
in Consonants

sh and

215
,

or, nor,

kneel

uppo,

old hw

217

transposed

218

of alderman

sense

219
.

Adjectivesand

220
,

Pronouns

221
,

Theirs, that, same

The
The

in

new

somewhat

alone, once,

The

new

222
,

223

Kelatives

Development
The

senses

tivo

224

one

first

of the Passive

Strong Verbs

The
The

The

more,

of

need, deal

turned

use

Orrmin's

227
228

into Weak

229
.

right,already
alway, as if

230
.

231

and

226

232

Prepositions
upon

225

Forthwith,
No

Voice

keep,take

mean,

216

change in world, boon

Change

213
214

-.

change

old

212

until

233
.

of

by, at, of, to

Compounds

234
.

235

Contents.

XVI

PAGE

A.D.

leanings

Scandinavian

His

shift,stick,hurt

words

The

List of Scandinavian

236

237

Words

238
.

and

mid

The

die out

nim

239
.

1200.

Specimen

1205.

The

East

of the

Contrast

Midland

240,

Midland

the East

to

Dialect

242
.

Layanion'sBrut

243
.

Vowels

Change in

.244

Change in Consonants

245
.

Horses, plight,nook
ol

Corruption of
The

Gird,
The

and

by

and

The

248
249
.

250

with
.

Words
.

of St.

Legend

Margaret

seem,

downright

of St. Katherinc

Vowels

and

Consonants
.

The
The
New

Infinitive

follows

as, so, hei

Preposition

260
261

262
.

263
.

Meidenhad

264

The
The

Low,
The

1220.

266

of

Wohunge

269

Lauerd

ure

Cheap, who,

tell

The

Kiwle

Ancren

than

one

Version

271

of it
.

270

More

267
268

....

Salop

265

owe

of

ail,husband

Influence
The

Adjectivesand Prepositions
Salopian pieces
ful, one,

258

phrases
Halt

257

Wherefore, but
The

256

259
.

of St. Juliana

Legend

254
255

Self,other
The

252

Legend

251

253

ending fid

the

247

to

Whosoever,

The

"

...

Them;

The

Scandinavian

New

1210.

Pronouns

"

mark, quickly

of

The

246
.

Participle in ingc

new

241

272
273

Contents.

XV111

A.D.

Owl

The

and

Nightingale

Morning, hollow, bondman


should

The

must,

The

Scandinavian

The

Poems

....

and

in the

Dutch

Cotton

Words

Manuscript

wench

Eye,gear,

....

You, therewithal

....

Words

French

Celtic and

Nottinghamshire Poem

1250.

1250.

Specimen

1250.

The

Contrast

The

Yorkshire

of the East

Midland

the East

to

Dialect

Midland

Psalter

Scandinavian

Eorms
.

The

in Vowels

change

and

Consonants

Morning, not, height


The

and

Cloud
The
The

Verbal

new

Nouns

sky

....

it, those

Pronouns,

Relatives
....

The

Participles

The

Adverbial

The

Scandinavian

Forms
.

Words
.

German

The

Low

The

Latin

Words

Forms
....

1260.

Second
The

Edition

of

Layamon's Poem

in Vowels

change

and

Consonants

Ever, since, leg


The

in the Jesus

Poems

Change in the

Names

The

Proclamation

The

word

The

Proverbs

The

use

1264.

The

Ballad

1270.

Specimen

1270.

of Counties

Henry

III.

discussed

owe

of

of

Manuscript

of

Hending

better,best,do
on

Lewes

of the East

Old

English Proverbs

The

Contrast

to

Fight
Midland

the East

Dialect

Midland

Contents.

xix

PAGE

A.D.

Poem

The

you,

The

Herefordshire

on

1280.

345

it,with

Erst, head,

....

346

Poems

347

one

....

CHAPTER

V.

ENGLISH

MIDDLE

348

last Period

of the

character

Unhappy

344

Fox

the

The

SEPARATION.

"

(1280-1300.)
1280.

The

Harrowing

The

curious

The
The

of Hell

349
.

Dialogue
the

corruptionof
revived

350
....

Strong Verb

351
.

of do

use

352
.

The

Charters

of

St. Edmund's

Bury

353

TheHavelok

354
.

Forms.

Its Northern

Much

in

355

with

common

East

in Vowels

The

change

The

confusion

and

Anglia

356

Consonants

357

of Letters

358

The

coupling of

Nouns

359
.

The

change in Substantives

The

Pronouns

Yours, it, one


The

362

Pluperfect Subjunctive
Scandinavian

Celtic and

Interjections

1280.

The

Contrast

The

Horn

The

change

to

and

364
365

Words

of the East

Specimen

363

Words

Dutch

1280.

366

Midland

the

East

Dialect

Midland

Floriz

Herefordshire

Sell,sorry, dogged

....

368
369

371
372

Poems

367,

370

in Pronunciation

Knight, hereabout
The

361

....

Prepositionsand
The

360

of you

use

Adjectives

and

373
.

374

Contents.

XX

A"D.

The

French

The

Prepositions

The

Dame

way

of

compounding

Siriz
.

of Northern

Mixture

The

and

Southern

ing, and

TheTristrem
....

of

Marks

transcription
.

Verbal

The

Nouns
.

The

Adjectives

The

Infinitive

becomes

en

Take, stick,trow
Scandinavian
1290.

and

Dutch

the

Body

Poem

The

Adjectives and
upon

ing

1290.

Specimen

of the

East

1290.

The

Change

to

in these

Words
and

Soul

Verbs

Discussion

Contrast

Midland

the East
Kentish

Sermons
.

Digby Manuscript

The
A

Herefordshire

Hereford

Poems

Charter

The

Cursor

Mundi

The

change

in Vowels

The

change in Consonants

The

nobot, mell, forefather

New

New

Substantives
Phrases

Beggar, holiday,unhappy
Kind, sad,
Pronouns

mean,

one

Whole,

score,

The

curst
.

she-beast

Which,

May

Dialect

Midland

Eld, goodman
The

The

on

ing

mon
.

be, outtaken, become


Passive

Scandinavian

Voice
senses

developed
of Verbs

Contents.

XXI

PAGE

Transitive

The

Verbal

Noun

411
.

Of all, since when, abaft

412
.

413

Mighty, truly
The
Prepositions

....

The

Interjections

The

Dutch

The

Percival

414
.

415
.

416

Words

and

417

Isumbras
.

Swiftlier,goods,folks

Eight, even,
What
L295.

Lives

The

Life

419

yon

get,fall

manner,

The

418
.

420

to
.

Saints

of the

421
.

of Becket

422
.

423

Bond, silly,as.

Phrases

Verbal

424
....

Life

The

1300.

425

of Counties

426
.

427

Phrases

New

The

of St. Brandan
.

Names

To

....

sceJCydraw, numb
of St.

Life

428
.

Margaret

of Gloucester

Kobert

429
.

Chronicle

430
.

of French

The

influence

431

The

change in Consonants

Proper

432
.

discussed

Names

433
.

Wassail, shop, dole

434
.

Silly,stark, sometime
in Verbs

Phrases

New

435
.

436

The

Adverbs

A.4de,
The

down

and

up

437

as

438
.

Alexander

439
.

The
The
The

change

in Consonants

Verbal

Nouns

use

440
.

of the

in

ing

Infinitive

441
.

Passive

442
.

German

and

Scandinavian

'Words

443
.

Our

The
1300.

No

synonyms
different
fixed

from

various
of

sources

Standard

of

our

quarters

Speech

English

444
.

445
.

446
.

Contents.

XX11

VI.

CHAPTER

KISE

THE

OF

NEW

THE

ENGLISH.

(1303-1310.)
A.D.

1303.

l'AGK

of Brunne's

Kobert

Handlyng Synne

Dialects

The

in

Much

448-

Eutland

near

449
.

with

the

North

450

clipping and

Much

paring

451
.

Bighteous,could, sorrow
Toy, lost,meaning

452
.

453
.

Bench,

score,

buck

454
.

right
Swag, pitiful,
and

The
To

The

458

set,waive

459
.

troth

run,

460
.

Well, indeed, everywhere


The

457

con,

Turn,

Infinitive

of the

use

new

455
456

ye

will

shall and

Between

thou

between

Distinction

447

meeting

common

Words

French

Large proportionof

461
.

Interjections

462
.

Words

Scandinavian

463
.

1310.

The

Meditaciuns

of the

; in

Homely

Soper

going
Melted, bringabout, wherefore
Tale

of

St. Paul's

465

Bishop

466
.

Eobert
.

descriptionof Charity

Discussion
of

of Dinners

Norfolk

Bondman
.

Date

of the

Poem
.

Specimen of
North

the

Meditaciuns
.

Lincolnshire
.

Yorkshire

Durham

"

Lowland

.,

Scotch
.

Lancashire

"

Salop

Herefordshire
....

Warwickshire

"

467

468,469
.

Tale

464

Gloucestershire
.

470
471
472
473
474

475
476
477
478
479

Contents.

xxin

PAGR

in Ireland

English Pale
Somerset

480

"Wiltshire

"

Hampshire

481
482

.........

Kent

Oxfordshire"

483
.

Middlesex

Bedfordshire

485
486

Norfolk

of

Anarchy

speech

in

England

487

VII.

CHAPTER

Evil
1066.

1120.

Chronicle

The

sound

ui

490

492

oi

or

French

Thaun's

489

491

in the

De

488

....

Changes
new

ENGLAND

out

at Court

used

French

dies

Standard

Old

INTO

Century

English Poetry

in old

The

WORDS

Thirteenth

in the

done

Loss

FRENCH

OF

INROAD

THE

484

493

...

work

494
.

baptize,Jew

Eau,

Distinction

Sixty
The

old

1200.

Layamon

1210.

TheHali

1220.

The

The

the

between

French

1160.

495
....

words

and

498
499

sounds

of

500

and

au

oi

502

503
....

504

....

of Teutonic

list of kindred

endings ier,us

and

became
after

the

Romance

505

words

506

507

...

Kings favoured

brilliant future

chase

501

....

Norman

The

497

Meidenhad
Eiwle

French

early

....

mingling

The

496

Orrmin

Debt, large,
poor

The

low

English Homilies

Ancren

Long

in

come

Rule, capital,anthem
The

and

high

seemed

English

508

it

to await

official language

foreignfashions
b

509
510
511

Contents.

XXIV

A.D.

English

aside

cast

was

of France

Greatness

the

by

noble

this time

at

It influenced
There

was

countries

many

Standard

no

English

of Ladies

Influence

articles of dress

Their

of Franciscan

Influence

friars
.

of life

Their

way

They

unite

various

They

make

French

The

....

Luve

'

classes
familiar

words

'

Eon

of teachers

Two

schools

New

Christian

Evil

done

easier

of Inflexions

Loss

of the

All

of

in Writers

Reparation

First

the

great inroad
men

Layamon

Compounding

of passages

Period

The

contrasted

than

of

power

Comparison
Edward

by the clergy

Loss

The

Names

Villehardouin

1280.

of French

Words
.

united

were

words

Our

Soldiering

for

Chronicles

compiled in

French

English compilations
Mixture
Feasts

of

languages

described
....

French

rimes

used

hunting

Terms

of

Terms

of law

and

cookery

....

The

clergy practisemedicine

Indelicate
1290.

Herod's
Terms

words

diseases

dropped

are

described

of science
....

Terms

of architecture

Number
The

of French

Kentish

Sermons

words

in the

Tristrem

Contents.

xxvi
A.D.

Tricks

Language

of

of Obsolete

Our

speech foreshadowed

Discussion

of

Words

French

and

Proportion
future

586

......

...

588
589

Monosyllables

of the Teutonic

Use

587

590

APPENDIX.

VIII.

CHAPTER

OF

EXAMPLES

680.

Lines

Cross

Eutlnvell

the

on

ENGLISH.

591

737.

Lines

850.

The

Northumbrian

950.

The

Lindisfarne

...

by Cadmon

592
Psalter

593

Gospels

1000.

The

Euslrworth

1090.

The

Legend

of St. Edmund

1220.

The

Ancren

Eiwle

594
......

595

Gospels

596,597
598, 599, 600

Index

601

Errata.
Page
"

"

,,

"

"

"

,,

44, line

105,

165,

250,
315,

337,
374,

"

442,

read

dceg

scehealfe read

17

; for

the

Alfred's
out

the

"

3 ; strike

out

"

3 ; strike

for

1 ; for

138

read

"

5 ; for

one

read

"

13

; for

sel iasse

12

; for

Past

"

"

535, Notes, last line


beginning

of this

Sumiandceg.
see

read

healfe.
Alfi-ed'sgh.

sentence

the

beginning

with

So.

first time.

303.
once.

read

read
but

Boethius.

read

; for

"

194,

Bcethius
Sunn/t

19
"

"

"

14; for

"

130,

5 ; for

one

line.

seli cute.

Passive.
; transfer

of from

the

end

to the

THE

OLD

ENGLISH.

MIDDLE

AND

CHAPTER

ENGLISH

Theee

are

are

hallowed

the

most

know
the

it)

sacred

of

where

our

of

ancestors

Slavonians,
the

for

ourselves

tree

boasted

by

the

his

the

lArya'

seems

ignorance

ftt

the

to

comes

in

the

begins
of

Dr.

than

of

chapter
I must

so,

and
B

Mr.

can

frame
heraldic

Guzmans

or

gain

can

we

mily,
fa-

time-honoured

the

have

West

Mohammed

acknowledge
Muir.

found

are

Some

ear.

on

Oxus.

great Aryan

term

in

the

nations.

which

Erin

and

Morris

the

from

come

English

even

of

Latins,

any

by

above-named

the

his famous
;

life

to

the

East

Arabic
from

daily

we

evidence,

same

traces

and

from

Montmorencies,

or

all

Gibbon

Sanscrit

Veres

with

common

language

truthful

more

spring

Iran

pedigree

arare

of

only

we

Greeks,

far

not

spot

"

whence

Latin

that

Persians,

witness

ploughing,

in

but

spot (could

Hindoos,

into

for

term

the

that

world,

Englishmen

dwelt

insight

word

of

eyes
be

the

over

forefathers

Celts

Thanks

The

the

all would

unmistakable

Colonnas.
some

in

the

and

By

scattered

places,

ground

SHAPE.1

EAELIEST

ITS

IN

many

I.

in

thought
alike

take

by confessing
that

all

my

Old

their

from

names

men

Middle

and
the

the

Aryans,

old

civilised than

more

English.
'

roving Tartar

the

'

ploughing
hordes

folk,

around

them.
tillers of the

These
of

far

as

erecting houses

of

hundred.

one

they

and

armed

the

the

hatchets, whether

was

of

traces

\Y*'

of

fixed

the

by

Mother

him

in

Shannon

before

great

Max

The

of

their

between

right

As

Sanscrit

warlike

blood

and

and
and

wrong

their

Dyaus,

in the

the

mefcals,

leaders

to

as

most

sheep,

peaceful or
bonds

the

Zeus,

of

grammar

nearly all
the

and

and

the

that have
down

been

the

Mother

print a

now

the

useful

most

for

least

God,
in

English

the

Tiw

theirs

the

dwelling

men

inherit

Ganges

that

was

the

tween
be-

words

daily life.2

having
the

the

and

Tuesday. Moreover,-the Aryans

our

framework

well-head

Aryan

ing,
plough-

at

followed

the

Greek

counted

horse, the

laws.'

in

the

comes

channels

many

and

found

are

Sanscrit

The

years

distinction

Speech, whence
the

used

they

customs

settled

recognised

marriage

this last

from
had

had

in
Dies-piter,

Latin

with

with

and

kings ;

the

cow,

acquainted

They

laws

of

arts

domesticated

had

were

purposes.

the

knew

they had

They

important animals,
dog

'

roads, of building ships, of weaving

making

sewing,

ground

brought
to

Speech

in

two

are

the water

than

and

our

own

thirtywords

old
guage,
lan-

thousand

two

us

far

tongue
or

the

Sanscrit

writing

English, shows

of the

out

from

The

days.

our

set down

earliest

hundred

English

of

more

does.

so, the

oldest

Miiller, Science of Language, I. 273.


Turks

and

Magyars

are

the chief

exceptionsto

the rule.

English
used

by

Western
no

man

us, which

shapes.
can

in

its Earliest

vary

but

How

the

slightlyin

Shape.
their

roots
one-syllabled

say.

Eastern

and

first arose,

Old

and

As

in

Middle

woe

English.

worth the

day !

English

Sanscrit.
1 r\u

upari
upa
ud

New)

Shape.

English
(Old and Neiv).

Sanscrit.

fore

over

pra

ufa,above

na

ne,

no

fit,out

nunan

mi,

now

(across) through

greatest of

The

is derived
be

may

Sanscrit.

from

from

perceived
the

Brahmin

of

did, who

wrote

four

thousand

years,

until

/ Europeans,
Well

way.

regiments

they
to

common

apt

are

to

old, that
a

trace

tions,
inflec-

our

Of

us.

in

words

all

this
like

are

few

stragglers on

few

inflections,that

kinsmen

our

the last

busy, for

greatest sinners

lose

to

can

and

us

of

ago.

years

left to

are

the

sage

Still,we

march.

long

been

the

said

them

comes

learned

the most

than

been

have

untaught

respects

three thousand

of

have

we

Speech

of this notion

most

in many

English

that

clippingand paring down

few

very

the

fact,that

English

we

absurdity

time

our

Mother

Unhappily,

The

the

old

to

nearer

is,to think

all mistakes

English ploughboy

are

tit

and j

( Old

tiras

its Earliest

in

English

who

compiled

the

Yedas.

the

have

Substantives, we

In

Nominative
in

Mother

Plural

left.

respect of the

latter

Speech

Gen.
Nom.

forms

the

The

of the

same

Vrika-s

hoary words

word,
in the

are

the

much

that

seen

comes

case,

Old

English bishop and

be

Singular and
lish,
Engto

nearer

the

does.

Sing. Vrika-s
Sing. Vrika-sya
Plur,

Genitive

It will

German

than

Sanscrit.
Nom.

the

English.

English.

New

Wulf

Wolf

Wulfes

Wolfs

Wulfas

Wolves

French
wider

eveque,

apart from

long list given above.

two

very

each

modern

other than

and

Old

forms
Ma

from

and

the

; as

from

no/man

Ra
the

and

Nu

of the

; as

the

Der

the

U;

the

as

meodu

the

Sanscrit

the

get

we

name.

aj,go,

root

English

pi-tarand

lish
Eng-

"

nama,

root

and

get the Sanscrit

we

ajra

acre.

from

; as

Sanscrit

to

jnd, know,

root

English

from

the

and

sunu

root

same

the

English
; as

English.

Suffixes,common

few

give a

Middle

Sanscrit

get the

we

son,

sunu,

the root

bear,

su,

feed,

pa,

get

we

Sanscrit

the

English fod-der,
father.
Sanscrit

madhu

Compare

(mead).

is the

(honey)
scddu

our

English

(shadow),

seonu

(sinew).
Our

word

silvern must

silfre-nas,
(the Gothic
in

with

common

We

of

carline

cousins,
and

carle.
find

we

mark

is

of the

What

Turning

to

in

vertere

There
Teutonic

from

Sanscrit

as

feminine

is the

Sanscrit

our

words

for

the

root

the

vowel

of

and
are

queen

Latin

rdj-ni

raj. Still,in
the

at

fox,

these
is the

end

meaning
I

of
to

answer,

ward

in

such

is vart

turn

in

word

as

Sanscrit,

Latin.
is

ending

no

is

the

ta-drksha, in

thick

words
or

that
in

like

under

seen

These

ta-lis.

na

feminine.

than

this

their

possessive;

is the

heaven-ward

But

vixen

that

as

phal-i-na-s.

why

reg-ina,coming

last, the

suffix

the

wonder

may

pronounced

silubr-ei-n-s)having
Sanscrit

the

been

have

once

the
answer

thuck

in

to

seems

such

us

words

thoroughly

more
as

workmanlike.

slightlydifferingshape
Greek
to

the

te-lik-os,and
our

old

mouths

the

pylic,which
of

in the

Latin
vives
sur-

Somersetshire

Old
both,

and

utema

written

at

full

heaping

up

of

In

and

our

Plural
In

which
a

signs to

; it lasted

down

old

adverb

which
We

The

old

Sanscrit,and

(in Sanscrit

am

It is

the

followingspecimen
Root

and

old Adverbial
left in

once

is

Genitive.
the

English

to

English,

common

old

its

now

Present

only representative.
ran

shown

as

2. nama-si

2nd

Per.

ta, thou.

3. nama-ti

3rd

Per.

ta, this,he.

nama-masi

me.

1st Per.

ma

5. nania-tasi

2nd

Per.

ta +

6.

3rd

Per.

an

nama-nti

its second
in

Present;

English

of this verb

Strong
Hence

must

have

words,

Verb.

comes

'

forming

Sid-dmi
to

numb

'

and

ta, 1

thou.
+

ta, he

he.

what

thou.

na-nam-ma

first vowel

in Sanscrit
'

ta, thou

been

syllable lengthening the


other

in the

"

ma,

Perfect

word

; our

1st Per.

The

earliest

nothing

1. nama-mi

4.

in

take

nam,

mi,

the

in

dialects,has long dropped

asmi)

that

thought

in

Sanscrit

truth, of course,'

inflections

many

other

the

such

back, far

us

the

nede,

of

'

s, with

comes

to

Even

say,

of

Sanscrit

carries

was

Singular

Hence

Genitive.

we

form

of the

English,
ned

as

1280.

year

formed.

of

times

not

the

well

as

go,' which

imitations

are

have

Yerb.

the

Genitive

later

Dual

written

from

the

In

more.

of

age

if
aftermost,

a
af-ta-ra-ma-yans-ta,

traces

was

needs

word

Comparison.

to

find

Genitive

formed

English,

had

we

must

the

be

express

we

the

beyond

Our

utmost.

Pronouns,

'he

English.

length, would

Adverbs,

as

Middle

utmest,

our

form

"c,

and

is

of the

called

has

Corporal Nym.'

in

sa-sdd-a

English in
for its Perfect, words
I sat.

I sit and
did

of which

the

our

relic of the

one

Sanscrit

answering

namata,
One

verbal

case,

pared

years

ago.

runs

through

Tongue,

The

Active

which

'

the

late

its

which

the

and

Passive

which

Aryan

Scotch

lands
Lowof

instead

Sanscrit

we

thousand

of

lridand'

English

our

alike
the

Participles
;

stir-na,strew-n.1

latter in ta,as

in na, the

Dative

nama-nt,

in the

ground

Weak

and

in the

than

daughters

riding.'' The

nimatli.

nem-enai),
more

as

years,

and

nim

Participlewas

kept

Strong

ending

nim-an

Plural,

the

in

Infinitive

an

Greek

of

most

of

both

former

into

word

as

(the

down

and

until

Singular,nama,
the Old
English

used

nam-ana

had

corrupt

to

noun,

was

have

the

in

was,

is

former

Imperative in

The

voice.

have

that

the

and
reduplication,

Passive

in

hdtan, and

Perfects

only English

of their

trace

any

clippedforms

have

we

from
higlit(once Jicehdt),

(once dide), are

kept

Shape.

its Earliest

Sanscrit,yuk-ta
Greek,

zexik-tos

Latin, junc-tus

English,yoh-ed (in Lowland


Those

who

choose

write

to

first three

forms

given

admissible

in the

Passive

the Active

Perfect, I stopped,as

the

the

Speech

Aryan

Few

Archdeacon

Sanscrit

verbs

Hare

have

reference

But

above.

of

stopt instead

was

justifytheir spellingby

stopiped,
may

In

Scotch, yok-it).

this

the

to

form, though
in

is clearlywrong
Participle,

there

we

shall

were

this form,

so

English th, not t, that should

answer

few

common

always speltpreached

see

as

to the

further
Verbs

in

on.2

which

English.

preacht. Still,it is
Sanscrit

t.

Old

10

had

give

in

Sanscrit

It

and

is

which

of these

one

forefathers

tense, like wit

vid.

or

Our

of which

(most

from

verb

three

to be is most

roots,

English goes
Speech, is the first

in

We

Sanscrit

may,

can,

use,

with

their

The
its

no

old

form

di-de.

by

our

Hence

Pagan
our

plays a great part


With

ji-gd-mi;

our

oar

word, which

Perfect,da-dhdu,

shores

verb

only

am,

in

the

is

to

ga

its Perfect

building Weak
(go),we
is

may

derived

mans
Ger-

The
asmi.

Northumbrian

compare

of

latter

Teutonic

from

as-anti ;

or

shape

irregulardo, did, the


in

of

da-dha-mi, with

the

in the

forefathers

Plural

s-anti.

Sanscrit

Sanscrit

brought

was

ar-anti

as

Mother

the

to

come

points,in

Person

old

fects,
Per-

new

of the

Third

the

are,

shall,will,

its tenses

Sanscrit

than

appears
of

One

vas.

Present

like wot, and

formed

been

letter of the

this word

have

both

before

years

verbs,

since
irregular,

nearer

still say

of

used

we

bhu, and

as,

which

this verb.

Perfects,found

have

auxiliaryverbs), have
Irregulars.
Our

Perfects.

must

as

are

old

old Perfects

Weak

new

that, thousands

see

Christ's birth, our

must, dare

their

used

English.

to

easy

English.

for themselves

of

specimen

Middle

Presents, and

Presents, forming

as

lost their

and

ge-do-m,
of which

verbs.
the Sanscrit

another

verb

in

English
now

we

used
have

this

of

such

the

and

Europe,
;

remain

in

tribes

Many
lived

to

The

counterpart of
of

of

and

hus-incle.

as

The

of the

first

must

look

the

Oxusf

Celt

and

marched

the Western

lands

of years

later

the

learnt

to

yet

Celt's

the

kinsmen

the rock

the West

count

up

leaving
wards
after-

were

Persia,to compile
on

alone

English,

wake,

who

of
the

of

owners

Lapps

not

their

to

of

and

handwriting

Vedas,

the

of Behistun.1

of the

^*l

the

with

ending
that

else.
The

old Persian

the

that

show

of

the

English

Greek

yare

maid-en

changed

fer

as

appears

and

is the

the

akin

is still nearer

Dom-unculus

Homer

and

paid-ion is

word

English

letter is

Latin

of

long

have

must

forefathers

of the

Latin

word

water-

great

the East.

hardly a

alias

use.

carry

Basques

in

followed

childish.2
cild-isc,

sometimes

had

(they

banks

old Turanian

Hundreds

common

Naevius.

hold

to

last, the

flowed

tokens

in

verbs

meaning

First, the

the

India

their

streams

shed, others

the

Scotch

long in

been

English

the

up.

out

those

conquer

leave

to

Some

root

being.

them
to

and

broken

thousand),

behind

has

our

on

setting sun,
to

other

Lowland

forlorn,fordone, we

as

settlement

of these

ground

The

Spenser

para.

end

the

towards

with

words

Aryan

in

was

of

eocle,which

i.

explain

to

Shape.

old

root

compounds

Thus,

Sanscrit

the
The

to

the

far back.

syllablein
to

from

came

of the

corrupt Perfect,gaed, which

Some
us

went, instead

say

its Earliest

paid-isk-os
to us, and

when

pare
com-

we

in Old

Old

the

English

English bcere,

English year.

Sophocles' high-sounding TruAoSafjLveivwould


chose to compound a word
tame, if we
closelyakin

be
to

our

Greek.

to

foal-

Old

12

in

truth

which

the

thus

are

Old

word

is

and

mallow

our

before

we

cevum

are

the

Latin

and

English

middle
gag.

The

by

Latin

words
that

see

be}

ear

doma-bo

of years

have

to

seem

whom

when

The

Latin

Lithuanians
kindred

our

that

that
verb

English Bible.
by

best

for

Slavonians

have

we

follow

ear

is

It is

this

with

ten

in

happily preserved
one

writers,who

it

in

remember

their

that,

seen

up

is

to

saliasra,

tusantja,the
Teutonic

whole

strange

seems

those

from

stock

count

it

such

of the first words

should

to

this the

framed

of

left

have

made

some

gnosco.

numeral

Further,
not

thousands

Aryan

unable

were

tukstanti,and

sight

The

The

closelyagrees.

numerals
1

we

tive
primi-

Lithuanians, who

"We

separated.

Sanscrit

mille.

the

or

lost its first

traces

and

last of

ara-bo,

more

and

Jcnow

at

that is,

with

never

tribes have

the

living in Asia,

thousand.

first

been

with

same

gang

explained

into nodus

Slavonians

the

to

Teutons

we

shortened

was

the

English,we

itself

has

and

tame-be

shows

ever.

into

be

to

our

and

and

frag,

likewise

knot

malva

Aiei

letter
or

of

striking

aye

cannot

but

So

our

Teutonic

of kin

English

nothing

thus,

It is the

all the

nearness

the

ow.

turning

on

sometimes

gnodus

ago.

But

but,

is

into

tense

I shall tame.

or

Latin

letter,while

more

frango

as

Future

English

than

ending

g,

the

forms

Latin

still

slipped the

before

alone

The

was

dvu),the

alike

Latin

I be to tame,
I

old

Grothic

verb

or

once

likeness

corrupted the

of

different

but

are

still remains.

the

and

substantives,

to

adjectives. Vig-iland

(wakeful)

wittol
;

attached

are

into

changed

wac-ol

English

one

word,

same

English.

Middle

and

of

two

shape

as

at

our

dn-tyne

Shakespeare,and

in the

ought to be revived
their Ar-yan blood.
that

English

in

twd-tyne,since

and

we

its Earliest

explanation is,that the


Teutonic

tihan,ten

changes

fa

to

Gothic

to the

Teutonic

lifan then

both

word

changes

Latin
of

place

cado

the

Eastern
unlike

and

and

and

kinsmen

the

of

of

rest

Indefinite

an

to

common

twd-lifan (eleven

These

Definite

Jcatvar

the

the

to

answers

Aryan

the

also, like ourselves

Aryan stock,

the

form

of

Adjective.
But

the

the auroch
farewell

Up

this

verbs

in

of

as

the

clung
l

why

Sanscrit
is at

once

kept
Old

and
the

should
the

the

to

it

to

forms

is

Present

English

Goths

have

why

be

the

Low

inflections

more

of

woefully),

old

far

the

why

English)

Scandinavians

to

Low

explain

and

refused

our

great

Plural

fails

sveda, English sweat,


seen

kept

Germans,

High

Latin

before.

the

when

the

most

tree),and

had

we

peculiarold

closer

did, and
8

to

in which

includes

have

brethren

into

the

long

done

Hard

have

it is in Sanscrit

Compare the
sckweiss.
English
German.

stuck

should

letter t into
1

split up

them

had

known

be

cannot

of

Aryan

fairlyguess,

may

(a point

general

Celts

hunting

Vistula, bade

(one

of the

Scandinavians.

(this term
their

we

was

Germans

their Verb

cousins

the

left off

of the

East

branches
as

It

and

each

almost

time,

race

Germans,

High

all the

mi.

Teutonic

why

fathers

our

Lithuanian

their

Westward,

to

when

came

in the forests to the


to

marched

^_

time

interestingof

in

take

easilyframed.

are

had

the

the Primitive

just as

The

of the former

end

tihan, dn-lifan and

twelve)
ours

liha

fidwor (our four), and

If

fall.

our

Lithuanian

the lea at the

13

]"reo-tyne,thirteen.

to

on

go

Shape.

to

mans
Gershould
than

corrupt

should

have

High German
primitive than

Old
retained
less
our

to this

than

give

brethren

day

may

English.

Passive

Voice.
and

substantive

(I

Middle

and

at last

now

can

verb,

drop

to

here

do

how

show

the word

no

cousins),

their inflections.

formed

The

Old

Substantive

Old

Gothic.

English.

Wolf.
High

German.

Old

Nort

SINGULAR.

Present

Tense

op

the

Verb
our

All

these
each

hundreds

Teutonic

other, about
of

years

niman,

take ; whence

comes

numb.

tribes
the

to

time

after that

must

have

stood
easily under-

of Christ's birth

event, they

were

since,

using

the

Old

i6

Middle

and

English.

manifold,
sing-er,spinster,warn-ing, good-ness,stead-fast,

win-some, right-ivis
stdn-ig(stony),aiv-ful,god-less,
Others, older still,such

(righteous)
.

silv-ern,
vix-ent

as

worlcman-like, child-ish, witt-ol, mall-ow, I have


before.

dropped

unhappily

been

replaced by

Teutons, after turning their backs

The
their

kin, compounded

Aryan

Perfect
older

of

the

verb, known

the

as

the

new

Present,
But

by adding

as

is formed

Perfect

Strong

Sanscrit.

the

de

loved,it

plainerin
Another
the
our

saying,I
Gothic

our

Runes, still found

island

and

the

Celts

on

the

banks

the

intruding Teutons.

hall

an

their
1

formed

The

roughly

of the

two

abiding trace
management
Latins

set

new

The

the

vowel

English

and

is formed
the

stem.

Perfect, sealfo-de,

dide.

the

When

This

we

say,

much

out

comes

driven

these

out

Danube

The
:

former

they

have

Prepositionsbefore

dhd

in

in later times

were

of witchcraft.

of their old

abodes,

elsewhere, by

and

far the

were

left in
in

The
and

of

use

stone, both

on

of their settlement
of salt works.

the

was

the handmaids

Upper

races

Teutons

engraven

mainland

The

civilised of the

the

form.

to

of

rest

sister.1

dark

were

in

love did.

proscribedby Christianityas

Weak

of the Teutons

from

peculiarityof

on

the

by changing

Perfect

contracted

is like

themselves

(in Sanscrit, da-dlidu) to

di-de

being

the

on

for

sit,I sat, common

I salve, becomes
Thus, sealf-ie,

of

have

speech, and

our

have

endings

ware.

meaner

of

of

out

Teutonic

old

Many

given

their

more

word

Bavaria, and

simple
dadhau, and

word
thus

abdo, abdidi; condo, condidi; jperdo,perdidi. This last is


nothing but the English I for-do (ruin),I for-did.

in its Earliest

English
leather is

thought by good judges

from

Celts

the

suffered

Others

Italy, but
in

and

the

Latin

races,

dreamed

that

Mother),

were

our

the

clouds

by

of the

Earth,

place of
her

Rome

and

Eagle

and

done

empires

Rome

Teutonic

become
boast

ever

legions;
Boadicea,

well

have
1

learned
Garnett's

rule

literature

length

at

Angli,

who

men

shipped
wor-

guess

of

he

with

so

skilful

were

to

take

the

Empire,

to

of them, later
millions

more
were

of

to found

She

had

indeed

but

her

Senate

public spiritfrom

Essays,pp. 150, 167.


C

ourselves

the

us

claim, and

lesson

have

we

barbarians, whom

unknown.

to her

great things in law and

might

his

lords of her

to

great

great historian

tribes

the

Our

the

and

her titles ; others

could

shores

on

the

common

sea-girtisland,not

own

countrymen

history,were

world's

subjectsthan

her

lay before

of these

Some

new

in

shows

them

face.

and

rivers,the

and

in

his worthless

to

Tacitus

Little did the

that

future

up

and

Elbe.

the

far from

the

Hitherto

Velleda.

their forests

Mother

in

share

Varus

smote

The

(neitherof

our

roll away,

sheltered

bear

of Drusus.

hand

historyfrom the words used by


kin, without help from annalists ; now

and

pen.

champion
themselves
against

less of Caractacus

and

Arminius

puzzled out

held

hero

into

rugged

their

hope, bore

us

when
the German
fight,
we
English should think
of

heavy

years

their way

from
both
they were
sprung
now
brought fairly face to

forefathers,let

more

her

the Teutonic,

and

borrowed

hundred

forced

by

felt the

Gaul,

been

later,they matched

Rather

Caesar
two

overthrown

were

Marius.

Celts.

the

birth, the Teutons

Christ's

before

besides

have

to

17

neighbours.1

their Eastern

by

Shape.

Old

which
in

held

assemblies

the

trace

can

we

poets

to be

Unknown,

passionsof

mankind

in

writer

essayed.

and

ever

But
our

care

this full well.

know

worn-out

the

from

brethren

later

councils

who

Makers,
into

the

paint

the

wing

would

lifelike hues

Celt

Hard

Empire of Rome
healthy Teutons.

and

times

than

In

Eastern

Latin

any

receive
the

and

Slavonian

at hand

were

to

was

Spain,Gaul,

overran

most

Teuton

bolder

and

held

Rome's

by

to

good qualitiesof ourselves and


for conquered foes has seldom

Western

reckoned;

outdone

more

the many

among

kinsmen, tender

been

in the

aloft upon

soar

the

Unseen

barbarians,assemblies

likeness

English.

these

by

were

would

who

men

Middle

Friesland, Uri, Norway.

Wessex,

renowned

and

the old

fresh life-blood

Fifth

Century, our

Italy; becoming

lords

words
the old
overlayingwith their own
Latin dialects spoken in those provinces. To this time
belongs the Beowulf, which is to us English (may I not
of the

soil,and

all Teutons

say,

to

The

old

?)

what

the Iliad

to

was

the

Greeks.

Epic,written on the mainland,


doughty deeds of an Englishman, before

his tribe had

to Britain.

Pagan ring about

the poem

There
and

is

Christian

afterwards,has sought
runs

through the
In

the

same

unmistakable

an

to

transcriber,hundreds
soften down

recital of the feats of


age

as

Battle of

Finsborough and
latter,Attila,Hermanric,

before

sets

the

Beowulf

the

the

come

of years

which
spirit,
Ecgtheow's bairn.
this

were

the Traveller's
and

us

wealthy

written

Song.

In

Caesar

are

mentioned.

the
the

all

have
not these lays in
Pity it is that we
their oldest form, in the English spoken not long after
the first great Teutonic
writer had given the Scriptures
to his Gothic

countrymen

in their

own

tongue.

the

of Britain

island

The

of

hands

Sicily,it

the
and

Mercia,

last

Fearful
Celts

at the

blood

few

the

were

Celtic

women

the

old

heaps.

Garnett

words,

many

scarcelybe
Old

of which

hard

fighting;
in

Amid

belong

us

keep

recorded

land,

right

in

the
this

work.

the

by

men

thoroughly
of

English

show

that

bands,
their hus-

slaughteredin

were

hundred

to household

of these

management

far

were

can

English.

historyof

New

away,

after much

England

sharper than

at

length

anything

Italy.

or

slayersand

of the

steady
the

this

to

seem

nearly two

classical

Spain, Gaul,

Anglia,

bam, whop, balderdash,"c,

spree,

the

and

in

So

by degrees swept

was

the shouts

slain,let

577, as

list of

her birth- throes

begins ;
known

as

reckoned

Britain

of East

slaves, while

as

of the

givesa

others, such

have

we

kept

owners

England),

English heathen,

the

to

that

the

done, that but few Celtic

admitted

been

how

Old

vengeance.

of extermination

citizenship. The

and

Saxons

undergone

woes

ruthless

with

iron

and

have

words

of the

Jutes

the

Wessex;
true

Bede,

the

how

concerned

the

been

blood.
how

ns

or

great people

of
holding the whole
Ipswich. It is with

mainly

am

hands

the work

was

Crete

than
a

one

mighty kingdoms

have

must

be left in

Wight

Anglen (the

Stirlingand

that

tribe

longer to

than

and

Northumbria,

between

coast

of

three

19

where

later, tells

from

Angles, coming

SJiape.

happier

Essex, Sussex, and

upon

founded

no

more

in Kent

settled themselves
fastened

Celts

of

years

many

now

the cradle

to become

compounded

writing

was

degenerate

was

be

might

its Earliest

in

English

eye

upon

Chronicle.
c

the groans
the

years

We

there

of the

571
read

and
of

(9/d

20

Wessex

the

Princes

Gloucester
who

their

bore

in mind,

English

name

into

South-

rather

arose

conquered by

shires

of Essex

wholly

the

much

Celts

Christian

the

to

conquest

scores

of Latin

which

have

been

with

the

us

greatest

i!
in

their
At

for

of

The

tear

the

of

any

the

exception

down

almost

made

there

brought

trodden
down-

between

was

the

and

Pagan
in

quest
con-

its train

other

Latin
year

of

the

Bible

or

the

Kentish

lands

scorned

since

ever

English

the

Seventh

of the

woes

in

the

language

in the

the

as

900),
'

Te

her

of

Hymn

seemed

Deum.'
handmaid

compiled

be

to

But
;

our

Homilies

tongue.
point

forth

the

traces

and

us

broken

(about

translated

own

setting

by

candle, altar, bishop,"c,

as

Church

such

Church

men

this

the

the

creed

new

employed by

in France

caricature

by

that

one

land

Somerset

words, such

popular speech ;

St. Eulalie

settled

in

the

difference

of

The

King's baptism.
the

use

mastered

came

the

lighten

wonderful

Sussex.

of

limits

(to

curious

with

kept

Angles.

the

did

is

scourge

Christianity,overspreading
Century,

first

settled

Saxons,

Scandinavian

the

upon

It

later, never

much

Danes, coming

of Mercia

afterwards

was

be

of the

treat

was

and

first Teutons

fact must

to

later)

it

the

West

Midland.

the

of

This

The

dialects.

Angles

Salop.
afterwards

come

Saxons, though

Western

been

Bedford

to

way

have

to

seem

we

that

their

winning

arms

when

of

the

they

English.

Middle

awa?

of

grammar

which, mangled

of centuries, may

better

opportunity
fathers,
foreemployed by our

halt, finding

no

as

it is

still be found.

by

the

wear

English in

its Earliest

Shape.

SUBSTANTIVES,
I.

BIVISION

CLASS
PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

Nom.

Sawel

Nom.

Sawla

Gen.

Sawle

Gen.

Sawla,

Bat.

Sawlum

Ace.

Sawla

Bat.
Ace.

1}

sawlena

Sawle

CLASS

III.
PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

Nom.

Duru

Nom.

Dura

Gen.

Dure

Gen.

Dura

Bat.

Dure

Bat.

Durum

Ace.

Dura

Ace.

Dura

(durena)

21

and

Old

22

Middle

English.

II.

DIVISION

CLASS
LAR

SINGU

Acc.

I.
PLURAL.

Ace.

Gen.

Horses

Gen.

Horsa

Dat.

Horse

Dat.

Horsum

CLASS

H.
PLURAL*

SINGULAR.

Gen.

Scipes

Gen.

Scipa

JDfltf.

Scipe

Da".

Scipum.

DIVISION

III.

24

Old

and

Middle

PRONOUNS.

English.

English

in

its

Earliest

Shape.

PLTTRAL.

SUBJUNCTIVE.
Present.

Perfect.

Sing.

healde

heolde

Plur.

healdon

heoldon

25

English.

Middle

and

Old

26

IMPERATIVE.

Gerund.
To

Sing.

heald

Plur.

healdaft

Active

Past

Participle.

gehealden

healdende

healdanne

VERB.

WEAK

THE

Participle.

(Infinitive,
liifian.)
INDICATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE.
Perfect.

Present.

Sing.

lunge

lufode

Plur.

lution

lufodon

IMPERATIVE.

Gerund.
To

lufigenne

Sing.

lufa

Plur.

lufiaS

Active

Participle.

lufigende

Past

Participle.

gelufod

in

English
tracing

In

depend
find

written

feel

may

of the
have

it

teaches
890

(and

not

belongs

to

the

are

thence
this

last

is.1

we

There

Mr.

by

of

the

Holy Rood,

late,perhaps about
modern

English

Diplomaticus.'
these

last that

1050.
Charters

I have
bear

in

Tale

evident

great Kingf

corrupted it),
the year

of

literature
Southern

the

the year

than

1066

for

of

Reader/

to

rather

'

quote here

of later

the

and

seem

in Kemble's

Old

Anglo-

further, the

are,

marks

and

Analecta

that

careful

us

mass

Apollonius

works

Wick-

carries
;

'Anglo-Saxon

printed

been

the

these

Care,

Pastoral

the

his

by

King^

later.

year

of

There

used

English

consult

Sweefc in his

was

Chronicle

the

Thorpe

the

is, moreover,

Legends

of

Mr.

English,

idioms

Saxon

also

may

English printed by
and

The

and

little before

their

we

come

English in

When

forms

Then

to

old forms

just as

of Old

bulk

have

we

tion,
Collec-

years

Southern

great landmark,

period

Saxonica,'

very
300

translated

were
more

the

to

more

Codex
none-

tion.
transcrip-

with
xx.
22, occurs
example ; in St. John
insujflavit
The
he
following.
Gospels of 1000 translate, Meow
pronoun
hi ; Wickliffe meagrely translates, he blew
ynne.
1

For

Kemble's

transcribers

century.

version

liffe's later

later

The

next

Gospels,which
and

with

in 1871

the

were

thereabouts.

form

Pope Gregory's

his

as

what

us

or

1000,

of

first time

the

Gothic

this

transcript,made

times.

Charters, in

some

translation

printed for
wrote

are

that

Eighth Century

in

Alfred's

different
to

sure

which

upon

common

pretty

There

Hengist.

books

at very

construction

any

we

we

that the

were

Shape.

history of English corruptions,we

the

remember

must

its Earliest

noon

Old

28
~No

of

old

the

hath

had

ow

umbria,

Book

of old both

in the

Puntiw.

Of

like the
form

; we

Banns

see

French

of

great

speaking

had

the

as

ou

rium

in

of

lost in

Deen

hcer ;

the

true

still

tea

England

sound

of

the

since
French

general rule, have


the
;

Goths
and

daur

wrote

been

in

sounded
latter

the

The

1525.

like the

much

we

to

pronounce

English

Pope's
e.

sounded

English

this

day

The

time.

Our

old

or

an

like

Irish

which

right sound

the

old

the

; the

way

ce

for the

show

hair

and

the

been

been

as

praitoriaimfor

for what

Ponthieu,

Bheims, Herbearde

Old

keep

and

feawe

pronounced
glaze

in

written

has

have

late

so

Our

and

Stou

was

new

ew

and

sceaive

for

gloesen and

and

wear

to

written

Herbert.

sounds

been

in

sounded

iur in Nbrth-

was

sounds

by Tyndale

to have

seem

in

and

father

Peitowe, Angeow, and

as

seems

iou, as

written

ea

eaw

gdnian.

is written

Poitou, Anjou,

English

our

The

French

was

.and

in

all

niwe.

old

was

write

now

is

ivound, two

eower

Chronicle

Saxon

abiding.

most

and

neowe

we

remnant

yawn

like

Stow

Southern

; what

your

vowel

sound

the

Our

words

much

father,plega

of the

wund, tu, our

as

same

sound

old

Southern
A

us.

in

reaper).

The

can.

way,

the

our

appear

he

as

much

Doomsday

should

in

lasted

sound

the

fathers

our

still found

the

to preserve

Italian

broad

this

ripere (now

man

broad

by

much

so

that

Palsgrave tells

as

pronunciation is

educated

as

the

1530,

to

clumsy attempt

Every

and

now;

sounds

remember

must

pronounced

do

play), and

(now

"We

English
"v
its vowel

changed

were

u,

down

England

Middle

done.

Italians

the

as

has

and

i, 0,

a, e,

has

language

English

as

and

ie also

must,

aw

the

has

French

the

Latin

was

written

pro?ioduru

and

noulit

written

Kent

to

Salop.

The

eel from

was

Dorset

to

What

soul.

Gothic

the

sound

on

imitation

English
writes
three

Old

hard

to

in

as

often

his

but

keep.

we

the

the

two

In

call

(our glee)for
followed

ideas
thus
so

stone

In

written

our

New

strewed

usual

sound,

beo

we)

we

sea

lusteth ; it

both

only

of which

the

and
gleoiv,

here

has
we

gin
have

different

two

spelling,of
not

in

Flemish

Alfred

weighs

like

heard

Brycge.

the

not

that

find not

1049,

express

stone, and

word

than

more

(stun).
Testament

of

sometimes

the

has

form

still often

sound

is written

more

throws

man

the

Chronicle

the

We

by varying
a

u,

the

old

We

sup,

often

likely pronounced

most

was

Bruges

him.

many
1

old

French

Devonshire.
we

forms, sip and

other

that

When

variations, listeth and

ful (foul) and filth.

The

know

(not

we

the

see

whether

or

we

(aetas).

we

pronounced

Alfred

bio

is

(aut), it

a,

the

see

we

be

the

Alfred

King

When

King

ildo

in

as

y,

two

with

present

town

and

Italian

lore; he has

and
for

to

same

sypan,

spelt oufter.

was

raon

has

birth

is the

Italian

the

like

lysft(Pastoral,391),

hine

gave

it

later

for a,

he

sounded

be

it should

broad

the

English

however, that

should

second

the

is,like

that
first,

rather

pavo

Augustinus.

whether

old

our

earliest

English forms, aftor,aufter,awfier


say

like the

for

Agustinus

Latin

the

of

from

pdiva (peacock),

into

came

never

ewl

for

It seems,

strawberie.1

and

streowberie

the

later,

(snbula)

or

sewhum

in

find

we

rather

owul

has

29

call awl

now

we

Dorset, and

gesdwon (vidimus), and


both

Shape.

sdwel were,

and

old ndiviht

Our

(ostium).

its Earliest

in

English

this

we

owe

strawed
to

still stands

Tyndale.

for what

is

usually

Old

30

Proper

sound, though
been

sounded

how

the

old ;

the

country,

in its first

sound

long

became
The

Scotch

the

old sound

the

old

There

by

ai

Baird

other

the

keeps
in

remains

the

in

old

South.
alive

show

to

The

Anglian

how

sound

true

of

Caistor.

English, shared

dialects,which

Teutonic

written

Greeme, keep

tendencies

marked

began

speech lang

ago

and

where
every-

now

common

pronounced.

once

two

are

of the

some

M'Lean
and

ea

still

years

lives in the East

ceaster

in

is

or

parts of

first

now

ham

once

where

Somerset,

hundred

surnames,

(barba) was

heard

in

is

the

was

Stanton

e,

though
syllable,

seven

of

stone

our

French

Langport,

Stainton.

that

shows

Aldgate

of what
us

in

never

Cowper

Stanton, in many

Yorkshire,

In
the

like

sounded

to be

before

old

changed

pronounced.

brings

the

it has

au.

sound

and

witness

stdn.

written

Use

old

the

was

Birmings
bears

has not

as

was

ou,

Birmingham

the

of

home

aid

that

it

wrote

French

the

anything else,keep

present German

like the

us

called

fathers

our

English.

the river Ouse

Thus,

old ow,

reminds

than

more

names,

of vowels.

sound

Middle

and

should

be

observed.
The
comes

before

Norse

that

the

same

th, s, or/.
other

our

The
or

second

t after n,

word, though
a

word.

Gaelic

Thus
Donuil

was

cast

of

I,r,

our

or

becomes

letter

by

the

German

once

anther

or

s,

Donald

and

toft,fif,

in
gos,

n.

usuallyto

French

n, if it

ontlier ; much

became

is,a
peculiarities

it sometimes

the

the

see

before

vowel

out

We

tonth, finf, gons,

way

lengthening the
d

liking to

first is,a

round

is inserted

habit

off the
in the

tyran becomes
;

the

Old

of

putting
end

middle

of

of

tyrant, the

English

betiveox

Old

32
honor

hence

know

come

that

are

usage

of

taken

In

and

scapan

that

either

might

the

from

often

of consonants

with

see

wice

and

wuce.

different

we

our

is

now

and

good,

metan

mark

that

for

of

meaning.

it

Deus

cock, and
in

no

word

and

way,

old

It

doubled, to

shades

the

lyhst,

side.
can

became

toll,cook

led

by

vowels

our

have

The

leoge.

(metiri)

metan

with

tool and

ic

side

different

Alfred

King

may

mentiri,we

accents:

our

confounded

is the

We

Person, \u

Person,

god (bonus)

thus

godly have

others.

for

Second

First

lost

goodly and
same

verb

flee,following the

or

verb

(fingere)run

We

be

not

unlucky

stunt, with

and

present

our

have

difference;

masons

(polluere)has dropped, but

longer distinguish between

fly

formerly both

smitan

sceapan

(occurrere).

with

frequent.

was

stint

the

from

we

this

changes

two

was

our

pattern

than

rather

do

to

work

of vowels

by

for

meaning

our

pity

scamped

week

our

remains.

smut

of

frozen,froren ;

common.

accounts

shades

had

have

who

fug ere
;

were

we

us

interchange

oldest

English.

was,

scant, with

pretty

still translate

This

of

from

The

our

meaning

the

may

came

Most

lose,lorn.

Middle

and

It

many

doubling the

letter o.1
still keep the

We

was

too

like

ira

and

both

substituting
for

stood
1

of proper

our

the

for

see

this
our

change makes
Blount

and

mark

now

is

an

have

we

blind, thinking it

Wrath

verb.
; we

cloth and

slightvowel
names

former

iracundus
o

(miscere),but

blendan

(excaecare) into

blendian

changed

old

stood
the

of

old

for

adjectiveby
Cldft

improvement.

clothes alike.
a

great difference in the

Blunt, Smythe

and

Smith.

gentUity
;

English in

with

the

began
well

had

have

We

at the

sounded

early,for

very

find

we

that

in

even

Charter

of that

replacesvjolde ;
land.
Ninety
he

word;

and

and

writes

The

He

the

answered

to

(our would)

written

for

Alfred,
hard

g in

and

man

the

unlike
the

middle

it with

the

at

Participleis by him
gedrifen.1He casts both

often
the

the

gear.

(annus)
ge

of

the

drifen for
of

out

word,

yera

The

cut

galagid.

of

clipped,as
and

is

Gothic

just as

English

Past

last word

beginning

geonga

the

ftegnode,gesaigd,

regn,

of the

led

writing ionga (young), not


in Gothic

222), wulde

are

right

compare

softens

sometimes

it

(rain),ftenode,gesced (said),

English
we

I.

for the

ren

of

hence

our

londe

distaste

all

spellingare

speakers ;

later, King

years

short,when

very

as

English tongue was


Aryan purity. In a Worcester

(Kemble,

monn

underled, instead

underlcegd.

803

year

old

year

shows

Germans,

the

from

far gone

This

wur]" (dignus) written

changes in pronouncing
brought about by laziness in the

of

of words.

end

The

very

33

wnr\e.

as

came

Shape.

loss,since Spenser'sday, in parting

sore

often

so

its Earliest

the

old

endlefta(eleventh),writing hundcelleftiogoftan
(Pastoral
the old sende turned
see
Care, 465). At page 307, we
into

begyrd,our
Wessex
of the

mon

at

old

ge is

century.
form

the

end

n,

ended,

is

becfo ge, the

in which

always

of

See

Mr.

shows

Sweet's
how

becomes
old

the

beginning to be lost. Instead


slovenlybeo ge (be ye) is coming

so
replaced by i, prefixedto Participles,

nothink
of

170, begyrde

at page

The

begirt.

Infinitive

The

tenth

(misit),and

sent

our

note, Pastoral

hard

word.
D

the

must

Care,
have

early as

489.

been

The

the
co

sounded

m-

Old

34

and

Middle

English.

of the

manuscripts

in ; it

prevailedin

most

age.

The

the

end

about

now

at

the

called

"We

it

The

Scotch
bom

both

blika
;

added

thus

shade

of

and

(phoca)

to

seolh ;

late

as

even

so

as

now

So

name.

in

Sometimes
both

The

letter

thus

we

and

each

list
we

find

we

have

boots, but

both

instead

employed

nistian

our

hearken,

Icelandic

nest, and

written

was

and

black

I is

the

Reformation:

heark
we

strong

strong, as

boren

the

1800,

Elphegus.

English verbs

waken;

from

tonic
Teu-

sounded

to

slacken,

and

seol

our

fine old sound.


in

bezt, in
in

Latin

it

down

derived

is
to

are

wliad

Sanscrit

the

and

begun
found

drillinga

between

hole

in his

oldest

form

and
very

th, the
Latin

nestlian

having

of

were

different

English
In

In

(dictum).

thrillingthe

body.
of the

The
Latin

sound

that

t, to slide into d

early.

for whither.

cwide

only civile, but


difference

in

tendency

have

our

been

Bnglish

this must

been

have

to

Danish

meaning.

There
answers

the

Old

in

used, each

became

the

(III.295),

pronounced

was

pronounce

blikna.

and

to roots

good

biddo, was

995

common

preferred

The

In

the

Monkbarns,

even

listen,wake

blacken

very

mauled

slake

to

and

has

often

was

became

must

(natus)

laziness

for

iElfeah

Irish

and

changed

of

sealgli.

letter

(habuit).

have

Laird

the

guttural,for

for

is

never

words.

though

South.

hcedde

(optimus)

will ; but

the

in ic

as

next

(Kemble's Charters, III. 256), licefcle

991

into

corrupted

betest

Verb,

disappear in

to

In the year
is

of the

of the

Gothic,

both

English,we
There

soul

of

sceS,which
satur, has

is
a

; and

wha]"
not

see

now

and

man

must

have

given

way

its Earliest

EnglisJi in
to

Since

seed.

burden,
"byrften
have
kept nearer

the
and

Shape.

Conquest, rother
murther

to

has

become

As

murder.

35

to

rudder,

eweepan,

right spelling in bequeath than

the

quoth. We talk of a settle ; but in Hardwick's


31) sett,sd"el, and
Gospels (St.Matt. xxv.
employed by three different writers between
1000, when
Englishing.

Saxon

in

our
Christianityenriched
foreignwords, as we see from
diacon
Charter of 831, ceghwile
shows
I. 292). King Alfred

how

early letters

words

and

short

one

arede

before

surprisedafter

this to

find

in

950

are

and

many

new

in

sentence

his

Pastoral

Care

the

Latin

through

came

We

there

and

Alfred's
the

sedle

jpassione
(Kemble,

twa

us

that

long

them

with

tongue

began to work a change in English.


only Sacliarias,but Zacharias
; the z
strangers to Pagan England: Bede
naturalised

we

eh

find

not

were

entire

had

most

likely

time.

We

not

are

King spellingEnglish

pohcha, pouch, (343) ; tiohchode (385), and


hliehclian,
laugh (249),though in all these the ch must
like

words

have

Italian way

the

showing

hard.

sounded

been

Lazarus

of

pronouncing z ; in the Rushis Englished by


10) in jolateas

Gospels (St. Lukex.


plo3tsa(piazza). Alfred

worth
on

Latin

cases

Genitive

Plural

national
of

the

many
on

and

v,
an

P aides

which

ending
has

in

"

remind

out
found

is
His
D

of

Ieremie

the

(441).

Englishman

of his

of the first instances

from
in

the

middle

Alfred's

spellingseems
2

has

his

this last word, here


an

One

as.

(306), he

also

(363)

driven

English word,

Jjivano,in Lebanon.

Paulus

(290),

would

particularabout

not

was

fia Farisseos

Nominative,

as

he talks of fturh

Sancte

15a Saducie

used

spelt Ladzarus,

was

of

phrase

something

Old

36
born
of

of

out

due

modern

our

time

for

ways,

spelling bogli (ramus),


not

burh

like

friend

is

we

have

feond.

forestaller,as

followed

boh

not

Rome)

at

Borgo

rather

The

old

He

has

it were,

him

rather

Century, especiallyin
(Pastoral, 81) ; burg,

Tenth

fiend, which

and

and

freond

the

(hence

English.

he

of the

later writers

than

Middle

and

later

form

written

were

luckily kept

in

common

in

was

also

in words

; and

Kent

and

Essex.

naulit

and

auht, hefon for heofon,apla for ceppel,ascian

for

The

axian.

form,

supplant

to

fond

of

time

doubling
the

he

(strewed)

and

gecneowon

couples

(S/c/.e (P.
He

close alliance

He

Southern

us

way

for

is not

very

England

Icet,and
that

word

have

we

for
it

he

the
as

early replaced
Northern

much

not

last
we

In

the

brians.
Northum-

of the

the end
form

new

and

171

Page

at

ung

fond

t, for
we

of

1205

for

he

see

word

Verbal

diphthongs,in
to

which

puts

let

(color,Page 133), showing

thousand

pronunciation of

our

years

now,

See page

1180.

until

is between

the

Mew

He

orchard, in Page 381

ing,

changed

spellit
1

old

like

od.

letters,in

imitated

for w,

there

the

28

Pages

written

rejoiceddown

writes

In

have

orcgeard,our

leornunge ;

Chaucer's

would

and

is

strewede

usually ortgeard.1

and

Nouns.

c, and

the
was

since

He

and

very

not

was

writes

making

for

this

He

word

was

; ed

general

(knew)

writers

Southern

puts h for

showing
reedinge

as

foot, doo, good%

later

au

noufter.

done

have

we

end,

writes

gecnewon

I; the

329)

often

the

writes

streowode

and

just as

where

the

Alfred

and

puts

in

was

ou

u,

o,

King

103

and

new

our

86

we

of my

if

should
Book.

we

say

were

to

7wo-y.

this
nounce
pro-

Our

in

English
is

true

the

to

like Alfred's

more

many

in

have

in

when

it follows

as

news

as

r,

Conquest,

Rush

written

crumbling

Britain.1

Sometimes

meaning

take

fortress.

than

5) purple

1000

land,

our

1877

of

fathers

thus

by ceastra,

are
we

be

to

was

word

first

began

applied usually

sometimes

say

castellumy

castel, a

ideas

Erench

to

grip upon

Latin

the

land

our

iron

laid her

was

Latin

The

purpur.

Gospels

later,when

iu
We

our

xix.

time

the

early as

of

shadows
fore-

example

village, is Englished by

root

Theodoras,

for

So

Iuliuses

India,

cliesters still left in

in the

fiftyyears

livingbefore

but

for

Gospels

we

unless

sound,

second

The

of yore

Rome

how

witness

or

how

bnt

noos;

Theodor

Southern

in the

casters

know

rue.

reiv,

crocuses.

the

of

is translated

castella

to

ew

Gospels (St. John

worth

instead

which

and

crisises

our

bear

the

Indie

find

we

'

the

was

Alfred,

genitive of Julius, and


(Thorpe's Analecta,' 43-51).

of the

if it

and

blew

the

for

it is

than

little later than

Norman

or

We

(confidence)

general faithfullykept

In writers
the

sound

day

our

37

(Pastoral,242)

trua

treowe

common

more

Shape.

Earliest

its

Teutonic

more

colic, in

not

cup,

to

the

Eucharist.
Latin

the

was

Christendom

nations.

We

to about

the

the

Irish
Latin

The

the

it

year

sog

guess

sound

alive

how

400, when

garth,and
e

many

in

our

was

of

language

early gained

can

Tadcaster, and

old castra

official

footing among

it

was

we

lukerna

rendered

another

mouths.

religionin

town

Western

foreign

pronounced
saherdos

see

by

by
with

the

the

imitated

Gothic

the

same

down

Gothic

by

luJcam.

ai, as

ending,keeps

Old

3"
taitrarkes.
in

The

Ides.

hundred

twelve

in

sprung

thus

early days
the

from

came

of Latin

strangest compounds

the

of

beast

earth-shaking
this

and

1230.

When

we

get

at

least

hint

changed

in

us

for

We

they
have

English

and

like

the

already

bestowed

in every
been

they

the

;
one

the
of

the

had

as

um

of

our

old

first inflection

of

cases

these

the

Dative

to

and

in

Norman

Law

the

English
heed

the
to be

Latin,

the

which

Oxus.

the

flections
in-

King

corrupted

to have

In

in

use.

Plural, which
seems

tells

foemne, found

their nouns,

began

and

wers

the

from

be mauled.

pawar

afterwards

from

Declensions,

to

sound

careful

brought

how

us

been

the

seen

upon

first shows

South

down

lasted

pronounced,

borrowed

always

not

huge

elejp-has
;

Grimm's

temper

great

of the

before

servitium.

words

have

which
Alfred

in the

was

the

thing
some-

throws

sounded

Latin

is

Englished

by Englishmen

versus

plainly that
that

word

not
Continent, for fersand serfis,

early English writings,were


and

is the

name

been

pavo

the

itself

sometimes

yip,which

Latin

provinces

some

written

serwis, was

Conquest

the

to the way

as

the

on

called

have

of the

noontide

land, the
have

must

see

we

sun

English

Rhine

forefathers

our

English

pronunciation. Thus,

of the

colonies

last

One

claustrum.

the

the

for

clysing,which

and

seeks

kind.

same

old Latin

light upon
Roman

that

flower

sol-sece,the

words

enclose,must

noun

foreign dausus,

and

English verbs

new

beclysan,our
the

Latin

ground

formed

even

from

of

scores

their

kept

We

years.

Latin

the

brought

have

itself felt

made

soon

by Kalends, Nones,

computed

was

which

into vogue,

English.

of Latin

Churchmen

The

from

influence

Time

England.

Middle

and

the

in

appears

alwaysPastoral

Old

4Q

(here), and
225) quotes
the

is

here

Old

formed
like

'

is

should

we

add

gionga, thou
place

Our

it

'

is

on

one

phrases,

final

his

31).

lieo is
.

this

until

days

hence
the

an

ieldran

ure

we

say,

Substantive

in Latin.

gelica nis

an

'

There

(Thorpe's
by on ]"am

or

un

1290.

Our
of

deep might

stand

lytel;
In

last word.

substitution

time.

former

In the Pastoral, p. 399, Lot

curious

our

In

talk, like

the loose is foreshadowed

to the
un

old

bedridden.

in

lufan;
Hence

to

Substantive, as

became

The
it does

New.

Adjective,as

the

xxiii.

young

of the

bedrida

the

lyteleburg

an

as

convenient

superiors.' Thus

is but

drygean (St.Luke
her

the

and

from

'Analecta,'34).

says,

Godes

such

many

find

dropped.

God.'

to

elders, forefathers

our

betters,' your
his

and

it very

used

'

is not

love

middle

85), we

p.

for

(be

in JElfric's

been

read

we

'

traitor

terseness.

the

Again,

old has

'for

say,

often

(Pastoral, 5),

goodswas

book

I find

of the

Adjective was

your

long.

Greeks,

'

p. 26.

here

same

now

this work

In

geara

King's

lasted

minum

fionc, 'thanks

parenthesis in

Pastoral,

the

of

'the

comes

the

like

nigon

should

we

which

Gode

'

p. 57

In

(III.

on

English

upon

phrase

comes

in the

apostolwees

se

wurde

(Sweet's Anglo-Saxon Reader,'

Homilies

been

Matzner

name.

]"inum,\u

remarked

the

which

have

repeated.

in

seen

lie should

proper

eftle

on

already

sentence

wees

English.

(there);

second

eftle is not

to) God,'
of

ic

have

This

Middle

Eadwines

after the

repeated
here

and

one

In

p. 385

days,

our

"u

comes

did

not

this

way

well-known
an

in

"

the

old
does

easy

Adjective for
for the Latin

the

take

stantive.
Sub-

mare,

as

know

We
in Mr.

god

xxiii.

lean.'

thing
Some-

same,

be

may

as

rihhvis.

and

sometimes
the

that

seen

is described

Joseph

where

50,

41

Adjectives,as

'

We

of the

of

Tennyson's a grey old wolf and a


like this, though not
exactly the

iver

way

Shape.

poeticconstruction

our

in St. Luke

seen

its Earliest

in

EnglisJi

would

Latin

the

In

bear.

not

for

scipherigeis put

nof"

980,

year

English Adjective clippedin

an

see

Chronicle

the

'

northern

army.'
Now
and

then

and

might

of

say

We

often

the

old

compound

good, as

differingfrom
'a

Fifteenth

dn-edge and

both

old

the

to

Adjective,as

an

as

Adjective

an

Substantive

barefoot;
We

Century.

dn-eged, one-eyed.

with

Adjective,as

an

blodread, 'blood- red.'

Our

Saxon

down

lasted

barehead

of

compounded

is used

Substantive

word

Chronicle,
of

deal

good

We

virtuous.

'

bona

the
'

while

good

Horace's

like

work,'

sense

might justify,from

phrases

our

in

used

is sometimes

know,

we

and

ago

homi-

pars

num.

Our
from

poets keep

times

earliest

the

Charters, IV. 292,


One
the

un,

of
so

often

mig'hty,and
words
land.
wrote

opposes

We
of

thus

losses

is the

It

others.

also

are

talk

once

of

(he

was

Kemble's

almost

total

disuse

also

in

prefixed to

rejoice to

more

that

un-sainting.
hath

not)

to

that

see

coming

of

un-good, unstantives
Subsuch

to life in

un-churching,just

un-sliriningand

wiliabands

in

find

we

gold mentioned.

un-might, and

unwisdom

as

English epithets,dating

prefixed to Adjectives,as

many

as

red

heaviest

our

Old

alive

as

The

habands.

our

Burnet
Gothic
The

Old

42
freer

that

play

is

and

Middle

given

to this

the better will it be for


as

non

prefixwhere

insead
like

Of

of

all

of

speech

for in its varied


We

eld.

Aryan

keep

such

change,

worthy

Gerund

much

was

they

mel

du

Participles,he
'

is found
ondredon
'

in

Greek

as

Latin.

or

the

unbecoming.'

same

as,

way,

The

also,

hmfde
The
'

allowed

been

se

Future

they are

Our

'

to

farenne,

like the Gothic

ing,'
ask-

they dreaded

The

hine

heard

with

us,

speaking,'
had

often

is not

the

prefix un,

'

as

dying.'
the

used
It has

unbelieving,'
used

Participlewas
shall

expressed by
still say,

'

and

another

will, but
word, and

Ic

mot, \u most, expressed permission, and

licet,not

in the

awyrgda (the accursed).


was

Present

used

him
found

Participleis often

livingand
Past

him

geworlitne,'he

Present

the
to

'

the

seldom

of

idiom

by

very

I do
The

oftener

go.'

eat,'

hcebbe, I have

curious
'

'

raidan.

wairon

to

see,'

to

g"fo

feran,is

57).

enough

Substantive, as

always
'

So

He

common

he

dicere
to

'

English, as, geendude bebeodende,

dcsigende.

wrought,'

'

hoary

but little

with

let,' fair

cious,
pre-

of

come,'

am

commanding,'

Old

in

thing
some-

most

traces

to drincenne

me

i.

ceased

it burnt.'

saw

Mcelis

(St. Luke

bairan

most

idioms

read,'

Jiabeo

use

letting
sub-

as

come,' 'enough

to

to

used, as, ic

go.'

to

were

find

slay,''seek
to

to

bad

as

is the

'

going

shame

prefix wan,

Verb

the

seeking,' I

am

prefix,

wan-ton.

we

this house

is

old

old verbal

many

drink,' like Cicero's

to
1

'he

forms

to

bear,''

to

wit,'

to

you

'

as

gone,''he thought
'

this is

only in

lives

parts

our

will do

un

It is

tongue.

our

Teutonic

old

good

underletting. The

now

un,

English.

in

was
ojjortet,

we

our

sense

of must,

the

idea.

The

was

expressingneed

Second

Person

of the

its Earliest

English in

Future

the

here

will
idea

an

keeps
has

mild

one

of

as

be

to

Imperative ;

is followed

vnU

by

without

swifter

and

]"is
folc wix\

On

dropped

before

mourns

ftcet Adam

Satan

this

'

wyle,

further.'

(wax)

Exodus

is

shall

will

and

waxeth

folk

times
some-

infinitive; Oadmon's

second

is true

This
from

hand, the

other

the

Present, and

in the

quotes

and

Present

the

If

(oportet).

infinitive.

an

Matzner

conciseness.

English

in

stands

often

there
yoit will go

senses,

both

presented

tense, the Verb

Future

old

its

dagas

mas

sometimes

We

Commandment.

\u wircst,in the Fourth


use

43

replaced the Imperative, as,

sometimes

Present

Shape.

sceal

on

wesan

and

wynne

we

\olien.
shoxild is

The

found

to be

the

said that
'

say

King

The

fathers

died.'

Hence

wife
come

shows
.

The

for deoent, not

kept

ye
not

in

shall

the

hi

old.

In

sladi

gaggan?'
will

instead

of

that

in

bidding prayer

before
"c.

St. John
the
this

between

old

the

King

of shall

University sermons
;

too,

so

'

Greek

Thou

and

shall

'

?)

our

(Pastoral

meaning

vii. 35, the Gothic

go

but

clearlystands

shalt
will

has, wliadre
'

English has, hivyderwyle


man

came

shall
;

",

keep, %a reaferas

this passage
The

confusion

who

gehieran,"c.

sceoldon

sceoldon

still

we

phrase

'

sceal

they

simply

our

is

by

'

we

that

debeo

idiom,

'

comes

for debuerunt.

The

very

mellei.

Latin

idiom

ac

used

for all mankind,'

pray

steal.'

(whither

Care, 343).

the
the

us

ge"enceaft,

is

is further

should

Orpheus

acwelan

Thomas,'

but

up

translated

Alfred

tale about

sceolde

should

up.'

Alfred's

old

curious

most

harper's wife

the

that

who

in

in

employed

is
sa

tiesfaran?1

word

here

is

Old

44
is

There
the

North,

Care,

451

onust

this

all

are

idiom

hwcet

the

she

as

been

States,

are

famous

'

Even

will

I will

Pastoral

found

beon

be

in the

I heard

old

an

before

stood

work
of this

sentences

remarked

these

that

Leeds

say at the

woman

That

'

portrait:

what

toeorca

in

will be

thinking.'
the

Conquest,

tvill ;

curious

and

and

drowned,

England, by

anomaly, by
of

some

the

which

the

knows

shall

man

promise

is to

be

the latter. As
for the
control

used

me.'

save

the

bare

over

others,

shall ; he

I
as

Herodotus,

'

if used

has

with

verb

as

we

the

grave
control

absolute

therefore

reason

complete
the

employs

pressed
ex-

use

now

has

man

such

no

like.

sometimes
We

to

the will,expressing earnest


the

therefore

known,

will, to express the bare Future.


the other hand,
I shall like
on
felt that

is to be

employs

the

will.1

is well

as

must,

or

shall, should

Future, perhaps

general rule, and

he
lighterthou tvilt,

he

command,
to

intention

shalt,

anomaly is,that

himself, and

weighty

thou

the

Sketch-book/

earnest

fairlywell

answers

aforesaid

and

Irish

fate, duty, or

regards

over

'

unless

expressed ;

unless

shall

in his

seen

be

never

be used

never

be

may

American

Everyone

no

has

Future

least in Southern
most

bare

Thackeray, after travellingin Ireland,confused


should

be

thoroughly puzzled.

verbs, as

two

heard

it is to be

Scotch, Irish, Welsh,

the

will, still often

quotes other

expressed,at

shall,thou wilt,he

of
may

Norman

the

English.

ftcet nu

Bcethius

Shakespeare, a'm
always

which

Matzner

questions.

Since

idiom

wile

be

Exhibition,

Middle

curious

an

from

kind

and

'

say

do

I will

it:' in the

assurance,

0eAw, like

uses

our

gladly do it,'but
last instance

would

be

it is

pleonasm

Let

that

hope

ns

its Earliest

in

English

always cleave
were,' instead of

shall

we

Subjunctive form, as it
The
old Imperative ivces
be.'
'

have

We
in

been

framing

withstand

doth

it is found

to

the

]m n"fre

ma'

expressed of
do

was

also

to

save

the

planting

as

of
repetition

assembly,

an

Voice

in such

him,'

and

Old

true

later

the

'

comes

before

Verb

(mihi videtur),

which

(putare). We
written

We

should
in

the

the

see

in
Verb, especially

tidfara?
The

Hence

'

me.'

has

right

comes

the

'

disgusting what
say ?
to belong here.
seems

one

bethought
fire,'is

Matzner

our

no

"

it

thinks

me

with

The

think

Germans,

verbs

two

thou

of

two, if the second

the

dost

is
do

to

thenlc.

way,

later

Middle

Impersonal

This

the

pronoun

the

he

some

nothing

question.

ortgeard

precious, since

confound

not

speaks of

It rained

question.

in

verb

otherwise,

of

want

have

We

English,have kept

sometimes

the

is very

that

one

the

than

fear

was

The

deft his

hepohtehine,

English phrase.

left, and

wiser

synga

his orchard.'

doth

supply

he

do

said

turn

Alfred

ceorl

se

to

phrases as

Verbs

were

sua

the churl

as

attempt

an

see

'

ne

thou

not

verb

but

Christ

and
transitively

former

he

emphatic

\u oncyrre.
)"u,\oe,t

both

employed,

(Pastoral,293),
We

do

ne

like

modern

Our

Do

11).

always

phrase

seems

writings.

viii.

(St. John
old

might
found

has

'

woman

ancient

it

as

prefixedto the Imperative.


in adultery, Do
taken
gd, and

sometimes

was

Alfred's

King

in

withstands)

he

(not

"

'

do

English speech.

our

to the

nowhere

verb

the

useful

how

seen

(esto) is

45

(waes hal).

in wassail

except

now,

Shape.

cast

off after the

quotes

hear

distinct.

Eart

? what

latest

nu

sayst ?

ments,
improve-

Old

.46

Nominative

The

like do
in the

old

We
St.

John

iv.

old

an

"We

verbs

Ic him

\onne

the

seen

In

verb

rather

is

often

after sceal (I shall

the

of

later,

dropped

after

him)

This

that

in

is most

always

the

what

is

These

last

Infinitive

sentence.

used

the

with

fixed,
pre-

word, like

one

dependent

might,

may,

'hear

syprecayi?

with

sceolde

should
"

rightfulSubjunctive.

comes

usually expressed by

the
very

Now

and

Infinitive,where

usual.
I

used

for the

would

Matzner

vellem.

\wt

Infinitive, with

scolde

were

Latin

shorter

is

lame.

gone

fieri;

motion

bridegroom

the

have

The

of

381,

Subjunctive

wolde

verbs

p.

find

we

We

tences
sen-

meaning.

same

Pastoral,

followed

the

of

loqueretur.

then
the

the

as

of

sense

upon

that

often

the

early encroaching
the

In

Latin

This

werig gegdn

ivces

common

our

see

written

will.

ive

in

Verb,

idiom.

very

si

taken

must.

or

the

sometimes

lie

see

Infinitive

shall

after

where

go

horse

we

before

he wille.

to take

was

The

two

6,

having

become

is

of

English.

dropped

lean,

swd

hyege

Middle

is

ivhat

speak

motion

and

quotes

ptative,like

from

Boethius

ic

he sceamode.

if could

always

construction
ic werode

be

might

here

the

be

of

rid

got

used

in

; as,

first clause

English, and
ahte

would

ic

be

geweald,
in

Latin,

jpotestatemhaoerem.
The

Subjunctive usually,but
followed

The

(were

Latin
it not

nisi

now

and

that, ere, though, when,


was

sometimes

that), followed

by

then
and

dicative,
In-

if.

Englished by
the

the

n"re

Subjunctive.

]"oet

Old

48
found

and
of

in the Bible

of adorn, but

sense

Middle

English.

Tyndale'stime except in
it crops

1590

about

the French

in

up

the

shape

(toweary), and is seen in Shakespeare. What in


the English of 1000 was
ndgeteorige(St. Luke xviii. 1)
So frician (saltare)
is in Tyndale not to he wery.
seems
modern
to be the parent of our
freak.
of tire

In

of

days,we

our

sentence

this is

'

put

'

speak shortly in the


abridged form of our

to

an

which,
hrafcost is to civeftenne,
in p. 110
We
as

(Sweet's

well

as

'he

and

then, did

sat

feminine

in St. Mark

Gothic

ist.

Iesus

for the Gothic


'

Infinitive,
as
sentence,

'

as

xxvii. 6, nis
ni

omit

'

it is

hyt
'

in
In

nd

allowed

Pastoral, 381,

we

oldest

Thus

replaces the

'

stands

eom

before

St. Matt.

for

wees,1
the

an

concessive

In

'

see

older

the

thic
Go-

sometimes

but

rod

masculine

it often goes

beboden

swa

the

subject.

substituted

dlyfedis

'thy

for any

before
or
good to praise,1
wonder
no
if I fear.9

dydon

the

in

xviii. 5 ic hit
This

he.

am

in

often hear

from

dates
stand

Thus

now

idiom

The

Hcelend

se

slsuld ist,' it is not

it, as

ordered.1

it is

woes

; we

indefinite

an

St. John

In

im, I

ih

for

sins

lie is used,

verb.

govern

Pilate.'

object,or
x.
47, hit

or

to

they comfort me
hit in English may

The

catalogueof

Sometimes

staff

thy

times.

substantive,

fathers'

').

xxvii. 19 lie so3t %a Pilatus

St. Matt,
say

Reader

to Pronouns.

come

now

'

in

comes

middle

acted

first

we

as

was

glimpse

he did it,'Scef bift


that
then
emphatic 'it was
%onne fiaitmon
ftonne,"c. Sometimes, as we have
gehiere,
be followed
by a
just seen, ftce^ replaces hit, and may
%a %a fte ne
Plural, as in the Pastoral, 409, ftcet sindan

of

our

beoft
wws

besmitene,

'

these

god cyning,like

they

are

our

'

that

that be
is

not

good

defiled ;

fellow/

'

\oet

Shape.

its Earliest

in

English

49

as
expressed of old as much
when
they revile you.'
ivyriafi
eow,
; as \onne hicj
sometimes
Personal
Pronouns
reflexives,as I lay
are
sittafteow
down
385). They are sometimes
(Pastoral,
;

Indefinite

was

agency

'

now

me

added

even

no

such

like.
in

seen

the Latin

like

ondred

Pilatus

reflexive

by

Substantive

Pronoun

itself.

8).
sik,

had
dgenes sylfes,'
'

back

upon

the Irish

power
the

always

been

used,
old

are

being employed

stands
sylfsometimes
quotes hcefdongeweald

The

for Matzner

has

Indeed, there

sylf dwrdt.

hym

Nominative

look

xix.

Gothic

reflexive

the

first

are

(St. John

him

he

of this Dative

instances

we

I repent me,

me,

gagg,

se.

strange Dative

The
as

like I shame

has

go

get you gone,*and

our

unluckilywithout

is

English

comes

'

sibbe,

Gothic

the

where

'

Hence

Phrases

texts

34),

v.

Pronoun.

with

verb, as gd tie on

intransitive

an

peace' (St. Mark

in

to

as

'

their

over

aforesaid

person.'

own

Dative

as
a

heora

When

we
reflexive,

see

right in saying meself,not myself; the


is the
old Dative
former
me
sylf,brought to Erin by
In
St. Mark
ix. 2, sylfe
Strongbow's men-at-arms.
ainans ; laidde hi sylfeon
stands for the Gothic
sundron,
he led them
apart.'
by themselves

that

are

Before
to

refrain

would

se

and
The

from

the

the

Latin

had

subject,it

next

how

pointing out

be avoided

now

to

enteringon

much

is

bad

impossible
grammar

ing
English anything answer-

we

distinction

between

and

suns

illius,

ilium.
Possessive

substantive,as

is often

Pronoun

eall ftaitte his

(Pastoral,333).

ne

It is sometimes
"

used

without

sie,'all that

is not

tacked

to

on

any

his,'
Sub-

Old

50

Middle

and

stantive, for Matzner

still

In

the

'that

Coesar

to

Redeemer

se

Aliesend,

ure

of ours.'

known

was

Chronicle,The

find

we

high

express

the

to

What

English

as

Caser.

it is with

On

send

read

of

before

word,

Participles,
just

as

tlie chosen

of the Almighty.

the

in

Conquest,
heart,in

at

Herode

we

it

phrases
If

hand.

cyning,

using London

now

our

omitted, just as

now

Norman

and

munt

at

is

earth, in bed,

on

Sinai

astonished

with

coupled

hand, the Article

omitted

like

is

Adjectives;

other

the

was

Article

Definite

The
as

(Anak's

cynryn

The

Duke,

Pastoral, 301,

called

Romans

TJie

Macnab,

the

Article

Definite

great Redeemer,'

our

se

the

use

TJw

respect, as
Charter.

his

quotes, Enac

xiii. 29.

kin), Numbers
We

English.

we

not

are

town, King Herod,

Twelfth Night.
seo, which

The

Article, sometimes
comes

In

she.

our

qa]"is used where


se

but

23, we

see

in Gothic

England
ftcem

Se,

on

by itself,like

should

now

30)

here

say
se

quoth she.

they apply it to
\ysse byrig

all

and
.

on

(St.Mark
until

ix.

about

16),

1200.

did
We

not

Hence
vi.

24, si

Andswarude
ille.

still all the


in that there

vulgar,as

genders.

nite
Defi-

the Latin

translates

of the

mouths

heo.

of St. Mark

version

them, representingthe Latin

The

which

we

of ista in the

woman

on

Gothic

the

Feminine

has
Singular Feminine, ])o?re,

Dative

The

force

stands

(St.Matt.xxi.

him

for the

usually stands

In

St. Matt.

x.

\oere.
illis,
though found
make

much

way

in

find, however, ahafen

(Pastoral,p. 371).
seo,

have

\oet,
been

are

used

old
later

Demonstrative
as

Definite

Pronouns,
Articles.

In

English in
St.

Luke

28

x.

is translated

diebus
the

English

South

and

Yorkshire,

the

Gothic

in

Our

days.'

'

illis

by

in

right old

those

that

and

classes

the

corrupt

an

in

]"aim dagam,

to

the
way

from

came

English

of in written

heard

never

see

Latin

lower

our

we

Hieremias,

ivces

i. 39, the

Luke

dagum;

was

was

kindred

Gothic

form

English
hyrg, 'go

"jeonre

become

old

such,

came

and

has been

used

foreshadowed

been
%is

Isaiah

in

the

fast.'

than

Alfred's

xxvii.

One

In

by

not

sivaleilc,
ic

ftam

ftes,be
became

monstrati
De-

of iste in the

is
ftyllic

Alfred
chosen

is
that

have

to

seems

opposed

translating
fast,

but

Gospels,fifty
years later
translated by 6a ilco (St. Matt.

the Lindisfarne

time,

is

eos

10).
old

English

speciallymarked,
about

890

as

have

'I

translated

sense

This

Pastoral, 315, where

lviii. 5, 6

this

in the

1220.

early

so

Alfred's

after

is

tkilh afterwards

since

did not

the Gothic

where

aforesaid

ever

to

yonder.

The

West

gong

word

This

ix. 9, hwGet

in St. Luke

; as

and

36), our

fiilc is used

or
ftylic

gehyre?

South

xxvi.

find its

we

Pastoral, 443,

yonder burgh.'

to

geond (St. Matt.


The

Alfred's

in

iste,and

for

English until 300 years


Rushworth
Gospels illuc is

the

In

jains

in

common

day.

to

ftcet

\ata taivei,where

1250.

There

%ih

ns

51

Pastoral, 48,

the

Irish) still hold

the

in them

say,

until

by
%am

on

(as also
'

and

St.

In

Jeremiah.'

was

to

Shape.

Gothic

the
In

do.

known

still well

idiom

find

we

this

has

Tyndale

its Earliest

it in

our

since

day.

of

use

In

the

Pronoun
have

mistakes

some

their midst
s

is

should
been

be

made

thoroughly good

in medio

idiom, for

by

becomes

in

becomes

the

Latin

Article,

but

Cadmon

the

sole

one

The

the

as

Feminine

Gothic

hwait

ist ?

these

are

takes

news

things ?

The

Jnnj and

hu, still known

of

form

English

corrupted
to

upon

Mr.

King

9)

which

use

earlier

blunderers

Wicklifle

for his

as

the

shows

This

why

English,p. 48,
in

this

matter

comes

but

and

to

news

had

be

forms,

two

how.
in

in

down

truth

his

our

most

now

down

day

the

pretty sharply

does

authority. So late as 1792,


should now
with your sight might be written ; we
you.'
than

sometimes

niives ? what

this

he

fta ]"i?ig
? what

hwcet

that

25)

'

of all lasted

sense

to

becomes

xii.

what

hwait

us

selfe

that does.

(St. John

qualis, though

earliest

the

sometimes

(hwa-lic,hivylc)is

Alfred

Hall, in Modern

us

Latin
;

of

case

to

kindred

in its

1400.

refers

fancy,imagine

Instrumental

the

vi.

clever,

self-same.'

the

he ?

ys

we

fiat

don

(in Latin, quis est ?)

(St.John

men,

that

Plural, as hwait synd

Plural.

The

'

Singular after it,as

Genitive
Most

'

quotes from

was

same

use

hwait

is,in

Definite

Substantives, just as

whas

go before

may

This

Self follows

est.

what,
Interrogative,

and

he

'

say,

still say

We

plus,

eo

iveorfte ]"cet,
fyc, and

poor

now

we

expanded English

the

Englished

the is not

sapientialventum

Neuter

terse

Matzner

]"cessnottor

hear
eo

Masculine

plus

quo

in which

case

sentence

(Pastoral, 327).
The

phrase

Demonstrative.

Article,

Definite

is

2)

harder, the stronger they beat.'

still sometimes

that,' "c.

xviii.

'it
)nj heardra, \e sivtyorbedtaft,

hv6

English

day, the

our

(St.Matt,

eorum

well-known

The

English.

midlen.1

hyra

on

Middle

and

Old

'I

'

say

not
"was
'

higher
delighted

go

the

sight of

in

English
of

sense

he
The

hwelc

wundor

like

change

took

In

St. Luke

x.

later.

Tyndale

where

by

There

was

who.

uses

old

an

formed

were

22, hwylc

that

we

for

put wliat wonder

centuries

some

early

say, which

of them

somhwylc (aliquis)
;

somewhat, somewhere,

whas,

followed

very

was

we

of

for the Gothic

is used

It

53

qualis;

German

in

place

Shape.

npon

? where

Genitive, as

Partitive

this

encroaching

quis was

writes

its Earliest

of

in imitation

and

others,

many

in later years.
is sometimes

There
in
unto
see

'

you

This

in St. Luke

907,

the

'

our

has

There

commonly

been

wonderful

whence

\d

quis est qui,"c.


The
force ;

the

truth

(quod
saw.'

later

that

man

ad hoc

Charters,
cunque)

I.

was

hwa

spectat),and
man

The

in Gothic

hwa

as, had

We

is.
is

We

as.

the
'

such

English

siva

Latin

"Se ?

se

as
'
a

as

hwcet

]"ataivhah\ei (St. John

Relative
in

means

'

say

'

man

in

see

The

also

still say

poor

tecedent's
an-

(idquod),

(quicunque)

siva

sue,

of old

were

\e.

thine

English

man

in the

since 1100

according to the
]"cet,

swet,our

who, such

296).

for

gerefa.

Bapum

on

indeclinable

in

swa

find suite

We

Chronicle

These

taJce that

? becomes

hoary

gelic

Substantive

the

change

se, seo,

old indeclinable
the

In

'!

beo

gefylled\cetgecweclenivces

wees

our

comes

after

of Relatives.

expressed by
ii. 9

We

I saw.'

man

gender, or by
St. Matt.

Relative

gefor JSlfred,wees

construction

English

hit
ictycet

wene

I release

early days.

from

Conquest.

the
.

Hence

the

her

read

we

of

before

from

dates

18, hwam

tions
construc-

will ye that

down

comes

xiii.

omission

The

; as, 'Whom

sentences

our

interlacingof

curious

to
man

this
as

'

(Kemble's
(quod-

swa
xv.

7).

Old

54
The

Indefinite
stand

might

worda; here
orders

the

xvi. 16

xviii.

been

is found

an

also

so

'

an

where
lytel,

we

lower

times.'

many
other.

replaced by

Our

only.

hund

an

few, dnefedwa

means

say,

ains, unus),

hundred,

as,

28);
and

this idiom

Gothic

(the

an

plural,and

dne is

(alius)has

English.

Numerals,

Matt,

imitate

other

Article

before

(St.

penega

Middle-

and

St. John

In

now

Sum

little

'a

say

while.'
An

is

Latin

and

unus

Horace

17).
stands

for

use

of

than

in the

translated

itself

there

replaced by

the

I have

man.

there

is

him)

comes

of

from
the

explanation

always
ainamma
one

first

careful

The
ancilla

oldest
dixit

seen

with

v.

17).

me,

objection to, smacks

North
ait is

unus

had
a
more

the
us

phrase
of

English

idioms

dnum

The

that

Manzoni

for

an

nearly

Gothic

in

dwge, it happened

Indefinite

no

lators
English trans-

look

North.

anne

(one asked

one

Old

39,

(one), since

an

should

we

as

xviii.

English

our

; it is to

on

New

in

Latin
ad

16,

taken

this free

the

St. John

In

that

that

unus

appeared

day (St.Luke

xix.

explain this

abroad

of this idiom.

is

in

Southern

in
to

the French

Latin

dage

But

1).

common

cwceft.

mann

notion

wrong

be

unus

Gospels by an cueft ; this


English ears in the South, and is

becomes

been

the

Northern

an

ainana

more

f orgy fan

where
may

xi.

the

(St.Lukexxiii.

sense

St. Matthew

jarred on

Gothic

latter

(St.Luke

far
In

in all the

rather

this

was

man'

one

him

sceolde

prosilit
unus,

-cnihta

South.

idiom

to them

In

homing

by

an

ains,as he

cerebrosus

guidam.

his

cwo3]"an

deliver

has

standing by itself,like

Gothic

the

he should

'

cenne,

used

sometimes

Article;

St. Jerome
than

of

had

una

no

Cicero,

Old

56

"

commonly
as

We
our

tell

into

xiii. 29) ; the

Neuter

is

in

'

dependent quid,and

the
is

old

another

yet

this,what

with that.

for either

quidam

latter

the

to

such

such

and
of

us

like

'

Few

phrase

Nominative
we

sum

\ing.
(man),'

prosit unusquisque

dnra

gehwylc opron.
Our

first is

Pastoral, 121,
Gothic

the
in

our

we

find

which
the

day

the

see

is rather

the

alteri is

of

it is.' There

some,

might

stand

What

form

of old

'

years,'

ten

some

Conquest.

the

Here

as

In the

by

'

is the

singular;
by framige

formation

in the

fyrmest beon,

]"dforman twd,
writes

versions

is

Sheridan

of the

cerest ; in ^lfric's

late,this becomes

in

Analecta,'113),

he wills

Cooper

various

each

translated

was

it

20, aliquid is

Accusative

corrupt

the old

translated

to

answer

with

other.'

other

first two,

first.

jprimum

kingdom
In

word

frumist.

the two

wrote

we

insist

in what

before

Colloquy (Thorpe's

that

standing

is the real construction


each

as

as

xx.

phrases
from

To

usually confine

now

we

date

and
singular,

in ^lfric's

see

hate

they

our

sum,

The

what

know

what

left ;

St. Matt.

In

sense.

Englished by

word

'

bad

as

some

if it must

as

I tell
you

'

aliquis;

or

is

speakers ; hence

say,

The

Pronoun

giban (St. John

wha

of this word

use

Indefinite

just written

what

man,

whoso.

onr

swa,

relic of old idioms,

aforesaid

or

Latin, aliquid.

Gothic,

puzzles modern
quiteby itself,

regarding the

in

writing aliquidquid. Any

on

hwd

swa

I have

somewhat

Indefinite who

of this

what

you

give somewhat,'

EnglisJu

one.'' This

before,comes

still keep the


'

in

Middle

if any

say

I showed

and

Bible,

Colloquy,

fyrmest; 'seek

ye

first

of God.'

St. Mark

vi. 7, we

see

the

distributive

form

of

EnglisJi in
Numerals

'

idiom

an

sending

'

The

Shape.

disciplestwdm
Gothic.

the

ofier ; of

this

The

arid

Latin

old

of the

translation

Latin

the

kindred

Pastoral

is ftmt

and

of

that

their

xviii.

that

'the

12,

hear

we

stands

alone

(solus) supremely

145, gives many

Sometimes
as

and

an

of

23,

swulung
1

half

so

late

the

as

his

is

Englished

thing
represents some-

an

still write

may

man,'

'

idiom

curious

'

the

perfect

one

almost

to be

seem

English Accidence,' p.

1300

1600

to

of

the

one

healfmin

(Kemble's

ploughland.'

in

his

Life

Ordinal

and

of

the

rice, ' half


Charters,
the

are

twentieth.'

and

from

In

'

Napoleon,'

1827.

Cardinal

half differs

our

see

we

sentences

from

'one
tiuentigcfoan,

find

we

instances

fairest. Scott,

this idiom

uses

sheep,

transposition)being prefixedto Superlatives,

the

one

is

also in .^Elfric.

Here

able

The

the

Article

hundred

by itself.We

epithetsin these
superlatives; Dr. Morris, in
(mark

of

o]"rum daile.

pretiosamargarita

una

deorwyrftemeregrot.

one

song.'

as,

of the

Legends

the

\am

Gospel, xiii. 46,

is still alive ;

that

the

form

new

seeking ""ait an fteforwearp,the one


This as
Latin, earn quaz.
yet is a most

same

by ]"a?t
an

for

mid
.

idiom, though it is found

In the

of

In

step is made,
.

the

in

owner

is lost ; in

unusual

But

beginning

dad

alter,was

Holy Rood, a further


prefixed ; forlet\a oznne
St. Matthew

ofter ^ait.
.

ofter.
.

the

see

we

the

In

ofier

English

Care, 49,

beboduj an

tu-a

in

trace

alter
.

by

tivdm,'

secundus

the

keep

we

57

man.'

other

every

the

out

from
differing

Englished by

was

its Earliest

Latin
my
I.

; in

The

for

tion
construc-

St. Mark

kingdom
310), would

Chronicle

combined

'

894,

vi.

an

half

now

be

we

hear

Old

58
of

the

that

army,

always

Many

; as,

the

; in

the

time

Adverbs

'

fared

old
do

the

in

is west

es

of

the

Alfred

some

We

fierstgenog,

ferdon

in

onweg,

life ; thus

clingsto

American

in the

the
'

I'll

old

latter form

why,

pronoun
as

sometimes
believe

other

the

to

borders
?

'

of the

stone).

This

sv$

read,

we

209,

old forms

either

as

wairon

idiom

on

Why

the

Univ

of

is often

'
"

as,

used

ceres

as

to

how

(Dr.

Century

(unawares)

1004.

but

thing.

why

as

Adverb,

Thirteenth

before, are
asks

an

is still allowable.

of the year

the former
cause,

the

Adverbs.

I said

of

form

in

was

Chronicle

in the

and

sende

in p.

thence) ;

two

see

to many

seen

his writerum

Latin.

wpweardes ;

in the

be

is west

(were north

the

adverbially;

BlicklingHomilies, 129,

(she

stane

used

were

compass

(p. 9), me

in the

\onon

be added

latter

not

So

and

How
one

class of words

sometimes

wpweard

may

talk

we

Substantives, as

by King

(continuo),survives

unlike

We

to

from

formed

Pastoral

of ftcem

is most

The

often

points

norft.

nofS

good few.

to

was

this,in

; as,

noun

when

of

imitation

after

began

There

man.

of

Plural

rightaway.'

thus

seo

half

(Pastoral,p. 415).

This

away.'

The

and

'

are

ftairrihte
it

'

and

we

still use,

we

confused

(alway), used

weg

before

country, they speak

enough

ealne

1200

about

which

Singular

both

man

always placed the enough


1

symle healfecet ham,

article

mmnigeo

great many

parts of

English.

were

by

many

indefinite

substantive
a

they

followed

was

Substantives

of

Middle

home.'

at

insert

and

the
But

two

forms

the

manner,
our

of

how

still

is it that ye did

Johnson

always

in

English

of

kind

sir) where
TI7""y,

with

began

ivel

'"eftewe

adverbs,
his

in

as,

the
a

of the

us

Pastoral,

curious

still

389,

p.

in

kept

Bible

our

English learning
This

of

sense

synonym

by

of

one

have

saved
There

in

would-be

him

from

In

our

word

Substantive
old

as

go)

3,

King Alfred,

land

this

(farland),

find

we

tells

idiom

an

in his

that

us

attached

down

set

sense

the

to

day

French

medisance.
as

philologers; his
for

phrase

have

slang

mere

Bible

inne

omnino,

Reader,'

and

p. 105

might
be

now

the

old

seen

have

'we

talk

we

to

'

ute

nowadays

used

as

an

is another

root.

The

Adverb

most

are

of

'

out

the

Others

are

laugliingly.

formed

Genitive

word
needs

of

known

was

(he must

of

needs

Genitive.

formed

curious

adverb

The

relic of this

Adverbs

have

we

by adding
instance

adjectiveungeliclic(unlikely),where

as

opposite

this blunder.

idceges(hodie).

Many

over.

of

out.'

and

the

house

old

very

(clean decayed).
ofifeallenu

also

Anglo-Saxon

God's

robbed

a/eorr

c'est pure

another

Sweet's

p.

in this

our

was

In

is

Moliere's
clean

actuallyseen

of

claine

was

omnino

as

read

Alfred

is

beaucoivp,beaiccoujp. In

French

idiom.

English

48, hwi

sivtiSe swffie

ic luundrade

we

as

near.'

'

later

viii.

sentence

59

expected,

combination

is the

5, says,

p.

in

neaJi, far and

feor and

Pastoral,

reminds

Samaritanisc

Adverbs

little;so

is

St. John

in

see

we

Shape.

reason

no

pcet ]"u eart

repetitionof

little and

as,

thns

expletive;

The

its Earliest

(now ly)

lie

form

of this
like

by adding ly to

comes
a

to

is the
twice

Participle,

6o

Old

adverb

The

mid

here

then

and
of

source

We

time.

adds

omit

boy,'

play, in

which

be

in

seen

'

after

The

rightful

(Genesis

ineode

by

'

This

Hamlet
our

says

'

time
been

and

is not

is

to

sanctioned

against

ledon

lac

to

Indefinite

begin

nothing
tacked

on

German

to

this 'peer,
as

to

nothing
that

to

than

by

never

is later
our

this

good

to

are

end

than

forefathers'

with

writers

to

told
a

Addison's
usage.

1600.

ape
of

time

the
now

is

Much

speech by attempts

instance, we

man

of the kind.

something

yes ;

writers.

beyond

neither,'and

tame

our

nobody,'
far

lasted

or

Adverbs.

oldest

our

peer

as

in

form

archaic

more

ought
rule

ongen

monly
com-

sentence,

idioms, especiallyabout
Eor

took

hit,was

negation,when

too

early

But

usage,

may

weeks

very

Verb.

it

free

]"e was

As

done

absurd

four

nese.

had

sentence

died

in

have

Latin

pam

did

tongues,

found

idiom

not

'

alike

say

Reformation.

English

is the

This

forming Compound

never

Be

the

often

yea

once

'he

resembles

are

English

This
and

ged

didn't

has

French

an

own

harm

that

also

old

good

the

and

was

says

of

think

gese

xliii. 25).

English

the

thereout,tliereunto,thus

There

like

all other

present

our

Prepositionswere

Some

names

of breath.'

cer

before

(ere)

cyning.

Latin.

times
some-

This

King.'

sentences

for 901

Expletive \air, like

an

but

in

outdoes

Chronicle

oer

used
was

Chronicle

the

till out

English

it,unlike

\atte Josep

place,but

to

the

died

verb

climbed

the

replaced by
that

Thus

here

the

JElfred.''The

cer

'

refers

"c.
hereupon,heretofore,

our

often

when

English.
""'

generally

(not often) to
year,

Middle

that

tion.
Prepositime,
When

English

said Beraft

but

it

say

unto

form,

ne,

fain to

no

'Analecta,' 36)
parentage of

baptized
no

or

read

we

our

are

no,

nd

sylfand
The

other.

no

History

our

do

of Job

no,
now

(Thorpe's

oper, showing the

less,no

phrases no

old, though

very

is another

Scotch

the

as

'

words,

far from

last is not

the

ic

Lord's

our

xiii. 3 there

much

In

its sound,

have

we

more,

substituted

for nd.
The

upon

(nihil)

Matzner

(Psalm

cxxxiv.

Guthlac.

This

17)

ndwiht

to

the

answers

to nihil

; one

English

word

answers

In

times.
into

those

of the

Pastoral

the

was

naughtiness,and
Se

like an,

many

Care, 240,
""03t

have

nauht

other
had

sien

wives

Plural,

Thorpe's Analecta

as

naught

or

instances

nought
Old

one

in later

turned

fiurhtogen,

wazs

in

latter

(nihil)is

the

'

the

nahtnes,

came

of the
as

of

it were,

as

nauht

tSa svjelce hie

be

The

Hence

formations
a

not.

to

while

perpetrated.'

wif hcebben,
that

down

hefig,from St.
Century became

becoming two-pronged,

wickedness

Nan,

pared
non,

gestinctiS,

ndiviht

Twelfth

Latin

ndwiht

ndwiht

and

this

see

we

Accusative

the

in

substantive,

he

also, wais

1000

year

habbaft

nose

afterwards

was

the

before

coming

ne

Adverbial

the

by

quotes

noht, and

before

long

not

encroached

form

expressed by

negative was

; but

Verb

Sa

This

go.'

death-bed, he

changed

in

as

St. Luke

used

to.1

ne,

In

Alfred

King

am

written

ic, nd.

secge

his

on

probably never

nay.'

you,

which

has

nay

of old

was

Eucharist

husel
hicce]"ere

rue

word

Our

'

for the

asked

Cadmon

Shape.

its Earliest

in

like kind.

Pastoral, 395

haibben, let
'

nan

though they

Anglo-Saxonica, 58.

had

none.'

Old

Hence

comes

our

a?id

Middle

Thou

shalt

English.
have

Gods

other

none

but

me.'
Bu

used

was

he and

both

just as
We

I.

have

expressing this, such

Latin

The
nd

\od

We

an.

jet tine,ac
Our

was

same

as

men

but

woepned

that

(Thorpe's Analecta,'45)

The

is, in

Latin

idem

by ylc ;

this

the

phrase Redgauntlet of that Ilk.


be
mlc (quisque),should
never
from

ilk

We

find after
.

to

the

Latin

aut
i

ne,

plainlya

in

English, as

swa

the

We

old

new

in

iElfric's

way,

expressed,

was

In

the

The

in

ilka,

with

(idem) began

the
to

or,' answering

like way

that.'

nor

Scottish

ndftor

Numbers

In

idiom.

same

confused

by ofifie,whether

\enden (dum)

Adverbial
see

*
either
oftfie,

this

women

Latin

seu

Colloquy, swa

lowed
is folxiii. 20

or,' but this

appears

as

hwoeper Jw

swa

sy,

kemjpa.

ceorl,swa
The

mme

1200.

neither

hwaifter is followed
was

the year

aut.
.

by

men,

The

Same

ylc (idem).
about

into vogue

come

nd

lingers in Scotland, as

by

Scottish

In

middle.

the

not

from

as

except adverbially; thus

swd

same

'

same,

Greek

English

change beginning;

'

the

oldest

in the

word

used

never

wifmen feohtaft,swd
fight

IT.

"c.

eac,

same

the

the

see

we

in the

appears

omit

now

xiii. 9

St. John

of

English the

to

for

again.

solum

non

old forms
version

our

like

phrases

likewise.

our

now

but is used

in

other

in
still,

ge ;

and

alia, repeated again


Gelice is

lost certain

as

vii. 11, yea

Corinthians

both

employ

we

in the

clause

that

being

was

has

Pastoral,331,

now

encroached

quite

fta hwile

"5e.

driven

upon

by

it out.

Old

64
Swa, like

Latin

laSlice wrohte.'

It had

maeg

as

he

"c.
is,he still,'

'

The
a

is

It

it were.'

phrase,

borders

Matzner

equally
The

in

the

our

swd

'

bad

'

our

as

common

in

'

our

like

as

after

Jerrold's

is used
Bulwer

vague.'
\e wyrse

\e

that and

stood
]"03t

sijlf

though,' "c,

for

our

quoniam

was

alike.

in the

gemetton

of
twd.

the

'

out,
to with-

less

did

we
'

old

like

not

higforon

(Exodus

22).

xv.

the

Latin

strong that they

old written

the ;

as

hit

Equally earlyinstances

(quia)might

to the end

old siftftan

seen

fears,not

that

that

for

ne

that

Comparative,

habbaft

sume

clippingwas

answers

met,

never

waiter

after

This

after

quotes saigdehi

sometimes

like this is

'

This

much

as

\u gesdwe*

'We

has

its sentences

Matzner

Conquest.

hig nan
\ri dagas ]"03t

; so

he

drops that,coming

Negative

fight.' Something
That

no

Latin

Laws,

wonder

'

the

know

we

is sane.'

man

wolden

we

often

the

grant

not

as

and

in

in

J"u

'

our

kept

Canute's

down

cuts

therefore

wceron

The

quamvis

sivd,as

if:

quotes from

before

That

of in

suffer,swd

old.

in vogue

is

before

lifhosfde.Our

he

and

; as

were

this is

early

very

Hence

forth, as

upon

English tongue

it can,

quod

of

peah,'"c.

with

used

gelicewas

sceolde,\eah

dryas

shalt

sense

quasi,and

coupled

though

etiamsi.

Verb

was

pitieth.'

Our

as

thou

haefS

it,as,

forth.'

so

old

father

is

for

also stood

of

also the

he
gestaelan,

ne

English.

form

quoniam

he

Swd

Middle

modern

our

for the

used

and

be

given.

To

]"am

that.

(since) has always

stood

for

postquam

in

English
'

find oft in*,

We
Adverb

by

until

were

days

of

often

much
do

new

below

better

in

going

inn

and

St.

of

earlier
he

bringfor])in

St.Matt.xii.

in Gothic

of (carve off),as
Alfred

making
double

forms

and

now

239)
1

latter

writes

for

used
ne

maig

Shakespeare'sOut,

Frenchman

translated

he

out,

verb

of

asjoro-

1000.

v.

both
this is

get

courte

"What

1000

dceorf

30.

King

of
one

not

and

off,

of

the

English. Of

cannot

! is

is

of, 'let

mon

Alfred

briefcandle

it,Sortez, sortez,

New

the

he uprose

thus

he

and

neat

English of

adverb

happier
phrase

modern

write

drifa\"

The
so

tio hie

in the

seen

Gothic

Matthew

now

usually an

often

so

then

We

off.'

them

the

St.

foolish

has the

means

in the

sound

have

of the year

he upp

in

see

we

ofdune.

exit,since

and

i. 45.

Our

(Pastoral,171), ne

writes
draw

man

drds

the

afmait,became

was

the

35, is by no

to be translated.
than

surelybetter

Both

out,' in St. Mark

was

and

1000

version

our

(Pastoral,

11, the

Gospels of

years.

'

Latin

writes

xxv.

this

Latin.

would
Scriptural,

Matthew,

the

afletthan

and

entrance

say

The

in.

us

English use
fert,the

to

in

and

englasstigonup

ut ;

but

early as

so

Greek

Alfred

King

early

verb

therefore

fordo

older Northumbrian

the

compound

old

have

In

say, Icet

ut,where

level

going out, albeit

and

Virgins

of

off!

cumbrous.

most

the

let

day, we

own

our

has

an

ages.

it,even

language
the

are

and

for

101), Moyses eode


In

our

of

in these

Teutonic

the

from

6$

government

in later

prefixed to

detached

Ulfilas

respect fallen
How

This

now.'

great development

Prepositions were

they

Shape.

Preposition,sparingly found

had

has

times,

its Earliest

is

(Pastoral,
off.1

In

the

something like this


chandelle ! thus

; a

show-

Old

66
of

Legends

the

afterwards

in the

adds
and

over

Holy

to

set

into

The

this do

do

doff,and
of

store

uncoupling

from

Text

offwe

(St. John

on

thus

expressions;

different

are

up

his purpuran

way.1

same

our

(Early English

Rood, 103,

contracted

don

English.

Middle

find, lie dyde of

Society),we

7),into

and

to

xxi.

of

positions
Pre-

to

throw

overthrow

and

upset.
The

Genitive,

in

speaking

worth

\ize boharye

of fiam

sume

of follows

This
4

ye

are

But

we

not

find

reilcam

of my
even

managai,
like out

ing

how

'I up

say,
1

Greek

we
sheep,''

and

told

Gothic

'

of the

many

of is

be

turned

don

and

was

of that

year,

xiv. 33.

Plural.

the

as

still unchanged

rich.'

xii.

Teutonic

into

42)

Coupling

verb.

idiom.

]"aim

us

two

idiom.

We

In

hear

positions
pre-

The

people

him.'

do still keeps the


doff our
ti-the-mi, the Old English gc-do-m.

In

coming
be-

was

Gothic

in

(St.John

regular

of

Rush-

is in St. Luke

well

have

very

the

the

what

of

bookers, scribes),
as

of eow,

Singular as

use

we

twegen

with

English

of the

; celc

in the

in the

(some

The

of

use

1000

became

Preposition can

English

version),seems

contrasted

about

ii. 6

the

Old

our

spread
wide-

writing.

bocerum

in St. Mark

see

of

parents

than

frequent

more

ponam.

still alive,though

in

only

(St. Matt.

marmore

but

old

not

happily

Partitive

The

copy.

snmai

times

especiallywhen

modern,

de

the

been

the

find

hcerum

reaf of

xviii. 19, Southern

(St. Matt,

eow

is

Singular

more

we

also

of and this de have


offspring in modern

Genitive
it

goldes,but

of

we

Compare Virgil'stemplum

4).

This

Thus

material.

express

sciran

scennum
in.

to

instead

used

is

Preposition of

sense

of

the

kindred

its Earliest

English in

of

wound,'

his

from

date

following phrases

nothing of myself,' he
of (off)the horse,' 'fear
sprang
'

of

modern

In

Alfred

Gothic

the

put of where

times, by
to

seems

bi him

from.

has

encroached
in the

selfum rnlc

sceal

mon

to heal

of

him,'
he

'

Bethsaida,'

English often

of thee.'

has

the former

use

was

'

borrow

'to

'

do

67

earlytimes

very

of worms,'

'eaten

Shape.

of. King

upon

of instrumentality;

sense

geftencean(Pastoral,
'

he Jdne
case
through his own
;
genime be leomunge (Ibid. 169) ; bi fiam oncnawan
'To
fall out
a
by the way,' 'to have
(Ibid. 2G5).
it ready by
letter,''have
son
by her,' 'less by one
Easter,' a hundred
by weight,' word
by word ;

159),

'

should

each

learn

'

phrases date from


one's duty by a man,'

these
do

often

bi ; this

'

'

In

the

reminded

are

we

where

stands

early.

very

phrase

of the

would

English

'

to

Gothic

use

ymbe

English be recalls the Latin de. In the


old Southern
to
Gospels we find to live by bread,' and
die by the
law'
(secundum legem), a Gothic phrase.
This. by is not as yet prefixed to the person
who
is the
The

(circum.).

'

Another

agent.

'

sailors,who
With

say

has

Latin, cum
and

to

before

and

also

-even

with

foe.

Conquest.
the

King Alfred
just towards
*

North

oldest

of

uses

by

is

kept by

We
It

say, to walk
used

was

In the Rush

ivift me

mec

in both

worth

(St. Matt.

is

ivith

other
In

men.'

Hence

later times
F

with

comes

friend,

long

senses

Gospelswe
xii. 30).

meaning of the Latin versus,


(Pastoral,113) writes, emu, w$b

you.'

our

by East.'

contra.

fightivith
the

the

meanings, seemingly contradictory,in

two

se]"e nis mid


has

of

'

'

read,
With

towards.'

oore

our

has encroached

menn,

'I'll

be

upon

Old

68

and

for, by,
driven
old

senses

'

what

'

filled with

the

old

of with

will

with

the

'

it ?

with

overgrown
it is

God
this

we

with

'

'

in

'

the

of

oldest
for

wine

him

'gave

for bread,'

came

In

envy.'
kindred

Latin

Latin

for

worulde,

spectat.

As

to

parent of

from,

me,'

'to

find

we

of

such

as,

hold

oath

weigh

his head

np

to the

answers

of

We

read

have

of sins
say,

in the

oldest

'

hint

likeness
sent

Toward
be

'

for,
and

'

home.'

the

this,'quod
'

to

In

hide
This

me.'

the

old

beyond Jordan,'

dates

Scottish

the

xxi.

from

the

year

this

is

after him,'
was

very

inserted

Latin

the

in

'

we

'

1000,
in

after

early severed,
the

they
'

were
or

middle

His

is also

him.'
the

that
our

after
There

'

righteous

earlier.

made

secundum.

asked

in

fomenst

2).

prepositionafter appears

The

for

from

'

before,in

of

meaning

God,'

of

(St. Matt.

eow,

old

before

as

English

he is from

of

regards

'far from

work,'

for

of the

us

as
'

common

'he

him

for Gode

'

as,

king,'

senses

'

now

our

later

clear

ongean

The

other

such

prepositionscoupled together.

two

We

for

him

the

idiom, fram begeondan Jordanen,


see

remain

for

grace,' 'betrayed

some

from

rest

in the

last appears

for

should

we

hoc

from

in

'

ad

might

the

departed/
'

wood,'

drink,' 'held

appears.

pro

is the

we

he

phrase with

senses

'grace

per

phrase

that

last,the English for reminds

this

the

foran

keep

'

of

many

still

possible,'

last

moreover

inter.

Many

we

it has

expressed

of these

with

'

best

its brethren

some

grace,'

oath,' with

English.

mid, which

do

he

with

Latin

of

others

ont

Middle

and

substantive

to Godward

'

is

in

English
In

known.

well

Chronicle

the

Shape.
1009

for

69
find,

we

'

to

iveard.'

^cipan

There

is

old

an

and

Latin

the

to

answers

of under, which

sense

Scandinavian

the

to

its Earliest

is

German,

High

This

inter viam.

common

which

and

is

'

to

nnder

get

way.'
The
to

oldest

of to

senses

fill,'mouth
'

your

death,'

to

'

end,'

'

to

pieces,' is slightly altered


sticcon

'

'

to

by

know

St.
is

night
to

Dative

Gothic

in

to

as

well

as

the

old

both

found

in

me'

ad

the

of

of

we

moreover,

to

to

replaced

phrase

Gothic

use

to

to miclum

The

and

Cut

ceorfan
'

by

English ;

English

trace

'

eat

I doom
'

is sometimes

in

preposition cet,the

The

last-mentioned
'

phrases,
'

to

have

our

to

up

applied to

as

preposition,and

'run

at

him,'

where

longer

say,

was

in

in

has

the
ye

been

for

the

nextan,

intent

is

at

much

me.'

of

encroached

1049*
cut

still say,
but

meant;

At

night,'
mid-

at

have

We

friendly sense

came

'

year

we

next.

to

oldest

our

heart,'

at

write

now

hostile

prison,and

which

in mt

(at least);

the

have

kin

of

near

among

Chronicle

In the

away

no

'

is

ad,

find

hand,'

at

home.'

at

Latin

We

to.

03t Icestan

comes

11

knowledge.'

my

Verb

dixit

'

'

day,'

'

of time.

mattsrs

can

this

to

from

after

Jerome's

time, preserves

the

phrases like,

cost,' is foreshadowed

my

The
poeorfie.'

in

seen

mouth,'

to

this

to

are

old

is

we

days,
sition
prepo-

in

upon

later

times.
The

oldest

him,' 'he
them,'

'to

is

meanings
on

feed

fire,''to
on

of

on

are

avenge

thoughts,'

'on

seen
on

in

him,'
either

'

he
'

to

took

on

gain

hand.'

on

The

Old

JO
words

wise,'

'

of the

Latin

trnst

'

; we
'

to

'

idle

on

the

into

old

'thrice

St.

in

bisceop;
before, we

handy

find, on
old
in

John

that

St. John

cnt

is

idiom

still

As

corrupted

now

English

Caiaphas

we

body,'

on

two.'

on

is the

on

ficet gear

woes

Two

keep.

struction
con-

verses

bisceop.

geare

in

gehende,

'

on

xi. 51 ;

construction

The

year,'the
the Latin

'

'

hand,'

on

this

on

say,

yon,' long

on

'

times, brought

longer

no

even

imitation

The

en, in later

is life

took

on

nnlike

Very

a.

'

(in vain),

him.'

on

therefore

can

sheep'sclothing,' there
1

was

grace

and

English ;

phrases like,

in

the French

in and

forward

in very

Old

stand

might

him,'

on

English.

interchange in

of them

either

now

in

and

on

Middle

and

Latin

vi. 19

juxta,
he

comes,

still

survives,

as

gehende 'ham

woes

scype.
We

began

Adverbs.
rehte
We

as,

now

of

talk

In

an

the
'

Paulus,

is seen,

afterwards.'

immediately
; also into

downs

also into

Verbs,

'

as,

into

ftmrryhtecefter

Prepositionsinto Nouns,

ujps and

outing;

Prepositions

turn

discoursed
turn

even

to

Pastoral, 395,

Paul

man's

early

very

for

Verbal

I downed

we

Nouns,

him

with

this.'
On
turned

the

other

hand,

first into

an

it is curious

The

see

last

of

of

into

all it is

position.
Pre-

became

Accusative

resources

Adjective

an

then

late ; it then

meaning afterwards, since;


a
Preposition, taking an
time.'

and

Adverb,

Thus, sift means

that

to

sififta,

'

case

Language

as

seen

since

truly

are

wonderful.
We
before

follow
its

very

old

usage

when

governing Preposition;

we
'

as

put

Noun

in, this plea I

turn

Old

72
To

sparingly.
hands

his

all his

which

hunting,

of

in this

father

of

sense

made

duty by

Our

phrases

die out

agency)

spite of-,to

used

before

; we

have

Abraham

to

ahould

already

first

Matzner

Gothic

the
thus

lost

mother

where
as

appears

Id

would

'

our

is translated

expletive.

translated

we

wish.

(St. John

xx.

Dear

by

In

the

ge

Sir.'

leof; the
piece

same

by hig, hig ;

wishing to stop

which

any

In

Nu

one

we

15), and
^Elfric's
word

'

for the

parent

was

ployed
em-

sometimes

of the

(Thorpe,

was

that and

the

explains why
;

is used

the

Christ

eald

Leof

see

old

world

Colloquy,
but

seems

Latin
we

0, 0,

shout

hi,

Analecta,' 102,

103).
The

English

of

Interjection. This
answers

to

our

Ho.

old

employed

is the
The

hwcet

(quid)

first word

of the

Beowulf,

old

may

usage

of

ivif.English

seems

latter

also

place
Id.

say

tbink?'

you

(ah)

The

now

leof. Perhaps something

lingers about
etiam

as

in

seen

The

la.

xiii. 35, and

say sir

we

too

cxix. 5, which

ii. 4) la

this

use

gif just

what

now,

old

and

1300.

(St. John

St. Luke

in

'

our

when

about

expressing a strong

ecce,

our

under

is not

supplied by wdld, eald, and

his

to

enough

in Psalm

me

is found

and
by ]"cet

if,when

Latin

an

eow

girls,I believe, still

followed

of

find

on

was

addresses

school

We

quotes

quest
Con-

Old

good

appeared.

the

let these

never

go

them

get

at

huntunge ;

on

English.
As to Interjections,
0 was
Gothic, but
English until the Twelfth
Century, when
much

receive

to

ever

likeness

have

; we

man

i.e. in

hardly

writers

best

written, gdn

was

after his

arms.

of the

is

English.

prayers,

old

(by

of worms

eaten

Middle

one's

do

for

and

be

traced

as

an

and

down

English in
to

times, though it

our

Sometimes
different

the

other

how

lost

well

always

in

English

Without

reckoning
have

(numerus)

English

Aurora

(pars);

but

hence

Pitt

Musis

arnica'

and

Strong

clufan (findere):
of

meanings

Old

In the

himself

the

word

one

(gelu) and

In

Great

accents

Brunswick's
'

What,

known

thus

hear,

clear,

voice

still vibrate

what,

what

"

Scott, Scott, Scott

Hot, hot, hot

'

What,

what,

!
!

what

'

Our
sceario

The

Scandinavian

and

New

translate

and

Methinks

in

clifan (heerere)

well

are

nouns.

(serra).

saga

Major Scott, and

meets

of the

both.

Verbs

box,

English, Latin,

Kolliad, the King

and

for both

our

bogr (prora),

(vomer)

stands

it

stands

morning.'

rimy

On

often

punningly

scear

of old

lutum.

old hrim

to

'a

by

bear

representative

able

was

cleave

our

(dictum)

one

both

for

stands

Icelandic

(ora), the

rima

has

word

tongue. .Thus

the parent
bigan (flectere),
sagu

two

palus, and

Latin

in the older

for both

is used

But

might

the

New

borne

times, idle might

Latin

the

translated

words

the verb

it

meanings

word

one

two

were

saw

and

somewhat

always

tale.

or

man

translated

have

hand,

as

share

73

be

to

the earliest

represents boga (arcus)and the

Our

has

word

from

of the

one

also

once

for what

as

either

has

fen

might

; thus

meanings

often

thus

thought

was

English

an

applied to

now

Shape.

by King Greorge the Third.1

overdone

be

its Earliest

on

my

ear.

many
;

it

presents
re-

words.

expresses

Old

74
It

is the

the

with

same

the waefu'

and

woodie

English

for

term

has

left such

word,

revived

seen

in

of the

parts

the

Old

dnlic

been

driven

some

the

and

other.

Thus
the

Verbs

we

have

old

ahnian

(concedere).

(permittere)and
settle to

do
1

for

words

they

say

made
1

later

So

pronounce

in

polite speech

hedle-fov
sad

the

old

the

mistake

quiviswas

qualsivoglia.

and

sanus,

in
lost

old

unnan

for

too

lefan
have

we

This

louer
now

has

to

talk

of

Dorsetshire

old

Old

true

but

hail for

Italy,and

santry,
pea-

advantage

an

one

the

was

over

English
sound

grando.

confounding
in

sent
repre-

healing;' the

have

have

each

sahtlian.

We

The

hdlian.

to

own,

French,

wound

tells us,

in

that

in

locare.

Barnes

Mr.

they

of

and

hcelan

as

and

laudare
and

terval,
in-

long

into

run

both

and

setlan

the

is used

leave

elsewhere

healing a wound,'
were

verb,

one

(possidere)and

for both

seen

for both

duty

verbs

us

is

but

now

We

oddly corrupted,

speak,

to

so

lately

France.1

Itfan(relinquere). Thus

stand

slovenliness

become

have

modern

The

has

hand-booh.

from

unique

corruptions have,

both

only

borrow

to

cases

in

some

centuries

many

Murray

word

in

but

have, therefore, after

we

new

open-handed.

to express

Mr.

English

the old

coins

gone,

replaced after

Puritans.

parted with
In

used

the

with

to do

Thus, upahefednesis

uppishness; gifolis

was

fa

weary

dropped, and

instinct

popular

and

'

corruptionof

sometimes

has

country givishis

fine

it is

line,

nothing

has

old lines.

the

our

selfishof

revived

word
that

on

died out,
Sylf-lic

Bums's

In

fessus;

gap

it were,

as

English.

the first word

(maledictio).A

werg

by

sound.

'

Middle

once

We

way
thus

have

distinct

replaced by

the

sounds

words

of these

Thanks

to

have

at

the

of

Sometimes
different

his

to

poetry

of the

sometimes

this

the

arise.1

is

the

now

well.
old vowel

of the

sound

in

as
faithfully

Old

worthy,smithy

tells

has

the

the

bell,the

to

old

racing men

; but

bulls, the

glad

was

of the verb.

form

to

adorn

Something

toil and

with

happened

of

slangy,

Such

he

yielded

both
till,

tylian.

English

pedigree.

of

used

one

that

us

to two

the old bellaii has

thus

the latter

kind

gives birth

English word

verbs

with

reckoned

are

so

Scott

from

In

word

belloiv and

same

coming

kept

one

of deer.

other

knew

often

modern

both

Hood

75

weorfte,srrrifffte.

the former

us

blunders

; hence

not

end

Shape.

slovenlyforefathers,English

our

punster's Paradise
We

its Earliest

in

English

our

day

but

which

is tout,

one

find

w^e

are

have
word

Alfred

King

words

many

that
old

good

well

known

to

writing fta heafudu

totodon

ut, the heads

projected,peeped out, (Pastoral,

105).

To

from

lark

verb

North

from

the

called

of

laker.

we

Hail

Idcan

old

An

leika.
from

this

eaten

The

to
a

verb

the

year

husc,a slight.

puzzle

brick;

is there

actor

the old

known

have

(ludere) ;

pronounced layke,coming

comes

school, about

this

stranger

is but

the

dyderian (decipere)
1843, that

our

class

was

to

to turn

were

is

been

they

at

Scott's lines
'

which

hoax

(fragmentum)

I remember

given

Trent

have

that

the

Icelandic

To

men

by saying
brice

the

kindred

Newcastle

old

comes

thy cold

and

into Latin

clouded

longs and

beam,' "c,
shorts.

I still recall

the

'

disgust

of

attempt

the

it

master

(yir plagosus) on

began with grando I

reading

one

blockhead's

Old

j6
snnk

has

low, since

very

the

writer;

grave

become

riddle.

the

parent

of

the

Readers
the

'

Plural
"old

his

barred.1
but

in the

Latin
The

comes

in

form

'to

pink

of

of the

old

is not

p.

296, pyngan
of

Lady

all

He's

Such

Our
them

lower

'

pig's

as

orders

in

(viscera). Locke,
beast;
small

his

see

Pastoral, p.
1

derive

An
the
the

1678,

461.

'

To

old

spoon,

spanan,

so

of

seeingvery

known

its Perfect

to

our

spun,

is

one

heap

known,'
'unbe-

on,'

known

to

innewearde,
of

inwards

I. 402.

To

in

Alfred's

King
to

man

far into
young
to

;
'

lad

'

old

found
a

Asahel.

as,

dish

the

Bourne,

spirit up

well

with

of

the

English pedigrees.

of

the

wrote

be

from

this verb

egg

best

is

now;

the adverb

enjoy a

this

Fox

it may

antiquary,capable
verb

Life, by

slangy ;

seems

'

innerds

door

my

fell clever

in the

seen

from

'to

the

much

now

phrases

to

had

es,'became

tu

keep

is derived

lay claim

has

slaying

ISTairne's ballads

fad (verus)

'

good

this

or

when

'

slogan,the

(borrowed

Abner

punching.

remember

elegant phrase

an

people,''swingeing damages,'
may

from

man

used

our

one

oak,'

my

clipped.

was

{ar,

it is

and

way,

sport

There

it off

(parous);

from

come

in

Barkis,

will

(claudere);

to round

garment, is

letter

'

any-

hridrian

as

Mrs.

first

(ferire).

by

little near

the

have

pungetung

noun

comes

is

nsed

over

School-days

English

pungere) is

hence

slop, an
slops.

sparran

Pastoral,

verbal

old

of sledn

usual

To

Z,just

must

of late years,
the

into

husband

name

College phrase

of

her

English verb,

art) in

changed

Brown's

Perfect

attached

be

hneaiv, with

Tom

Slogger ;

cannot

common

that

old

of

English.

diddle

The

pur

Dickens, allows
is

has

has

this

Middle

and

'

sing
is not

milestone,

men

allure.

act

and

might

maidens,

reckoned
to

seems

of the

come

from
to

of

source

'

Our
No

Old

of

old

could

now

snican

Northumbrian

wheedle,

beg

'

Fas

the

was

Alfred
an

old

as

well

by

much

an

evil

cniht

or

as

higher
low

very

many

lost, but

which

we

The

old

wyrt

only

in

keeping
in

(dolus).
sadly degraded.

loftiest

p. 142.

Our

Latin

Puer

about

in

as

our
'

ivcedlian, to
down

to

yelp.

been

applied

rises

now

odor,had
be

might

former

the

nap

have, in

come

seldom

the

smirk

senses,

We

have

might
fussy

our

of

of the old

sense

world

words
now

to

above
a

good

translated
word

English

1050, the

survives

alive old
the

which
in

use

rose

latter

many

in

have

we

of
a

few

not

restricted

most

common

wort, and

like Botherhithe.

survives

that

(herba),so

St. John's

Hrif (uterus)
in

the

for

sank

1360.

are

names

the

meaning.

the

may

wrinkle

creeping things.'

in

end/a;

in

about

There

'

Stink, like

woman.

either

of

the

see

debasing meaning

no

has
gilpan (gloriari)

is

often

had

these

used

Athelstane

or

but

adjective

an

read

we

mannish, snealc,shove, or

changed
old

Here

sprout

swindle

ivrence

are

Psalter, I.

rather

and

words

is used
be

'

obsolete

use

(dormire) might
the

the

English

dignifiedsense

and

here

Our

it

disguised

we

gammon

vanish.

to

sight

Pastoral, 249,

mockery)

cry,

from

come

writer

in

scornful

swindan,

must

you

in

(hold

gamene

from

come

In the

root.

same

our

first

at

it is in truth

77

to-spryttan (excitare); spurt

old
the

Latin

the

from

come

form

habban

phrase, though

classical

Shape.

its Earliest

in

English

old, is

other

such

midriff; hyft (ora)

The

English

said
words

chines

of

names

the

Isle

in

most

are

; thus

now

cine

of

wholly
sense.
seen

plants^
proper
useful

(scissura)
Wight;

in.

and

Old

j%

Chine,

Gang

Black

dropped

of the

out

and

Northfleet

The

hills round

names

used

Knoll

South

in the

Oxford

for

stood

as

us

that

and

town
us

its last

two

old

that

us

alive the

twy

one

or

by

two

towns,

for peace

name

stands

stool

(aranea)

has

; copp

is

we

hill

not

but

we

now

If

use

has

We

have

in

names

out

has

or

in

long

Teutonic

our

long

the

as

old
we

Frith

attercop
in cobweb

see

Hay Cop

kept efesian(tondere),
old

the

way,
old

relic of itself in

survives

Twyford

relic,found

The

true
lost

Roman

that

Participle,wizened.

left

(curvus)

had

is,in

died

have

coping stone,and

in the

eaves

its Past

we

off,

two

or

Walker, Baxter,

as

syllablealone left,as
in

upland

Proper

say that
so

at

pagan

Chester.

word

Church.

remains

Plural.

keep

crumb

its last

our

of the

old

an

old

cannot

we

Hexham

Buxton.

(to swallow)
old

in

(such

altogether dead,

(apex)

near

should

is

valley;

Tadcaster

for duo.

an

the

Meadow

mile

and

Perhaps

preserves

elsewhere

dropped

been

Gut,

Arrowsmith,') that
terms.

new

Law,

prevailed

by

imitation

of trades

names

Bowyer, Lister,and
called

The

stood

once

old

indeed, port and

caistor

as

the

or

once

geotan (fundere).

elsewhere

of

Port

fleot

the Float.

den

'port,used

town

English

(brook)

Roman
for

old

Tor, the

North

syllables,a good

castra, known

are

old

the

country.

of the

reminds

reminds

the

the

preserve

the

burn

in

as

name

the

up

of

fine

England.

is still called

races,

keeps
well

as

speaks

forefathers

keep

different

by

reminds

Holbourn

are

of

us

have

three

of Southern

remind

at Bristol

Buxton

the

of

oat

speech

common

which

Deepden

words

two

Southfleet

(stationavium),

English.

Middle

Crummie,

as

verb
Our

lar,
Singu-

ivisnian,

glendrian

glanders.
the

name

The

often

and

Old

8o

weaver's

trade

thing,in

its

would

for

not

phrase,

'

heir-looms.

remains

causa,

for

shepherds

The

old

wright (faber),still

common

died

out

in

in

bear

may

England,

except

and
ship-ivright,

only

in

far back.

wind

something
; it

of his

like

habban

torguere and
solvere.
had
We

old

may

sense

dates

both

for

Find

has

wright,
wheel-

(affinis)

of

in,

p.

of

well

as

63)

as

of

that

both
from

drive

stickingpigs,
always

We

early times.
had

and

the

for
sense

;
'

him.
to

welFas

the

uxor.

far

back

still means
third

(let) should

drive

have

meaning,

and

either

sanction

good
of

always
obstare.

cattle

stickingto
both

both

have

of sinere

trade, and

opus

(Sweet's 'Anglo-

habere

old it had

la?tan

as

with

very

of

speaks

witness

as

date

(shoot)

; sceotan

and

mere,

verb

one

work

bear

mulier,

meant

well

of

borne

that

as

farmer

run

neither

always

as

sad

we
fish-wife,

or

dolor

I had

'

fear

well

as

officer

'

to

that

sense,

has

servns,

given

meanings

second

man

contradictory meanings
now

by

know.

we

old sibb

saying,

meant

iveorc

meanings

It is curious

the

that

Scotland, has

these

the

by
of

remains

Reader,'

as

'

The

told

meaning

one

also

sense

trahere

means

Saxon

alive

wife has always

different

tale

compounds

The

had

Thus

speak

we

show

to

in

that

know

to

weather

the

sense

When

The

and

kept

The

former

fact that

than

impliesinferiority
; an

men.

thing.'

senses,

like.

more

weather.'

nor

homo

such

see

Thus

this is

procella;

the

to

English word,

very

phrases,

The

the

word

gossip.

It is curious
an

two

The

our

one

Veritas.

English

old

Milton's

survives

in

rights of it,'remains

the

of

of

thing,' 'but

any

hear

to

would

riht

of

sense

English.

talk

also

we

Middle

friend.

invenire

and

Shape.

its Earliest

hi

English

yourself.' The adverb fceste


has from the first had two meanings ; a Frenchman
once
said to be fast
complained that in England a horse was

providere;

when

'

find

mnst

you

had

that

that

verbs

all the

retaining
mtwitan,
remains

that

us

of the

prefixhaving commonly given


Onlilitan

asteallan

enlighten;
a

has

been

been

thus, the

last

have

no

of drink

of

had

other

many

the

verbs.

compounding

made

old

keep

dranc
like
Our

the
ivild-deor-ness,
We

have

also

it vanguard.

in the
epistle

same

has

the

clippedthe
Our

way,

in

loss
'

old

been

tacked

been

formed.

lost

the

in

the

is in

to

on

We

Perfect

French
tried

druncon

sing, and

our

is

nothing

We

avant-ward,
to

of

power
'

beasts.

followingtheir Scandinavian
Q

old

prepositions;

wilderness

wild

writers

Northern

lost

the

Singular,and

that

of

this

(locus),except in
stow
verb
(locare)-

been

sorest

place

anew

the

be remarked

may

alone

anti ;

edniwe,

two

stow

for its

few know

; how

linger in

install ; but

between

we

is

altogether.1 Sometimes

the substantive

though

this

foreignre.
by taking the shape of

againes,against,has

longer

for its Plural

off

cast

in

our

niceties of inflection have

Many

but

become

syllableof togenes

names,

proper

Greek

before

way

French

confusion

thus

and

ongegn,

has

often

too

has

there

the

imitated

has

ed

clipped

Of

is lefty

one

wyte (culpa). Answer


old and, the

our

stantives
sub-

many

letters still

last

Thus

to them.

on

prefix mt, only

of

shape

trace

preserves

the

it was.

the

of

(locus) tacked

em

bore

show

to

of what

remains

gate.

preposition sadly mangled

the

in

tied to

wreck

twit ; its three

our

Scotland,

but

ber-ern,alone

old

barn, the

fast when

also

galloping,and
Our speech is now

still

and

clip apostleand
forefathers.

2)2

Old

and

Middle

English.
""

keep manhood,
However

Latin

for

manship, and

be

allowed,

that

the

weightiest Word,
at the

coming

If

end.
of the

leading tongue
be

rather

was

aside.

cast

this

speech into
the

dialect

new

former

would

be

speakers who

is also

There
that

hope

finelyvaried

in construction

is

have

'

he,'

gold

done, he
'

man,'

this

'

of

noble

'

she

race

marble

lean,' ' who


1

well

have

you

If these

into
will

entitle

be

to

were

to

go

waste
to

be

terse

his breath
the

and
more

London
'

'

die

'

'

Our

pithy ;
than

he

that

gone,

words,

'

language of the world

by

help.

in future

His

years.

this

'

firm
one,
and

sensibility

First, London,

thence

return

holy

wolf

old

so

spake

'come

Return.'

would
a
a

speech, as spoken in common


Englishman
average
your
can

us

'

shall,'

you

grey

'

never

classic

and

Let

maid,'

English, they
this: 'Will
give me
you

like

to

of the first class ?

wonderfully

into

turned

something
me

three

the

English

done,'

complied,'

dies,' ' it is

answers

all

prose.

the

came,'

the

traditions.1

hard,' 'lady mine,'

expressive are

How

our

spoke

English,

to
flexibility

as,

'

in

their

writing sentences,

all,' his daughters three,'

come

old classic

their national

'

none,'

left,' with

steel, as

as

have

bring

to

heritageof

leave

never

the

navian
Scandi-

simpler

were

tinge of poetry

shall

we

is the

false to

not

are

to become

the far

to add

pithand strength; this

often

German,

the North-Eastern

of the

sure

its construction,

were

chance

any

the ruins

on

vogue,

and

of

peasants

; if

in

it

prose,

would
peculiarity

shires,in their dailytalk,followed


construction

English

English

world,

The

Old

in Latin

ever

present tongue

our

cumbrous

as

fore
there-

have

humanity.

remember

must

we

lost

compensating advantages.

must

to

have

we

the

to

recourse

has

but

be

panded
ex-

ticket that

riage
railway car-

life,is
will

tongue is well

never

fitted

English in
principles.'The

of

lesson

his

to

reach

tongue
underbred

allow

the

dead

There
which

was

1877

of

been

to

poetry, as

French

in Cadmon's

seen

mid

hie

ac

Ferede
Fiftena

Deop
S8B

the

Mr.

Croker,

once

between

'

be
at

traces

plain. This

which

wrote

As
the

it is,

French

far above

the

forefathers,

our

This
lines

art

though

tive
Allitera-

was

the

on

in

the well-read

Deluge

Frenchified

"

brogan
Halig god
and

nerede.

stod
ofer Dunum

flod.3

his

History about

Spenserian verb

suicidal
scholar
Mr.

we

Hrinon

English

cavalry pricking

objectedto by
review of the History; the differand the tasteless pedant could not

Froude

Gibbon

uses

would

was

many

fine

old

have

shuddered.

phrases,

improves our tongue, just as the penny-a-linerdebases


Conybeare'sAnglo-Saxon Poetry, xxxiii.

scholar
2

which

lioenduni

Drence

fine old

in the famous

the

written

this love of Alliteration in

happilymarked.

more

as

moston

ne

Hseste

over

far

Fearme

Wcetres

Macaulay

of

art

rimes.

Wseg

Lord

must

to

yet altogetherlost,prone

Faere

we

so

down.1

sentences, and

of

For

Conybeare

level

us

ing
stand-

our

rises far above

favourite

not

copy

drag

ease.

one

have

we

have

fain

least
let

never

commonplace

construction
in flexible

writers

prose

must

we

vulgaritywould

varied

German

the

from

great man,

steps of the poets, at

English speech

our

in

will

reason

83

phrase quoted, are

brethren

in the

steadilytread
right

the last

Shape.

the

writings of

taken

I have

whom

its Earliest

The

it.

Old

84
down

poets
1830.

from

Bras

like

say,' 'fair
make

'

'

Smith

kin,' 'bed

and

most

well

fixed

loving

eye

Gothic

Beer

and

Bible.'

as

we

Priests
in

with

hang

are

the

into

sinking

held

We

were

to

should

that

confused

It is

have

'

was

was

sailed
as-

of
All

The

an

classes

look

the

English
of

men

back

written

their

with

It

literature,

thousand

many

their

was

these

that

intricate

years

poets

English poetry

have

been

rugged rocks

ragged rascal ran.'

flexions
in-

tongues from
has

long dropped

old ballad, beginning with

round

Lazarus,

truly wonderful

kept

jargon.

to

language tolerably

prevented

old forms, that


fond

fowl/

1874

earliest

exceptions,they

doubt,
a

as

head.'

day

two

keeping

is old.

know),

priests,no

high

crumbs.'

of the

English (without

and

to

board/

Wolsey

of his

soul

the

was

rare

what

to

the cnrate

comforted

influence

with

sooth

and

Tory majority in

The

fairlywell preserved for so


leaving the old Aryan cradle.

'

main,'

'

'

and

and

Poets

have

always

bred,'

forgive,' fish, flesh, and

compared

that

after

and

alive

kept

"

Alliteration

poetry.

and

by dogs

This

far

'

born

witness,

popnlarity

has

Begot by butchers,but by bishops bred,


holds his haughty
How
high his Honour

'doctored

so

the

to

death

bear

can

it is that

and

might

and

to

follows

Sydney

the

'

'

further

on

Brunswicker's
I

This

woe,'

muddle.'

said to be due
as

foul,' 'kith

forget

and

meddle

and

mar,'
'

the

on

known.

in 1849.

weal

or

or

Haman,'
1

is well

old metre

phrases

line

it

traces

schoolboy recollections,to

own

my

of this

'

noble

Byron's

English.

Earle

1550, and

to

Qnatre

at

Middle

and

"

in

the

which

'

old

go.

Religion,in

of

Poetry.

Christian

The

seen.

has

All

it.

from
the

best

to

them, if

fleetinga thing
in

hand

Bede

alike

bear

the

write

after

Holland, laughs
Bible

English

English.

It

at the

at his

long-neglected claims
a

new

studies
philological
Trench

is

by professorsof

fine

"cious
tast.'

the

this

to

to her

that

of

idea

verb

done

fix

to

Wickliffe

truth

its
so

old

as

anyone,

traditions

that
leader

Hervas,
for his

how

who

has
as

made
in

one

was

as

It
to

Lord

with

Lady
not

the

critic of

of

reviving

glorious Mother-

our

the

acknowledges.

foremost
of

and

may

taught Dryden

chance

mere

present Archbishops

Dr.

it has

finger-ends,
settingup

no

Bishop Patteson,

be

influence

philological argument

was

priests

tongues,

conservative

the poet himself

English, as

of

hundreds

Aldhelm,

witness

Anglican clergy

Macaulay,

and

cling fast

English pulpit ever


was

the

up

effect may

same

apply

may

has

race,

took

in

language ; religionand philologygo

as

hand.

Tyndale,

we

the

way

Pagan

mankind

languages spoken by
fix

noble

ministers

most

the

us

the

the

are

Swinbnrne,

Mr.

this

into

Bible, translated
first to last had

upon

world

the

over

of

where

tradition

85

Thomson

Morris, show

of Mr.

conservative

dropped

'

Erectheus

should

abreast

run

'

Sigurd

we

'

The

examples.

and

Shape.

life ; of this, Spenser and

common

l^est

its Earliest

in

English

our

the

tongue.1
for his

renowned

missionary achievements.

good Teuton, and

is therefore

heartilyabused

writing. One of them, who writes about scquaand a fancontortionist


diathesis,reviles the Archbishop as
a
I have seen
it affirmed that our
language is healthilydeveloping
'

itself,when
and

grammar

thought

to

every

penny-a-linerscatters

broadcast

newfangled French
phrases, without
the writings of Defoe, Swift, and Fielding!

his

giving

bad
one

86

Old

and

Middle

APPENDIX

TABLE

Axy

who

one

given

OF

Grimm's

to

TO

between

Law,

f (w),are

of sounds

will

hear

we

that

there

Grimm's
the

from
k

is

Law

Our

verb

throat-sounds

the

tooth-sounds

the

in

pisures
with

and

the
that

words

of

our

Pope Pius
he

speaks

for

'

another

"

in

see

we

the

one

the

direct

These
at

page

31.

Scotland

In

IX.
to

uses

servant,

form
he

servare

the

tooth-

the

between

Theodore

becomes

different forms

the

Greek

(keep) in

calls it serbare.

link between

hand,

be

the

rokh,

dy}ypan.Thus

compared (as to their


ceathair,all three words
having the
English (fethower)four. The like
may

like

connection

lip-sounds,for
facts explain the

What

tumulus.

further

lip-soundson
a

once

he shows

old

is also

at

see

; moreover,

the

There

When

observes

from

come

different groups

g ; the child

partsof

some

(k),h.

group.

and

cumulus

of the

true

go,'we

can

c, d and

Latin

must

given

tetores

Irish

lip-sounds,b, pf

three

failingexactness

the

Russian.

English

with

throat ; here

and

the

of these

t and

sounded

the other.

on

Feodor

when

touch

'

do

the

duck

close

fact that

confused

tan

never

of the

andEnglish words,
connection, according

followingsounds

one

between

ruff (rough)is

and/.

between

the back

sounds

'

link

with

that

see

get

say

connection
call

we

often

child

to

Sanscrit

the

on

CONSONANTS.

together.1 This also holds


and of the throat-sounds,
g,

closelylinked
tooth-sounds,d, t, th ;
it is easy

see

the

insist

to

I.

OF

the kindred

4, will

3 and

It is needless

But

CHAPTER

INTERCHANGES

compares

at pages

English.

dialects

first

letters)
ing,
mean-

same

may

of

be

Bull

seen

but

Old

88

and

English.

Middle

i"

"became

and

becomea

j;

So

jaw.

Aryan

becomes

capella

as

javelle,

Sanscrit

the

has

and

verb

the

replaced

ceowan

far

older

g.

In

Teutonic

the

the

English

Celtic

is

gosper

became

Sanscrit

the

the

is

the

our

Century
is

this

English

traceable

wai'm

the

like

something

pronounced

vesper,

Twelfth

though

w}

gharma

Latin

the

In

Gothic.

into

softened

early

was

in

often

very

earlier

much

with

"began

(annus)

gear

tongues

uesper.
is

There

words

at

pronounced

with

the

The

their

grand

have

here

of

Grammar
in

the

for

In

due

have

volvo,
it

and

(quid)
is

is

the

same

in

become

has

sometimes

heard

something

like

done

have

must

vot.

as

this

last

w.

but

few
one

any

heed

different

himself.

Chapter
the

am

old

this

crit
Sans-

the

see

may

Aryan

instances
that

reads

find

therein

the

curious

Bopp's

'

other

work

may

French

change
inter-

Comparative
of

scores

and

tongues,

Brachet's

M.

of

out

amples
ex-

the

supplies

Grammar

examples.*

many

Germans

given

with

and

ivot,

hwcet

in

as

v,

English

Our

and

Latin

our

v.

consonants
'

The

like

speech
refined

between

4.

very

London

Subject

and

Scandinavian

most

with

pages

been

vulgar

connection

close

Old

copying.

I.

it

English.

be

will
In

remarked

this

respect

that
I

have

simply

not

follow

always
the

author

cented
ac-

89

CHAPTER

NORTHERN

lines
and

Seventh
land

fast

root, and

welcome

beyond

the

fact

that

so

the

in

much

forgotten by

from

came

into

first sprang

favour, that

even

West

the

speech English

their

called

was

dialect of Northumbria,

by Angles, that

was

Thames

be

to

the

Bede.

and

Alcuin, who

was

taken

of all Teutons,

foremost

or

missionaries

Cadmon

as

men

court

It

land

was

on

never

his

Humber.

notice, and

such

learning

Christianityhad

There

bred

to

in
earnest

come

himself, the

glad to

Saxons

had

Teutonic

no

was

the

in

that

us

there

terative
Alli-

Cadmon's

but

been

have

Chapter

Northumbria

Ireland.
had

Charlemagne

as

match

12C.

remind

Centuries

Thither

Italyand

settled

Deluge

Eighth

civilisation.
from

the

on

last

writers

Wessex

could

that

the

in

given

from

taken

1000-1

CORRUPTIONS,

examples

mostly

680-1000.

ENGLISH,

EARLY

The

II.

of

students

our

; a

Mother-

tongue.
This

English

bequeathed
ravages

of

to

us

the

have, however,

points it kept

of

the

few

but

Danes

in

enough

far closer

North,

or

Northumbrian,

owing

monuments,
the

of

to the

libraries.

Northern

it left
old

to

to

see

Aryan

that

Mother

in

has
the

We
some

Speech

Old

90

classical writers

the

than
the

of

remnants

other

Victoria's

mainly

the

well,

far

still be

read

of the

Tenth

lay is

the

else found

warlike

It has

called

'the

Mr.
which

in their

"

Cadmon

discovered

Haigh.
the

time

on

that

the

Mr.

great bard

we

of

the

had

of the

earlier

the

just as

heathenism;

Christ,who

to

nowhere

feelingsof
of

bonds

dress

Appendix,

my

possess

the

applied

may

upon

English

to

the

he

had

is

their

dress, on

; and

this confirms

Stephens assigns the


of the North.

Runes,

their

secret

delight of seeing them

the

being published

is the

fause}"o (not Cadmon)


cross

Ruthwell

unlocked

never

'

mce

mean

no

English

in

of

translated
had

Southern

later

by

bard,

so

give

forms

are

1840

afterwards

long

graven

engraven

English

out

or

were

clearlyappeals

in

that

to

up

Ruth-

hero.'

young

Kemble

lines

these

Balder

of

written

is

eyes.

at

Runes

in its Southern

old

hardly yet

tales

old

it

our

up

Northumbrian

Century
of

set

the

poem

Forty

earliest

and

race,

same

Crucifixion,a lay which

length

some

the

in

spoken

these

keep

was

and

the

lay on

written.1

was

Bnt

English, it

must

we

cross

great

Seventh

Cross

Ruthwell

be

to

boasts

(sum),

(facio).

Standard

English

Century.

of the

poem

stone

the

full

at

of

that

an

noble

beom

am,

"

clearlythan

Dumfries

Cadmon,

compiled

to

from

it enshrine

hand.

thus, it

language

more

history

680,

year

not

upon

Mr.

mi

the

Northumbria

on

About

not

in

verbs

day

the

tracing

In

the

did

did.

of Wessex

writers

it

of Wessex

foreshadows

it

points

Queen

as

five

English.

(video), fleom, (fugio), gedom

geseom

in

Middle

and

noble

guess

inscriptionlately
made

fragment

long
of the

ago

by-

Judith

Northern

from

old

an

that

he had

English.

English

Seldom

has

of

confirmation

the

skinbook

only three

of

his

translation

such

been

hit

91

found

He

Vercelli.

at

letters

there

Corruptions.

Early

"

to

rect.
cor-

snch

and

hit.1

These

Ruthwell

dying

words

Runes

of

in

are

with

agreement

English lines

the few

Bede,

close

embedded

~k

in the

Latin

which

did

not

appear

centuries

later.

betokens

the

Southern

an,

The

n, with

which

the

of

here

Runes,

in

Southern

The

eld.
in a, like

Plural

is

letter

ends

old Norse

and

Southern

of the

two

Accusative,

Dual

Infinitive

the

found,

until

English

ungcet, the

word

the

the

not

in

Eriesic.

Imperfect

clipped. There is a curious softening


is
gutturalh in celmihtiga(almighty) ; the word

written

almeyottig.2

speech of

Sixth

Danish
from

but

the

been

has

The
the

The

hoariest

the

ended,

In

text.

the

Century

neighbours
the

Ruthwell

of the

Archaologiafor 1843,
I

much

Kudurlagamar

been

mainland.

Discoveries,
p. 223).

by their#
few

King

words

Alfred's

p. 31.

earlier instance
was

give a

with

in"

Northumbria

influenced

Cross, compared

give

conquered

have

must

can

who

men

famous

We

know

of the

softeningof the guttural.


syrian
Assyrian name,
(Smith, Asthat

it afterwards

appears

as

Chedorlaomer.
3

We

follow

the North, which

is

more

primitive than the South,

Old

92
The

English

illuc ; but

here

general has
are

and

'

would

Hwcer

replaces hwider

seems

to

The
about

be another

hundred

the

text

which

from

the

good judge, to
words

days

which

found

The

The

whole

such

as

in

it

was

pronouncing

before

a,

as

Th
our

the

the

word.

in yacre,

which

modernized

was

Alfred.

But

by Wanley,

I set down

here

those
in

our

is

"

here

But

is translated

has
is in

the Danes

in Dorset

yale, yarm,

and

allowed
Northern
overran

they

others.

'

to

for the

first appears

unwisdom

before

speech,is

in Southern

to

Bosworth, Origin of the Germanic

Languages, pp.

by

good
drop.

the land.1

still sound
See

'

English,

Mr.

Poems.
1

is

It is

Runes.

language spoken

manuscript

spoken
this

737.

manuscript, and

that
of

to

whither

Appendix,

by King

(to),unknown

modern

character

which

his time

version

til '

in this old

Alfred.
old

'

word

in my

me

Ruthwell

the

a.d.

nearer

'

pedantic.

thought

quote is referred

year

Alfred's

than

The

are

to say,

So

%er.

work.

Cadmon's,

after

years

by

BlicklingHomilies,

the

Northern

of

fragment

two

in

later than

sixtyyears

another

be

now

specimen given by

next

that

Latin

to the

translated

find this word

corruption become,

going

you

English.

(thither) answered

ftider

we

this

Middle

56-60.

the

Barnes'

Northern

English.
of the

great mark

One

in

Gothic

The

next

was

is

have

other

the

as

even

form.

The

The

The

was

and

Danish,

The

less

Past

this

to

hrefte.

out

give a

modern

rather

few

than

the

Rushworth

We

See

an

this

is

of
;

st ;

knows.

dropped,

Old

Anglian

speech
Danish

the

to

ciple.
Parti-

liquid, is

times
some-

Southern

for sumus,

earun

estis,,

nearly always syndon.2


to

show

follows

the

Psalter,

things

many

Southern

that

our

Northern

form.3

Gospels, iv. (Surtees Society),Prolegomena, cix.

however,
find,.

the form

in

Norse

speech

from

words

English

and

the

also remark

We

often

the
a

later

s, not

say, thou

(rough) replaces

ro"6

in

many

sitto,I sit

German

before

h, coming

nt; this in Southern

s a

found

are

in

gebletsod.

Low

the

of

King Alfred's

than

day

one

Psalter,

from

as

ends

Participles is

is not

ge

year

Singular

Person
or

we

in

instead

differs

corrupt

other

any

old

cast

in

the

There

do.

Person

Scotch

in

than

nearer

e,

that

This
a

first

Latin,

visitest

cje

the

bledsad,-blessed, instead- of

as

as

(latus)

translated

Psalter

Second

Lowland

prefix

brad

about

Humber.1

the

ends, like the

thou

been

ourselves

we

the chief is,that

neosas,

from

date

of the

which

in

ondredic,I fear.
as

93

appears

English

specimen, employs

respects

verb

monument

have

to

south

just

ea,

English ;

the

may

thought

former

Southern

is,that

Northumbrian

earliest

It is

the

like

Corruptions.

braid.

shires

of the

North

French

Psalter, which

850.

a.d.

the

like

pronounced

Early

"

ic biddo

extract

aran

in

Kentish

Charters

in the oldest Charters

from

the Psalter

in my

of Kent

(Kemble,
and

Appendix.

I.

234),

shire.
Worcester-

Old

94

As

to

this

the

sound

different

from

that

here

for the

"word.

Psalter,
of

we

what

We

still have

freo and
both

the

in

the

Frio

and

hiveol,our
Northern

and

former
North

remark,
was

South.

quake,fare, which

cwaceS, faran.

Southern

in the

vowels
usual

was

English.

repeat

may

English

civeceft,
ferian,our
written

were

Middle

and

on

hiuiol

free and
Southern

very

We

the
are

Thames
written

wheel.

forms

see

We

of this

Old

96
other

the

South

the

Plural

wrohton,

since

the

of

of

instead

sowed

Scotch

The

should

by

Sermons

the

of

Lever,

poets for

our

In

68,

I. p.

of

ofdune,

is

There

hlaf in
We
knoll

the

process

this

placed,is

now

allowed

and

of vowels
becomes

is

mo

in

seen

is still used

fiis
it

(hoc) employed
of old

; ftes was

now

This

is

an

early

I,n,

cnol
or

in the

written

keep

alive.

North.

English word

than

bread

comb,
phrase bio-bread,for honeyPanis

the year
and
r, is

at

for what

always

the

Englished by

was

1100.

hnol

beginning), while
to remain

still

poets

I. p. 52.

both

Englished

elsewhere

was

the

in the

to

is

144, descendero

commoner

down

the h before
was

mowed

lated
amjpliustrans-

and

Feminine.

which

no

South
see

man,

use

first word

Psalter,

here

that

corruption.

it first appears
in the

ever

see

all wool

mar

paring usuallybegan
now

years,

find

we

Neuter

we

fteos the

adown,

our

Clipping and
I think

them

Northern

the

see

we

Northern

stigu;

dune

on

for their love

with

Psalter, II. page

the

In

encroachment

more.

the Masculine, and


instance

Psalter,

above, has replaced

Southern

Genders, just as

for other

in

soivn.

the

better,put

known

the

by

not

mee,

the

was,

goiDg

last few

in this Psalter, I. p. 126,

00, and

by

and

well

are

The

been

know

in

wyrce

this,in

marked
the

work

verb

but

has

verbs

Within

mown

the

imjrctun.

dislike of consonants

and

of

slypton,as

writers, who

some

by

into

Strong slepon.

the

Weak

plainly at

was

wrought

our

Perfects

the

English.

Perfect

II. p. 183, is turned


upon

Middle

hand, corruption
The

North.

and

the

we

struck
c

or

beginning

out

Jc

call

(the

similarly

of modern

Northern

"

Both

English words.
this

have

the

force

such

find

"We
ic

have

compiled,
The

England.

the

the

Celtic
and
now

the

head
Ben

name

the

Danes

called

Garnett's

found

we

name

we

the

Ninth

Century.

of

whole
not

in the

England

hero

come

Chronicle

land

that

is

this

in

se

Romans

here

East-

on

we

find

of

old

by the

prefixed their

Mont,

called

their word
comes

the

Here

mountain,

it hill

70.

for

In

Myrcena land,

gedeelde.'

the

added

'

and

gedeelde,

gefor on

880,

and

of the Yarrow

Essays,p.

'

In

Mountbenjerlaw;

the

always

tiligende waeron.'1

host

long afterwards

unhappy

settlement

had

play.

Psalter

are

Saxon

the

heora

To

into

marshes.

NorShymbra

outlandish

Yair.

general rule,

harry

became

in

read
'

it ;

use

comes

to

in

true

heathen

the

now
a

kinsmen

near

geset ]?at land

aengle and
At

But

Northumbrian

the

began

gedseldon sum.'

hit

of

and

weron

year,

and

feuds

king,

hergende
next

that

Somersetshire

876,

a.d.

Danish

the

Lovis.

English

now

merely plunder. The


their yoke,
fallen under

from

In

with

not

as

not

have

forth

would,

English speech
Danes

object of

land, and
would

Hlodwig,

South.

the

this

bitterest ; and
the

We

h.

Century

Scotch

the

as

na

the time

before

Soon

in

element

new

was

Fifth

well-known

just
the

in

used

been

Rather

used

no

foresettu,where

no

1050,

but

Hrodbert.

as

appears

gif

for

Chronicle

the

in

.German

the

Glovis,

rendered

be

to

as

than

the

in

pronounced

was

in
to

97

guttural sound,

marked

more

nothing answering

now

where

in

probably

was

h had

and

Corruptions.

Early

English.

Law.
three

The

times

is

hill
over.

"

Old

98

and

Middle

English shires,

many

Angles

were

hundred

Essex

that

was

who

the

their

They

gave

older

English towns,

Eboracum

from

The

of

found

our

the North
end

in

has

212

the

Saxon

only

us.

among

and

Derby
of

name

by

Norfolk

Leicestershire

of

verbs

the

(self).2

sih

of Norse

stronghold,

Northamptonshire

and

we

bush

force

26 ;

Lincoln

by

see

bua

Verbs,
with

the

were

the numbers

their
where

Middle

are

and

baha

and

influence,as

to

Northumberland,

Icelandic
York

places that

Danish

strong enough

bash

to

fewer.

(inter)upon

it still lingers. Our

compounded

66

in

six counties

246

them

garth,

still to be

are

The

great

rather

even

were

mnell

preposition

has

have

Notts

Danes

ending

the

to

Roman

settlement

names

among

Lincolnshire,

and

The

great Danish

shires.

in

York.1

or

of such

have

of Mercia

the

North-Eastern

the

on

themselves

Whitby

to Iorvik

fifteen hundred

in

of

tokens

sure

England

seats

the

settled

changed

Eoforwic

neighbours

traces

of

names

and

four

the

Northumbria,

own

who

endings by, thwaite, ness, drop, hough, and

the

are

abiding

and

Mercia

The

it
foreigner. Now
Spils,Osgods, and Thors,

Grims,

such

Danes.

those

been

yieldto

to

Orms,

left

have

Eastern

had

Alfred

their

have

to

seems

of

yoke

been

civilised,
parcelled

the

among

the

earlier had

years

shire that

years

under

now

mainland.

thriving and

once

four

within

out

English.

the

great

of Norse

/
1

Layamon,

the town

was

I. p. 113, relates

first called

called it Eoverwic

Kaer

; and

these

Ebrauc

the

changes.
; then

Northern

Eborac

men

it 6eorc.
2

Dr. Morris

was

the

first to

point this

According

out.

by

bad

then

to

him,

ers
foreign-

habit

called

English.

Northern

blood

fresh

Book
Lincoln

that

in the

that

Thor's

day

Norse

God,

still rushes

well

English

sea,

like

and

the

member

rivers

like
feet

lay, a

club.

So

will
of

scorn

the

of

England's

than

Alfred's

written

in

the

East

and

Another
of

Egir,

and

felagiis
puts
This

word

pound
com-

down

his

became

in

1300

of

the

is

it

had

Colleges

our

honourable

more

London

throwing

works

up

foot

back
in

mastered
next

few

children

war

by

and
to

meaning

Worsaae,

The

Banes

her

better

daughter, whose
King

against the

Danish

the

deeds

Edward's
lords

of

strife

raged all along the


Shrewsbury, the King's men

guard

foot.

In

done

Chronicle.

the

Essex

913, Staffordshire
years.

have

and

Saxon

Anglia

line between

the

son

steady

one

was

Mercia

the

the fellows

but

boast.

can

Trent

early as

good

word.

service

reign

alive

always keep
Few

-are

of

term

Anglia

the

the eagre

who

man

of

the

of

Anderson,

shires

Norse

The

England fela^e,felawe,fellow.
become

East

like

Eastern

risingmany

fee

that

replaceThunresday.
bearing the name

to

up

from

with

vie

surnames

and

of the

Doomsday

all,Nelson, show

in Lincolnshire.

known

money,

than

he

the water

Witham,

When

could

Danish

in the end

was

the

of its freeholders

Northern

our

in.

99

plied their
gainer by

there

end

the

shire

thousands

Paterson, and, greater


blood

in

flowed

now

behind.1

far

not

have

to

was

compiled, no

was

was

known

are

English freedom

trade.
the

who

coiners

money-

Corruptions.

Early

"

seems

and

915,
and

shires

to

were

ning
win-

have

been

Warwickshire

the Danish

Northmen,

they

pp.

rulers

within

of

71, 119, 170.

Bed-

Old

100

ford

and

Northampton
Wessex

of

King
sister.

The

iron

bit

yielded

him

to

seems

In

East

the

By

of Stamford
been

have

and

English, Danes,
the
Edward,
champion

and

following
colnshire
Nottingham ; Linhis conqnests.

last of
Celts

and
of

Cambridge

of the

in

island

our

Christianityagainst
Lord.

and

England,

speedilybecoming something

was

see,

Father

their

for

heathenism,

end

the

his

fell before

Anglia

all the

924,

chose

we

921.

in

master

was

of

great

against Edward's

hard

strnggled

whole

the

the

allegianceto

Leicester

and

Derby

English.
"'

their

gave

Norsemen

but

to

he

year,

Middle

and

as

than

more

geographical name.
Alfred
won

been

had

Midland

the

Alfred's

their

nnder

the North

of the Sonth

King

grandsons
The

yoke.

much

defence

Italy to

become

941

as

Danish

Five

Mercia,and

which

tongue

spoken by

now

own

our

nation.

one

the

names

in

had

Long
now,

by

as

the

Edward's

kings, was
At
out

of

old

still

in Danish

been

English

son.

great

Chronicle

which

an

in

overawed

influence

on

the

Snotingahfim
Swylce Stanford e"c
And
Deoraby

Lincolne

these

Saxon

helped

And

Ligoraceaster
And

The

self-

sheer

us.

fife

Burga

so

the many

Austrians

the

bring

to

drove

time

had

son

now

unity in

Burghs

had

have

were

Danes

into

quarrelsome English kingdoms

Alfred's

ballad

thraldom
of

the

Northumberland,

holding

out

length,in 954,

the

history; and, Eadred,

against

under
the

last of these
the

son

day

they were

says, loosed
her

Southern

Danish
lord.
Over-

kings dropped

of Edward

and

the

Northern

"

of Alfred, became

grandson

it is easy

Wessex,

Piedmont

Brandenburg
in

the

of

the

as

Alfred

must

have

imitated

Alfred's

has
of

the

were

of

specimen

talk

calling himself

foretaste
walls

of

thus

by

of the

was

him

below
Kemble's

in 1873,
grave

Queen

By

Eadred'

father

Charters, II.
that three

Victoria.

Britain.2

King Victor

; Eadred's

statesmen,

all
as

Italian,which

New

like

year

of

as

304.

years
a

reason

the

be

time, two

Little

later

this
for

did

on

three

has

no

the

gene-

under-

William.

think,

title would

bestowing

Such

read

or

like Kaiser

was

Eadred

Latin, the

who

Emmanuel,

Rutland

that

bad

may

brought

the

the

what

to

be

about

tern
pat-

found.

as

sample

precious

as

Pompeii.

Eadred

kings

be

choice

Kaiser

wh"t

such

been

of

the

ter
Winches-

no

should

how

on

England
:

'

makers

tells

of

have
my

Good

alike

France

given

for

ask

that

to

English writing

should

would

be

to

peasantry's common
sample

been
to

or

Court

elsewhere

could

elegance

all that,

have

place

themselves

Dane

and

the

'

shapers

that
was

time.

formed

The

been

nearly always

light,I

Celt

days

took

lofty lay,

smote

those

'

then

Wessex

Bede's

of
have

must

Brunanburgh.

in

must

wonderful
of

much

Italy,and

to

models, and

of

English

grandsons

great day of

was

the

to

island

our

literature

literature

King

to

land,
Eng-

all

Forth

of

became

It is not

best

Northumbrian

buried

of

King

to

was

the

Century

upon

For

Frith

afterwards

English prose-writers

Paris

the

see,

Germany.

to

upon

the

to

long

Tenth

looked

one

ior

Channel.1

English
what

the

from

land

the

swaying

Corruptions,

Early

English.

when
be

new

writing

referred

to

title upon

Old

102

rations

of

together

Danes
the

in the

The

of Leicester

foreshadow

the

after

the

from
I

now

within

the

as

To

line

drawn

of inflections,

Stamford,,

and

corruptions of

radius

of

the

cradle

of

from

the

that

English

afield ; all the

round

ledged,
acknow-

be

New

the

miles

twenty

Rutland, would

go further

speak.
a

of

centre

think,

mingled

1120.

country, fallingwithin

drawn

we

markets

to

been

have

mnst

dialect,woefully shorn

Chronicle

Peterborough

English.

Angles

and

found

be

Middle

nncouth

spoken
would

and

land

enclosed

Humber

through

ford,
Derby, Ashby, Rugby, Northampton, BedColchester
be
the
called
Mercian
(this may

Doncaster,
and

Danelagh) helped mightily in forming


other

the

outside
had

this

within

this

their

boundary

foretold

been

held

by

the

far

into

the

Old

English
England

would

be

great

Danish

the

as

for

to

more

Mercia

What

will

their

Northern

Burghs,

it have

lately

so

New

English, hundreds

handled

by

see,

settlement

grandsons,

This

and

upbraid

two

Judith.

the

French

take

of

of

the

conquerors

inflections

; it

inveigh against

hundred

happened

always

old

our

land's
Engthrow

masterpieces

to

purpose

of

would

the

of

us

shaping
who

men,

such

even

Beowulf

the

Five

the

also

the

bereaving

landing.
Eastern

be

has

have

background

writers, I

Some
of

to

Just

named.

astonished, could

to

were

speech.

later,was

much
that

them

heathen,

future
years

been

to

from

and

Burghs,

Alfred's

tongue.

our

to Winchester

have

fields,would

Five

ture
litera-

new

Yorkshire, which

was

upon

home

way

the

were

strongholds already

Danish

its influence

on

boundary

the

in

years

before

Northumbria

place when

two

the

liam's
Wiland

kindred

104

Old

and

Middle

English.

Northern

English.
"

Early

Corruptions. 105

Old

io6

and

Middle

English.
"v

of
tend

to

The

Third

shear

Present
;

form

Imperative

also

wyrcaft; indeed,
idioms

New

The

Old

and

liearta

other
in

Plural

Plural

to the

like

oxen;

German

old

there

in

is
in

found.

with

sometimes

Danes
old

speech

is

words

In

English

as

Lothian

losing its
East

these

is.

must

The

Thus

we

few

than

the

plurals
English

foothold, held
of

King

to

this
are

have

been

Alfred's

Definite
in

is

urn

where

fast

to

time,

day

in

Dorset

not

so

rich

the
the
now

and
in

old

the

Danes,

after Alfred's

death;

overrun

long

such

ing
foreshadow-

South,

The

North,
not

the

as

culfras,are

Plural

see

the

Singular

confound

to

all

came

that

abroad

Dative

shires

The

inflections

Midland

in

Nominative

Genitives

forms.

forms

some

though

is made

notion

short, we

gain

never

and

changed,

now

all but

in

tendency

Adjectives.

New

astonished

stearras, burgas, and


a

of

plenus piscium.

is

an

venerable

corrupted, lingeron

Somerset

the

There

could

rather

was

as

dropped.

of the

S of

heartes, tunges, fadores, and

Plurals

Indefinite

for

forms.

newfangled

sterres, brydgumes,

now

other

more

listen

we

instead

Singular and

wrong

is

en

Such

es.

Nominative

the

up

lie

th, as

The

have

havock

; sad

Aryan pattern,

Plural

Plural

in

nouns

the

clipped altogether.

would

Genitive

The

swallow

es

back

of

of

wyrcas

full offiscum

replaces heartan

cases.

as

s,

Verbs.

Church.

to

go

which

find

English

we

mnst

Plural, of

instead

is sometimes

as

and

and

daily life,but

becomes

up,

we

in

North
when

the

crop

King Alfred;

the

the

follow

we

in

end

Danes,

Nouns

Singular

often

now

of

endings

Persons, both

Southern

the

the

the

away

tense

onsceces

to

tribes,like the Angles and

kindred

two

in the

by

same

plight.

Northern

As
the

"

the

to

the

replaces

that
We

well

The

as

ee.

now

Southern

the

word

for

change

of

speech,

Gospels.2

is

scijp. Tcehte
becomes

instances

could

days
eu

sounded

So

in

laruu.

We

in

of

"word

last

We

would

the

see

root

All the
do

now.

in

words

has
in

is

the

Thirteenth

there

is

like

as

00

fewer)

now

we

nounce
pro-

word

stanas

becomes

Mr,

(ovis)

sceap

taught;

our

other

like

u,

if it

such

is in

(rue)

our

the

(our roo) ;

Southern
the

to

Northern

reu

ru

our

these

Many

alms.

sounded

influenced

tahte,

as

written

the

as

seen

is found

was

look

old

follows

r.

is

lareow

shires

Northern

written
for

the

present pronunciation.

our

]""sgen
; this
took

if it

old

century

here

(hie) is

given ;

Gospels

know

the

be

for,as

temma,

almissa, our

must

first traces
We

becomes

always

these

from

clearly seen

Her

as

eow

or

be

(docuit)

cehnessan

the

doubled

in

as

Italian

feower (pronounced
far

ie,

sometimes

broad
in

sounds, which

may

wee.

wide

and

au,

oil

the

in

quatuor.

Tamian

stcenas, wa

of

often

feor,not

as

aw

spread

vowels

is also

new

spread

ce, ea,

There

common

sound

to

was

find

e.1

more

the

seen

That
later

the

wide

Southern

the

French

having

ow,

fashion

for

Century.

as

like

two

see

be

to

were

find

Gospels,we

further

we

ei,which

of the

sound

King Alfred,

is

geseen

English. These,

had

in

as

ai and

combinations,
later

the Lindisfarne

spellingof

doubled,

Corruptions. 107

English. Early

controversy about
the

and

the

and

Home
have

^eignas written for the Plural


shows how
easilythe foreign word

Hume

been

indeed

of

the

Southern

reign long

ward
after-

England.
that

follow

must

be

pronounced

as

the

French

Old

io8
much

pol

confused
and

Gaskell's

As

the hard

English,

and

in

must

translator's
Scotch

mind,

with

German.
for iuh

if the

words

suggested

So the Latin

word.

forced

the

two

To

tongues

day,

Gospels, inch

the

in the

be heard

right or night may


in

shrewd

any

this

the

by

not

itself upon

before.

like

South

into

Mfnere.
There

imitation

Olivarum
to

this

reversed

written

middle,

in

as

written

is sometimes

from
used

gangende;

instead
and

this

tear

than

it

is here

tagr and

the

word

wulf,

for

was

seen

he

the

Danish

Active

Old

; thus

Old

here

in

Abner

turned

influence

and

ulf

English

the

and

in

Participle

English, as gangande

long lingered

this

Alfred

harrow.

seofunda :

The

of the

St. Luke

in

Englished by Olebearua, as

of Danish

as

Scandinavia.

foreigninvaders, in
Sanscrit

seen

Latin

the

process,

for

seofofia
(septimus) is

of

our

hints

strong

are

sometimes

is often

is

answered

the

Gothic

have

to

between

I said

is another

varum

Our

quid,

have

these

xxii. 39, where

to

Latin

(vos).

There

come

chuced ; the kindred

strong guttural

In

into

likeness

as

Lowlands,

sounded

known

turned

Englished by rectas, and

word

many

well

here

h is often

translated, seems

the

rihtas;

both

readers.

is sometimes

proper

find

(ilia)is

7wo, so

of this Northumbrian

end

Heo

pool.

our

here

we

Lancashire

the

the word

was

rectas

pwl,

ch ; Juvcet becomes

the d at the

is

later

consonants, the Southern

to

which

English.

hiu ; hence

Mrs.

to

Middle

the Welsh

pul,

as

seen

in

and

Scotland.

instance, brought English

for

Our
nearer

before.
in the

Greek

very

dalcru.

old

the
form, teJier,

Northern

In
last

the

of

of

glimpses
Southern

the

end,

as

in

way

we

the

see

Sanscrit

England

old form

of the

one

gehehtes;

the

last word

vii.

Luke,

I have
letters
confused

by
in

Weak

Verb,

in St. Luke

the

to

that

of

an

and

xix. 21
very-

Reformation

was

unhappily lost,

between

JEnglish and

the

in

corruption

same

the

in

would,

32, the
the

process

South,

have

and

In

r.

these

St. Luke,

; in

$u

had

St. John

See how

Old

well

as

of another

English, but
What

Strong Verb

tie between

close

erat

we

now

is

should

see

Englished
be

the

ubi

seen
was

it translated

change

Englished by
be

the

becoming

were

puer

led to the

xii. 26 ; ubi is there

the

Psalter.

corruption may

9, (locus,)ubi

per.

in the

beginning
the

weopon

gie wcepde, our

9, perdideram

xv.

first instance

in

form

Gospels they

The

ii.

Weak

out

/orZeas and forlure.

St. Matthew

Perfect

Strong

saw

we

both

Strong

corruption made

links

already pointed

always ]wr
by liwer as
in

of the

true

imperasti is Englished by

22, where

This

wept.

the

for ever.1

is replacedby
(plorastis)
ye

24, the

end.

the

St.

In

when

and

instance

is another
xiv.

at

first

Gospels,takes
a

down

even

snapped

was

St. Luke

to

This

remarkable

most

There

no

belonged

the

xxv.

Singular

Lindisfarne

gesauadesd.

ow

of

seminasti

seen

slow

Latin

of the

one

one

Matthew,

and
ftusawes, thou sowedest,'

becomes
it is

the

the

if it

as

St.

Person

this,in

canght

afford

now

In

Second

have

we

New.

of the

the

at

Old

the

Perfect,seowe
s

instance,

Gospels give for

form

.Early Corruptions. 109

"

above

traces

old

English.

conjugatedat

is

sua

p. 25.

seen

huer,

Old

no

whereso

our

liwcer

that

in

the

same

of

is, though

the

went

English
for

in

We

tive
rela-

have

that

take

similar

the

swa

the

on,

what.

corrupt

vain

in

time

been

have

thine

stay there

art.

Another

startlingchange

21, reminding

age)

meant

lasted

fiu aht

to

habes

Plural, of

for
the

with

the

verb

Canute's

laws,

1070.

have

had

meaning
The

with

earliest

other
its

tenses

instance

old

sense

Gospel text,
Latin

debes

in

the

the

; we

eyes

of this.

Rather
in

Chronicle

Scandinavian

influence

our

is found

sense

in

verb

King
for the

eiga

effectingthe

may
of

change

here.

Latin

was

ave

Englished in

being

verb

dropped

simply hal, our

for in St. Matt,

hail ; the

the

South

adjective. In

an

the

xxvii. 29

Scandinavian

by

hal

wees

North,
ave

the

becomes

heill is used

like

this.

Oiir

language

is all the

Singular and
alike of dgan.
of an English

before

examples

new

kindred

\u, the first word


was

above

Persons,

Past

afterwards

and

some

this

auxiliaryverb, which

meaning

new

many

The

dgan

Present, ]"u

English the

the

and

Present

meet

later,

all

nearly

sliding into

shall

to

old

Shakespeare's 'the

in the

useful

most

here, I think, the

have

word

employed

ought ;

our

But

xviii.

aht, replacingthe rightfulage, is

This

solvere.

stands

We

is

geldan ne

parent of
now

owed.'

she

grace

in

as

The

the

and
possidere,

1600,

year

St. Matt,

dicere.

Singular of

than

the

in

comes

Habeo

Person

more

no

beyond

noblest

of Cicero's

us

its Second

(making

year

the

Old

look

we

would

as

way,

true

English.

South

the

replaced by

was

remnant

thou

this

In

swa.

Middle

and

richer,since

it

comes

from

Old

112

St.

in

since

Jerome's

he

instance

higher than

Before

the

debased

God

Himself.

1000

have

dced-bote

by

kept

nobler

its

far

scholar, whom
Greek

for the

word

Our

is

peak

St. Luke's

in

In

the

in

not

word

the

In

blodes

The

supplant
these

about

but

book,

at

and

ung,

owe

the

ing

Gospels.

mainly

1300,

nobody

same

flouing;

South.

our

Lye,

as

it

was

iii.

went

2).

wrong

Tyndale,
the

upon

right

French

ix.

temptation, pinna

word

'

in the

the

end

Verbal

does not

Alexander.
caro

is

translated,
This

first hint

the

was

never

of words

change
to

footman'

alone)

as

last

to how

20, sanguinisfiuxus becomes

word

is

but

arose.1

last

the
It

the

by eghuelc UcJioma.

is often

Northern

Nouns

quoted by Eos worth,


body, lichama for the livingbody.
1

there

it

by Jwmpic temples.

corpus) gives us

Latin

since

North

13, pedestres(in this Version

xiv.

everybody and

our

from

Lord's

our

in 950

literal way,

(the

the

while

Gospel,xxiv. 22, (munis

same

our

in

Coverdale

derived

of

account

again until

appear

England,

for

penance,

by foefiemenn. The

is translated

but

follow, hit

we

commonly

St. Matt.

In

of

more

metanoia.

Englished

templi was

for sin.

acquired the

sense,

and

rises

now

Jireonisse,ruefulness,(St. Matt.

afterwards, Wickliffe

better

mind,

Italy,penitenza(a

South

at least in the

Englishing poenitentiaby

in

In

poenitentiahad

translated

Englished by
Long

of the

act

an

degradation of words),
bodily act, done in atonement

meaning,
to

English.
"5'

of the

year

it is there
seems

Middle

time, expressing

it of

nses

cnrions
no

and

says

in
that

used

in

in

time

was

foreshadowed

we

lie stands

to

in

that

we

shall

see

England
ing, as

the

for

the

dead

English. Early

Northern

when

"

her

perusing
We

sometimes

first of

The
where
This

akin

more

Southern

Latin

The

verb

job

phrase

derive

to

besoingnes.
a

word

still say

I made

is hard

be

may

Our
xiii. 30
Our

How

change

word
;

it is the
stir and

beautiful

in the middle

of

groove,

the

word

Compare

Mr.

to the

15

wishes

Earle

French

the

national
that

suggest
of

meaning
would

tium
negothe

express

We
'

'

is,

care

my

word

bi

and

n.

just

xii. 58).

(St. Luke
our

In

sneer.

In

the

there

South,

prefixed.
bunda,

as

St. Matt,

in

bundin.1

usually

instrument

an

bind, bond, bund-le.


arovc,

of

were

mind

from

bisynesse

Scandinavian
shake

and

chop.

Englished by smerdon;

to

Scripturalphrase.

is first found

bundles

than

this

the

would

of them

is

were.

cheap

thoroughly

comes

here
had

have

so

I
in

15,

at page
sollicitudo,

business,'that

deridebant

would

verb

this

carries

and

tell whence

exchange

an

come

yieldup

Either

it my

to

ix. 24

St. Matt.

to

wrote, "gyve thou

Wickliffe
It

from

life,a well-known

this

of

cares

to

(negotium)

foreigner;

sollicitudo.

and

seems

little difference

is but

there

as

the

to

loth

am

xix.

kaupa

of St. Matthew

business

our

change.'

Luke

come

translates

Versions

of Hardwick's

St.

in

whence

cited above

which
English bisignisse,

and

chop

Scandinavian

the

phrase cedpan,
Our

chapman.

tury.
Cen-

Englished by geceopad

is
to

Thirteenth

'to

phrase

is found

verbs

these

negotiatus esset
seems

the

the

hear

113

the

of

monuments

Corruptions.

of

! "We

active

language
hare

thus

Verbs,

is the Teutonic

struck

in

vowel-

off band, bend,

share, shear, shire, "c.

grub, "c.

but

grab, grip,

Old

14

St.

xi. 7

Matt.

Middle

and

is

agitatam

English.

Englished by styrende and

scececende.
St. Matt.

In

for

seen

the

36

xxv.

first time

Scandinavian

is the

this

(ye) clothed, is

dceftdon

verb

the

verb

MceSa.
St. Lnke's

In

said

that

would

the

in

soldiers

Infinitive

The

does

only

eodon

(ibant) becomes
Southern

gesellaofier
Our

i. 78

must

have

huoelc

hulic

et

qum

must

and

have

English

for the

bearing a

suggest
where

been

word

Latin

These

is

suggested by
found

never

vii.

the

they

Staffordshire

they

were

or

drawn

the

39)

in

in

Society,are

they

the

When

the

gualis,as

South.
1874

abound

by

Dr.

remarkable

in 971.

neighbourhood

up ;

is there

translated

kindred

in the

compiled

were

St.

expression

help thinking that

cannot

we

in

English.

upon

(St. Luke

Early English Text


date

the

for

idioms

Blickling Homilies, published

The
Morris

wif

North

tives,
substan-

strange,for of heofnum

qualis mulier
hulic

the

early,

very

great influence

had

have

must

in

Englished by ofheh;

explanation.

an

13).

independently of

began

rather

thus

not.'

or

used

instances

clipped;

xxiv.

becomes

na

tribute

This

alto is

ex

seemed

as

see

give

high.

on

Luke

Bible

'

no,

is

Perfect

(St. Luke

syllan \e

such

other

Many
a

eado

adjectivehigh is
as

given

write.

Sometimes

given.

The

is

awritte,our

be

as

for

constantlyclipped ; and not


awritta, but passes
(scribere)become

could

the

this verb

thought hardly loftyenough

in

awrittan

into

further

by

fiurscon

Him,

is

occasion.

the

we

it
sufferings,

Lord's

our

thrashed

be

days

our

of

account

as

in

I would
the

place

Northern

Northern

forms, such

as

"

the

seen

shires ;

other

an and
replacesthe Southern
which
hand, there are peculiarities,
the i or
in Salop ; such
as
e for
u

often

or

in

p. 159

In

0.

the

we

p. 155

(cito)of

might

old form

the

see

Consonants

The

letters

often

are

its

loses

of

the

stood

after

(sseculum)
;

to worlde.

thrown

in

have

woruld

before, this is pared down

page

are

seel(peccatum), bergean (sepelire),


sauwle (anima), p 43, the u and
the w

united, either of which

are

ea.

senne

In

dig (reus).

other

afterwards

115

lialie (sanctus),
alclor (prinhafaft,
iugofi,
the ge at the beginning of Past Participles

ceps),owiht ;
is often clipped;
On

Corruptions.

Early

English.

The

out.

preceding page

hrape
;

the

fyliende(sequens),p. 249 ; in lialie (sanctus),


in an, for agen
(proprius),
Of dime
p. 105.
p. 143; and
adune
becomes
comes
(adown), p. 173; berern (horreum) beIn p. 21 we
beren (barn),p. 41.
see
dpon leohte
of on ]"on leohte ('i'the light,'
speare
Shakewritten instead
as
would
say) Some have set this clippingdown to
the
Danes'
account, but it is due simply to Teutonic
laziness in pronouncing consonants.
Thus, before the
is seen
bach
corrupted into the Gothic
year 400, on
in
g is lost.

ibuJcai ;

"We

King

still say

may

p. 131

In

Alfred

English noun.
gode beon, to
c

'he is
As
used
usage

no

good

on

find

embe

be of

any

Pronouns,

where

in the

continued

45

and

(away)

aweg

ashore.

(about

twelf-

think, of this peculiarly

read,

we

good

no

to

was

p.

and

omveg

twelfmona\

instance,

In

to

shore

both

first

; the

month)

we

both

wrote

to

him

himself

sylfum nmnige
'

we

now

say,

one.'
in pp.

South

23

heorn

200 years
1

and

would

later
2

45

we

see

have

]"mm (illis)
come.

by Orrmin, who

This
most

Old

I ro

likelylived

far from

not

compiled.

were

of

Orrmin's

would

have

not

stood

read

of the

that

we

been

our

p. 215

is he

in

once,

most

the

soften
find

such

still

the

peculiarto

As
In

p.

p.

to

was

efne

as

131.

had

(he

In
less

two

ne

wilt

}m \e

of

will

being

in p. 209

of

is

new

had

\e

is

used

ftcere stowe

on

place) ;

sense,

hitherto

further

now

men

still in the

gaining a

Adjective

still

75

(just so),p.

siva

well-known

Adverb

an

ergo

from

ferdan

comes

is Jieoldan

It had

often

been

the

which

context

long

was

be

Mm

to express

agent, in

p.

evidently

strikinginnovation.
of

use

is

top, swa
by

is much

(went

(hold by them,

be him

used

the

most

Prepositions,the

the

word.

North.

p. 185

introduces

whence

idiom.

it
tranquille,

read

Latin

213

Latin

the

early instance

phrases

121, five lines

for the

used

we

idiom

an

shows

tells Zacharias

(that dwelt

that

of

English

an

like

We

stille wunodan

In

man

in p. 125

devise

Ices ]"etwentig

French

the

toujours.

shows

anunt,

command.

much

used

Englished
for

ceghivylctctn

word,

but

oh'm, and

sense

Angel

ful leof(fulldear), p.
here

Us
could

for

terse

(fear not)

ondreadan

"We

the

hcefdetwcem

165

p.

to

last

of

usage

the indefinite

was

men

(brethren

cet

see

the

Greek

tid stands

dne

twenty), a

used

It

allowed.

that

Homilies

still keep.

comes

In

we

South,

for the

these

Another

127;

in p.

finest work

p. 243

In

form.

in the

elsewhere

that

than

one)

where

hro]"ormine

comes

usual

is foreshadowed

(at each

anum

the

English.

shire

the

p. 49

In

instead

mine),

Middle

a?id

the

extended.

past him)
cleave

163, answering

to

the

in

them).

to

instrument

it now
Latin

Northern

"

ah ;

all

is

something
men). This

found

last

unto;

St.

body,

went

(high up

to

Latin

p. 217

In

him.

the

men

breast), the

words

being stamped

round

comes

ujp

with

the

of

source

losingtheir

were

first hint

our

stand

p. 127

In

time, nearlyfour
get

we

is not

and

unusual,

Mandeville's

Martin, seeing
into

(understood by

men

is most

sense

later.

years

Corruptioiis. 117

Galium

be
oncjijten

again,I think, until

hundred

Early

English.

person's

o\ breost heah

breast-high.

our

endings,and

own

of

English mark;

were

here

we

find

discijjul,
apostol,tempi.
The
about

Rushworth
the

priest at
to

show

speech

how
than

see

by

Mr.

much
West

Skeat

his Preface
(xarnett.

Saxon

are

has
to

of

the

nearer

traces

these

One

compiled
the

in Yorkshire.

wood

were

Gospels ;

1000.

year

Hare

There

Gospels were

is

In

give

dialect

forms

plainer to

latelyfixed

translators

is

to

few
our

North
was

words

present

"

of Danish

still

St. Mark.

in the

in the

the date of these


my

in

the eye

former

work

Lindisfarne
the

Northern
I

was

Rush-

Gospels ;

here misled

n8

worth

Old

and

Book.

In

St.

kindred

\u

is,which

the

by

Latin

Danish
hie is

sum,

form

St. Luke

in

in

the

documents

In

the

North,

possible;

out, much

as

later

is

this

Wickliffe's

Yorkshire
in

/, in

h is here

oi

and

French

into
be

may

before

this

Loidis

St. Matt.

i.

24, where

in another

place

beginning

of

used

for

here

cast

years
down
in

became

gers
lin-

often

a.

The

Latin.

the

was

very

in proper
been

of
for

like

replacing

wif;

for

common

rare

like

names

sounded

stands

gli,so

Southern

the

which

have

Alfred's

words.

form

the

takes

vjive is found

leovost.

much

as

lasted

early instance

an

1700.

English prefix ge

remarked,

is

There

e.

Old

to

in

hundred

following

seems

and

down

which

time, except

it

be

geworden

much

qu,

thir may

apostol is

usage,

pronoun

the year

to

of

the

another

Hampole,

pared

the

where

answered
is

the

in

Southern

The

is turned

"er

writings two

Scandinavian

Northern

England

the

Orrmin's

by

navia
Scandi-

of

There

down

letter

day, it commonly

our

cu

Boisil

mark

41, where

were

in

time.

combination
in

words
first

awarft

The

almost

is translated

es

kingdom

Mundi,'

the

tu

sure

xxiii.

Cursor

'

law

c, and

is

21,

est,all alike.1

es,

Scotch

to

xix.

Luke,

translated, not by Ses, but

remarked

as

English.

the is in the old Northumbrian

the

to

Middle

we

see

at

the

with

us,

g,

for
replaces the guttural h, as, negliibur,

the

The

that

of u, for

many

other

sound

of

find unduaft
we

with
already confused
(solvite). As happens in
o

is

write

now

This

may

be
'

seen

this

word

in the

in the Jacobite

Cogie, an
I'se be

the

King

fou, and

old neahbur.

Southern

ballad

"

come,

thou's

be

toom.'

we

stances,
inway,

Old

120

them

Yorkshire

the

before

lasted

until

The
John

en

last
in

ending

querors
con-

for

es

its Genitive

in

ene,

in Kent.

1340

of gets

old

Plural

the

endings long

these

not

was

this en, with

of her

many

It

came.

in

English.
"v

got rid of

substituted

Plural

old

had

Normans

that

the

Middle

and

In

xviii. 23.

meaning,

new

South, the rightfulbe

the

St.

concerning,in

our

tained
main-

was

be yfele, of the evil.'


cy]" geivitnesse
'

The

ending
viii. 32

Matthew
the

parent of

many

such.

We
our

is

es

corrupt

our

find

often

dolt ; the

there

we

usual

North,

the

Southern

sound

the

in the

done

North

27,

xv.

in words

St.

In

styde,a

is

comes

off the word.

pipari,seems
is

word

liar
pecu-

in

employed

the

nine

The

old

villageor

it is written

form.

The

garden

of Scotland

must

years

welpas.

ago

All

clearlysound

than
;

who

the

for in
wish

h before

Hence
to

Englished by
'

comes

our

the

on

spot,'

place.

(enclosure),might
;

is

it is here

stand

for

either

applied to Bethany

and

to

alike.

Latin

1.

not

tuna

Gethsemane

hundred

xxi. 19, continuo

Matthew

Danish

correctlynow

like when, what.

referringto time,

xviii.

stultus,whence

whelps more

speak good English


w

for

Scandinavian

word

our

St. Matthew
to

This

Gospels.

We
was

St.

in

(once), hence, always,and

ones

another

as

Adverbs

to

niftenveardes.

rounding

Piper (tibicen),the
to

find

used

dol

as

added

seen

This
are

torrent
word
well

is
is

Englished by hlynne
peculiarto

known.

the

in St. John

North;

the

linns

When

"

the

primitive than
who

was,

he

St. Mark

follow

rather

14, foed

v.

primitive,for

more

We

than

preferthe

shires far
The

Northern

Southern

St.

xix.

ends

these

kept
15,

the

vi.

7,

hcibbon

words

from

comes

the

Present,
Present
different

many

in the

for

The

been

These

enough

been

have

St.
that

is

thing
some-

replaced by
changes

to

now

last.

in

j 'admit;

Present

the

have

North.

well

not

of

would

little later ; it is

till the

kabemus.

for

Plural

prevailed

Gospels.

stands

doan

; it

has

greatest changes

stands

in the

Gospels could

We

fed.

they

Southern

old

Rushworth

of the

one

South, by

North

Gospels. In

the

spitto

altogether new

effect

foedou

spcetton (they spat),

Participlegecnyt (knit)

Matthew

discussed

tliei fedden,

these

English

gecnyted of

John

the

marks

of

instead

Perfect

spittaduaof

Standard

I have

these

the

apart.

the

in the

is found

has

he

Southern

the

the

sjpeet. Our

In

mauled.

rightfulending disappearsaltogether. Wickliffe

here the

over

(facio),where

dum

for

unbunde

much

now

more

earlydate.

In

we

to his old

were

Gospels

has

and

consonant,

12

are

we

Rushworth

the

of

of Verbs

endings

cleaves

very

is far

the

last

duty,

bounden

our

author

clipsthe

solutum
Buc

of

talk

we

Corruptions.

Early

English.

Northern

will be

remark,

Englished

that

far

to

of Doncaster.

of

Grammar,

return

now

may
Latin

upon

which

obliged

to

Southern

to

English

belongs

to

foreignterms;

use

See

Somner's

be

may

this

England.

time.1
i

as,

in ^Elfric's

seen

He

Pronomina

edition of it.

The

self
finds himhabbaS

Old

and

Middle

declinungajp.

17 ; 'we

122

feower

wille secgan
casus?

English
cV
declined

habbaS

]?a seofan derivativaf p. 18

Sutor

.we

']"ahabbaS

six

is

murmur
Englished by.swfere;
by ceowung
but
(jawing). He can translate quadrwpes by fy]"erfete
;
there is a sad falling-off
in onr
of compounding,
power
when
bivvum has to be Englished by the cumbrous
twegra
gelcete.He is happy in having gemetu, wherewith
wega

translate

to

gathered

the kindred

much

His

metra.

pupils

have

cannot
'

knowledge from this sentence ; syndon


indeclindbilia,
])8Btis, undeclinigendlice,'
p. 51 ; a
curious
instance of a foreignword
being fitted with an
of the cases
English head and tail. The names
are
given
new

in Latin.
We
talks of
he

remark

may

down

the

it with

points
W

ifmen

the

is

pared

Latin

Cticbo ;

we

though
third

of

Genitive

laga

here

translations

mnig

became

keep the
misspellit.

letter

is cut

the

have

of lex.2
down

to

sound
The

other

the
In

Old
the

ceni;

and

replaced by fturuh, whence


In"

the
1

See

year

founding
con-

hard

hand

g is softened

in

Cerberus

becomes

1009^ the

old

the

of ce^oet is open
the

new

for the

Chronicle

year

thorough

and

Danish
year

998, $wh

994,
is

thoroughfare.

hlafmcesseloses

Thorpe'sAncdecta, 37, 91, 92, 102,


Sweet, Anglo-Saxon Header, 64, 90.

the

Jobes,

becomes

doves

English and
in

wimmen^

old word

of the

as

became

Gnaivod

amdsse,

Jupiter.1^Elfric speaks

we

and

just

tvomen,

our

geiuhodan (jugati);

on

of

wimmen,

to

still

Cerverus,and
the

down

amavisse

we

these
English word for sanus
; for
'Anglo-Saxon Reader,' 99, 100.

the

Sweet's

see

coupling two synonyms


gehdl (integer)to hdl, thus

old

he

writings,that

lialig
sanct, thus

cuts

in JElfric's other

for these

its h in two

changes.

NortJiem

of

copies
Lammas

"

nearly

was

Kemble's

going

great change
hear

that

the

adjectiveis
Canute

with

; in

plainlyabout

the

Charters, and

In

of

his

many

have

of Edward

these

latter

papers

'

weighed

be

heriot
is

870,

ce.

In IV.

the

Confessor's
ments
docu-

other

wretchedly
mauled

in

come

laga (lex)

English

been

we

book

(IY. 106),

word

Old

how

see

reign
of

Danish

form

true

of 1046

353,

words

of silver

hear

the

out

III.

In

Danish

Will

1000, show

put nothing fals in

we

the

can

we

Our

third.

year

tongue.

onr

to

37,

IV.

to drive

upon

the

foreign word.

replaces here-geatu;

come

in

on

hustincjes
gewihte.'

we

after

undertakes

man

123

formed.

Charters,'

'

its / in

loses

Chronicle, and

the

Corruptions.

Early

English.

by

later

out

set

are

scribers
tran-

by

Kemble.
Mr.

printed,in his Popular Treatises on


of Astronomy, that dates
English Manual

Science, an
from

about

Beda,

mcergen

which
our

1000

has

or

lost the

carles

16

p.
-ween

letter

in

here

cnapa

; this

its old

hear

of churl.

that

and

modem,
from

far

not

that

was

puert
a

and
third

have

we

this

adding

the

nearly
sense,

North

this);

this

fairis

the

in

the

of

sense

hundred

phrase,

Accusative

six

the

an

old

we

do

and

his

servus

of nebulo.

that

])ysum syx daga fair(an island

out

that

of Elias

four

he nor"an

comes

and

read

we

Septemtrio

preserved

name,

of

English

call

men

terseness

of

is

there

orcerd,

lewd

In p. 18

last word

to take

was

its d

corruption of

meaning

later it

(morn),

g before

it is curious

our

talk

rnerien

becomes

here

in p. 10.

we

Bceda

little earlier.

becomes

orchard, comes
In

not

has

Wright

to

years
The

igland

days' journey
of

measuring,

Old

124
which

in

was

and

time

Middle

English.

encroach

to

greatly

other

upon

cases.

p. 13

In
six ;

'

this

old sound

hissextus

is

is not

often

lasted

down

Englished by

found

Mandeville's

to

syx,

A remnant

early.

so

twice

'

twiava

of the

time, who

has

two

much.

so

p. 17

In

Macaulay
'

of the

of this.

stick,it will

here

of

circul

and

have

we

found

men

that

in pure

which

alscr Februarius

We

we

hear
call

now

and

old

the

they

English

firmamentiun.

hlyd-moriS (noisy month),

March-,

Lord

sticcan,hit

cenne

meaning

and

hot.'

learned

their

express

replaces if,

Imperative

Nime

become

early days

wholly

not

fond

very
a

the

Subjunctive,by

in those

read

we

was

forcible idiom, which

our

the

take

Even
could

see

with

coupled
hataft ;

we

the

new.

One
a

Noun

is

tokens
in

brought

what

way
a

of the

had

Charter

]"e is exchanged

change

to

express

denoted

been

1046

of

of

for

by

ftam

on

in

IV.

(Kemble,

in

language is,that
a

Preposition.

106),

gerad

lengthy

more

old

the

ficet

(on

In

w*8 )nm

condition

that).
'

The

well

be

Apollonius,'published by

dated

Infinitives

and

of -the Past
us,

The
vanishes
turned

1050

is

cup

; the

clippingsare

is

broken,
should

Adverb

i,thus

as

is
an

come

rihte

bysig

Thorpe,

sure

The
a

uncnawe,

old

South.

officer is broke.
at the

becomes

becomes

end

of words, often

riht.

bisy,p.

The
20.

corruption

of the

mark

cannot

frequent

sadly maimed.

seen

Participlethat

e, which

into

; the

Participles are

(unknown)

uncnawen

With

before

Mr.

y is often

We

see

"

in

find (fiend)

7, just

p.

Corruptions. 125

Early

English.

Northern

we

as

now

the

pronounce

word.
Consonants

Many

before

Infinitive

as

same

the

'

king

had

an

held

him

like

something

hand

the
the

ymultitudo)
'

the

many

becomes

se

\er

another

(prince)is written
is often degraded,

which

English

to

it

but

not

of

delightsy

it

word

often

cniht

bears

now

for

ealdorman

explanation.

an

as

meaning

servus

of the

over

and

one

England

change

sense

our

repetitionof

handa.1

on

used

been

in

idiom

see

we

hitherto

Article

the

marked
re-

24;

p.

Dryden's

of the

instance

an

noun,

p. 4

In

in

Menigu

hence

18

p.

first

n.

have

we

3, I think, for

in p.

last

as

it.

In p. 19 is
the

In

skies.'

still have

we

p. 12

in

mcenio

the

its

out,

its

loses

loses

rowan

becomes
rend

arilit is found

anccenned

time;

first

thrown

are

word

in

this

]"a?tJ"e gemiltsige; here

the

promoted,

as

instance.
p. 12

In

of the

instead

p. 8

In

which

man,

Adverb

by

us

as

an
'

sense

new

envious
There
1000.

'

it

third

to

become

are

dent,
Anteceis used

an

'

in

after that

is

p. 14

the

date

dropped.

The

efne

thou

like

here

forward

whom

something

'

say ;

Adjective in

an

In

Adjective.

changes

Six years

to

I heard

word,

their way

efne ]"es man,


seems

page,

secgan,

be the

on
forftiverd

were

next

'

geMrde

seems
forftwerd,

they

used

ic

should

Masculine

to dnum.

proper

comes

after

the

In

North.

in the

as

sumne

\ait is used

Relative

Neuter

'

find

we

the

the

old

10,

often

now

is used

didst

Latin

Chronicle

is

p.

in

aid,

is

ipse.

after

the

Wintanceaster

year
is

Old

126

is thrown

1035, the. (j

In

is thrown

Thomes

mcesse

Michaheles

day

onr

Genitive

old

'

errand

This

Verb.

life,' fighta

of

with

enemy

In

Ferentinum.'

time

In

therein

land

the

the

and

the

to

is

ivitenne

earls.'

of the

'

dune

Wealas

ness,
concise-

(word

com

against

here

the

his

shires

few
of

West

In

1044
here

we

Apostle Jude
about

appears

(year 1048)

; the

is

this

dwellers

later,in 1077,

years

Normandy

that

is

it is

called

time.

our

idiom

eorlum, 'then

of is

the

Cambria

Impersonal

an

)iam

old

hear

we

English
word

transiti
In-

an

the

1055

the

year,

of

Brytland,the Brittany of
There

named

are

same

\e Welsc.

are

after

marches

man

that

land

The

Bnjtland

as

king's

than

1061

1054,

inhabitants, like Macaulay's 'fast fled

their

mentioned.

the year

1064,

shires

many

for

stand

In

munt.

came) that, "c.

Accusative

of

In
the

went

also

as

Genitive

Juliuses.

instance

an

becomes

the

is

Hereford port (town),


like Sinai

the

]"

mas)
(Michael-

hear

'he

the

dropped ;

something more
fight.' In the year

'

live

of

idiom

curious

in 1049

mcesse

is

beginning

letter.

one

little later,Petrus

often in

we

bnt

hlcefdige
;

bishop for )"a"shjnges cerende,

'

at the

nsed, like the

Thomases

stands

add

now

of

Nor]"men.

Saint

the

here

English.

we

ont

In 1052

(Peter).

Petre

in

of

out

Middle

which

Wineester, to

as

seen

and

in

it to

came

read

1052, \a

of

'

the

knowledge

the Abbot

beginning to supplant

hit to

com

of Abbanthe

rightful

on.

the

In

place ;

year

'

should

we

from

the

year

1066

994
now

age, and

same

man

stands

say

03t

neaxtan,

simply

at all

lifede buton

was

to

next

; at

the

here

next

least dates

later.

come

\r\j gear

'in

the

In
ne

the
is

of

forms
as

Welshman

Gaduugaun
accent

becomes

es,

Norman

Northern

in

here

the

the

on

the

ei

and

last

employed

the

whose

to

The

syllable.

name

the

express

Plural

1087.

year

draf.

as

now

The

is written
(pronounced Gleivekaistre)

Gleawcceastre

shows

replaces

1097,

year

is

an

casteles,in

as

Conquest,

togeines; drcef(pepnlit)becomes
named

is

strong

the

spelling;

aiveigand

in

c,

was

English.
55

Chronicle, after the

The
new

Middle

and

Old

128

old

Glowe-

in

ceastre

An

the

far

; not

inserted, for

is sometimes

1119

year

from

hosm

Gloucester.

our

becomes

bosvni
.

As

Consonants

to

hand,

other

the

on

is written

Donacha

Celtic

the

is

wazron.

favourite

letter in the

was

disused

of

the

Chronicles

th

begins to

well-known

In

into

change of/
the

in the

2)rovost,and

of the

version

of
the

year

and

the

The

and

of the
new

cusen

Article

English

for in

of

1078,
as

new

The

we

see

old

read

of

unsivernisse

talks

of

Evesham.

both

ale.

word, proceeds.

the

one

EofesJiamnie,
The

change
inter-

87 of this book) is found

(see page

the

1095.

year

Conquest, we
find

one

The

in 1076.
the

letter for

Theotford ;

togmdere in

we

word

Conquest

not

was

South,

n,

(erant)

halie,dria, and

middle

year

spellsthe

another

while

of

Norman

in

The

nyvre

in

Eogeer

to eall

Chronicle,

Old

in the

middle

next

1093.

when

old ]",as

i\ in the

of the

year

very

in

word, for

Gantuuarehyri.

is written

name

eallgeadoris lengthened
The

of

the

in the

the

1070

read

upon

dropped

g is

hard

off

that

seen

North

we

usurp

round

Diniecan

have

early as

so

to

clipped in 1087,

We

replaces

is used

old

; in

gecuron

(they chose).
stands

saving the repetitionof

by itself,followed
a

Noun

that

had

by of,
gone

thus

before

'

in

the

Bunan

of

(he

Article

the
Old

"

is

1096

year

found,

before

here)

and

Pronoun

setting a

in

done

be

of

se

(such

Preposition,is strange

might

it

English, though

of Flandran

eorl

se

This

Boulogne).

is

Corrziptions. 129

Early

English.

Northern

Greek

to

and

Gothic.

One
the

was

was

last,in the

sentence

the

but

not

Old

out

to

1095,

English ;
A
per

mycclan

few

is

there

fall be

stars

sentences

on,

in
a

sentence,

the

rightful

1085, between

idiom, Gothic

new

oftfie

anan

by

sende

hearme

this reminds

us

of

'

tivam,

this

see

we

the

by

stand
would
turns

the older

to

weorfte,p. 69.

Wi^utan

use

In

the

comes

here,

the true

see

in

So

ealles.

stand

We

cyng.

we

Bomgesceot be him ; ]mrh


employed earlier. In 1076, something

Latin

miclum

1087

next

of Denmearcan,

cyng

two.'

been

very

yrfenuma

New.

and

have

"

(strippedof)
(some of his men)
(heirof all)

form

ence
influ-

twenty-five

(afraidof them)

Old

for the

Within

work.

aferedeof heom
mycel dcel of his mannon
belandof) of \"am \e
he sende of his mannan
yrfenuma of eallon

follows

or

French

(recked of oath)

Enrjlalandes

one

find

we

and

Conquest

old Genitive

of; the

to

upon,

at

the

let lihtlice of oS

old Genitive
that

here

been

1066,

after

to this

encroached

now

have

may

As

followed

that

changes

great development given

of Nouns

years

first

of the

it
it.

of

old

gained the
The

new

meant

more

no

of

sense

great William,
K

we

than

sine,as

extra, but
we

hear, would

now

have

in

mostly
won

Old

130
Ireland

for

is used
thousands

prceter;

in

the

ofter,we

read

Latinist

should

write

has

change
this

common

here

1098,

two

of

use

new

Dative

The

in

; bee

to

phrase

as

1073,

In

his
the

is in
was

of

would

old

In

stand

great

for extra
a

load

was

and

sine.

thrown

In

1096,

great

next

been
;

Our
upon

into

year

In

Noun

became

in

butan.

side)
saihealfe(sea-

weoll

tersely.

(ran blood)

1086,

we

to

read

ridere ; this
cniht.

Englished by
we

find

the

eorles ; the
Our

phrase
of

read

we

but

word.

must

have

that

12

English

still expresses

Scotland, I believe, it may

fathers
one

had

cennung

pa

1091,

of pes

bohes,

(oath-swearing);

Henric

vanishing ;

have

nisi, prceter,quin, sed, verum

is turned

on

sunu

in 1088.
feaive mannan
of pes cynges healfe and 12
This

is also

that

beam

blod

mere

mid

though

as

There

Verbal

comes

Accusative.

um

is

packed together,most

are

dubbade

chevalier

French

the

found

aft swerunge

that

the

Conqueror

the

find

nouns

hear

we

of

by a
rightful

in 1087.

tokens

are

England

such

used.

Dative, stand

Fight, added

man,'

Accusative

been

always

we

prefixingan

very

In

1070,

in

as

ping.

nan

over

come

in

(libri);

our

startlingcorruption

instead

other

every
for

the

begun,

alter for alter.

unus

'

found

heom,

oper, which

an

com

Substantives, there

In

uppon
of

source

has

Bridge

1100

year

]"a

mfre ]"eofier man,

is

There

after the

naping is

is the

cases

find

we

Stamford

of

account

of

confusion

the

hi, the Accusative.

hand

)"cet
; this

uppon

for

later

is said

man

(side). In 1094,
liealfe

the year 1067

; in

the North

thousands.

upon

Pronouns,

In

1076,

In

wcepnon.1

his modor

on

English.

Middle

vriftutan mlcon

Brittisc

be

to

and

thought

that

still
too

English. Early Corruptions.

Northern

not

resolved

have

to

seem

hu

1085,
'

worth

here

wurft, how

much

replaces the

old

ivcere

Accusative

the

after ivurft. Geivcer of old meant


the

of

sense

our

as

aware,

takes
later,tryive(fidus)

into

changed

popular with

{more

in the

down

the

now

to

in

gif he

in

1087,
gedon
w,eat.

1096,

poetry ;
In

the

find that

the

have

idiom

new

our

Oar

Pluperfectof

heafde gebeon,

year

; but
'

we

still

old

aMe

from
in

(in

shire
York-

its track

Subjunctivestarts
'

gewunnon,

later than

sketch
hu

he had

we

'he

had
2

the

still talk
be

won

or

we

still

it in

prose

above-quoted
Conqueror,
he

mann

.wazs

in

this

of well-done

is first found

been.'

'

had

for

of the

gedon

the word

set

Imperfect formerly used

compositus,and

means

been

was

evil

followed

present substitute

us

parative
com-

the next

South

for the

old

wonderful
tells

now

Bible.

down

words

In

much

come

seventy years

up

the writer

he

we

sivifior

so

ever

tryivemen.

won,' superavisset. This

have

to crop

entry.

1070

of the

instead

of honestus

mycel yfelgedon

our

libban,he hafde

moste

would

keep
was

other

many

1087,

in

debere) has

that year.

since

he

of

in

1086.

year

done

he

remains

Verbs,

sense

up

say,
idiom

older

As
the

had

'

should

years

leng,are

siviftor and

of the

account

gets

of a
repetition
for instance),
has

more,

ncefde lie nosfre swa

read

we

and

since

ever

us

and

bet

was

Genitive

lengre. The

betere and

adverb

certain

of

it

Three

meaning, that

new

in the

it now

in 1095.

see

prodigy is related on the faith


The
Comparative Adverbs,

a,

'

only cautious

we

breath, and

construction

new

hit

eel

my

their

saving

upon

repeatingtheir Substantives.
there is a
As
to Adjectives,

year

131

"

There

is

in
no

Old

132

Pluperfect like

and

this

in

In

gewesen.
sceoldan

1098,

They

in

say

'

month

ago

heard

where

of the

form,

instead

of the

As

blod

tvces

he wolde

pwt
In

1095

first

in

hear

we

of \a

the

days) ;

rcede

]"e him

Avere

about

to

find

it

should

has

this

1100

the

In

the

rede

hwait
what.
four

\aforman

acts

be

\aire

of them
Old

is

and

now,

that

English,

its Antecedent
next

very

modern

the

in

from

word.

Scott

English composition

Relative

is the

us

here

how

English words, pronounced

for

employed
hard

mies
ene-

swa

be

Henry

may

cast

glance at Domesday

by scholars, sounded

not

old

his

commonest

grammatical pitfalls.

We
tells

flow.'

with

is used

unusual,

as

improper position of

of all

(by

\"e detached

fled.'

would

King

It is most

followed

lot who

unusual

replace it by

idiom

wairan

Relative
have

their

'

the

him).

for the

here

Either

abutan

did

now

idiom

In

venerable.

most

perfect
Plu-

feower foreivarde dagas (the

usual

(the first two).

twa

should

we

have

no

the

blood

saw

stands
]"03t

fact

(visusestfluere)r

'

man

had

comes

1072, William

this

(quodcunque)

sva

idiom,

it.

seen

that

we

weallan

that

for must

when

1100

gesewen

former

Pronouns,

to

In

old

men

have

hear

stands

time

Subjunctive.

Passive

would

hear

of the

us

by

must

say

you

would

this reminds

related

was

'

Icelandic

the

gebeon replaces the

should

we

North,

the

74)

II.

prodigy

hit ;

geseon

English, but

Old

kefirverit (Matzner,

has

English.

Middle

sound
This

gh

]"efore eori;

h, as

in

much

this usage

Norman

Ghent,

of g before
was

in

used

i, as

or

in

Tudor

prevailsin

by peasants

ears.

Berchelai

Book, which

The

ch

Italy.

to

was

gh expressed

Ohersintnne.1
times

and

express

the

The
the

hard

Northern

often

was

words

Eddeva

and

turned

into

the

The

English

puzzle

Was

in

Cilt

Swain

the

greatest changes

the

old

Wigeraceaster

into

Worcester

; Barbie

There

Deoraby.
Stow
to

IStou

as

make

French

the
sound

We
1100

"We

for

down

to the
of
we

g
read

Moir, like

the

the old

usually had

Lincolnshire

in

places getting the


is

found

and

the

shire
Derbyof

sound

Northern

Fugelestou had

not

as

Fulstoiv.

to

the

Peterborough

great fire in
every
that

find in Scotland

write

In

Southwards.

in

existing,of

latter.
some

our

English

has

combination

Staintone

examine

may

get rid

"and

cut

1100

was

coming

down

year

e,

was

yet been

io

old

from

of

Old

the

about

name

is that

still

Frenchmen

the

former

the

sound,

new

doubt

no

when

ow,

for the

way
the

be

can

of

pronunciation

the

shows

the

far

Wircestre, not

by

foreign

English soil,as

of

One

Wilelm-

in 1065
of

instance

curious

The

written

called

in

taking

name

hamlet.

is

Survey

was

root

Christian
of

this

\egn

held

was

way.

ou-e.1

or

Derbyshire

of

The

/.

in the

ou

storp (now Williamsthorpe), which


one

as

Frenchmen

to

place

oi

sounded

written

French

in the

down

set

and

was

form

new

for

ou,

was

French

the

There

teign.

written

call Hidland

always

was

of

written

Alfred

first trace

of

became

The

Ailric.
see

133

middle

the

Swegen

we

often

commonly

now

we

Hoilant

as

is

When

the

is

and

became
jffipelric

light upon

we

]" in

and

Eadgyth

Brictric.

as

c,

The

s.

out

Suen

word.

What

for

thrown

were

Alured,

"

used

Corruptions.

Early

English.

the

old Latin

of the

William
two

oimcs,

There

1116.

part

Rufus

forms
unus.

of

Chronicle

one

word

is

tendency

; thus

was

proper

from

slain
name,

in the

by

Ms

Mure

Old

134

aaan

men

our

than

the

own

the last the

Yorkshire.

g.

here

has

of the
ce

the

popular

in

1116

third

The

We

for
for

oi and

simply paternal

in

buried, the
In

handy.

like

much

Witan
the
the

substituted

(ubi)

huer
worked

causam)

the

Midland

instance

older

to

would

on

Frigdosg.

an

the

for

Rufus

when

handa, nigh
there

is

old
;

at

qui) being
written

used

was

hand,

or

startlingchange,

Lindisfarne
the

late

the method

see

Gospels

\oer.

for

hwan

as

for\am.

(quam
an

new

of
ob

early
the

to

Relative
The

which

Earl

The

is
This
punished him.
of hwa
(itproperly answered

have

of

1101, fcederland'
we

that

against the King


King

not
qiiis,

writer

in

one

Moretoin

Latin

1104

of

name

by days, in feowertyne

not

neh

were

year

North.

proper

year

In 1110

read

We

(fortnight).

the

estate.

reckoning by nights,and

nihta

namely ai,

fatherland,borrowed
;

of

becoming
(rains) in

the

relic

instead

e,

from

happened

our

German

the

French

before

something
of

the

it

diphthong

reinas

see

ei down

is used

sense

The

oi,was

as

old

French

is

aliwair

see

we

the

hair

just quoted.
we

gebroiden

Hoilant, for

broidered

our

in

as

away,

just as

e,

don;

replacingan

oi in

ei, as well

an

the

from

meant

of

follow

like sari and

or

the

form

old

becomes

in 1105

of the

more

French

combination

1116

know

find
from

Midland,

Indefinite

in

years

vanish

altogetherpared

of the word

the

to

soon

time

of the

(proprius)

agen

forms

are

often

sound

to

been

gebrogden

the Northern

cegliwoer
;

was

1104

pronounced

soon

is

differs

old form

There

oi

was

was

keeps

shall

we

This

Moretoin

in 1877

prefix ge
In

(braided);
hard

have

of 1100.

an

English.

should

an

word

even

in

the

Middle

and

an

form

136

Old

pounding,
and

to

to

which

had

1120

the

and

European

any
have

befallen

times

traceable

Latin
Arabic.

foreign

As

regards

conquest,

History.1

change,

nearest

and

its

later

Scandinavia
therein

differ

underwent

to

Teutonic.

infusion,

whether

changes

such

underwent

never

from

the

other

least

at

of

German,
any

nations

of

as

within

Spanish

comes

first

English

doubt

tongue,

English

There

the

1303.

Mother-

by

and

of

ever

own

our

wholly

word-store,

our

between

English

language

and

but

all

words,

common

our

into

difference

future

Germany

of

adulterations

marked

ground-work,

English.

thousands

hitherto

been

be

to

was

of

rid

^et
French,

pour

Middle

and

with
then

permanent
of

Europe.

its
of

Middle

Cultivation.

English:

CHAPTER

III.

ENGLISH.

MIDDLE

THE

Period

I.

137

Cultivation.

"

(1120-1220.)
England

in the many
that

been

has

and

have

happy, beyond

various

floated

scriptural and

of

stores

the

down

down

codes

by

year
that

(would

no

In

land

of national

England

mark

the

the

national

to the

Take

the

Falcandus

or

spite of
in

the

Europe

And

Poems

lations
riddles, trans-

treatises

science

on

in

them

havock

400

after

can

we

our

at the

such

years

else

nowhere

!) are

wrought

show

can

the

all these

"

ments
monu-

680

a.d.

clearly

so

round

from

New.

opposite
and

in

Cicero.

case

scorn

compiling

(that is,Latin), such


Caesar

time.

speech slowly swinging

holding

countrymen,

of

literature

dialogues

interest

more

speech for

boasts.

Old

tales, and

year,

rich inheritance.

as

oldest

sisters,

of law, wills, charters, chronicles

took

we

Reformation,

her

profane, epics,war-songs,

grammar,

set

Teutonic

stream

of the Bible, homilies, prayers,


and

her

as

would

Falcandus

of

Italy.

the
a

In

1190

everyday speech

work

in

have

been

trod

in

the

the

find

we

Old

of his
Italian

easilyread
path

that

by
had

followed

been

centuries

written,
a

sudden

In

New,

the

change

of

as

near

Some

English.

but

the

everyday speech,

man

born

diction

of

what

this

philologycan

be

The

I shall

III.
In
old

Age

words

I.

the

find

we

lives

and

in

of

are

gone,

into

came

hardly

at

King
by
the

all from

Nothing

these

first

our

his

written

poem,

Victoria.

of

the

effort

Peterborough

differs

into

180

in

years,

Angevin King,

from

was

prose

three

from

each

upon

to

1220.

to 1280.

1280

fairlywell
were

ages,

last-

two

"

1120

1220

the

between

Chapter
from

Reparation
English

In

great-grandson.

divided

bestow

ruption
cor-

for his pattern to

Queen

the

to

Neglect :

used

the

standard

indeed

that

to

England

evident

an

see

we

all

back

bard

I. Cultivation:
II.

in

writings.

interestingthan

more

New

Old

the

; but

inflections

1303,

under

be

from

already traced

English,ranging

given dates, may


of which

1120,

for

Midland

grandson,

Middle

literature

fifteen miles

answering roughly
of his son,

the

looks

In

all of

understood

l?eto the old Winchester

and

within

speak

we

of

of

writings.

readily

Northumbrian

puts eall

writer

Alfred's

the

may

been

in the

poem

spring

I have

Chronicle

Peterborough
as

sudden

slow.

in

had

d'Alcamo,

Ciullo

be

twelve

like Garibaldi.

in written

is most

shown

keep

is

his book

after

now

for

writers

first known

would

soldier

least

at

the

forth

Italy,there

years

countryman,

that

poem

the

to

his

unlettered

an

three

English.

Italian

good

or

putting

Italian,a

by

two

find

we

all

by

but

Middle

and

Old

138

to

1303.

cultivated,and

allowed

to

slip;

it

few
was

Middle

different

with

English

French

to

of

power

In

few

very

feeble

III.

Age

Latin

or

and

English

writers

thus

stopped

and

French

the

place
In

is

the

decay

words

in

of the

going through

this.

written

first

within

where

our

born.

These

Midland

being

the Mercian

Dialect.

in

the

from

Yorkshire

border,

what

is to

come

and

West

fond

Midland
Danes

there
that

we

Gospels were
In

up

within
will

the

was

be

Danelagh

for what
the

is

will

the

North.

from

its

the

lying to
tokens
In

byegone.

find in the shires where

aforesaid

foreshadow

to

show

mingling

same

contrast,

the

and

shires

East

of

of

the

East

Angles

and

Northumbrian

translated.

of
new

boldly
from

or

part

the

the

Danelagh,

seen

samples

of the
love

the

add

outside

Anglia,

most

first-fruits of

West,

follow

poetry

East

for the

and

and

was

the

supply

to

plan

prose

specimen

South,

questions bearing
are

set

lingering

of

treatise,written

or

the

years,

the

each

in

II.

Danelagh

are

the

copiouslyfrom

Age

180

years.

brought

English

To

poem

samples

South

New

specimens

district,either
The

these

baleful

perishing language,

were

give specimens

classic

some

fast

lost in

Latin

nothing original; they

to

our

shoals

English

these

translated

of

of old

and

French

during

birth

French, though they gave

lost its noble

thousands

with

from

translations

self
him-

betook

island

our

parted

light burning

In

North.

the

tongue almost

our

-139

something vnlgar, and

as

in

writer

compounding,
A

words.

kept

cultivated

every

aside

cast

in

least

inflections,at

our

Age II.,English was


nearly

Cidtivation.

the

utmost

landmark,

on

dialects,clearness

importance
which

will

be

and

cision
pre-

I therefore
of

some

here
use

in

Old

140

fixingthe
If

shires

draw

we

and

down

the

from

the

that

Saxon

the

and

the

write
East

Danish

and

the

of

and

Old

the

The

away.

1160, is
the

easier

between

the

'

and

the

'

old

Essex,

of

was

ways

the

taken

as

the

1340.

watchword

whole, belonged

to

North

Loire

in

mixture

of

English.
the

dants
descen-

men,

whose

about
than

is

difference

explained by
of

870.

Danelagh
of

passed

written

The

is

the

wish

the

English

settlement
of

make

elsewhere

Old

two

later, showed

had

of

Danish

the

To

lived

even

in

handed

New

Chronicle,

novice

shires

only

Cerdic's

that

treatise

the

Line

and

the watchword

was

pare

language
fact

simple

one

to

Kentish

renowned

the

as

1400

Peterborough

far

language,

to inflections

attachment

warm

Line

fairlyto

of this

to

other

line

ivater-slied.

Saxons, such

down

tongue,

purer

This

foreshadowed

West

wrested

were

afterwards

and

Alfred.1

whose

men

roughly lay

those

and

(it answers

Anglian,

South

that

Sundering

Line

the

shires

kings,

by

Great

this

lived

France)

the

Tongue-shed, like

of

shall

by Angles

Danes

call

to

could

to

Celts

first settled

to

bold

To

between

by

through Northampton

we

Colchester,

to

compiled.

were

poems

Shrewsbury

boundary

were

over

from

Bedford

English.

different

where

line

Middle

and

King

the South.

In

'

'

Clip

Hold

Alfred's

the

nicle
Chro-

Eolls
of the
Coggeshall, published by the Master
in 1875, we
read that a ghost, appearing in Suffolk, loquebaturAngThis
lice secundum
that
idioma
regionisillius. Page 120.
proves
the
diiference
the year
between
about
there was
1200
a
speech of
that
of Northern
Suffolk and
Essex, where
Ralph lived. I have
of Coggeshall.
line to the North
therefore taken
to
care
carry my
of

Ralph

of

"

Taylor (Words and


colony in the North-east

Mr.

Places, 110)
of Essex,

proves

for which

that there
I have

was

made

Danish

allowance.

Middle

shires.

As

English

from

English

corruptions that

the

to

Old

English,

the

we

down

to the

Southern

shires.

The

line drawn

between

York

by

third

by

There

line drawn

show

at

Thus,

if the

written.

grcer/, after

1160, be spelt gray

in

it be

is

speltgrey

stands

name)

the Line.

respect

quite by

itself.l

South,

the

spread easilyover

across

in this

The

South, while mikel, swilc,betoken

the

celc

Southern

favourite

Southern

guilt.

our

sometimes,
;

form

both

both
(illi),

say

that

he

such

and

Sundering Line,
with

North

trace

from

down

to the

The

compiler

proper

Gloucester, p. 459

name

forms
the

we

of the

Essex

Homilies

later

if he

ticiple
Par-

safely
Great

the

in

much

in

hi and

may

writers

was

Past

from

far

gilt and

Such

Alanvs

it is found

to be

seems

alike.

Salopian bard

blind

to

is the

(ilia),both

had

of

writer

uch

or

of

talceth ;

not

have

must

she

he

lived

South

and
the

and

tahes
writer

and

mark

sure

gylt,combine

sets

Prefix

grey

slowly

Northern
old

both

heo

gehwyle

of the

if

(not being a

Northern

The

uses

or

gray

(our each)

always, clips the

uses

thei

ech
two.

writer

not

if he

forms

gult,two
If

North,

the

between

compromise
the

the

prevailsin

ile

or

Line

its way

made

much, such, is

in

may

ch,that replaced

The

but

old word

Great

word

the

where

once

Either

South.

the

one-

grai, we

or

of the

North

to the

grei,to

or

good English

now

proper
c,

it down

general set

the

Canterbury.

and

Worcester

were

year

represented

are

Colchester

and

English manuscripts
the

of

remaining one-third

which

marks

New

put two-thirds

two-thirds

between

various

are

the

141

distinguish

may

Danelagh,

these

to

Cultivation.

common
we

may

in 1180

of 1420.
written

both

as

Alcyn by
Allan

and

Kobert

Allen.

of

Old

142

and

Middle

EAST

THE

English.

DIALECT.

MIDLAND

(About 1120.)
all

Of
the

has

cities,none

earned

better

death, from

sick unto

home,
monks

frown.

Conqueror's

the

and

fromHereward

compiled,

was

had

that

Her

At

in Latin

not

from

up

grown

but

the

in

and

Angles, dwelling

Without

the

Peterborough

in the

history of

the

Chronicle

This

older

chronicles,

years

after

burnt

After

the

the

that

English
old

down

recorded

had

and

Abbey

in

ground

arose

doom
year,

chronicles

town

1116,

and

in

more

her

new

history-

our

the

English

generations
Rutland.

from

should

we

be

stand
under-

to
striving'

of

taken

of other

men

were

sent

Abbeys,

Peterborough
a

Peterborough annals,

which

fire,
were

both

date

has

and

in

After

happily

Walsingham.
to

out

and

from
many

place.

choir, which

Glastonbury

monks

old

marks

It

copied

were

by
of

hands.

English Philology.

noble

the

far

in it

set

were

Architecture

year

escaped

old

from

of many

mark

the

passages

events

the

to

English
that

the

the

whereby

bears

or

years,

under

came

many

not

her

tongue.

our

various

likely that

than

of

suffered

Chronicle,

for many

dark

that

English ;

union

bronght

Hastings

Peterborough

of Danes

groping

of

friends

English

was

Minster

his Danish

Turold.

Abbot,

French

field

the first Englishmen

among

were

the

the

Abbot

Her

Peterborongh.

of

homage

English patriot,the English scholar, and

architect, than

is

the

thus
must

copy
to

the

replace

have

been

Old

144
drove

becomes

iure

liht for

hetweox

sound

the

and

which

had

has

pronunciation);

panon, become

n"n/,

heftniiajappears
correctness, has
the

above
Wealas

in the

becomes

cli,as

Eastern

side of

"jh

later

came

often

(j

in

East

be

There

we

old

burh

from

is

this

1124,

aimed

1123

at

used,
the old

word

; thus

Gyt
Daeg

iett

though

old

was

known

get rid of

to

we

better

the

over

Our

ch.

being

tendency

sometimes

to York

than

latter

prevailed

London

used

more

scirreve

the

to

letter

find

(sherriff)

"

daei

(day)
iateward
(porter)1

"

changed

influence
see

oufter ;

year

who

the

as

English

our

letter to be

proper

becomes
Scir-gerefa

sometimes

as

monk,

The

stance
circum-

(a

the

Consonants,

the
for tli,

part of

Anglian

again ;

In

we

before

written

seen

year

"

words

upon

the

Geatweard

is

as

efre.

In

England,

to

laid aside

every

u, the

for

burch

Normans.

in

the

manuscript.

changes

to

old

some

soon

pronounced

with

(aut)

was

e,

Wales.

becomes

As

and

put

it is

thenen.

nun,

English

striking effect

old ofter

ce

becomes

confused

the

few

forward

more

It becomes

France.

the

in very

found

ou,

fir;

and

into

bed, sounded

cefre(semper)

eowe?

hetwix

changes
as

eu

]"eudom ;

into i, as

(jussit)becomes

heed

Conquest, comes

in

find

we

is turned

eo

combination

The

Fyr (ignis)appears

it now;

combination

hi.

leoht ; it sometimes

and

for

drop,

to

English.

eoiv, for

older

(your) :

for threo.

ore

Middle

Accusative

replacingthe

was

as

old

the

out

and

in this

upon

word

to

y, and
Standard

then

centuries

later, owing

English, changed back

gate, still called

by the Scotch

to

to

yett.

145

F
we

cjeafonbecomes

change
In

still

was

their

of

before

saw

Here

The

Anglian

is

are

cases

has

jumbled
those

with

luve

this

long vanished

endings ;

and

swallowing

Definite

The

thus

South.

case-

(now es)

the
h

Northern

before

fashion.

that

houses.

huses, our

of

um

and

the
all

up

Indefinite

together,

and

the

of Substantives

is

heeded.

longer

now

as

Adjectives

agreement

is

in

lufebecomes
in

Plural

Declensions.

of

We

Dative

replaced by

in the

marked

more

Plural

other

forms

and

gaven,

general break-up

Nominative.
the

is often

word

a
ive

the

Nouns
is

there

no

of

middle

in the

7c

There

begins

liquid now

old

the

lius became
is

curious

Mesas

it

instance

c.
replace the Old Southern
in
the
begins to drop,
approved

to

Old

146
of

the

be

found

in
on

this

side

word

in

the

1123,

year

'

tera)
older

is

(illam) is

we

we

pared

in

hire

as

from
The

Pirst's
the

have

in

the

tive
Geniformed

earlier, in

seen

The

should

; we

old

sicipre(dex-

right,just

to

way

in

long

Pronouns

(her) in

in the

still

the

as

before

made

the

the
to

year
hivile

of the

old

old

English

the

675,
]"e;

still

Verb,

as

lingersin

Definite

adoption of
written

In

Plural
Article

cases

the to
at

and
do

Confessor's

time.

JElc

656

ealra

We

find

(omnium).

se, seo,

becomes
\"cett
we

are

for them

Peterborough

is

(quisque)

Scotland.

from

year

(quicunque)

swa

duty

to

forged Charter

genders ;

day, is wonderfully changed

year

Plurals, just

of the

the

hwyle

Genitive

in its

follows

great change.

hi'

longer confined

no

Charter

teat.

swa

of the

account

but

forged

Accusative

; the

is
\"o?t

]"a ]ringf. ic

hopelesslyconfused
far

him.'

Relative

ilea,which

al instead

of

change

ealle

down

The

side

it ; thus

becomes

we

Rather

be

may

Singular antecedent,

use

inserted

half him

an

Neuter

The

find

Here
not

before.

or

giving

seen

Neuter

the

and

]"ishalf ]"a

sivi]"re.

There

1127.

be

mountains.'

(in Gothic, taihsivo)had

teso

for

room

on

now

was

read

; we

Accusative,

behind

one

on

say,

now

1129
the

Prepositions to

become

Preposition might easily be

beside, like

from

as

the

English.

Nouns

year

after this, a

Middle

which

the

last

the

in

way

muntes,

and

not

all.

in

Henry

what

it

was

the
in

147

Infinitive

The

Gospels.
we

In

l'icwills

find

The

secgan.

ge,

I will
segge,'

say

prefixed

the

Still, the

us.

Dorset

One

gehyrde.
in the

the

Somerset

and

But

dialect.
in

aft,as

which

the

used

older form

using

three

the

to follow

peasants

in

the

is

been

having

found

this

to

Thus,

a-heard?

the

in

old

as

different

fonder

was

of all in

mark

sure

Plural

of

Midland

of Verbs

ended

we

been

find the

forms

of
L

have

English fashion, an
shires

our

of

Verbs,

hyraft, hi lujraft. Some


common

of

down

paring

England.

great change

the a, has

some

hyranft;

675,

Participleupon

country

English Present

thought that, after

Danes,

after the

years

is the

hyraft,ae

we

the

I have

'

say,

have

settled.

never

Southern

to

which
Old

The

of

Participle,now

maimed

Teutonic

than

come

Shibboleth

the

Danes

No

times

now

we

their

for fourscore

ge in old

brian
Northum-

Participle,
gehaten,still lingeredon

of all its brethren.


this

the

should

Past

Danelagh

they

Past

Midland

this

slightly altered,

ge,

where

in shires

day

the

to

kind, forced

of the

in

as

Pope Agatho's forged Charter

drops altogether in
nothing

the n,

drops

now

here
may

cast

have

peasants

the

Present

on

out.

But

kept

the

the Rhine
Plural

to

and

Old

148

Middle

wit, Uebent, liebet,and


in

mind,

the

Mercian

lieben.1

understand

can

we

English.

Danelagh

Bearing1this parallelcase

how

the
end

to

came

Present

in

The

Peterborough Chronicle,in Henry

uses

haven,
lirjaen,

we

for the Plural

find lin for

even

of which
worth

have

we

habbefh

slight alteration

Northern

Another

as

we

Shibboleth

Participle.Tn
Tn

in

saw

of

Midland

this

often

was

South,

it ended

shall

We

"

South.

Winchester
A

We

"

of

'

motto,

standeth

the

East

To

see.

Old

Anglia
In the
take

an'

such

and
In

kept

G-arnett's

in the famous

Man.'
is

in

seen

the

it \on celmihti,' be it
comes

like, where

the year

is still alive

Plural
is

wwft

Almighty ;' nence

singinde.

malceth

Manners

thanked

Verbs.

sinrjende.

form

of 656, fiancod

hanged to him,

Danish

ande.

of the English -Verb

idiom

the

ende,

and

soon

the Present

forged Charter
to

the

singande.

standen

Southern

The

strange

standes
We

"

form

in Lancashire.

be

singing.

Midland.

Midland

the

Danish

in

North.

This

is the

in anas,

the

stand

example, we

would

Active

supplanted by
we

be

dialects

Lincolnshire

hide, as

Hush-

Gospels.

this ended

in

in the

Humber,

it retained

English form, though

form,

Northumbrian

English

the North

the

the

liggebh,
English. The

Old

the

of Verbs

would

of the

form, spoken beyond

Ugges,haves,

form.

form

reign,

Midland

instance

of

in aft.

not

the First's

is the

an

Southern

The

Gospels.

and

en

of the Present

This
lirjrjen.

already seen

Plural

1123

Essays,p.

we

stands
142.

modern

our

form

hit

h*

new

personal
Im-

wees

don

;' hence

the

Pope

'I

do

you

'

\ter mihte

Adverbs

new

Charter

of 6"6

remains

in

old

The

into

continually;' in

at

deal,two
as

in the

in

adding
As

and

the

in

sense

the

This

the

sibbe,

for

gets

now

becomes

used

]uitthat
it did

not

Our

ham.

old

ymbe

is used

'

Many

to

this

went

new

words

to

the

In

year

(about)

three
common

was

forged
miles

to
to

of enim

1123,

also

Mr

Charter

us

new

we

for

'

We

speech.
here
the

position
Pre-

]"am

read

or

that

against it ;'for\aw

was

now

see

modern

our

Hence

peace.'

for

that

sense,

in

hit dide

hyny

have

in

earlier.

about

comes
be-

now

Conjunction by dropping

the

much

Scandinavian

se

out

ye

used

for in

twiwa

employed

read,

we

bishop

abutan

ivel

wcere

English delights

to

did it to

follow.

been

is

and

ivel is used

follows

last,for the

have

\e would

for

strengthening for

the

he

cer

or

sense

new

of anon,

and

Gene

see

king

What

'

well-known

here

Middle

The

construction;
'

suppress

form

1127

year

French

to havene

the

Prepositions,we

to

the

body,'

twiges(twice).

and

(once)

cenes

one

it took

(soon).

son

in

gets

Adverbs

old

to

es

'

meant

it

nigh.

well

old

becomes

forged

(igitur)is

old for \mm

chosen

are

the

in

1121),a Pope dies,and

Popes

new

wceroti.

wherefore ; ivhyfor

1122

year

South

In

yet dead.

not

the

the

;' in

once

formerly

1127

hesitating

for \"
cer

our

]"cerfore
; struct,

had

an

of

derstand
un-

In

The

for hwi

The

dialects.

some

on

seen

are

to

wit.'

to

year

is the forerunner

changed

now

same

149

made

was

be\)ohtehim.

lie

in the

stands

ben

Some

conies,

Reflexive,

the

stands

'

pa/pe to understanden

bone

Cultivation.

English:

Middle

is used

encroaching
of

656, the

for
on

cer

the

phrase

hamlet.'
and

to

our

brethren

on

Old

150

and

Middle

English.

the

live

mainland,

for hundreds
books.1

in the

on

of years

Thus

Mr.

win

can

farmer

insect.

such

word

the
word

buzzardclock

as

to

peasantry
various

insects.

gloss of

wondrous

We

shall

Dutch

meet

writing until
in

the

strangers

are

hard

with

England
Hubba

to

is to
in the

North

the

in the
of

the
of

us

Old

the

should

line,we

lean

to Friesland.

werren

bcerlic,our

form

our

in

for the

seen

first time

of

the

year

the

Low

Latin

words, which

See Grarnett's

no

963.

taliare

war

68.

safest distinction
Line

crop

in the
;

this reminds

As

Gnawlcce
a

In

old

ledge)
(acknow-

forgery inserted
might

account

barley, replaces the


in

to

up

Latin, militare.

be

in

expected,

(secare),singularis
(aper),and

good classic writer would

Essays, p.

with

or

Scandinavia

to

Thus,

find wyrre,

we

that

to

came

Sundering

words

the

it is thus

the

are

of

Century

Great

in

that

word

Perhaps

still lingers in Scotland.

Compare
such

Fifth

the

the

mind

Dutch

new

account

in

Century.

in

this

1118,

year

is

many

gist

opposite case,

here, which

Hen

the

to

Some

writers

Teutonic

strange Teutonic

of

1124, the

the

whether

for

Fourteenth

others

Danish

tell

our

down

set

and

replaced

by

by

German

akin

not

were

also

used

the

chuleicli,scarabreus.'2

Thirteenth,

words

in

stand

Old

dictionary.

keep

of

case

which

certain

on

to

an

Anglo-Saxon

Ninth

the

in

'

to

of his

found

English words,

Twelfth,
these

Centuries, when

often

other

many

the

find

we

age,

be

it is tacked

turning

on

High German,

and

found

But

into

mouth

substantives,

other

many

their way

clock for

can

Anglo-Saxon dictionaries,though

folk

common

into the

Tennyson puts

Lincolnshire
No

they

ere

of the

months

employ.

Old

152
the

was

which

hitherto

altered; about
becomes

most

this

German

in

the

of

the

sentences,

Verb

it.

had

This

often

was

now

Peterborough English

construction.

Our

rise

least, to

at

governed by

yetir 1125

easy

respect

cumbrous

case

the

English.
construction

our

been

the

last,after

in

Middle

simplifying of

had

come

and

tongue

above

far

her

was,

High

sister.

EAST

MIDLAND

DIALECT

OF

1120.

Extracts

from

in the

serted

Da

the

telice scolde
should
se

kyning

to

a^fter

pone abbode

after

the

and

cumon.

he

]"e for mine


thee

sotrl's

secgon

for hwi.

say

why

Oswi

Min

an

leyan
Petre.

Oc

min

Oc

Peada

broker is

f aren
gone

ic

wile

of

'may

work

] asrto

aguostlice

on

diligently

gold

it

will

well

min

leoue

and

loue

to

swa

Crist

as

freond.

}mt hii
they

to

werce.

friend
Sancte

and

swa

life

]"egebidden. la leoue
]"ere

freond

ylory

liue.
]"isse

from

yray

wirce

sent

]"e wael

to Christ's

minster

cwsed

wile

and

Criste

speedily

geseond

have

loved

mynstre

asues-

ic hit

need

broftor

But

wolde.

Irothcr

ongunnen

(in-

quoth

leof Ssexulf. ic haue

]"urfe.and

saule

Da

did

so

La

that he

dyde.

swa

come

]"an abbode.

J"ethe

allot

Lo, local
refter

Charter

"

-king

him

to

kyning

se

sent

forged Peterborough

656)

year

seonde

Then

and

ic

]"e wile

finden

the

siluer. land

and

ahte.

goods

and

al

]"etpaerto

Middle

behofeS.

Da

feorde

behoves

Swa

English

he

spedde

Crist

him

swa

hu$e.

pa wasrd

he

sefter alle

peode

his

through

and
peegne. aefter a3rcebiscop.

his

thanes

people

setter his

biscopes. and

sefter

geond

seonden

he bade

glad

right

peet

heard

glaed. heot

swifte

se

was

hi

few

When

ready.

said

in fenna

pet

swa

]"a kyning heorda

Da

gare.

years

gesecgon.

to wircene.

ongan

granted

pat mynstre

wass

153

began

as

geare

and

home

went

So

al

ham.

abbot

se

Cultivation.

eorles.

aafter alle pa

and

those

pe Gode

lmiedon.

hi

pat

scoldon

him

to

and

cumene.

that

come

pa dsei hwonne

seotte

And

hallow

ic bidde

ealle
all

pat

cumen.

mote

our

gift

may

on

aetbeorstan

pet

of other

heavenly
hit ece"5.

ece

lif. and

Swa

swa

swa

willen

hi

hi wilen

hwa

swa

ure

gife ouper

wansie

him

seo

the

lessens

gateward
him

swa

me

Whosoever

men

iateward

heofenlice

swa

gyfe wansiaS,

manne

good

they

the eternal

'punishment.

godene

standen.

ece

wite.

ece

escape

opre

pa

in

partakers

be

ouper k3mingas pa sefter


or
kings

breore.

gyfe

hi mine

beon

cnmen.

that

nre

delnimende

beon

pa pa sefter me

those

hi mine

beon

sunes.

pat mynstre gehalegon.

when

day

set

scolde

man

seo

on

And

heofenrice.

swa

hwa

swa

heaven-kingdom
heofenlice

iateward

on

heofenrice.

increases

Das
These

sindon
are

pa witnes

pe pser wseron.

and

pa pat gewriten
wrote

Old

154
mid

here

with

Middle

and

Cristes

fingre on

ietten

and

mele.

their
.

Drihtnes

writ

here

seffcer

on

DCLXIIII.

acennednesse

Lord's

ge writ

waes

mid

agreed

cross

Des

tunge.

English.

]?es

nre.

kyningas

birth

Wulhferes

Deusdedit
seouej^ende gear. ]?esaercebiscopes
seventh

IX

Leidon

gear.

They
and

laid

al cristene

gedon.

THE

it

TO

hus

freme

to

Gif
.

Gif

his eadinesse.

God

ne

for him

ne

his merh"e.

eorSe

tiar felle upe

brihtnesse.

anglene

blisse. and

strenhc]"e.and
1

Old

an

time.

217.

Driginal one

These
of

of

the

go

mede

to

ne

him

Heo

and

all

hiht

and

of' him.

spece

Gif

delende.

non

of

nere

swete

al

swete.

ac

hiscefte.

lufede.

is wel

hine

of

him

swa

an

is hefone

liht and

hiscefte

gimston.

hope, richtwisen

frouer.1

edited

English Homilies,

Society),
p.

leom.

mancenne

niedfulle

ne

Hit

giure hierte.
loftes

ne

come,

him

]"atwe

seije alle

non

hine

non

him

to

Gode.

hot

us

uabt

spece.

spece.

non

and

wile

specene! penche jie aelc word

huni

is

1120.)

]?ohtof

ne

nof

wees

MIDLAND.

EAST

a.d.

to fultume.

man

of him

non

]"at fser

Amen.

THE

and

smaje

and

non

hine 'he lufede.

to

almihtig

of him

curs.

say

(About

lufie. and

J"ingundyde

hit seiS alle.

hlaford

halgane
sai?^

CONTRAST

Ure

ealre

then

be

so

and

curs,

folces. ]"eani

beo

swa

done

]"a Godes

on

to

by

Dr.

p. 245.

Morris
The

transcriber's,written

(Early English Text


I give above
passage
long

after

iElfric's

Middle

God

155

oSer

anhelend.

let hi habben

ajen

chim,

221.

Forgang

]m

235.

He

223.

pa

225.

Ic wille halden

"

Cultivation.

himinde

Seraphim

219.

Page

English

cweS

tredwes

owes

wunder

to chiesen.

westm.

worder.

,,

,,

deadlice.

bo$e

weran

Ic wille
233.

He

mi

settan

wed

for"5teh alse is

us

235.

Barn

of

warn

Gif

of hire

239.

ic fader

Wic

geie, wic

Southern
than

his

his death.
of

sentence

of

the

written

these
A

his,wherein

Eucharist,

homilies

English

.iElfric's
were

of

versions,

to

See

erasures

Faber's
made

land

long

it is

made

of

true,

upholds
of

was

the

the

Lanfranc,
in

turned

time

this is headed

We

Latin

idea
Tran-

seventy
But

England.1
into

have

of the

by

after

Teutonic

thought sound,

once

the

old

English of

newfangled

which

centuries.'

about

up

Charters

in

our

more

the year

in the

great champion

succeeding

After

homilies

overturns

than

see, is far

may

Peterborough.

teaching was

more

drawn

he

doctrine
the

later,was

otherwise

and

anyone

popular

sweep,

wurS.

ic lefie.

longe as

many

were

clean

substantiation,a
years

dredness

English,as

had

and

day,

alse

the dialect of

1000, ^Elfric

ham.

laftieres moclie.

Birne

archaic

innoS.

ogen

Wer
,,

-This

habbeo".
siel]"e

we

,,

(covenant).
cyldren.

"

Feder,

ti wif.

J?eand

,,

the

the
one

and

corrupt
of

forged
extract

his

these

borough
Peter-

given

Difficulties
of Romanism
(Third Edition, p. 260)
in iElfric's text by theologians of a later age.

as

Old

156

is like

the

in hand,

now

forms

older

se,

thus, instead

Dative

in

Plural

often

shire

King

Alfred, is

; this ie

We

Danes

many
the

Waterford

long

that from

work

Homilies

that

before

(manere).

ending
and
well

an

common

in Kent

London

them

that

thither

to

by
and

Havre

would

It

day.

little clipping

some

resulted

have

the

as

know

we

city,drawn

settlement

by

similar

many

later,except

Canute's

in the present

pared

Infinitive

of the

place

as

away,

do (facere),
(venire),%ief(dare), write (scribere),

come

abide

the

the

Inert
(eligere),

cliiesen

allured

must

old

ie, used

compiled

King

the

gelt(scelus)point to

appear

in that

the

of Verbs

the

to

(esse),with

were

this Danish

see

we

for

find

is often

to

as

perhaps pitch upon

paring of English words

and

in

not

settled

were

bienn

does

attraction

same

seem

found

may

these

place where

given

combination

The

here

with

endings

adapted

were

(pluvia),and

Essex.

and

be

may

guess

Kent.

near

occur

the

of,and

cian
Mer-

English

Genitive

old

like/er (ignis)and

Forms

some

words,

Homilies

these

(cor), Hen

with

have

we

of the

South

meet

the

though

um,

clipped.

speech.

sometimes

we

the form

replaced by
where

and

si,]"at;

work

fairlywell by the Old


of the Peterborough Se, we

holds

Danelagh,

English,

clippingprocess,

The

far to the

written

contractions,

Southern

the

Herodotus.

of

being

dislike of the

and

Ionic

the

resembles

its stern

Thucydides

its love of vowels

with

are

of

Attic

English.

Midland, with

East

The

above.

Middle

and

of the

even

say

In

Infinitive

later ; the

en,1 and

thirtyyears

parts of

other

lingered on

poetic Earl

there

later still in

is
a

an

common

of

South, the

the
until

Caxton's

Surrey

instance

writes

of the

letter.

The

same

old

press,
'

I dare

form

endings

of

Middle

other

have

we

the

Plural

the

old

in

latter

Danish

word

re

form

the

word,

is

the

former

219

Old

dropping
as

to the

there

Danish

of

use

seofontig.

the Danish

so

only

sefentijfi

liund

of

explanation

an

of

Danish

the

English
out

of

North,

not

see

but

teonfte ; the

true

into ivas,

strong token

we

go

corruption

case

(decimus),

as

given

were

ive

remark

ivces

Another

tiofte

(lex) was

laga (our law)

in the

South.

replaces the

p. 229

The

due,

is in page

English

intruding into
at

is

the

to

influence

Old

into

ceer

I would

Singnlar number

wceron

157

find

we

Verb,

last

this

the

number

Cultivation.

clipped ;

are

to

turned

diphthong

the

the

As

(erant).

wer

that

Verb

of the

tenses

and

English

the

older

word.

New

forms

found

are

North, such

in the

have

which

here

Gothic

Shakspeare

'

has

digged

coming

before

the old

Aryan

danta

p.

do

to

241

is used

most

Northern
have

we

not

"We
is

cither

or

iver

often

hitherto

French

the
i.

found,

Our

as

North

ifulled

is

Genitive.

in

\eigneand

in

his.'

old

of Danish

sound

of

should

ai preserves

and

ei in words

it is sometimes

ei here

the

he

dislikes

Oj
The

ei^fter;

this.1

kept

(ubi)

ifte.

tooth. Hw"r

in

as

(in

had turned

this time

of the

spoken

ibi

into

English

our
toft,

Relative

ei is

keep the true old


hopelesslydegraded
the

into

freely instead

very

is shortened

before

tontha

l]"efunte

pronunciation,whether
n

in the

long

haft

(man), for to, abec

i' the dark.'

combination

have

of

or

for

duty

read

we

th, and

\ing, lie

na

wercte, me

aback)

ibulcai,our

made

he

been), had,

hath

peared
ap-

)m alist (debes),bofte,bread,

as

for (enim), \erfor,


ano]"er, seift,
anon,

(he

already

be
the

Northern

in-

like

but

given
sounded
true

old

as

eight;
a

puzzle

in

like the German


sound.

Old

158
fluence, as

mark

now

other

old

The

ai

became

or

eg ;

y into

and

affected

forms

of

sets

such

Aoglo- Saxon

In

swylc.

for

bigan, bugan

in

the works

that

North,

the

found

to

Great

Sundering Line;

replacedby
It is curious

to mark

among

greatly
the

use

mycel

and

often

find

two

to

and

by

of

to fix the

vowels,

that
near

these

cricketers

like

only, who

the
are

London.

Dictionarythe
words

i is

vowel

South, of

also

if

shire where

The

the

strange

in Stratmann's

survives

gult.

or

old

difference

shires

we

wild, ivuht,hyrig,burug,

Shrewsbury

old word

sunne,

swipes.

"

various

taken

This

near

in

forms

sure

become

has not

the
we

the

here

that

we

forward
hence-

turning of
l

(p. 114)

ages

the

compiled.
it is

chiese

see

of

help

vowel

the

bydel;

used

was

change

this

out, would

sometimes

yfeland

is for

dictionaries

be

it may

other

East), for

swipen

instead

question were

the

and

that

as

the

was

old

namely,

word;

one

carefullysearched

English,except

and

of wceter

sometimes

on

South

here

we

This

swujpen.

seen.

hi) replaces]"ds;

cwic, mycele, and

much

Southern

The

the

for the old mceg

cvat ;

more,
;

be

to

instead

mej

of the

change

Standard

our

of

dialect ;

mucele, and

cwuce,

and

becomes

once

npon

written.

diphthong

ledde.

Essex

find

Thus

u.

The

mai

mark

(a

or

pes (the Latin

Southern

both

see

bearing

forms, here

into

meter.

ie appears

We

ceosan.

of

were

bedele,instead

and

Alfred's

mark

and

we

in Kent

for

they

corrupted

became

sometimes

King

where

letters and

e, for

into

evyl

as

(duxit)becomes

hand, Imdde

find

and

(manducavit)

est

English.

Homilies,

place

new

water

(possum) ;
turned

the

was

ce

find both

we

Middle

in these

seen

question of

the

and

three

cun,

fur,

make

good

i6o

Old

and

Middle

English.
c^

The

yet,

the

are

has

English

of

sound
like

the

from

borrowed
found

here,

sound, which

it still

h is of

dropped

or

its

held

hope

that

sound

of

the

we

also

to

be

years

constantly

softened

into

Participles.

The

g, and

it lasted

old ge

and

words

we

fields,both
There

is

letter 5 appears

to

This

of

words
curious
this

coming

from

last

word

Fourscore

acennung.

g and

the

Participle.

on

or

an

Indefinite

is often
Article

innoli

the

pared
is

now

was

down

to

old

years

later

into

Past

for the
store

of

yield

of

old

the

baleful

min

verbal

aforesaid
effect upon

is much

g is

old hard

our

the

a, and

first found

140

in his acennende

for

also

was

gildan (solvere).

stands

es

of

%eur

of the

letters

the

The

The

je and

adds

the

The

us

and

next

replace the

to work

interchange of
old Active

drop

beginning

see

interchangeof

Let

day.

for

guild and

(quid)

tivies ; this

letter

talk both

may

; we

new

see

modinesse.

words

the

years

we

never

and

at
i, especially

for 350

eower.

(generatio);
noun

or

took
lands.
Low-

; ivat

am

become

become

to

on

are

wrongly

I said before, replaces agen.

as

; a%ene$,

added

often
words

will

agen

(bis) has
Peterborough tiviges

New

undergoes change, as

and

words

Scotch

till this

oje'S(debemus)

see

of

for

(sum)

The

genoh

and

; it is here

London

hivat.
liwcet,

is another

in the

speakers of good English


h in

There

following vowels

beginning

in

Standard

Old

the

keeps

to

hwyle,ham

ground

Peterborough

ayines

kin

near

at

for liwa,wic for

has

liclite;

as

our

Peterborough, in

at

as

this ch when

The

used,

South.

the

%eworhcte ;

in

sparinglyfound

c, most

corruptions that

main

two

eh

hard

the

at

and

burch, richtwis, and

mingled

iva

of the

changes

clipped;
shortened

our

and

]"inare

Middle

down

cut

into mi

(p. 241)

stanent

English

Scottish

and

1300.

We

have

names.

The

/is

also

is also had.

there

as, the

speediestof

Homilies

forms

is thrown

out

of siva, for

were

dropped

at the

becomes

beriel,whence

On
in

the

which

the

Nouns

cildru

time,

are

well

as

as

In

here

'

you

followed

latst

whole

sentence

must

be there

The

of is

the

old his

giftof

his

used

more

were

the

Spirit);

that

there

letter

is

is

say,

for the

first

Substantive

is

the
is also

new

at

study

ever

old
;

we

giefof

sicer

England,

hi

alle be

in former

would

very

into

in en, of which

'

day,' a

of

the

now

with

u,

turned

Adjective, pat
time

changes

the

is found

231

freelythan

gastes %ife,but

further

to the

Plural

is worth

quoted
to

the

should

we

eel,

my

The

South

The

page

latst to

The

find

Hatrede

the

have

moche

The

fid (p. 233).

in sound

we

dropped altogetherafter
)"a de$ie per

the

hurial.

changes

fond.

hate.

in these

longe as

later.

our

cyldren.

so

into

then

swylc, hivylc,and

North, always loved

Germans

proper

ing
clipp-

find

formerly ended,

becomes

the

unlike

comes

the

the

word, for hyrgels(sepulchrum)

themselves,

many

en;

of the

from

words

We

alse
sa

fortyyears

come

end

turning

alse,and

sivice,ivice, and

changes

to

in

out

become

now

read

we

thrown

into

and

long se

as

much

so

changes.

our

like alse

moreover

which

all

in

(habet) replaceshcef8;

down

cut

Miller

underwent

word

no

ealsiva ; it is here

as

I is

But

and

out; haft

cast

mel-

Gloucestershire,about

Milner

still both

becomes

mylnstdn

in

mulle

Lowlands, became

161

miln, still found

the

after this

old

the

ti\

Cultivation.

the

days
latest.'

still say

; we

usage
see

his

pe

not

of

to.

only

gaste (the

of (sure of), where

Old

62

the

the Latin

of expresses
A

Alfred's

since

appeared
find

the

first

Hwd
yore

and

Genitive

yet,the

hivcet in Old
for

used

qua

237,

page

In

fa.

in the

Dative

English
.

the

1300

year

Gerundial

aliquid;

beoft

Infinitive

tive,
Nomina-

we

that

que

with

is

had

ode

in

wat

further

it

see

now

icome, watfrend,

Enough

As

before

que

meet

what.

the

saw

Romance

shall

we

of this

development

the

the

of
but

qui ;

to

not

We

to

tives.
Rela-

influence.

hwd,

sense.

read, that they

we

quis,not

of

we

employed

so

French

only

answers

qua,

Latin

English

been

under

in the Relative

used

are

not

in Pronouns

New

our

never

the

come

and

this sicer had

place

of

one

to

now

(anent)

taken

had

hwylc

tongue had

by

has

of

use

answered

they

de

English.

time.

startlingchange

now

our

Middle

and

step

followed

now

innoh

donne

to

(p. 239).
There
true

hide, as

as

the

end

of Past

^ecnowe

This
and
I

1000,

in
we

have

South

is the

short time

prevailedall

may

before.

said

come

is

macede

for ponere

it is

In

and

specimen

of

to

; don

blifte
our

hine

icome

Danish

(p. 233)

make

into

for

merry.

gewesen.

England

such

Homilies

the

at

(ventum),

ibi

and

ix. 31.

Southern

broke,'

these

St. Matt.

icome

as

over

(venire),
hine

led

'

Still,so early

in

find

others, such

still hear

Participleending

clippingthe

here

we

the

see

; we

birnende.

and

that

used

old

(notum),

This

sentence

Verb

utgangynde

Participles;

(venerunt),
three.

the

find

we

of the

mark

Another

for

bimind

year

the

Shibboleth, the Active

Southern

in

in

changes

some

are

like, as
find

we

come

(ventum),
clipping.
shows
The

the
verb

piesternessis

all

The
struction
con-

don

is

in p. 239.

English: Cultivation.

Middle

In

English,

the older

One

here
cliange,

seen

An

1 must

return

to it.

in this

period

of Middle

here

both
This
we

so

and

ealswa

before
lines

few

this

its

becoming
as
(ut).

the

strange

so

we

Latin

sometimes,
into two

or

sometimes

the

of

only

not

parent,

in

ut

that

meaning. Thus,

own

Chaucer

uses

sentence.

same

lah

Se

Frisian

tell

lah

find

hundred

the

verb

We

to

in

prepositionout

of

THE

to

on,

we

'

Hit

belong
in English

bi(5 unheh

Scandinavian

Fourscore

light
time

in

years

on

almost
bi

loogh

compounded

adjective.

DIALECT.

MIDLAND

EAST

to

seem

first time

this.

Chaucer's
an

Thorpe

lajjtcnn(tolower) ; and

further

thus

article

Mr.

lage.' The

akin

words

years

142,

for the

beoS

hele-wages
have

p.

lage (humilis):

or

delude

find

we

the

that

us

Grave, printedby

The

on

which

grammars,

consonant

Here

word

(below).
new

fonnd

English word
English, is splitup

Anglo- Saxonica,'

time.

later,we
iwo

clearly,is

with

for the

as

an

the

and

of

but

his 'Analecta

and

be

may

Old

repeated. Some of the


youth of England, still

becomes

to

'

is called bifurcation
or
two-pronging.Thus
splitting
and
find
an
a
splittingup into one
a,
process

often
the

find

(etiam),

also

life

very

different forms, each

three
we

live

to

see, deaft siuelten.

further

now

'

163

(About 1160.)
We
to

the

skip thirty years, and


neighbourhood of Rutland.
now

Chronicle

seems

to have

The

more

return

Peterborough

laid aside for many

been
m

once

years

Old

164
after

1131.
of

some

have

the

with

worst

As

she

her

checks, for

Peterborough

Chronicle.

Their

corrupt

but

the

sterlingstuff

has

groaning

when

that

went

on

with

their

more

and

before

set

of power,

Monastic

hundred

becoming

marvel

and

over,

seven

picture they
a

was

(this has lasted,

than

was

; we

Stephen
were

course

monks

under

known

ever

days

more

language

King Stephen's reign is


the

evil

happy

years1), the

more

time

winters

these

as

begun

few

but

this

at

was

nineteen

soon

had

English.

sorrows

the

to

England

Middle

England

come

King.

and

and

shows

often

writer

ot

us

had

in

him.

English, which

The

the year

about

the

North, such
the

u,

(gotten); in
clipped,for
encroaches
this

last

write

0, in who

instead

of c,

such

as

it

is sometimes

replaces the
and

down

snake.

clippedInfinitive,
namm

is gone.

into

get

"

The

h is-

Southern

hit ; the

replace the

onne,

cut

all

of

us

still pronounce

we

alse, hi

replace hivile and


more,

smoke

as

the

from

that remind

last the inflection

a, for

upon

weigh, dates

find forms

(satis),
a^enes,

two

wile and

to

now

(quicunque)

sua

forms

came

these

are

here

we

sei ; also onoh

cumm,

wua

though

the South

From

an

as

We

eall ; k is found

former

1160.

we

a.

old

mar,

The

is

treuthe and na justise. Still


clipped: there is both nan
the Midland
Participlein end is kept, as ridend. Enough,
Infinitive.
in the South, is followed
as
by the Gernndial

The

old

treuthe
the

year
1

the

Even

good

eow

and

is

treothe

1137.
our

estate

changed

few

for

We
civil

into

eu

and

treowft,towards

still keep both


wars

of the realm.

eo

have

for

the

truth

commonly

see

we

both

beginning

and

of

troth.

in the end

furthered

Middle
As

to

far from

slep,not

"an

(should) replaces
Nearo

(tenuit).

is seen,

ou

much
house

and

(hus),

u,

the

The

true

the

French

extended
East

is

is

i ;

now

becomes

most

h ;

The

word

this

winiaird

and

the

the

home-born

written
As

of

sometimes

in

as

cw,

6.

old ]"and

old

ic

"

(ego)
(ilia)

seo

In
of

the

letters,

supplants
prevailed

soon

London

to

in the

middle

shire.
Yorkof

the

letter

word
; bi

foreignqu
iv

in the

i, as

b is inserted

quarterns ;
A

or

th

is cast

in

sometimes

new

ftuman,

replaces

is often

out, when

found

for

suster

is

(soror).

Substantives

mauled

out

yields to

]wml"es;

French-born

sadly

This

thrown

nefan

becomes

peasantry still keep this Teutonic


our

of castelas.

the Alfred's

in

seen

addition.

from

England

is

combination

speech

our

to France.

(Bristol),and lien,replace Bricgstow and

for swuster
to

see

iaf(dedit).The

becomes

good

curious

g is sometimes

liggen;
which

East

Bristoive

most
we

(ofier)of

inserted, for

sloghen (they slew).

as

the

over

is

(ur),

Gloucestre,

due

The

in

now

common

instead

hand,

1138

of the year

g and
all

(she) ;

be

so

our

oufter

in Consonants.

other

in

of contraction

castles,written

the

on

must

held

tion
combina-

find

the

sculde

encroach

to

now

ou

system

change

sco3

account

of this

Midland

word

There

We

placed
re-

in

as

The

seen

following

use

u, for
e,

end

now

such.

many

now"er, Poitou, Angou,


1120

is

as

often

slep becomes

on

nareu.

the

in

was

is

becomes

eo

into

turned

old

spac

165

ce

becomes

it

sceolde ;

which

the

upon

he

was,

asleep;

our

is

Vowels

of

bare, he

he

; as

Cultivation.

combinations

new

by

English

the

nephews.

the

neves;

Irish

form, nevvies,rejecting
The

Dative

fetreplacesbi fotum

in
we

um

also

is
see

66

Old

midfceitmen.

The

; in

confused

and

Dative

the year

prior',in 1135, pais


Verbs

In

the

of

them

employ
Gerund

made

with

idiom

and

catch

in

the

New

(hanged)
in

found

already

als, and
before

is the

becomes

of

the

these

for

fader

out, which

is

in the

-T

Strong

1137

year

intransitive

henged
is often

Perfects

two

the

of construction
hon

hencj;

of

eighth words

freedom

is

read,

we

At

him

and

transitive

with

to

this
the

'

some

hint

form

of

this

newfangled

end

prefixed to

here

with

result;

at

come

which
prefixedto celc,

is

itself a, another

But

this became

of\e
What

within

before.

often

met

The

dide, and

Alfred.

is left

verb

the

continuation

helde

seventh

osfre(semper)

contained

usually
also

the

him

time,

1140,

by King

the future

jumbling

is

to

was

day.

our

appeared

mani

the

(every)

cevric

was

between

of

sense

dide

after

used

he

he

old

beginning

rightfulPerfect

word

The

here

the

the

been

found,

is confused

Perfect

read,

in

the

Tyndale

as

we

before

is

English.
its

freelyin

alle ofire ; this

glimpse of

verb, and
this

the

sune;

for

stand

we

In

1140

year

hejiim

should

have

employed long

of the

end

nsed

are

fare);

would

to

an

men.

1132,

him

alse he dide

iafhim

the

is

In

hopelessly

are

abbotrice
read, iaf]"cet

might, just

this Infinitive.

not
he

cuthe

later.

faren (he

Accusative

and

he mahede

and

may

English.

1132, we

and

can

old

Middle

of words.
other

of the

scribes ; '

now

has

word

ever

word

The

words,

we

of semper

addition

practicelater.

common

last

at

alsuilc

as

We

have
of

read

castles.
was

before

altego"dere.A

written
new

ealgeador (omnino)

phrase,nevre

mare,

now

is found

Old

68

he took

'

yrkja means
for 1135

which

now

1135

took

others

is

There

her

In

castles

old

hear

we

but

Iceland.

to

replaced the

Devonshire)

scatter, akin

word,

new

King Stephen, we

schetteren.

are

(the

fang (a

that

King
Dutch

the

to

told,in the year


is

that
sotlice,

treasure, but scatered

had

and

helden

this take

of

senses

many

II. toe to ]"erice.

Henry

held)

and

stilllingersin

that

verb

\"a ofire and

tocan

see

we

glance at

English books,

England

to

common

show

Old

in

to wessien.

toe

found

not

are

are

David

In the Chronicle

work.'

to

Dictionary will

Cleasby'sIcelandic
take, which

English.
"v

(began)

read

we

Middle

and

'

1137,

dispersedit

like

fool.'

from

Extract

the

pa the suikes
When

softe

god

and

Hi

ac

hi

years

na

iustise

and

was

ne

him

hadden

treuthe

ne

hi

dide. ]?a diden

they
athes

and

maked

manred

oaths

made

hi

alle

heolden.

alle

for-

waeron

held

and

here

treothes

forloren.

for asuric

forfeited
his castles

man

then

but
sworen.

the

later.

milde

no

nan

for

Chronicle

homage
suoren.

1160.

understood

good
wunder.

twenty

undergseton ]"athe

traitors

and

OF

Peterborough

about

1137, compiled

year

DIALECT

MIDLAND

EAST

makede

and

agaenes

him

every

heolden

rice

man

mighty
and

fylden

against
)"e land

ful

of castles.

Hi

suencten

oppressed

suySe ]?a uurecce


sore

wretched

EnglisJi: Cultivation.

Middle

of ]"eland

men

castelweorces.

mid

pa ]"ecastles

nuaren

castle-works

maked.

fa fylden hi mid

69

were

and

deoules

yvele

pa

men.

devils

hi

namen

fat ani god hefden.


f e hi wenden
had
they thought
property

}"amen

took

be nihtes

be daeies. carlmen

and

and

wimnien.

bathe

and

diden
put

men

heom

in

prisun

efter

them

pined

for

untellendlice

pined

smoked

nsenre

uuaeren

ne

hi

as

they

heom

mid

martyrs

nan

torture

alse

heom

tortured

pining, for

unspeakable
swa

sylver.and

and

gold

no

Me

wseron.

fal smoke,

henged
me

bi the

up

fet and

bi the thnmbes.

henged

foul
other

bi the

hefed.

hengen bryniges

head

or

dide

and

cnotted

her

on

fet.

hung burningthings
here

strenges abuton

hseved.

and

uurythen

head

fat it gaede

to

to

]"e haernes.

far nadres
where

drapen

and

swa.

killed

in

fat

was

chest

scaerpe

sharp
him

heom

stanes

and

snakes

pades

inne.

waeron

Sume

hi diden

in

hus.

crueet

and

scort

naren

and

undep.

f erinne.

and

dide

and

f rengde ])e man

ferinne. J"at

crushed

all ]"e limes.

In

mani

of

]?e castles

waeron

limbs

grjm ]"atwasron

hadden

]"atis

shallow

rachenteges.fat

twa

other

neck-bonds
men

and

house

short

broke

lof and

quar-

toads

stones

braecon

in

prison

Some

ceste

an

diden

Hi

adders

heom

twisted

brains

went

terne.

Me

onoh

enough

to

baeron

onne.
one

thre

or

pat

was

sua

maced.

170

Old

and

fat is feastned

to

beom.

fa

an

English.
diden

and

his hals.

and

f rote

mannes

Middle

scserp iren abuton

an

pat he

nowider-

myhte

ne

neck

wardes

sitten

ne

lien

ne

direction

Mani

in any

hi

al

iren.

fat

but

lie

fusen

baeron

slepen.oc

ne

mid

drapen

hunger.

canne

ne

ne

thousands

mai

tellen alle f e wnndes.

wrecce

men

wile

f is land,

on

Stephne

and

king,

was

alle

ne

fat lastede

and

hi

pines fat

fe

it

aevre

fa XIX.

diden
wintre
and

uuerse

was

worse

unerse.

1154.

On

"

fis gser

f e king Steph. ded. and

waerd

be-

was

byried fer

his

wif

Fanresfeld.

feet

minstre

ded.

Sa

don

of er bute

was

his

and

hi

sae.

micel

bebyried

wa3ron

makeden.

f e eorl beionde

god. for f e

sune

and

pa fe king
dnrste

ne

nan

eet

was:

man

eie of him.
awe

The

year

1135.

Micel

fing

JEuric
Wna

THE

man

rsevede.
.

his

bare

sua

cumm.

sone

by r then.

MIDLAND.

EAST

THE

TO

CONTRAST

scnlde

(About 1160.)1
Ure

f et
weo

fet

p. 55.

Old

feder f et in heouene

is,

is al soS nil iwis.


moten

to

to Hue

and

f eos

English Homilies, First

weordes

to saule

Series

iseon.

gode

beon.

(Early English

Text

Society);

Middle

beon swa
pet weo
pet lie beo feder

pet

his
and

iborene.

sunes

icorene.

him

we

171

alle his ibeden.

don

we

his wille for to reden.

and

Loke

weo

haueft

alle

abuten

of

sio\

ure

alle his mihte

Gif

ni(5.

is for to blenchen.

he

us

swikedom
muchel

us

deies

pa

Mid

to

misdon

him

wiS

us

beelzebubes

purh
he

Cultivation.

English:

wule

he

us

swenchen.

godes lare.
penne ofpuncheS hit him sare.
Bute

pet is

halde

pet

pende

75.

and

iscefte. and
lauerd.

nre

to lutel

us

habbeo*

eue

mihte
hore

and

ileue

in

god pe fede(r)

of heouene

weldende
ich ileue

hom

on
wes

al heore

crist. his

for he

helende

deonel

pet

enlepisnne.
adam

on

afered

Is

63.

For

73.

JEch

mon

Heo

sculen

leste peo eorSe

pe saule

of him

habbe

lust, hore

De
Ho

"

snnne

nimeS

lokdng.

al iattret.

trnkie.

hire

is forloren.

bileue

cunnen

,,

83.

and

mot.

heore
schirieft

per purh

al svnich.

of

fif-falde

pet heore

heore felingwes
smelling,

53.

of alle

helede

blou

is hore

scup-

and

moncun

ofsprinke.swa

al binumen.

almihti.

of orSe

and

pe helende

on

is ihaten

blawing. hore
Page

wunne.

of his sage.

pan deplicheatter. pet pe aide


on

iwune.

ufele

godes lage.

we

we

Ic

he

ure

kepefthe noht pet we beon sune.


hine feder penne.
we
clepiefi

Gif

Page

bileuen

we

Ne

al

leornicS

we

Old

XJ2

Page

Middle

and

127.

Muchele

141.

Der

145.

Teclieft

179.

Were

English.
he

mare

luue

richt halue

stod

scawede
and

us.

luft.

j,

bi hiviche

us

"

we

...

,,

Him

129.

bicauhte.

vuele

swa

bicumelic

]mhte

,,

weie.

]"etwe

weren

alesede.
The

I have

of which

part

poem,

above, is the

out

set

that is

earliest

long specimen of an English riming metre


still popular.1 Having been
compiled somewhere
1160, the work
and

the

last work

riming lays,of
were

fond,

so

The

the
old

being got
and

have

at this time.

difference

been

diphthong
Icewede

English rimes,
nothing but an

ce,

is

p. xxiii.

long

them

beloved

South

and

the

the
are

English

followingare

see,

poem,

of

the

Homilies

lewed

fathers, was

our

it is here

becomes

replaced by

(indoctus)

leedan, become
cefre,

written

before

exercise

of

the Norman

ingenuity :

Flab, mah

flite^,

Flan

man

hwiteft,

Burg

sorg

bite^,

Bald

aid

"Wraec-faec

This

volume

idea of the

The

between

same

by

First's time.

eifter ; while

The

good

rulers

followed

the

wulf
Beo-

French

Angevin

model
In

was.
us

and

the

been

give

The

Tennyson.

Norman

he

rid of in the

ea;

becomes

South

points of

Henry

ei,

whoever

in the

spoken
of

have

Homilies, which

many

Mr.

our

the

half-way between

of

which

must

English bard,

main

about

stands

about

sea,

e,

ceyfier
eaver,

Conquest, must

"

Swite*,
wri'Sa'S.

printed by Conybeare, Anglo-Saxon Poetry,

Middle

leaden.

The

English

of the

maintenance

is cine to the Wessex

us,

French

pais into

like the French

The

also

was

speltin Doomsday

was

said

now

; we

see

but

Biou),

name

we

almost

always

beginning
find

we

roufte

hnjffi.

Trowe

(color)

becomes
is

change
find

elsewhere

see

The
at

157

page

old

is

wa

wode
The

here

seen

found

u,

replacing e
to

the

change
see

is

uch

comes

instead

of
very
of

the

the
often

Midland

(tunc).

into

23).

page

the

while

The

old

token

Great
in

call

]"ro-

\rouwede (page 17).

i, is always

and

South

before.

written

now

of

change

sentence

blou

they

(manned,

(va3 mihi) ;

wume

the

in

(passus est)

shires

This

is

is the

We

of the South

mark

sure

same

occurs

\enne for \anne

bemoyied

one,

thing

lieow

newe

of what

talk

as

into 0,

changed

curious

most

into e,

and

sound

(novus), while

nowe

Danish

of 1240.

new

promise
com-

This

83.

the

The

now

ou.

the

69

poem

and

bleu

we

seems

and

page

Dorsetshire

changed

; this

as

Homilies

in these

page

at

hue,

also

fathers

our

after r,

hreow

at

treowe

already
We

simply

157

Stow

(pronounced

with

seen

have

word

I have

iou

the

sonnded

eour.

was

English

our

85 is

mow,

among,

Our

comes

people still sometimes

It is stilloftener
we

be

in page

sound

page

A is here

noos.

hou,

old

it

may

Old

later in

seen

(flavit).In

change
the

as

one

if it

as

replaces

the

both

it

(our ruth)

between

Stou,

sound

that, when

sound

of this

this may

favourite

was

remark

may

altered

as

find strew, neive, bireusiaft. The


in the

ow,

spelling.

by

changed

even

(vester)become

eower

used

combination

being

Book

173.

often

so

ea,

they

old

imitating French

from

come

shires

peace.
ou,

Cultivation.

the

of

the

Sundering

Line.

Homilies.

We

ailc

or

each;

and

Old

174
for
hlu\"elicTie
written
and

deaw
in

107

page

and

The

its modern

seen
saw

in

before, into
'

or

I have

half.

(quisque) is

At

nute.

of

the

French

ou

The

"

old

we

gylt

in its

rather

seen

139
new

working

as

In

new

takes

softened, as
later

page

we
w

still have

replaces

esca

liester stands

is

became

we

35

to

(auge)

geyc

sa^e

for JE aster
,

the

Peterborough

shape, efri;
down

leinten, our
The

"

gelitlianwas

as

is also

say.'

page

; as

b, for geleafa here

misused

lengten becomes

(nux) becomes

now

changed

this

is here

corruptionswere
earlier

and

coming in,

was

now

The

said my

found

(sloth);

au

(belief); just

y, and

is sometimes

alf for

are

biauk.

slewS

English Imperative

Sagu

cases.

axe.

and

words

bileve

as

now

\ewe for the former

bicauhte.

interchangeswith

Gothic

and

was

eaw

South.

the

form

phrase

sound

the

belittle ; the

in many
the

had

old

stands

slauft ; this

English

letter g

become

103

page

comes

gult in

Many

The

blauwen, naut, and

upon

becomes

English.

find deu

we

In

have

must

light

eive

]"eaw.

Middle

blithely.

our

and

eu

and

French

the

East

Southwards.
Lent
c

land
MidThe

and

is used

aiveric

hnute

like the

Old

176
of

ginning

is

word,

of the

influence
write

vixen
wonder

and

Middle

South-

and

vat

that

we

for

vette

as

English.
fette,page

Western

instead
do

shires

of the

write

not

old

becomes

xmf (mulieres)
for

dying out,

in

83

page

us

it

fox.

old

hcelend

makes

Plurals

The

wifes.

that

for

vox

It is the

fixen and feet;

Substantives, the corruption of

In

81.

goes

on

endings

were

becomes

;.

helere, our

healer.
We

see

Adjective in

new

27, Godfurlit,
our

page

God-fearing.
In

Verbs,

sometimes

we

hafon,instead of the
(habent) ; this seems
have

not

Line

been

it

now

the

Present

had

man

77

page

not

earlier, suffer that


lete he mahede

'

say

after
the
come

leet

\cet yfel,is

let him

be,' as well
in

page

'

mercy

Latin

fowl

made

45

at page

11

to

'

as

; we

are

most

ahte, not

travelled

nefde

at

'

before

there

told

that

still

we

is

There

strangely different
all

been

was

\et uvele beon

startlingof

71

this would

lout.' What

alone.'

59,fu%el

page

(stoop) ;

our

page

have

this would

to

donne

to

at

see

of

efterward milce,

weren

that

first hint

We

let him

construction

petebant.The

the
me

Perfect

this had

Again,

let

now

lout

'

idiom

new

he

clipped sound

me.'

earlier, he did fowl

been

simply

'

Sundering

the

mid

weep.'

we

could

Participle iturned

have

with

Homilies
Great

The

bewepen

to

'

have

We

habben

the

debet

; mon

(at) do

to

idiom, \ole us

new

for

stands

Yorkshire.

at

and

beon

(sunt), and

these

church.

at

Midland

of the

157, with

page

except
age,

(at do)

'

Oxford

from

the South
ado

be,
at

use,

that

to show

at

the

beoih

far South

may

we

Southern

written

itumd

becomes

find

new

Moses

'

were

from
idioms

fasted,

Middle
And

don

for both

stood

PluperfectSubjunctive. The
in

common

1160

Pronouns

to

now

for the first time

followed

by

of 1120
'

Singular Relative

the neuter
in

employed for
Southern
England ;

settled

we

Change
the
p.

is at work

53,

the older

and

business

31).

to

The
seldom

more

when

swept

siva

be.

Latin

by

se

OSerlicor
was

quum
hwcenne

often

translates

away

its rivals

moreover

Relative

before
I did

(per
now

this

was

this.'

was

At

fain

the

new

siva

becomes

of old

(quando)
and

quum,

have

should

Adverbs.

the

here
now

35

page

pine ;

'

here

adverb, (lihenter).At

an

time

would

lines both

sone

in

We

{quod)

the

as

133

worde, for hwat

long

what

'

among

used

in two

find

we

Homilies

find

we

(page 81),

'

is

in the

used

Godes

feinpintail, I

Adjective

It is

Plural, but it

the first time

it was

but

still say,

may

ic ivalde

see

we

what;

time.

of this,%eten ]"urhhwam,

hivat

say which, not

of

sentence

sede in page

by

(page 153), and

seal vorsahen, "c.

he

quod)

become

Singular.We

hwa

the Plural

see

now

; we

gates through which'

sense

of \e

sum

of old

new

above

nsual

onr

did not

due

followed

the

seen

of

been

ofmight

have

the

out

read

we

English
fecisset
;

alien to the old Teutonic.

construction, most

As

idiom

1290

older

forming

at

new

born

something

seems

French

is

until

England

the

177

faceretand

the first attempt made

see

now

have

must

In

idon.

Crist hit ivalde habben

ec

wohle
we

English: Cultivation.

alse

of

feire

right has

ofter-weis

three

in these

centuries

no

(page

Englished by pa
; but

alse

or

]"o,

Homilies
later it

altogether.

Prepositions of is in constant use, a sure mark


of the decay of Old
English ; saule of him is put for his
sold, simply to eke out a rime (hence came
our
for the
As

to

lifeof me)
a

and

Old

178

the

of is

spelling,as

new

Here

New

our

used

sometimes
at

as

Adverb,

an

has

old word

splitone

off. Moreover,

this

turn

we

Adjective,the offhorse,an off day. Before


set before the substantive,standing for
was
wrought of gold. But
at

123,

page

made

an

engel

to.

snawe

to

make^

find

We

followed

up

'

to an,
in

he

maketh

Bible.

our

old

often

process
at

55

page
We

old

see

Latin

is

wa

wa,

in page

in

pronouncing

to

the

pronunciation of

(dixit); foreshadowing
We

find

Bicuman,

(what

become

will

fieri (pages

French

the

the

or

The

(a

is

seen

anent.

Scotch

this

but

word

English), and

devenir

these

prefer the

Interjection,the

Homilies

must

us

and
have

?)

old

47)

been

of

in

the

these

getting a

stood

for

The

new

accidere

both

latter

imitated.

is

(ire), spec

Englishes

now

there

utterance

of words

of

which
of

45

modern

our

instances

many

meaning.
and

of

an

years'

durchaus.

end

he

one,'

at

grik (Greecus), feren

(hebdomada),

words.

35

(ad)

comes

hundred

later anentis

me

At

143

German

Middle

in

the

anundes,

four

the

at

es

Godes

mihi.

vo3

As

an

repeated

as

to

wea

wih

takes

efn now

on

87,

only ]mrh,

not

he

page

chin.'

my

Preposition,

(to be)

had

corresponding High

of the

; as

further

iwende

page

find

This

\mrhut (throughout).

at

two

We

material

another
to

up

an

time, of

At

read

we

'

snow

this

thralls.'

by

always interchanging ;

are

kept

start

to ;

off into

freo of \eowan

us

of go

offe.

into two

is stretched

being

our

chinne,

et mine

twa

idiom

of

early instance

up

and

he makede

free instead

us

see

we

find

we

this idiom

now

with

29, %if ]nn liefet


were

page

English

of and

prongs,

English.

Middle

decere

case,

the

old Mot

English

Middle

but

nothing

meant

word

at

citius

it

beatus

meant

the
silly,

shall further

We

in
injelix
(separare)now

and

the Thirteenth

gets the
'

used

to

new

sense,

mean

worth

validus

stafielferhS.The
spectare,and
call
has

I think

different

at

it meant

both

The

fundere (page 157)

new

at

it

scedwian

verb

'

sense

37

hundred

it gets its

confounded

was

loses

with

its old

meaning
monstrare, though we still

'

seek

for

help from

seen,

verb

This

or

was

help.' Here,
France.1

The

97, applied

in page
catch

The

is found

first

to

old
at

in

in these

this

least,we

substantive

need

not

cachepolmay

St. Matthew's

pointed out by Dr. Morris

sense

meant
geforftian

for the first time

n2

afford

of ]?on ]?etJ"u maht

avorthi

uses

later.

Stoelivyrft

25

page

fine elmesse

Pecock

years

to further

only

'do

felix

old sceadan

We
know
that the word
spectaculuma show.
find it employed
puzzled our antiquaries
; we

three

perhaps

iforftien' Bishop

The

stealing;

gets its

Homilies, page

be

of

sense

where
else-

English word

one

Century.

of

stidtus,our

as

still lingersin watershed.

meaning

the former

that

see

scelig

found

directlyopposite meanings

acquiring two
times.

of

at

sense

here.

seen

meant

old

the

is not

is

what

the

to

potius;

The

it takes

only instance

the

this is almost

that

of

day degraded

oppositeof

exact

(rather)

meaning

meaning

our

given

79

hluti,differing

hrceftre

further

this

is in

word

the

word

]"riddelot (tertia

Scandinavian

Homilies

these

; but

31

sapiens,page

of

\es ]"e redder ]"et,"c.

in

read

we

the

gets

now

is

meaning

new

The

(sors).

is milcie

45

page

the

from

comes

hlutr

from

31, where

page

this

pars) ;

sors

Cultivation.

with

old

trade.

its Past

in the Athenceum..

i8o

Old

and

Participlecaulite
Picard

French,
We

often

ought

find

the

of

St.

'

nonsense

this

Onr

verb

best

of

schoolboys, it

is but

last may

Thus

due

(alee)is

wenge

also

to

at

Scandinavian

Three
be

seen

15

and

at

pages

53

; in

also

it

Danish

bolder.

to

seems

Can

In

is

cacher

have

be

Hard

the

Times

quiet.'

from
from

come

putten, and

Put

meaning
gclceht,

far

got confounded

it

with

as

English

the

thrust,may

found

Old

at pages

trudere

our

and

seen

amiss.

is, on

and

us

tidings

is first

means

point
word,

llachiaw

Old

that

Celtic

the

by

source.

mis,

ponere,

some

Southern

used

same

put is

To

of the

our
iiftindi,

onimis,

instance

former

Dickens.2

flog,even

the

skill,cast,

61, 47, 131.

latter caper e, not

word

i.e.

words,

the

of

Danish

of

stoiv that

'

crept Southwards.

had

Icelandic

the

the form

57, under

page

the

amiss,

our

we

Legend

boast

our

the

is

nsed

verb

Welsh

of the

instead

seen

that

in the

and

come

forms

fyftru (page 81); tidinge,the


(page 77) ;

the

phrase,

and.

one

and

words

Danish

15

commonly

corruption

from

that

word

polite society,can
as

is

Participle.1

Scott

in

pedigrees;

this
(ferire).From
Lloyd and Floyd are
Some

found

the

There

page

stewen

the

comes

in

lick,as nsed

at

thieves

by

repeatedas
be

Teutonic

told

are

evil done

may

Past

pedigree for

old

Hence

Margaret.

from

chasser.

as

ed in the

We

is wifisteiven,afterwards

derives

English Verb, coming

an

an

slangy.

restrain

to

same

with

ending

not

may

of

English.

Wedgwood

the

instance

reckoned

now

this Mr.

cacher, meaning

hardly another
the

Middle

of

sense

pouta
to

has

; in

the

the

there
French

now

much

English gelaccan,

same?
comes

the

phrase, Kidderminster,
'

is

stow

that

EnglisJi: Cultivation.

Middle

encroached

the

on

contributed

have

of

meanings

English

derivation

its

about

puzzle

Old

true

form

to

box

do.

The

various

The

Latin, Old

sources

many

language.

our

from

come

and

set

how

shows

and

English,

Scandinavian.
There
in

are

with

common

Such

is

first

now

German

and

other

At

wiftsteiven.

found,

of the

German

Low

Our

smorian.

mainland

43
is

have

we

tongues.

we

our

see

akin

nearer

than

to the

Old

to

express

the

used

forefathers

that

kindred

page

(there called smorfier),which

smother
the

the

word

words,

few

to

lish
EngLatin

by tvynstre,something ivanting in full strength ;


Homilies
this is changed into luft (left),to
these

sinister
in

which

still cling. This

we

of

early instance
86

page
p. 103

; this

England

word

it

i^

impostor

Orton's

Southern

word

luftor

first find

naught

studed
'

this

to Southern

witnesses

Another

horn
is

the

on

exclusively

nawiht'
the

/ (see

(radix) at

and

by Hampshire
1873.

lucht, an

and

more

Germany

to

trial, in
is 'ne

them

bestead

We

common

used

was

Dutch

interchange between

the

book).

of my

is the

(p. 77), 'it

Icelandic

styftja

(fulcire).
Moral

The

is

(page 159),

words

and

serve

since

in

age

this

this

than

earlier

put

one

Ode

Homilies;

transcriptof

about

written

poem,

Ode, printed along

was
was

for

the

date

poem

has

the

the

date

cannot

be

much

we

find

transcribed
here

se

by

\e (he that),a token


Dr.
a

It is

Morris.

few

years

replaces oh,

as

later
in

be

cannot

the

remarked

ouh

Homilies,

this, since

caught ;

copy

these

long English riming

some

I think

1120.

with

French

later,
of

great

plain that
than

nouhte

the
and

82

Old

and

Middle

English.
"

]"ouhte
(nought and thought); inou stands for the old
for
genoh. There is also w instead of g and h ; foleived
fologode(p.179), lawe for lage(p.177),soreive for sorh
Southern
(p.181) ; these are new
corruptions.1Inline
347 are the words unie]"e
to^eanes; the ie of the firstpoints
to the South East of England,the ea of the second to the
South

The

West.

Ode

must

have

placelike Reading,lyingon

some

Never

did

vowels

as

sound

transcribed

been

the borders

at

of the two.

variations of
any tongue employ so many
the Middle Englishdid,to represent
the French
the form

from
the "outh
came
East, leaf
thief
from the South West, reeffrom the North ; the enquiring
foreignstudent must be much puzzledby these products
all helped to shape our
of the different shires,which
Standard
English.
in
The interchange
between
o and
u, so often found
the South ; we see Zo/for
was
now
lufed
English,
affecting
in
(amavit) in line 257, and iivoned for hvunod (solitus)
line 57 ; hence our
In line 361 fallbecomes
wont.
fou.
is replaced
The old an (solus)
by one, and ]"ostands for \a
to the
down
in the South
(illi)
; this ]"o lingeredon
e

Reformation, when
other
is

form, thae,stilllives
seen

now

to this

even

the Yorkshire

as

alive,in

day,will

in Scotland.

line 21 ;

have

those drove

yet our

On

it out ; the

lif(in vita)

lexicon-makers,

it that alive is

an

Adjective
;

they might say as much of abed, and ashore.


alike.
iliche (line377),our
becomes
gelice
The form alse wel se (as well as) is in

The

old

line

70.

gnaw in the South ; but the


in the North, and is our
old form
nag ; the latter
verb, unlike gnaw, is not reckoned classicEnglish.
1

The

verb gnagan
gnag remained

became
(rodere)

Old

184
1

they

Future

to sofie

line 132

In

much

we

the

meanings

the

change

of

be

in the

in Mr.

been

kept

in line 39
In

Latin

line
via

The

137

we

In

line

righteousis; they
find
has

last takes
walked
the

sense

habben,
how

of twa

evre.

have
is

; wis

long kept

We

line

be

The

302

leech,

seal here

the

English

borne

corner

one'll

stand

sense

of shall

follows

now

the

into

for

twenty
to

seems

bare

Adjective;

an

to have.'

'

sure

barely came

of the formation
We

wrong

Scotch

can

In

tide,two

the

translate

to

hours,

bare

or

hours.

watched.

rihhvis.

of

us

alone.

to

see

read

we

old

Infinitive
siher

process

tvrang,

This

in Wessex

comes

barely two

which

'

duty.'

drove
'

'

reminds

Philology of

said, That

Gerundial

The

be

then

'

'

acjan.

my

Earle's

farmer

; a

if he should

years,
have

p. 204

and

if it be

line 174.

to halt between

debere, and

Northumbrian

or

on,

explainsa story
ground,

old

was

beten, he has

to

seems

beo, jffI seal,liache

called

Tongue,'

have here

our

What

(forsooth)in

haveS

he

possidereand

is ich han

there

The

foreshadows

tempt.'

to

softe

for

muchel

see

for.'

to atone

is about

becomes

now

English.

propert}-.'This

'he
Participle,

before

if I

Middle

about

busy

were

and

an

the

hear

we

word

form

the

meaning

The

old

of generare

Cunig (coney), akin

it,just as

riht became

ivealtian
Latin

of ambulare
meant

in line

105,

German

our

the
as

(opportunus).

iveahan, the

of

corrupted much

timeous

begetan
to

here

may

oi.wrongwise reven;

English Verb,

another
new

to

ivrangous,

coined

words

new

first appearance

added

now

also
old

the

seen

256

of

(welter),

volvere.
in

line

adijpisci
; it
hwi

iveren

word,

now

ho

237
now

This
; hi

gets

bv"eten?

appears.

Middle

Before

ge is allowed

for he

old

writing biscup,wurscivpe,

for the

eo,

the

explainswhy
hu, or

as
so

old-fashioned

Northern
u

English

beo.

The

common

Latin

French

write

now

the

beri, and
marks.

merci

South.

the

The

this
This

in Lancashire
that
a

interchange

Sanscrit

Charter

her

in

form

lost

yet

not

the

of

as

the

Further

her

is the

bhu

fterfore.

new

of

replaced

for

to

1075.

geaf;

amyrrende

this shows

reading

In

the

old

these

easilysuch
(petere misericordiam) might

the

time, for
sh

sound)

beginning

of

written
byrig-is

are

is written

how

this

her

Kentish

tongue.

own

1050, the

year

on,

love

belong to
graschynnene (with
seems

gief stands

(vastare);

letter

linger in

should

old ; for the

of the year

account

relation

the

or

eu

strange it is

word

in

pnt

employs

magister (of a school) is now

Chronicle

find snch
the

he

ch

e, and

meistre.
had

the

of

copy

to

rejoicesin

it,hoo

in the

find

yet changed

not

munJces

The

260).

(ilia)is pronounced

is very

eo

is

1050r

beon, jprustfor preost.

for

not

IV. p.

old

an

about

up

whether

He

and

heo

history written

own

in

we

We

England

we

old

and

and

technical
the

bun

as

shire, and

between

by

as

certain

peuwdom.

u,

old

sc

at

nsually replacedby

is not

down

sets

is

ce

writer

the

185

glance

may

(Kemble,

and

remain,

the

The

appears.

1160

about

to

sh ; bnt

eow,

we

Charter, seemingly drawn

transcribed

into

Cultivation.

leaving the South,

Winchester
and

English

Kentish

true

for amyrrenne
form
become

as

crienne
criende

availed little.'2
merci, in the phrase, 'crying mercy
About
this time, rather
the murder
of St.
before
1

This

copy

Wickliffe

is known
has

was

as

to

'

Cotton, Domitian, A. VIII.

in
doynge (facturus),

St. Luke

2.'
xxii. 23.

Old

86

Thomas,

and

French

hard

was

had

freeman

de Morville,
future

English

was
a

English,

alarm;

'Huge
his

heth

(cautus)

when

de

swerd

adrage

omitted

(esto)being

shortened

our

rabbit,' "c.

adrage
wish

heth

is the Past

had

we

were

is

monk

specimens

of the

the

his

sudden

Lithulf

ware,

adjective ivcer

verb, the

speaking

(habet)

rightful beo
first instance

to

dog,

war

The

clipped hafaS.

of the

Southern

the true

tells the

that

it

Hugh

one

him

ware,

Participle,
clippedin

more

at

understand

it ; this is the

Canterbury

grapple

time,

give

to

Here

before

great-

birth.1

well

ware,

phrase, when

The

for it is

way,

if it

as

his

could

wished

!'

fast

says, whether

day
by

in

Morevile,

is treated

of the

renown

she

deadly

Norman

or

Canterbury murderers,

wife's

of

of

man

how

by intermarriage,that

lawyer

in

met

united

so

tell,so

to

shows

blending together. The

that

become

English.

tale,which

were

those

of

grandsons

Hastings

Middle

light upon

we

English

and

off-hand

tale.

colloquial

English.2
There

is

English

an

that

belongs to

here

the

Old

this time

English

sounded

like

the

London

and

Paris

Lisieux
I.

ner,

of

I.

'

(you)

eow

ou,

alike.
Leseaux

was

is written
a

^eau

sound

Indeed,

the

as

au,
to

common

late

so

xvi.) ;

1417,

('Paston

Letters,'Gaird-

this time, the

Old

Southern

English Gospels

Dialogusde Scaccario, Stubbs's Documents,

Materials

Kemble's
or

Second's

7),

About

time,

the

Henry

(Hickes, Thesaurus,'

French

written

was

Charter

Charters, II.
a

Life (Master of
96, for a good specimen

for Becket's

little later.

193.
the

Eolls), 128.

of the

Kentish

See
of this

Middle

Kin

of

are

in their

known

accessible

now

into ch,

form

The

main

corruption

old

first time

has

man

in

Jiwanon

the

After

of this nature

time, about
versions

in

tongue, conceived
hundred

two

THE

to

was

into

been
to

by

first

specimen

dictated

by

Norfolk

William

of

last

to

this

The

as

postleseve(n)liche.

and

it

was

first four

Alle

Anglo-Saxon

English'
for

our

about

for

said to have

after his

Thomas

martyrdom,
down

set

lines

are

"

hevenriche,

martyrs fte understands

Deyhuamliche
1

no

Hali

De

of

Northumbrian

on

here

hande.

Versions

of St. Matthew's

pel,
Gos-

by Hardwick.
2

Materials

great harm.

do

soon

have

Canterbury.2

be

to

of this is the Anthem

We

hwcermid

DIALECT.

St. Thomas,

priest.

this

scorn

(1180.)
The

that

said

more

no

This

MIDLAND

EAST

for the

pay

can

In

48.

seen

were

Bible, and

high places,was
and

years,

The

follow.

to

Crown.

the

Charters, granted by

elcli. The

'

he

1160, there

of the

change

page

been

is turned

were

was

sune.

is

it had

(unde)

present version

this

English

more

1000,

year

becomes

wherewith

our

hivanon

nothing

changes

many

the

about

is the

(welcome),

into welcwm

142, something like

page

is turned

wylcum

Gospels,

celc into

sunu

use.

Gospel

all ; St. Matthew's

and
rnycelinto rnycliel,

as

modern

Hatton

the

as

187

for

fitted

dings are clippedas usual; thus

on

Cultivation.

were

new

to

1858.1

published in
of

time

iEthelred's

"

These,

English

for Beckefs

History(Master

of the

Eolls),I.

151.

and

Old

88

Here

the

pinnt) have
under

(Dominus)

In

common.

the

mars

"We

the

must

for

now

about

from

the

third

throw

time

such

1180, and

Those
to

seem

evidence

South.

They

others
in

also
for

manlcen

to

the

Kent

such

mankin,

sennen

ie to express

the

the

for

older

is

was

of

pretty

far from
Great
1

Old

upon

refer

now

in
Dr.

by

the

lagh,
Dane-

peculiarities,
of i into

also, the

lie

e,

bination
com-

as

in

(page 229)

for

French

clear

is found

combination

Pope Gregory's
nowhere

preserved

shire where

the

it

e,

leo^en; gliefor gleo; fieble(page 191) for what

feeble.This

translation

the

sinne

written

to

change

of the

sound

forward

have

sinnen

eye

been

akin

lief,bitwien, gier, \ief,fiend, friend;

1120

to

was

light upon

which

brought

as

an

of

have

are

some

cast

to

of their forms

; for

call

comes

though

even

flood

Morris

we

the

Drichtin

stands

senne,

to

the

and

line, the Anglian

Essex, according

found

in
apostles

of h into ch

change

Kentish

Century English.1

Twelfth
date

line

holi and

rime.

Homilies, which

the

in

Danelagh,

tenth

the

into

altered

been

the

the

fifth

the

In
Drihten

not

of

(susci-

Kentish

into the

of the

token

sure

understands

and

hall

clipping

Orrmin.

in

become

English.

changed

The

line is

often

Midland

been

not

standee.

second

has

East

Middle

the

Colchester

they
; the

Sundering

Line

English Homilies,

Society),published by
the end of May, 1873.

else

but

Dr.

in

mingle

These

did

and

the

with

North

those

(Early English
not

come

out

in

It

compiled

peculiarto

Morris.

after

been

forms

Series

and

written.

have

Second

Kent

Alfred's

were

must

here

King

Care,

Pastoral

present Homilies

that

in

not

of
that
Text

before

Middle

from

come

for sunt

South.

the

of the

verb

tulien

of

the

dialect

The

of the
affirmed

the

such

at

words

to

this

place

here

are

found

Homilies

clippingof
ob

Essex
of

changes :

three

are

as

I would

often

the

the

The

in

North

of

lieo,ich, \o,

(currere).
Ode,

that

book.

dash

the

urnen

Moral

dialect,with
this

to

in

as

version

scribed
tran-

of

following

it
are

"

decided
:

the

compare

181

page

of the

The

London

the

strong Southern

into

these

that

the

It is curious

There

ends

Southern.

hingene (regum), queftinde,


ac, honden,

some

Present

critics to remark

some

the

toil,expresses

not

at

form

meaning, while

and

London;

noticed

older

the

Midland

East

three,

tilian had

old

written

have

Homilies, written

these

The

former

now

all

bed, giltes and

laborare

Plural

Some

en.

was

such

the

Homilies,

meaning.

eft and

both

ask

these

latter

for

keep

we

and

elwpe.

of colere and

meanings

two

189

ben, be", bu$,

etyer,bad

fireand fur, clepeand


gultes,
the

Cultivation.

have

We

ai]"erand

both

English

wren

tokens

(sunt), the

prefix ge

becomes

of Northern

a,

in Past
as

heften

influence

in

(hinc),and

Participles.

sat, brae, bigat; the

is

Old

190

into

0,

two, soule,Poul

constantly changed
son,

enow,

(p. 141)

in

The

and

foure, all

the

new

found

What

Jwupe (behoof) ;
stands for
The

of

teme,

in

out

cast

the

(peccavit) is

sometimes

Salop

to

dride

down

lierede

and

Eastern
we

now

strange

(harried);

find

\oglde and

of the- North

shires
and

of the

n,

word,
;

the

the

that

wuo

wurld.

sound

we

these

must

we

the

their

beginning
last

for the

older
and

old

form

of

lair.
much

syngode

are

There

Eastern

coast, the

Another
use

teid
here

is

used

in

now

tigian is

of

of Thames.

g is

lasted

hergode

Perfect

letter;

The

gh replacing the
aglde (debuit); this was

South

bi-

(came),

disappears.

consonants

England,

of

the

the

leire,our
of

muge.

and
cam

clipped at

Gedriged

half

to

shied

1400.

combination

becomes

sometimes

(p. 217), leger becomes


also

ge is

of

be

may

would.

also

middle

and

nu

and

more,

g.

is here

woreld

ivel, bitwine

see

find

and

pronounced just as

the

Infinitive

of the

once

Participles,and

Past

the

is found

French
:

old

mai

Homilies

neme,

we

we

(qui)

Southern

now

not

older

an

the

wna

is both

alumft

fower, fuwer,

are

both

see

; we

were

Consonants

to

like; there

there

the

as

pronounce

As

for

great request, for

(veni)

com

words

as

now,

here

(p. 149)

iva

Some

p. 145.

them

wumme

Perfect

old

the

; in

pretty often;

Peterborough

bihof"e in

was

chehe,.

as

ai,hitherto

potest is Englished by both

and

Wit
]"ih,

as

i stands

the

forms

The

nou.

eo,

comes

such

three

replaces ea,

combination

is in

ou

jl""u weft,blouwen,
and

the

The

here

French

new

fo, wrofi, old, drof, mow,

as

England,

maiden, nail, slaine

English.

replaces

replaceseo.

known

much

leve ; the

eke,fewe,

Middle

mid

in

the

old h;
as

yet

mark

of. sal in-

Old

192
in

shown

and

the

111

changed

this process

byrfien;

is cast

to

went

ont

rightful upweard;
instead

of

of

out

cast

and

clippedin
a

Godes

have

we

'

The

name.

Participleis

also

tacked

an

As

find

we

Verb,

In

to

173

page

in

dai,

this way,
is

and

lend

fild.

is

'

day

once

Verb's

Weak

Past
I is

An

replaced

now

page

mene,

our

manne

hominuni;

179

187

we

'

be

Bible

our

the

the

old

seen

in

; but

new

well

as

at

page

How

utterly the

page

113, where
for in

construction,

festis
kind

In

he is forloren,lifand soivle.

drop

shall

fear, and

no

wunder

nis ; '

last word.

gemSne (communis) is cut down


is a wonderful
There
shortening in

(p. 169),

which

is here

magnitude, though

see

they

mean.

most

in

Plural

was

Preposition,stands

any

read,

now

old geoc
so

may

Absolute

we

should

mest

anes

from

Prepositionon

corruption giohes.

the

of Accusative

At

The

for cneowian

the

it remains

vanished

has

diebus.

we

Participlesin

of the

ed

clipped,as

liegedoges, without

page

escape

see

or

Substantives:

to

Dative

od

old

Singular,and

195

narrow

through

(kneel).

cneid

by
as

to

on

most

Past

we

165, from

page

all

of done.

109, for

page

common

The

61

page

is

word

of the

at

see,

page

shouted

forrad

at

for

of the

becomes

had

instead

we

At

instead

middle

\uresdai

on

Strong

our

do

have

for

hear

in the

clipped,for

is

corrupting all
'

The

to ofter ; this

South,

as

often

now

forward.

(unus)

6 stede
the

we

(onns)

Anglia.

uppard

see

we

birden

as

East

in

on

for

into d,

]mnresdcegbecomes

on

English.

bisshup,shipe,shufe (shove), shrifte,


fishes.

ft is sometimes

The

Middle

we

may

Englishes

maxima

number

and

applied to
still say

'

the

most

pars
not

part.'

to

In

English: Cultivation.

Middle
165

page

without

stand
As

phrases

as

extended

the

As

do

the

oldest

eoiv

to

at

him

malceft

how

shows

to make

sellers,he

the

Adjectives

Substantives.

any

Verbs

to

where

ivele to werse,

fram

comes

193

213

this

speaking

bihinden

ben

to

behind

our

witanne

page

allowed

English

in

hand

of

do

of

buyers

is

and

last word

matters

money

shows, the Grerundial

last sentence

such

sense

the

"

of

arose.

Infinitive with

coming in ; we see leren \e folc to understanden


(p. 93) ; he ]"enche$to forleten(p. 201) ; Trine laftefi to
to wunien
drinhen (p. 213) ; bicumeliche
(p. 171) ; help
to

to

was

We

feed,loth to do.
might follow

now

see

not

wuniende

on

us

the

at

he

On

page
that

another
writers
contra

the

Southern

39,

he

work

Essex,
other

as

page
.

ne

are

idioms.
of the

we

see

'

wrought ; we
Participleat

eie stondeft

193,
Gode
a

to

men

new

third

this

perfect
Plu-

shires,

advance
;

save

nele, ich

Southern

an

find

foretaste of

The

in the

hand, there is

idiom,

ciple
Parti-

We
\e holigost.

last words

two

English

yet reached

the former

him

iverefi,

ne

it

Active

dropped altogether,at

commonest

our

133.

page

had

he hadde

Subjunctive,the
has

he

to the

man
repetition
; no
adrade
(I fear);

of

'

as

extended

the Infinitive

one

have,

that the Passive

seen

this usage

145

page

have

line of
upon

becomes,

eigene stand of,not far from our


in no
In
stands
187 we
awe
find
of "g.
page
terse English sentence, fihteft
ealde neddre ; earlier
would
have
set some
Preposition answering to
after

\at

the

non

first word.

The

verb

healdan

was

being freelyused ; ich held mid hem (p.211),holden hire


mufi
(p. 181), holden weie (p. 161). Verbs were
now
into each
other; sencan
being run
was
formerly the
0

Old

194
Transitive
forms

\e ship. So

(videtur) becomes

one

the

two

who

men

in the

Scotch

law

down

to

often

so

one

In
old
to

be

fore-

for

there

the

later

is

drinks

first

in the poem
"

on

corded
re-

In

Masculine
be

guished
distin-

and

settled

in

has

stock

our

one

of
in

an

1180

at

lines

lower

later,the

form

two

stede \er
'

so

The

not

the

me

the Chameleon

neither

here

on

may

stands
or

perhaps

"

one

cease
nor

seem

your

pother

tother.'

for ali-

unus,

'

the

drinkefi, the

one

quidam

French

book)

'

swo

one

for

idiom

new

54 of my

(see page

time,

creature's

curious

most

Sirs,'cried the umpire,


The

as

0, which

to

years

of

between

to

The

man,' and

used

be remarked

longer
added

:'

year.

The

nonce.

Many

an

together; pe
the

of two

written.

213

one

tiden,

1129,

confusion

been

not

old

on

Conquest days.
So

had

'

in

employ

now

child.'

to be

and

place where
quis

holie

an
was

used

of

the

a, has

we

dSer

se

of that

shires.

old

this

read

page

man

but

we

"

such

unus

ways,

of

down

Papacy

no

Danish

the

replaced

125

an

the

were

\encaft

hear

we

the tother may

in

Article

least,in

for

distinct

se

times;1
seen

of the

synonyms

page

that

old

\at 0$er Seint Andreu

for the

the tansmd

\e

comes

ofter two

on

175

page

two

thinks.

find

and

the

the

me

modem

very

; at

Peter

strove

papers

Neuter

and

109

Peterborough Chronicle

is like

letters

At

177

page

we

the

mergi;

our

224

from

great change

in

page

phrase.

is Seint

'

for

in

in page

new

brethren, \at on
this is

"

two

or

Neuter

whence
]"inke$,

to Numerals

English.

the

get confounded,

hisinkeS

As

Middle

sincan

meryere,

now

storm

and

as

in

have

English

Middle
had

swich

;
us

(by God).'
looking at

all

On

into

turned

been

is the

There

At

hem.

191

page

attrefi hwat

heo

fathers

our

the kindred

81 ;

page

193

is

Genitive

ure

j)rihe^
; it

to look

is

siva

be

the

Old

hwat

see

like

pared

down

that the

as

wherewith

find

we

We
we

hitherto

desires

confusion
other.
to ad

es

(whereby),
already

been

riht

(valde) in

87

well

worthy.

The

The

us

old

to

before

113.

So

For

he

is wel

'

nones,

for

run

of

into

is,
soul

for
that
the
each

English tendency
(bene) stands for
god ;

well-nighhad
o

or

cenes,

instance

words

wel

that

the

that

\am

the

the Middle

213

off;' at page

read

we

for

two

adverb

71

on

used

page

curious

at work

page

lead

been

cry

gaten.
'

to words.

to

hire

purpose

see

'

181,

letters,where

also

where

only compound with


ward).
\anen-forSward (thence for-

in page

the
of

We

for

the

page

(shuttethto)

for

hivcet siva,

vjilneptit (desiresout),

been

phrase

At

]"an cenes, becomes

alone,

of

to ivhat ;

translation

had

(herein) at

see

our

to be out.

tuneft to

we

know

\e soule

see

herin

189

at page

on

South.

\onon-weardhad
\onbn

lasted

quodcunque,

warbi

word,

compounds with the Adverb


here ; hermfter alone
had
with

time;

this

selves).
(our-

of us,

swa

good

selfhas

ech, which
ech

The
those

land
Eng-

selven

us

English

new

that

form

new

may

upon

quod. We
something

in the

coined

; at p.

hwcet

swa

in

was

find

is also the

always translated

which
led

old

longer; there

for ages

me

we

Plural

strong proof

alle, snch bliss is promised

us

Pronouns,

the

or

man

195

'

bihat

blisse me

is

203

page

old Indefinite

the

idiomatic

how

In

here.

influence

some

Cultivation.

we

been

still say,

in

very

Old

196
early

at

use;

and

Middle
177

page

English.
they

comes,

goft wel

on

lujiicl.

Among
more

older

upon

here

the

earlier

forms

he

English

encroaching
of micliel

was

would

have
of

(distrust of

mihte

of

ortrowe

of deaft (p. 171)

; emti

of

off comes

bileve

of his

]"eivas

man

exhibition
front

the

to

more

wit

hence

At

.125 there

page

child strende
way

at
Jtiiii;

141

The

South

of

years

after
;

this, is

The
page

quasi

of

33.

We

at

page

This

in very

ut

from

shows

now
see

117;

us

early days.

how

did
Line

the
the

75.
Noun
old

sometimes
a

wholly
ase

73,

page

encroached
far to the
hundred

two

biside
ut

phrase
were;

he

Substantive

becomes

]"eh it

sins.

at

wholly

of

further

new

side, crops
wi$

new

travel

luve to
.

until

with

of

swikeft

making

is here

not

our

his spuse

on

sinbote;

to

used

is

of

offyour

sunne,

old Dative

the

now

31, supplanting
old

"

is in page

til amoregen
formed

page

leftfte to

Anglian til,which
the Great
Sundering

upon.

on

an

hear

we

say leave
of

157, fremfulle

page

make

sense

39

page

now

sense

read

'

our

off his feed ; '

'

our

new

we

to godcunnesse
bilimpeft

time

; at

of

(an example
The

(begat).The prepositionto

in page

is

Genitive

p.

of,'"c.

should

giuresinnes (p. 203), we

the

73) ; redde (rid)


(p. 191) ; ofshamede of

power,

(p. 173) ; forbisne of him selven


From
this last comes
himself, p. 149).
an

(p. 125)

patience, p. 79)

hem

example of,make

and

more

elde

used

of \oleburdnesse(pretence

lete

so

is

Prepositions,of

here

position,
Preup

at

]"ebitrch.1

fram,

for

of

the
swa

before,behind,beyond,between,were

as

at

Latin
would

form

Middle

been

have

old

be

seen

Cultivation*

Relative

the

107, quodcunque

page

it beo

swo

is here

(as)

swa

In

earlier.

used

Englished by

English

often

; we

force
be

'

use

97

sit is

of

that

the
it

as

may.'
Many English words were
had
Before
this, ealclafceder
for

stands

latter,

sweor,

East.

At

'

13

works

the

is

There

of

Hell

plays

said,

first to last.

from

'

thou

read

we

had

been
the

melted

by

the

lileow, and

the

this

may

new

page

61 ;

snuve

(sniffand

in

seen

forms

and

swoldren,

our

akin

page

old

our
'

to

we

take

been

have

little
verb.
113

see

At

to

his

is,

that
a

sleeping. This
English.

he

as

literature

huse'

to

our

ing
Harrow-

broad

tion
distinc-

page

adjectiveapplied

'

to

crohe'

or

swelter, page

snuff),pages

(trustfully)
appears,

his

The

201

page

at

to

confused

151,
snow

with

hike-warm.

our

like

in
'

talcest

Old

in

wlcec, is
sun

is

find

At

unknown

old

in

of

Morris

were,

for

phrase,

'

napping

that

helle

our

20, \u

home.'

between

wlache,

We

at

herede

know

in page

keepest

line drawn

We

forward
hence-

old ceowan,

phrase

leading part

the

Dr.

by

had

he

Mediaeval

it is there

Christ,

in

mentioned

powers

good authority
'

this

that

lose

to

now

of

finding comfort,

the

at

away

famous

and

when

word

syllan is

of the

sense

it

least

cheiv,'translated

and

'

jawing

avus

darkness

of

meanings.

at

old

the

of vendere

sense

and

suspected

for

English

that

jaw' one
Sir Charles
Napier,

said,in

used

kindred

see

the

chest

are

chew.

we

its

keep

contention

bed

157

Among

tradere.

been

unluckily dropped,

was

page

to

page

for the

socer,

gettingnew

now

37

to the

and

Frisian

'make
7 ;

crooked,'
snevi

191.
trdst.

and

Trustliclie

Old

198
There

are

than

Holland, snch

and
To

is here

scorn

it from

the

is used

to

use

word

had

that

Eucharist)

has
'

man

can

get

we

called

say

England,

hu

another

Father,

The

Old

while

In

be

to

sel
bit

we

English

king

This

mistake,

act.

can

derived
But

the last of

still much

of

rihte.'

to

Carlyle's well-known
man

have

flourishingat

was

derivation

(directs) evre

(findere).

all

the

it

men
more

term.

Cambrensis

45, the

page

shiver

(stercus)is

secern

English philology

but

England

to

; some

by Orrmin,

later

of the

Giraldus

English forms.

common

first time

have

we

escornir,to deprive of horns.

years

likely parent

words

for the

seen

French

Old

twist,wimple, and

as

French

few

few

words, which

kindred

the

also

here

are

English,

Middle

Scandinavian

many

followed, rather

There

and

accounted

is

99

Old

of

was

clove

he

we

told, for

long used
was

used

kenned
Mr.

cyning being

the

for ;

In

like

word

husel
told

are

is.'

At

all

two

reasons

the

(the

that

no

25,

page

English philology;

there

culver

'

something

about

time,

learn.

to

given

(how blessed) it

are

the Danish

page

is

this

God

is
*

through the South

in the North.

on

of

Old

200

THE

and

Middle

OONTKAST

TO

THE

(About

luti and

unriht

Cristene
mihte.

mid

mid

ha(fde)for

hearde

wombe

fin

is

deofle

For

noldest

Buten
is

The

Sonl

Daet

bittere ilest

by

Layamon's
to

soule

as

where
civ

and
j

owes

ne

iscend.

hond,

on

'

(hab)ben inouh,

from

Southern

Body, printed from

work, the Poem


"Worcester

to
Phillipps,

"We

much.

the present

work

have
;

here

whom

are

to the

Essex

pieceand

English

foretaste

there

script
manu-

some

is well

g ; qu

is used

as

established

Preposition.

But

of

things

Homilies

saule, four, hwoso, chirche, drawen,

supplants
besides

fulle, for fin

f e efre,
cuine^ f e nefre.

well-known

for

f e eni wnnnng

on

fin

f e bi(S) fornon

the late Sir Thomas

Philology

common

gode

is taken
and

gredi

were

])uhefdest unifouh.
f oet swete al agon,

bittere

above

isold

nefre

Dset

Det

fu

f set holi lond,

f u bist
fu

fu

ac

f eo ece blisse,
f e Paradis,

havest

B(inu)men f e

f u wurst

isend,

mete

wnlder

so

fe

ic

ofer

havest

fu

Den

unneaf

fin

fu

Binumen

to

deredest

werke

sefre

leas and

were

deden

mid

clene

and

and

Forloren

Nu

nife

God

l(icham) ;

fine Inhere deden

f e onfulled

gromen

was

hire

to

and

Grod

mid

fordon

nnc

worde

from

(Ic wses)

havest

the

1180.)

a.d.

lufede(st and) lufere

and

men

MIDLAND.

J"u lif lia3fdest,


fu

hwile

Infer f eo

]?u were

on

EAST

get seif ]"eo soule soriliche

Da

and

English.

owen,

instead
the

of

sh has

Middle

English
the

not

encroached

upon

not

yet become

shall and

Vowels

In
a

ei%e

come

proper

last

with

way,

been

have

vanishes

Conquest

Old

the

see

sentence, Mlfrie abbot


after

of

now
a

(semper),

later, in

phrase
North
but

the

301

page
and

ey

South.

the

Tyne,

on

has

Caprae)

the

The
far

held

the

to

its

hoard,
The

became

of

different
of

The

(see page 181);


popular, a
1

The

old

in the
such

as

toad

sure

must

oh

we

mark

and

road.

very

here

ouh,
and

of the South

now

got

(Caput
and

the

South.1

written

unlike

the

in

the Moral
The

oa

in

Ode

is most

replacesi,

broad, is pronounced
of

dent
stu-

simplicityof

for the

this vowel

sound

about

letters ; the

inouh.
;

gad

broad, goad, and


and

as

steps by which

North

long

both

written

tongue.be expressed by

souhte

brad, though
old way,

the

of

the

(capreolus) is

still write

becomes

see

of

rd-deor

7,

; rather

claims

(dama)

us

; at p.

find

Dd

combinations

or

language

our

our

talk

shall

Gateshead

the

short

hopeless,

North,

; we

between
in

can

letters

Italian.

the

the

the

It is

(haedus) is

ground.

new

compromise

sound

ten

the

in

we

of the

do and
(stimulus)become
gode ;
changed into roa-deor, and shows

the old

before

replaces a

book,

the

sometimes

ce

North, is written

old gat

two

to
spelling,

wrong

admission

an

the

e;

New

often

this

of

0,

and

of

The

of

aye

the

Alqitin hote\.

years

Mlfred.

King

French

happened

as

and

\"ewe

hundred

seven

first in

diphthong

Beda,

becomes

we

The

country.

clau appear

two

of the

sound

degraded.

Bseda

the

and

have

eihte, clei,neih, and


the

still pronounce

we

serin

Severn

; strau

way

combination, for

favourite

ei is

in the

shrine

201

old seal and

the

is making

au

so

Cultivation.

other

thing
some-

words,

Old

202

(shire)becomes

for scir
becomes

hum.

thus

and

we

is

French

the

Teutonic

spell a
Infinitive

of

word, for heg becomes

transposed;

crcet

change

be

may

by spindle.

Southern

had

before

long

orchard.

In

becomes

chihen

Dagas

where

in this word

both

is

The

g\

What

made
lasted

turned

Northern

1c

are

Alfred
of

instead

the

softened

now

into
us

but
we

the

in

lah

the

seoruhful.

is

Weak

seen

in

Verb

chalk.

chalc, our

favourite

of

sound

new

letter in

placing
re-

elbowe, fuiveles(fowls),and

see

was

the

becomes

is the

ch, is cicen,

become

old and

now

change

to

long

into

Weak
;

the

(hiimilis)in

is drowe
]"u droge (traxisti)

even

that

the

old

(sow).
;

replaced

English splot with

has

old cealc

da^es ;

now

the
suwa

Old

are

budding

picke. King
is

nunciation
pro-

letters

orcgeard

word

the

way

word,

found.

are

is

this

the

keep

is here

the

and

The

splotch.

Another

loiue

the

at

Icert. Another

form

the

ortgeard ;

commoner

used

croche

yet

the end

still

and

drops

spindel,which

in

Cantoreburi

Sometimes

hay.

in

coupled together,as

The

Scotch

we

(currus) becomes

The

of

dricen, the

The

hei ;

word

seen

into

becomes

monsleia.

this

of

middle

spelling(did they ever


right?) influenced
us.

now

in the

of

way

dree
a

dropped

changed

now

word

is

butt.

(eleven) for endleofan.

dreogan (subire)

manslaga

for horn

replaceso,

butte,our

now

is

elleoven

see

Cantwaraburh

city

it also

Consonant

for

word,

scut

English.

Bytt (uter)is

Sometimes
a

Middle

and

days
South.

The

turned

dawes,
The

Strong

word

Verb

in

the

into

the

as
sleptest,

An

8.

at page
into

1120

is

now

attempt

corruption
sorhfidlis

changed

Rushworth

Strong (a

into

pels
Gosmost

Middle
unusual

English

rightful riiKjoden.
have

we

from

the

now

the

old

forms

two

(ilia),referring to

heo

by

before

gone
old

'

jpulmo,our
for
the

word

new

this

is

in

it did

as

that

yard

is found

Englished simply

(sartor),which
use.1

to

Lihte

deave\ (become deaf)

Intransitive,but

stands

Southern

the

of

the

stands

for

once

more

Homilies

and

5 ;

at page

appears

Scotch

the

had

trace

some

lights.'Wealcan

liver and

ambulare,

antenna

still keeps

right word

seamestre, the

coming

word

is here

seamcere

seamstress

our

sccer;

Latin

first time

ship-gear. Sartrix

to

for the

runcjen

shear, both

the

see

203

(secavit) for

and

score

We

sceran.

in

is scorede

There

Englished by seil^erd,the
applied

is found

English)

in

thing

Cultivation.

has

deave

become

Transitive.
have

We

other

sources

In

manuscripts.
written
and

about

1190,

Robekin.

likelydue
curious
attached

the

to
was

About

same

the

We
Ster

spinster ;
the

names

the

of

upon

the
of

names

Teutonic
French

long

poems

into

immigrants

new

before

besides

us,

ending

Robekin

Willekin

names

boys, and

name

derived

kin

should

became

from

are

Maid,

most
It

England.
be

Rob

or

or

is

first

William

time, the Coggeshall Chronicle

pet

lish
Eng-

Nigel Wireker,

like

names

the

and

Bob.2

talks

of

Matilda.

ter.
Baxconies
pistorEnglished by bakestre,whence
for the
the
feminine, as
ending usually reserved
Pharaoh's
called
in Genesis
baker
before
was
bcecistre,

find here
was

but

Wireker's

Vigelli.
The

Conquest.
2

are

common

Robert', it
Malekin,

come

to Flemish

that

the

we

These

to

open

See

Earle's

poems

I consulted
in kin

are

were

Philology,p.

attributed, when

the edition
found

320.

published at

in p. 94

published,to Brunellus
Wolfenbiittel

of this work.

in 1662.

Old

204
in

Later

such

of

in
./Elfric,

renowned.
hundred

English.

Centnry
his

Grammar,

written
told his

had

diminutiva, giving for

were

EAST

THE

knew

He

munculus, lytlemann.

the

not

Jarikin,

is

Perlrin

names,

time,

of

hear

we

these

this

before

years
nouns

some

Thirteenth

the

other

and

Middle

and

an

the

most

abont

two

pnpils

that

example

ho-

word

mannikin.

DIALECT.

MIDLAND

(A.D.1200.)
I

return

now

We

Colchester.

dating from

saws,

Essex

the
Line

end

of the

is

y is

On

bes.

in both

the

forms

to

East

the

other

Midland

end

prefixed to

as

Past

the

Northern

the

preferredto

such

thorough

\u (page 32), where

bes

or

belong

to

of

shall,how,

rightfult
the

hand,
and

in

ind, and

the

Southern

the

lond

\ing,swo,

no

the

at

Participle-

JSnglene (Anglorum),

cunne,

days);

is lost

Southern

as

gu, gung,

are,

Active

Participle;
a,

Sundering

forms

Anglian

the

like

It seems,

Great

the

Alfred's

King

1200.1

year

dagis (you, young,

arren,

also

ends

the

find

the

of

neighbourhood

collection

about

Homilies,

; we

sal, wu,

have

the

to

more

once

truly

are

Southern.
As
the

to

Yowels

different

English
1

Dr.

was.

Morris

sixty years

Society),p.

that

sounds

curious, and

most

The

show
o

might
how

may,

be

unsettled

prints this, along with

we

and

moge,

given

replaces i,for

later,in his Old


103.

becomes

; mceg

to
a

find

Southern

one

word

thing
wole

nvuge

are

Middle

iorwill;.

version

EnglishMiscellany (Early English

made
Text

English: Cultivation.

Middle
of this

keep

we

in

trace

but

Superlativelengest remains,
The
113.
at page
English ow
foreign ou,
hue

at

the

old

the

same

beogan
The

p. 132

sound

foil. This

booc.

The

French

oi will

now

in Essex

been

have

words

ivulf,ivulle,wund,

always

been

first to

last,though

is sometimes

what

it vanishes
for the

fondness

Anglia ;
1

In

school

no

was

in
no

have

there

is

old

hard

gesdwon

have

spellpooshun ?

'

The

the

same

their

herl

as

The

at work.

erl,wad

(oportet).

of
peculiarities
are

find oinus

famous

from

way

spelling.

for

of biovit

Oxford

1820, asked

turned

written

for
The
East

into

sagin

where

later

scholar, examining

boy to spell poison.


Hoot, mon,' cried the schoolmaster, can ye
about

'

answer.

unus.

Perthshire

have

rowan

we
Inscriptions

put

(gebur, colonus),

of the

and

written

into zvood, but

great change

one

letter

The

used,

g is

as

like ivode.

and

middle

in

Chapter.1

is here

boc

turned

altered
a

much

doubling the

old

one

we

in the

old Latin

the

would

authors

There

the

bur

wrongly

later

pronounced

in

pronounced

Consonants

In

in

of

(silva) is

wudu

Moreover,

the

again ;

up

later to be written

was

fond

was

about

scribes

sounded
troyfte,

tulien

where

expressed

now

English

to

new

nout.

writing

was

is

on

be discussed

Alfred

King
crops

this must

Essex

truth.

that

this

of letters

old treoivft is written

the

saw

of the French

sound

the

; much

Severn

the

on

121,

page

bewen

into

turns

the

over

and

douter

it in

before

bngan

or

combination

We

an

all

spread

noJit become

time, Layamon

beouweden.

we

take

to

seems

longer

becomes
(ilia)

heo

The

old

slides into

sometimes

change

pld dohter and

The

The

this

becomes

lengra

cnouin.

mouin,

119, and

page

South.

by

in

as

The

(will not).

won't

onr

205

'

boy

at

once

spelt the word

right.

Old

206

and

rogen.1

say,

as

117

is cut

was

at

But

and

since

down

and

muhil

modi.

which
but

replacingsc

was

sal is

in

sh

to

the

]" is sometimes

laughed

was

]" is added

at

to

of this

letter

acreis

chervil

In
in the

d,

later,
time

enemies.

The

the

fusion
con-

111, where

page

the

takes

1230.

at that

wetye ;

at

same

years

hineselpe.The

ceorl

the

widuten^ quad

as

his

seen

as

schete,

of

which
(dixit),

is

c,

Essex

and

find

hundred

by

as

forms

the

works

ivela becomes

written

(acres),and

old

is

ceceras

form

broader

of

(churl).
Substantives

North,

the

South,

but

the

is

we

but

hitherto

now

added

unknown
;

the

find

corrupt

alle

treasure) ;

the

(all kind

of

is in

old

true

es, known

certain

to

faderis blisse

keeps

the

Genitival

find that the

later version
We

blisse.

127

for

with

hinseolfe(himself)is
now

into

old-fashioned

word,

hit

times
some-

two

schene

Anglian

he

in

newfangled sh,

shall

More, three

as

buch

the

the

to

we

East

this,writing quod

page

by

from

find indeed

corrupted

Sir Thomas

(cwm))).
imitated

offered

we

find

differs

preferredto shal, and

resistance
The

We

poem

resistance

sometimes

]"ochte,\u micht,

This

in the

Homilies

hit in

saga

little the

how

and

may

replaced sometimes,

migte, rigtin.

as

and

degh

as

by ch, as

g,

them

was

Peterborough, by gh,
by

(die) become

saga

kept

The

rict ; sometimes

English.
"v

seit,a proof

to

sounded.

now

Middle

mceg

have

we

and

later

129,

page

English fader

madmes

cunne

in

words

in

page

sticks

version

to

madmes
(all kind's
rightful Genitive, uyches cunnes
of all (every) kind,' showing how
treasures),'treasures

the

and

This
the

seems

of

rowan

to show
were

that
not

in the Eastern

counties

pronounced like

the

the French

of
on.

gesdwon

Old

2o8
has in his
p. 136

'

we

gef him

this has

there.'

go

The

amant

this

finire;

(malum)

it at p.

from

formed
to

crops

cocJcen,and

grennen,

new

how

at London

; we

now

see

at

The

mus

p. 121.

from

verb

verb

'

Anothersmall

verb
ivole

man

this cocken

new

wrang

rigtin, be
(mouse) creates

138, the

p.

at

context,

pu

game

So

of

Drifan

seen

wronlce

we

ing,
mean-

have

chiden;

adjective cocky.

our

We

first time

for the

gets

the

at

you

instance

by

man.'

ifcEnglishes

is in p. 135.

learn

cats,

to

do

nei done

rightthe wronged

up

verb

135, \e

verb, applied

new

at p. 105

The

we

first found

was

still say

we

Klein ; another

it sidlin driven.

duste
; to

p. 115

Imperative,)w

and

dagis arren

At

spy.

Impersonal, and

But

you.'

as
intransitively,

is used

sure

mine

the

of old

was

later.

earl gan

out, for

gone

lovin him

rather

comes

like

it like

an

see

we

set before

yet

verb

'

still say

may

not

English.

Minstrel,'the

Pronoun

the

see

Last

of the

Lay

Middle

and

must

betide

is

come

in

seen

p. 129.

The

old

into

is turned

noht

to drive

already,at Peterborough, begun


here

find

but

the

time.
of

son

have

so

we

read

two

most

dere
was

is

wer

pe here
our

and

ne,

leve pu ;

Campian's

as

takes

Bible

the

usual

Middle

wel

used

for

we

the

the

is

form

or

English

is

es

way.

swipe (valde) ;

at

coupled together,wel swipe strong.

are

in

common

(p. 135)
now

seen

in

out

late

it had

nat;

rightfulne

so

prose

kept

in

of the

hwile

English pe

already

the

idiom

idiom

Old

in

used

to Adverbs

on

p. 103

was

ne

pat, which

hwilis

We

An

old
The

tacked

instead

leve \u nout

and

nout

here

coming

our

Ballads

the

so

from

down

(ubi) hachte

is

is here

is not
the

hid, per

first

wanted.
North

is

armpe

found;
A

; at p.
;

this

new

133
wer

English

Middle

forms

Relative
As

in the South

this time

before

was

crowding
Prepositions of as

to

Cultivation.

were

usual

in

between
of

'

melten

the whole

of.

is

to

The
as

for

into

foreignword
priest; for it

at the

most

This

At

nout.

now

Bi

be bi.

for scholar

of Alfred

old poem

last

two

used

said

is here

off his

show

p. 137, he wole

clerk is now

of the

end

wishing to
words

at

cleric,'p. 103.

king and
but

adverb

an

was
tended,
ex-

now

nearlyakin to in ; we
always had in English a sense
find (p. 125) god ate nede, a phrase that Scott loved.
is turned

on

turn

The

usage

of

lot

now

nocht, bringen to

to

and

mi

should

at p. 119; we
upbraid of comes
still accuse
the of into with
though we
after weorfian (fieri)
used
often
; this
see

employed with
phrases like desi

was

meanings ; it replacedthe old on


confusion
The
of mod, sot of ivord.
hear people talk
when
lasts still,
we

we

new

in.

for

\cer. The

written

new

'em;

209

that

is most

well

as
'

he

was

Teutonic;

stanzas, the bard, perhaps

learning,brings in

few

French

:
needlessly
"

nim

Ac

]"eto ]"ea stable


and

]?atword
and

dede

bisette con,
multeplienheure god,

sug fere

mon

Hie

ne

]"ehis help in
bi

sigenout

J"atmoni

ne

mod.

J"an,

ben

gentileman
;
genteleri
huge companie.1

lore and
Jrnru]"is
he

This
are

amendit

is the first instance


also letteris and
1

The

h is

of

gile.

our

We

sadly misused

word

find for the


in this

gentleman.

piece,as

There

first time
we

see.

dote

Old

210

(dolt),akin
words.

to

Swedish

well-known

word

is

the

mar

Prepositions;
found

here.

been

as

well

works.
and

find

p. 115

It

London

of Alfred

for the

case;

with
to

there

is hard

be
had

to

see

Scandinavian,

after

years
in

in

this

other

robbing

letin

alters
of

the

all

the

been

East

that

English

Charter

of

the

Anglian

Colchester
of

us

of

one

our

of,to, cet,an, prefixed ;


Southern

and

East

and

Anglia.

In

lif (vitam perdere) ;

the

first word

England,
ones

that

One

unknown.

time

Dictionary be consulted,

Essex

from

uses

transcriber

habit, elsewhere

; it

by writers, Northern

far

have

There

are

Homilies

system

verbs, with

author

clippingwas,

the

lead

the

used

should

old

was

Verbs

shires, lying between

unlucky that,

was

Essex

if Stratmann's

dwelt

our

Southern

Proverbs

compounds

remarked

be

many

were

alike, who

been

Eastern

such

Thirty

will

powers

these

but

edictum.

meant

positions
English, delighted in prefixingPre-

Leicester,took
shall

the

Verbs.

The

choicest
we

Old

distaste

of

from

have

the

as

to
same

our

maledicere, as

sense

compounding

in the

Already

this should

why

to

English speech.

our

for

few

very

fallingoff

also added

have

in these

of

beauty

distaste

evident

an

Scandinavian

frighten. Scold,

to

ugga,

geban

few

great change clearly foreshadowed, that

to

soon

Danish

old

the

besides

We

the

ban
;

English.

Norse

remark, that

here

see

we

shalla.

in this poem
I may

term

the

from

the

seen

Middle

Dutch

Huge,

from

and

became

into

the

forleten.

shires

started

and

evil

an

of

consequence
more

near

more

this
one-

syllabled.
A
may

Latin
be

here

mentioned

King
;

we

John's
there

to
see

York,
our

word

in

1200,
ivreclc

for

drifted

Scandinavian

time, the

first

the

Cultivation.

English:
'0"

Middle

something

rek,

illustrative

shore,' (Stubb's Documents

on

21

of

English History,'p. 304).


I

the

other,foreshadows
monk

Orrmin

with

comments

1200

; at

wrote

if he

(I judge

his

in

the

is the

He

Charter.

no

writer

later

and

of

course

on

earlier

an

upon

his

French

words

known

in

On

than

long

hand, he has
Danish

before

his

thoroughly Danish
has

down

come

mouths

'

tcorn,

we

we

should

find

us

so

pause

before

His
written
of the

derive
p

in

to

In

phrases
words,

in

shires

the

book

prefix

is the

most

England,

words

now

in

pages.

using words
these from

five

Conquest.1

uses

his

fix
the

or

Eastern

our

seldom

Teuton

can

well

four

Norman

in

first time

we

who

of Scandinavian

He

many

thorough a

Great

Church

are

the

scores

ever

for the

found

are

When

to

the

date.

only

words

settlement

poem

worthy

Teutonic

his

nses

Scandinavian.

is not

be, which

for

he

day.

have

to

ought perhaps

1200

before

min,
Orr-

pounds,
Prepositionalcom-

we

Latin

portion
pro-

well
us

gave

many

poem,

his few

the result of the


years

so

year

lengthy

man

the undefiled

account

him

English Makers

our

this

land

our

the other

300

used

same

1204.

I take

that

days
from

ever

after

that

year

obsolete, and

now

written

the

the

employ

writings),was

last of

drunk

be said to have

about

are

fellow

good

from

lived

have

that

have

to

the

were

Layamon

words

is known

Layamon

to

and

Teutonic

English. The
Paraphrase of the Gospels,

somewhere

own,

any

of the New

growth

of his

who, clearlier than

writer

metrical

least,he

of

been

that

to

come

now

like gmn
France.

that
our

Had

and

Old

212

of

some

late

our

It is most

and

no

to

He

he

he

would

so

earlya

of

Ashby

in

abound

He

in

in hamlets

with

names

ilia ; and

at the

Derbyshire

to the

North

of the

and
go

step

North

West

the

Mr.

White

Ormulum.
2

There
take

Derby
of

out

the

man

Lancaster, and

to

has

Dr.
are

stronghold

no

given

us

little notice

of

West

to

the

Midland

of this district.

old

lied)for
mouths
far

careful

clipped
to

at

North

use

works

of

Norwich,
;

he

may

of the West

out

dialect ;

good

not

very

country
step

made

Derby,

navel
philological

not

one

not

I should

in the

was

capital edition

has

Stratmann

regular

of

does

by.

go East

may

writer

is most

he

Midland

East

the West

be removed

be called the

may

Rutland,

that

in

which

enn,

country.2 Fifty miles

Yorkshire,
1

here

from

not

Midland
is

Line, for
in

to

%ho (the

not

treow

for lier,hem, at

burgh

uses

same

cnewivess

of

put far

ending

must

Great

Peterborough. Derby
England

South

district

He

He

Infinitive

the

Great

of the

Scandinavian

so

old Danish

men.

the

and

like this is still heard

something

writing

forms

or

be

any

of the Line.

of old

of

East

well

cannot

lived

myself place him

in

the

to

have

far to the North

far from

not

(currit), cues

Leicestershire, for

hardly

can

simplifyour English
nicety as to genders

employed their,them,

time.

Orrmin

(supplicatio),fare and

runne\

have

not

bene

lived

more,

pitfalls.1

Southern

and

and

(arbor), erne]" and

(genua). Had

all

away

evidently dwelt

bone

like

word,

to

more

sweep

him

over

fix the shire in which

to

Northern

he has

English.
"S

into fewer

did

man

and

cases.

Line

stumbled

important

wrote, since
grammar,

Middle

Lexicographers pored

have

would

they

and

of

Derby

fiftymiles
Orrmin's

to

poem,

of it.

before

1300,

so

Middle

West

South

the

English

of

is

Derby

There

word

Participle which
both

the

use

Plural

in

the

same

have

They

Genitive

the

do

of the

this
which
time

not

he

makes

the

Genitive

South

for 200

far

ahead

that

Plurals

to

in ene,

after

years

as

knows

he

Plural

between

their

Adjectives, and

of

in Somersetshire

of the

distinction

no

Plural

uses

Article

thilk,used

in

lingered on

Neuter

trace

no

Orrmin

1340.

as

Southern
has

He

Indefinite
in

and

of the

day.

of

for

Gospels.

thus

are

ende.
es

Northumbrian

old

prefix.

but

ending

Nominative

Article,and

writer

Demonstrative

nothing

this the

its

Participlein

any

the

and

Passive

shibboleths,the

Active

objectionto

earlier.

only
of

undipped

the

and

en

inflect the

Kentish

the

great Midland

Singular

not

is almost

the

and

fortyyears

wrote

leave

two

Nouns, followingin

They

who

they

Orrmin

between

gehaten or ^ehatenn

Present

Worcestershire, a stronghold

links

many

are

Peterborough Chronicler

They

2 1

dialect.

of another

The

Cultivation.

his

Definite

and

do

end

not

es.

find

We
other

East

tun, bum

of

ashes,
gan

Essex

as,

followed

forr

by

already
writers

the

far

naness,

that

repeated

; at

first

we

in

seen

to

the
to

com

(valde),

the Infinitive, cnelinng

bidell, via%",

cneowung,

is here

have

tvill,grim of heart, wel

at

Subjunctive form

of 1160
comes

to

we

like the

forms

such

(sunt), he

instead
new

what

Orrmin

Dano-Anglians,

South

arm

in

line 151

cam,
saw

(venit).
in the

of Orrmin's

The

Homilies
Preface

"

I shall

As to Vowels

the

hafenn
ce

addledd.

is often

preserved.

But

it

some-

Old

214
times
for

becomes

for

spekenn
lived

also

in the

the

replaced by dun,
the

whence

comes

lieard,and

but

of

both

changing

bita

it from
in the

as

French
he

word

our

the

for

Lindisfarne

and

awake

adun

yet

the

old

is

is found

bufan (supra),

Scottish

and

darr, for ceapmann,


to

he

also

into

not

Saul

of

with
for

in
from

men

Middle

the

we

replaces ea
find

now

and

nacod,

of the French
a

and

is

do

we

at

; the

Oh

y must

hardly ever

find noww]"err and

nahwar

kept

u.

The

otherwise,

bay.
Scotch

us

English, is

East

Orrmin

this

he

and

interchange

common

slake

The

when

ing
distinguish-

given

slack.

him

i is short, thus

of slacian ; this last has


and

Paul,

bite,at I. p, 300

morsus.

of

likely

most

au,

puts

aboon.

talks

Orrmin

Gospels;

instead

always

Preposition.

in

seen

written

favourite
both

write Laurence, the

instead
of one,

i and

Magy,

have

now

nakedd

instead

between

nowwliarr

writes

sleckenn

verbs

two

eo,

brest,calif,

dep, frend, lernenn, ned, held, lesenn, fe, e%he;


(nudus)

are

the

has

(fragmentum)
that

arise

ou\

clawwstre.

mark

to

care

posst-

prefersaw

Pawell, though
becomes

apostlesbecome

is not

hard,

evidentlyclipped

way

above, and

Orrmin

as

e,

is often

Northern

is set before

like the

claustrum

takes

dear.

sounding

thus

chappmann,

as

Line.

down, which

our

our

replaces ea,

Orrmin

en.
oaf

Gospels

true

hand

other

for

word

Rushworth

clippedin

On

of

it becomes

Great

the

(jussit)

sometimes

efenn

from

beginning

less,as

smcec

spcecan,

far

not

the

at

for

English.

for tlie old crcet,badd

karrte

as

a,

heed, smacc

Middle

and

y,

the

so

wise

lost the sound

for the Northern

for the

old naw\er

Southern
awihlit

English

and

Lawrence.

change
oht for

216

Old

way,

for he

writes

turned

into

often

spceche,chosenn

and

and
silferr

far

the

is

as

sc

Orrmin

altogether gone
bishop and
Ormulum

to

can

New.

the

this

g is often

from

latter

is still found

the

He

the

final

and

eorplic

of

after

word

old

of

eafielice

Orrmin's

is written

for
The

youth.

poeticaleyne,
soften

the

well

as

the

Scotch

Sometimes

middle
I

eagan

of
was

word

amused

;
at

scholarly. Let

hence

he

even

one

him

up

Orrmin

holds

aloof

out

The

words

erpli^ and
We

we

also

have

ge

hey-day
ej/me,
will

from

me

for

of

our

never

the

old

altogetherin the
unnlic
(unlike).

using scholarlike
his Middle
English.

rating

brush

He

lai.

last word.

became

ungelic becomes

critic

to

But

he throws
thus

fe.

of the

talk

we

een.

(semper).

only he%he,but lieh,

(oculi)now

old

to

Not

(wain).

high ;

our

this

(waggon)

ivosgen

wa$""i

g into

gesawon.

old

druhlipe (drouth) ;

into

first

]"e%" (they),

as

into

gate

Orrmin

as

down

becomes

old

and

for the

Peterborough

softened

are

the

put

still left the

ween,

the

h, turning feh (feoh)

sometimes

have

well

the

seems

his word

yett.

as

#33

ne\

in

Icelandic

vowel,

both

5 ; Orrmin

supplanted by

not

Old

the

struggle between

as

This

writes

he

of

had

clearlythan

more

03peU% (easily).1 Drugoft


we

sh instead

form

for

North,

Scotland

instead

lay

us

gave

drops

in

of the

instead

naj^

older

English geat (porta) ;

at the end

is

English writer,

distinguishingthe

in

useful

(via)

placed 3

the

the

the

and

Nowhere

see

we

The

find

in

bishop.

ground

shcetvenn,shall,and shame.

South,

out

the

its

pretty regularlyused

who

in the

change began

him

holds

the second

was

he wrote

With

hcefedd.

ivakemun, however,

known,

former

English.

tcechenn,be?mche, Iceche,macche,

ch, as

against watchman.
so

Middle

as

Middle

Augustine is
haletan
the

down

cut

family

our

with

this is twice

The

down

has

find at Yol.

became

our

the

out

Orrmin
Law

he

corrupt

(prope).

He

had

of

ner

has

both

of the

home

authoress

Adam

"

later uppan.
nedd
of

The

old

Aryan

healfunga
use

the

Adverb.
Tobi.

The
Even

I do

of his

own

as

not

often

as

The

is

is

now

cut

day.

Grimm's

of

I is

uppe

the

off in
Teuton

Spenser's ne here

for

new

upon

have

sceclode
are

to

becomes

sec-

two

forms

in

cnelenn;

still in
round

; he did not

he

use

Scotch

off the

Tobias, which

though

the
the

but

been

preceded

inserted, as

added

once

good English by

old

Sun

He

rightfulneh

uppo

word
a
Jiallflingess,

usual,

to

of

the

Sol and

Orrmin, good
refer

1580.1

the

writes

replaces Z, for

word.

as

'

Bede

becomes

es,

until

wurrpshipe and

to all lovers

(sickened),just

one

wholly

that
Derbyshire peculiarities

latelybrought
of

old

the

not

\ripell.
for

South

the

He

ivurrsliipe,
worship.
one

triplex into

later

years

could

word

foreknowledge

Latin

the

turns

the

this is

no) ninety

(used by Campian)

ne

at the

drinnke]"]".

ne

newfangled

to have

seems

uses

old

As

223,

etep]"ne,

; the

nor

years

or.

new

give ne (nee) an

(written by Layamon

ner

drive

II.

more

o\\r, and

as

other for the

old

the

is still

seen

in

out;

(or). Tyndale, 330

orr

did Orrmin
so
o]"]"r,

Ner

This

to

thrown

This

(aut) is

217

still appears

is sometimes

old oSSe

ill ; the

later,sometimes

we

he

as

he^lenn (to hail).

pared

oSfte became

Cultivation.

Awivstin,

to

names.

becomes

case

end;

English

old

becomes

be, cannot
the

language

Old

218

and

English

Middle

""

resist

putting the

(mercy).
we

see

as

for

When

that

He

y.

Judisshenn
French

of

letters when

throwing

instead

ivhat

had

kept

full in

the

avid

English

stands

this

high

together, is

th

of

As

whoam

gang

from

keep

the

Genitive
1

island

The
; I

in shires

old
in

the

thee

as

sunne

sunness

interchange
have

Our

talks

Carlo.

of

liivoet,

moreover,

and

of

running

rhof.
vowels

Derby

cildru

lingers
me,'

and

but

in

as

the

Plural
and

and

peasants
of the

has

has

talk

Emperor

of

forms

He

died

still

corrupt

in

out

cwirlwincl

Harlo

came

We

Jews.

not

pears
ap-

in the

read

children

Orrmin

now

Lancashire;

we

(II. p. 112).

lihht

Tuscan

calls him

Juucet and

Ihude

Plural

brethren

beam,

between

old

corrupt
did

also

Scotch

we

have

now

sound

far from

not

still

childer

heard

hwirlwind.

If

la^Jie(eaantiqua lex) ;

this

t, and

English

hiv, writing

Orrmin,

of talde

follows

Old

English

writes

wyrhta

he

should

the

he

read

into

ballad.

South,

the

transposes

tallot.

to

fine modern

of the

words.

other

German.

chilldre, which

as

nothing

old

regards the

when

Substantives

to

As

above

still found

hayloftbecomes

in his

He

the

place,we

between

(quid).1

II.,p. 280,we

change

link

consonants

transposes
Vol.

the

English

the

than

with

so

h in its proper

Latin

the

hwcet,and

view

our

rather

well

as

z,

utbresstenn

unluckily transposes

of

called,)

gresshoppe,fressh,tvrohhte

bresta

He

knows

millce

so

our

d here.

wrihhte; in his

becomes

cetberstan.

the

out

Old

the

to

near

for

to stand

(Judaeus); he

Scandinavian

the

At

keeps

he writes

in his word

(the coins
be~g"sann%,

beginning

smdJudeiu
way

(faber)

5 is

for the old

he writes

the

our

French

Quinto

our

instead
;

Roman

of

Middle

wholly

is

ferce)into

followed

not

him

females

Dative

Accusative

gate

when

hear

we

speech

that

Scripture with
Article,
late

II.

'it

It

iss drunnhenn

word

used

who

woman

addressed
means

Latin

Oxford,

will

in the

is

As

in the

double

Blick-

spot (continuo)

i stede
forr]"rihht

of old

terseness

his

in

hinted

be

that

sense

quotations from

laffdig
;

as

sometimes

Charter

of
used

at

the
an

the

to

arisen

ground'

II. p.

in

is

has

133, ]"iss

and

now

then

strange

seems
a

of

that

us

prophet

abbot.

We

Bather

than

find

later,
to

burghers

for the

overldng,overlord,words

is

still

cdlderrman

nothing higher
368).

l-arrte ; the poor

with
word

to

1255, given by -Henry III.

p.
as

slang

is called

scanty food

her

compounds

of

down

you

Elijahaloft

shared
him

piece

]"egrund. There

to

that bore

aldermanis

such

; we

(lend)

there

stern

heads

us

Genitive

the

on

The

suit

(Stubbs, 'Documents,'
time

believed

new

to

prince, and

Orrmin

by

our

Christ

seems

winn

the chariot

of

by

of

The

; to lenenn

\e ive%"e.

Nathanael

41.

p.

by

hint

talk

hoc se%"]" (liberait),omitting the Definite

years,

(omnino).

when

out

comes

liemm

II. p. 125.

"c.

he

summ

get

we

it is

as

gannge\\

and

males

persons.

replacesthe
he

summ

in to ledenn

ling Homilies,

than

much

as

243, of

would

age

]"attallderrmann

Accusative

whatt

phrase

of

hroht

ivass

The

]"amenn.

by him,

I. p.

in

for

wiser

pily
hap-

(hominum)

menn

longer word

is mishandled

read that win

son

is

uses

corrupts
have

we

manna

read,

we

; our

also

he

old

219

seffnegoddnessess

(deers);

The

He

in I. p. 165

alike

individuals, which

in

deoress

here.

herrtess.

menness

of

276

line

wonderfully altered, when

gode

Cultivation.

talking

Preface,

his

Latin

(the

when

Plural

new

(virtu tes), in
deor

English

first

happily

Old

220

revived

in

our

where
former

word, before

orbis.2

The

Orrmin,

latter

for

the

in

Orrmin
of

Substantive

the

first appears

now

England

hallfe;
1

was

in I.
p.

land

so

This
;

as

my

he would
word
in

is

But

in

only

trunk

than

forms

lie,

new

mainland,

it

disgusted
He

263,

last

sense

bone

patt

comes

troivwpe,
of old

was

pressed
ex-

(cognatus),
North

The

(clothing)
.

in Verbal

at

my

halfu,and

Gufts

af

Nouns.

crowned

not

was

We
Godess
fore-

using overlord; in this

probably prefersuperior domi-

would

stands

its

sometimes

now

II. p. 125, the word

Herod

now

for

neat
as
a
pound
comsociology
of all things,I suppose,
prefer hyper-dominator.
still rightlypronounced as a dissyllablein Scot

Lady Nairne's
'

In

Scandinavian

betters.

English

(boon) changes

I. p.

abound

hyper-despot. He

oiator,or
;

that

he

New,

the

oftener

the

but

doping

to

critic is much

simply follow

247,

for

Old

word, Jcinnessmann

new

soon

this is the

One

it; in

does

; so

stand

the

meant

line

Bone

prayer,

use

for

found

day

far

flegil of

this
belief',

treoive.

appears

read,

the

(craved).

troth, means

by
of

we

stood

and

the

our

one

than

two, speaking of bodv"lich. The

English.

as

]"attlie%eormde
our

In

it ha,d meant

Old

was

bodi%

word.

to

in

favour,

means

it is in

uses

of the

out

flail, akin

meaning

Lie

The

by middan-eard;

the

256, compounds

pears
ap-

more

begins to

now

lych-gate; bodig usually

sense

word

it

earlier translated

was

though

corpus,

chest; but
our

more

no

woruld

English

oniddell werelld.

Lichfieldand
or

time, meant

Old

The

nothing

at II. p.

talking of
word

Orrmin's

jpignus.

sceculum, and

English.
"v

day.1 Weddlac (wedlock) now


been
would
have
used.
iviflac

own

of old

Latin

the

Middle

and

it wad

up

Mitherless
gae

witless

Lammie
the warald

"

to

see.'

shadows

hehalf,which

our

the passage

folicwithout
but

nation,
min's

As

men

of

went

Orrmin's

meaning,
here

the

of

uvhillo

with
from

removed

meekly

follows

Christ's

Here

we

have

latter

(posterior)
; the
of

senSe

twenty
in, as
In

win

has

Adjectivalending

an

his Pronouns,

neighbour

to

heore,hemm.1
their and

them
1

The

It

was
came

Gothic

the

Orrmin

invitus.

to

He

sense

man

has, in II.

"

iss bettre.

The
now

uses

former

only serior

is found

shows
He

in

ful

Standard

and
this

Dorsetshire

coming

was

lighton

pohtful.

that

is

he
and

ice

replaces the two


and sixty years
hundred

into

grading
de-

latter is said

sometimes
two

native,
Nomi-

of

word

Cana

years

iss swipe god,

; we

Northumbria.

pe%"re, pe-g%m ; but

the

at

time.

this

as

sheepishin

uses

they

yet the

not

latoi- meant

old

Orr-

full lap

for

meaning

indeed,

miracle

Comparative

after

years

taken

opposition between

the

the

find the

but

pattern.

\rinforrmewin

new

the

applying

pin lattre

In

himm

ivass

was

He

foul.

relatingthe

182, when

use

how

see

we

odiosum

mann

fulsome

ours,

common

world.

mann

lap means

II.

longer means

no

280,

p.

lap got

our

our

we
weorc-dceg,

folllisumm (compliant)

be connected

who

I.

iwhillc

thus

sense

far

the

Dative

the
and

of

form

in

In

part.

baptizingfolk.

was

new

their

on

it ; it

later

years

God's

on

Shakspeare's workaday

nehh"henn

to

Christ

Adjectives

to

changed

p.

by

article before

an

iverkkeda^h,the

first germ

to

be translated

may

221

hundred

came

333, is the first example, I think, of

p.

of

Cultivation.

English:
""5

Middle

English

\"aim for tillsis in St. John, vi. 7.

near

pejg,

last

by

before

they

are

Old

222

Scandinavian

true

forms.

Chronicler, Orrmin
form

of old

would

Noun,

something

theirs

for

Forms

like

the

am

kept

this at

and

yours
took

Orrmin

and

In

later

years
This

and

that

to
are

her

form

later.

both

that

South

the
I

am

to thiTk for two

227,

we

see

This
;

three
and

yours

before

shall Jindenn Jesu

of this

was

common

come

reach

wrote

I. p.

]mtt mann
Plural

to

to

to be

has

Masculines

something quitenew

stuck

This

eggperr ])e"g%ressherrte.

were

is

our

an

London

hundred

and

"

itt iss ]"att


lufep])
gri]"]"

whose

the

till

employs

fiftyyears longer.

For

see

long

^77e,which

bay

Shakspeare

we

later, Skelton

your.

Latin

85,

is

])isellfmodignesse.

person

time;

form

I. p. 42, there

In

]"e silf; self seemed

first

ours

years

for the

like
I. p.

In

Scandinavian
hundred

been

have

self.'

Peterborough
English heo (in

Old

%ho.

\u civennlcesst

the

the

to

he writes

unusual

English.

Unlike

sticks

Latin, ea), which

sweet

Middle

and

employs ]"a, which

\att he

]"as (those) in

become

for the

Crist.

first time

the

fifty
North.

coupled together in

I. p. 323"
tiss and

Whatt

That

is set

mann

; that

parts of

our

though
that

lie

before
same

tatt

(idem)

Hike

is still used

country.

This

I. p.

in

; as

has

same

milihte

makenn

\"zroff]?asame

ctvike
staness.

once,

menn
"

Hike
some

upon,

Redgauntlet

only"
He

in

same

being encroached

Scotland

Orrmin

158; \att

of the

instead

y Ic was

it still lingers in

(de eodem).

profete.

I. p. 345.

and

once

of

of

Orrmin's

idiom

abode

when

hwcet

well

as

whatt

keep

this

summwlicer.

is in II. p. 293.
is

Verb,

Titles ;

Godess

%ife itt

The

old

xvitt itt iss i

of

parent

]"att he

if

misdo]).

have

followed

must

guard

prefixed by

him

imitated

the Scotch

comes

So

idiom.

Substantive

former

earlier

form

first found

far from

arte
ilka ;

is

ure

is

now

ino^he \"attledenn

illc

see

wo

iss

kinde

dropped

find

we

\urrh
wliatt

comes

pcet would
is the

iss

"giff
\att
man's

wife

The

all is

in

the

Blickling

shire, was
after

an

now

it, whence

offalle \a,
p. 137

and
a

also
new

sivillc ]"att,I. p. 20.

The

after

find

10

I. p.

"c,

itt iss

Participlesand

to

an

the

by

this, ]"cetmight

II.
]"att,

drnnnkennesse

(eadem res)

I. p. 137

Orrmin's

taking

was

o\"err

sum

I. p. 214.

way

still

ivhase

that

usual

Essex
we

find

has

than
hear

now

we

In

Orrmin

The

times

itt.

in the

not

(such a)

stvillc an

to

I. p. 162,

all ]"att%ho ma%",

Homilies, written

being

that

The

now

being very freely

now

; in

in

Even

Orrmin

seems

followed

siva,

was

of this

be

ealle

Adjectives.

"c.

to

so

old

wliatt

in II. p. 250,

]"att"c.

instead

our

The

in Orrmin's

p. 20 ; this it

\"e

used

been

have

hwa

swa

expanded

wass

202.

also

we

phrase \att Hike

throughout England

used

this

which

summwhatt,

The

wonderfully

II.
\att sti%lw]"]",

it

aliquid;

mouth

of old hwcet

was

II. p.

mann,

for

like

something

quis,qualis,and quod.

as

del is in Orrmin's

sum

English.

lie favours

stood

always

res,

Middle

writing

had

English

and

and

Old

224

enough ;
here

we

may

must

we

supply

men.

As

to

Numerals,

an

by itself, answering
before

proper

name

for

had

long

to

quidam

the

been
;

first time

used

it

is

; at

ing
standnow

I. p.

set

287,

Middle
hear

we

talks

used

an

in two

that

Christ

that

man

different

is

senses

This

God

first

our

with

glimpse of

the future

al

Middle
he

himm

ivass

have

before

here

stood

that

old

which
first,

261)

\aforman

this time.2

We

phrase
something
p. 211

This

divided

lane

Oh

was

of
twd

Another

at II. p. 54 ;

of this the

word
the

of

meaning

blind.
agg

mness

is but

The
0

old

\e %er

clipped on.
now
rapidlygiving way to
English word in future for
a

year

the hua

firsstemenn

would

have

been

true

old

the

hear,

; we

be

may

land
Low-

(once)

aines

(I. page
used

long

at

in

seen

Lady

before
form

of

I. p. 320, of

foivivrefeor\enn daless

Dative

! wha

Which

The

-will dry the

sheds

(ane) was
'

the

such

we

Nairne's

now

Poems,

:"

She

seen

wur\enn

upon

be

takes

now

fourths,"c.

Keflexive

'

This

once

the

come

three

our

be

follow.

35, \att wass

in

hear

we

here

our

to

The

ainess

in I.
p.

to

was

this number

wass

(primus)

mrest

may

alone ; many

Dative

for semel, it

is found
see

soon

still traces.1

olim ; I. p. 62, he

meaning

Reflexive

ane,

Scotch

The

hear

we

libbenn.

ane

prefixed were
English form for solus

we

II. p. 40

; at

means

cannot

is

forms

II. p. 193, it

at

with

wholly one

hi b?'(sd all

had

225

FiKjppe,(one Philip,)'Philippus quiWe


see
a
new
phrase in I. p. 149 ; Orrmin
of ehhte styessan
find all
(eighttimes one). We

dam.'

an

of

Cultivation.

English:

her

dreeping tear

lane, she sheds her lane

at last mistaken

kettle,for

me,

right, the firsttwo


former phrase has always been
been

used

sud hae

is

times, and both have

for

or

by good

as

in p. 209

"

couped its lane.'

the two

used

Noun

?
first

Something

the latter dates from

writers

down

to

1800.

like

later

Old

226

the

drop

last

Scandinavian

sunt,

The

of

in the

find
these

the

Gothic

see

the

(eras); ic

of

the
it

Bed

si.

heon

(esse)to

and

also

even

Ormulum

South
as

]m

Old

saw
as
a

wass,

We

English
our

si

yes,

be, and

to

old ic mot, ]"u most,

which

is

Derbyshire.1

to

this is first found


muna

or

but

into

auxiliaryverb,

Scandinavian

we

down

cut

Caithness

do

mini

sinndenn.

clipped,in

the

the

I shall.

of the

uses

from

now

would

have

phrase

'

he
'

waterr

given

if he

had

if
'

is grown

for

find

we

fiowedd

shows
to

II. p. 58, Godd


Some

'

followed

wass

Orrmin

taking

Pluperfectwas

new

hceffde
frajgnedd,

verb

Orrmin

ployed.
em-

wcere

becomes

Ormulum

the

is

in his work

but

in

mune

the

impliesfuturity,not necessity.

The

pejg
turned

sceal

the

sometimes,

wceron

wcere

Scandinavian

is the

mun

Hi

and

Angles,

survives, somewhat

ben.

phrase as

the

to

For

in the

used

ever

form

pure

is in

new

employed

is \u

Verb.

beon

as

from

comes

the

Homilies, becomes

ivast

last

i.e. ge

be

it

change

(in Latin, sit);

grown

hardly

Gospels.

Southern
wonderful

more

the

in

well

as

arm,

akin

more

English hund,

changes

was

England

Old

the

to

Northumbrian

the

Such

Hunndredd,

many

we

first of

West

in

has

English.

Middle

word.
than

Orrmin
Latin

and

years

us

the
wass

ago
its
G-othic
form
;

is

asked

in

the

Passive,

old

is in St. John

%iff(he)

Imperfect

in

the
that

English

he

in I. p.

Derbyshire gamekeeper
vi. 15.

he

'

Our
has
also

waxenn,

not

extension

voice

an

English.

wass

\eowwtedd (served) ;
I heard

the

oldest

%ho

future

former

here

root

respectablethan

more

the

the

in Orrmin
;

'

fast

Active.
was

has

to

in

294, ]"e
use

the

English: Cultivation.

Middle
himm
\"att

land

forrbodenniss
to

was

Passive

does ; Horace's

lamb

to

if the

forms.

None

of

say

earlier times
the

has

Aryan tongues
the English now

the

imperor is something

offredd;we
'

we

II. p. G3 mannkinn

freelyas

so

In

Orrmin

ben

to

when

was
'

'

offer;

lamb

cm

; in

ego procurare

Latin.

in

unusual

seheun

fandenn.

to

the

use

bedenu

ivass

'

blame,'

this house

'

to do again ;
true
our
thing were
He clipsthe Imperative,writing

lociab,II.

the word

90, where

'

85,

p.

than

correct

more

most

of

talked

men

great change, II.

are

to

am

227

he

let,'

to

old Gerundial

loc instead

of

is

speciallyaddressed
The Infinitive is used
the equivalent
to many
men.
as
in II. p. 223 ; all forrsolcenn
of a preceding Substantive
in I. p. 220, a man
to foll^hemi
hiss tare,and liimm
; so
and
messess
wity to letenn sivingenn
iuip]"
pleases God
the Verbal
should
himm
use
now
Noun, instead of
; we
p.

these

Gerundial

mind

when

There

is

I.
pin hettpe,

with

but

cogere,

He

p. 213.

he also

here

this

an

governs

sense

At

I. p. 188,

Accusative,

Paternoster

abstract

the
;

read

we

of

bede here

it was

not

the old
sense

new

comes

1. p. 310, the parents missten

\att

menu

keep

]"attolilit wi])]"\e

niann

dealings with)
Miss

still

shall

Orrmin
it for

nedenn
verb

to
want

meaning
in I. p.

of

213,

(have

Scandinavia.
a

Genitive

in

\"ez"rechild.

]"ebede )mtt mann


bidden

bitt in the

still stands

until Chaucer's
q

dcelenn

from
not

kept in
ing final.

employs

Scandinavian

givesit a

(partiri)
; Orrmin
an

the

has
We

the Accusative.

dmlan
lllc

sense

(in Icelandic, nauft-synja)


;

egere

be

must

discussingthe hard question of


curious change of meaning in neden

it in its old

uses

this

and
Infinitives,

time

for

thing
some-

that

men

228

Old

could

talk of

thrown

on

pair

of stintan

meaning

of

had

further

sense

I. p.

We

word.
of

'

follow

]"attiss

means

forms

ende.

latter

strang inoh

to

of

our

inn, from

The

is

the

phrase,

this idea

I. p.

266,

'

our

to

onn

take
1

Sir

so,'that
Roger

people talk
derivation

shade

of

in

take

fra%yienn,

on

take

be

Scandinavian

hence

'

would

now

near

de

'

went

is,

'

go

CoTerley at

him.

of this verb.

Addison

At

ask

to

on

on

the

would

have

lie strac

some

carries
tokenn

men

; the

Anna,
common

I. p. 256
on

hence

At

been

our

I. p.

struck

is

take

comes

hcepinng;

86, the Virgin

'

theatre

the

to ;

has

takenn

so.'

instandan

Orrmin

At

I. p.

ivittnes?,

the widowed

that

'

wit

Peterborough,

'

meaning,

joke.'

to

Danish

with.'

up

turtle,

inn

o]"err (husband)

iuip]"nan

toe

; also

the

enough
Adjective, as

at

that

hear

has

follows

the

so

old

of the

himm

Orrmin

and

so

we

p. 230

Grist,II.

till

the

to do

took

step further

liemm

phrase

he

The

tion
continua-

Gothic

find, as

We

greatly developed.

now

the

%lw
kepe]"]"

you

an

But

has

ne

stanndenn

(ire).1

old

the

is

bere

old

The

sense

do

'

to

of

new

which

win,' "c.

to

old strican

the

by

as

seen

I stand

mate,

in

The

here

hear

like

preceded

now

been
bid

now

92.

it

Infinitive

werrpenn.

(perseverare) is

'

seggen,
;

it

II. p.

her

idiom

English

Scandinavian

the

weary

manere,

to

beads,
'

intend

to

has

auction.

an

See

loses

find

when

source

she

keep

till

bid

signify.'We

to

here

brinngenn

at

be

off.'
*

great load

may

bid

to

of

when

Old

an

'

was

we

or

go,

sense

of

bid;

leave

to

the

42, that

urippo\err

we

'

English
"i"

of beads.'

servant

meaning

mcenan

Middle

verb

our

bid

supper,

'

and

'

323,

do

to

not

comes

in, hearing

puzzled

toe

some

give the

take\\

upponn

Abed

hence

Cultivation.

English:

Middle

At

%ilw.
'

our

take

II.

148, Cain

p.

'

fancy to

229

"c.

nty

toe

The

%cen

waterpots,

At II. p. 117,
mett.
133, tokenn (contained))"refald
ivordess (Grsecia victorem
ivi]"]"
F'dippe toe Natanacel

II. p.

cepit);

enough

not

of

meaning

the

study

to

mother's

the

takes

he

'

Burns,

in

so

the

eye.'
word

It is
in

take

landic
'Anglo-Saxon Dictionary;' Cleasby's Icethis espebe carefullysearched
Lexicon
must
cially
;

Bosworth's

holds
the

Orrmin

acsian, and

employ

from

came

the

first

Bristol

and

the

word, which

new

fast in

spread

(elatum)
it

hafan
find

well

as

his line

This
have

must

Strong
his

Verb

time.

He

Weak

one,

hcefedd

uses

sleppte(dormivit),
slep; iveppten(fleverunt),instead of
; he

expected, Orrmin

-than

into

has

the

our

follows
habban

Southern
to

of treden.
the

Northern

(habere).

We

corruption hast

modern

in

"

haffsttu slajennwitteirEg.I.

Himni

"

Scorcnedd

(scorched)

English ; Wedgwood
which

before

approach

near

Ireland

caught.

South,

(depressus),instead

be

might
rather

for

bikahht

and

hofenn

as

to be

ought
trededd

weopon;
As

turns

begun long

process

still

Irish
in

settlers

first in the

saw

the

England.

sometimes

He

where

we

English

of the Southern

South.

bikcechedd

find both

We

since

axe,

him

followed

here

have

we

to

Line.

(rogare),instead

assJcen

uses

lived

who

writers

of

case

Sundering

Great

of the

North

the

in

good

has

the

same

appears

quotes

meaning.

the

for
Low

page

the

Dutch

154.

first time

in

schroggen,

Old

230
Orrmin

both

uses

Past

the

We

is the

form

true

in the

instead

the

was

old

this

out

II. p. 333.

first to

rihht

in I. p.

does

not

the

here

251,

used

it

take

much

used
Scott's
'auld

'

II. p.

one

that

paratus

word

our

of

302

quondam,

bidene
:

we

'

it in

is

ever,
how-

We

have

]"urrhutliJ:e

siftftan is here

the

first

arks

what

and

hint

Lindisfarne

shall

is used

now

three

The

see

in the
a

proof

curious

first found
hundred

the

meant

Gospels ;

Yorkshire.
is

before
we

of

appears

through

this

Whilum

for

an

boremi.

wass

suddenly

'

Jaw,

shires.

use

as

lannge sippenn*,like

this

(in Dutch, by that)

kept

The

future

far from

is used

this

merly
for-

was

II. p. 60.

of the word.

adverb

mean

ivisstenu,

which,
utterrlike,

nohht

in the

lived not

almost

now

; it

; vjel

earlier ; from

new

Danish
as

old/orr-

employed by

\at Grist

rcedi^i ]"inherrte

in other

has

time,

Adjective

an

adverb

an

sense

makest

thou

for

Verbs,

tare all
wrang,

into

since ;

henceforth

may

Orrmin

England

'

latter

first

the

before

formed.

for
and

strewn

sticks to the

wel

our

ago

years

is all

repeated
that

sixty

for

appears

wass

now

lang syne.'

at

sense

like

as

toe

changed

(our thoroughly) is

the

Weak

rihht is also

]"urhutarise fortyyears

Been

shcewenn

write

foreignvery

idiom

yet

as

use

only; he

is

old uteweard

form

just,]"e"%rihht nohhtne

say

Wrancj is

Adjective

both

Strong and

who

Scandinavian

Another

Weak

side.

Adverb

substantive

has

by Orrmin,

should

we

of

other

sivipe(valde);

of

where

The

he

for]"wi]"]"
appears

only once

He

\"rihht.

the

and

mistakenly

we

matter

the

on

Adverbs

to

but is used

him

Strong

just as

usually err

driven

the

English.

preferthe former, thongh

now

But

strewed.

As

Middle

Participleof show;

shcewedd.

we

and

in

years.

Old

232
dunnwarrd
I

noww\err

think, in
be

may

which

of the

idiom

we

for

quoted

Old

may

from

followed

phrase is the

now

use

that

neither.'

Prepositions:
he

Verb,

in his

Orrmin

that', we
As

forms

and
are

while

of

II. p. 34 ; Christ's

that

is,if Christ

berenn

the

and

show

he

to

wiypinnenn sexe

is

of

said,

than

with

himm

repeated, for

you

wi]"]"and

sellfenn;
The

the

sake

'

wi]"]"
;

thing
some-

Layamon

and

through;

the old binnan

uses

the

with, to

128.

(omnino).

Orrmin

same

when

sense,

in
p.

to instead

for

the

in Old

nonce.

and

182,

of

seeh

English.

St. John

forbids

kingessfe;

this
He

for, and

has

for;
the

this is the

remark

same

forr nanegode (for no


last word

the

There

the

is

Publicans
source

good), II.

Prepositionin

new

to

take

have

applies

have

would

been

after

I. p. 354

aught forr\

of the Scotch

as

referringto

time, as forrlannge (forlong) ; earlier writers would


had

at

through

go

with),I. p.

up

employs for

He

%eress.

still

rather

also to wed

has

in
wi]"])innenn

also

\e
also

goes

and

later.

are

has

sense

writing through

was

come

has

new

withal

new

time

same

by was

of time

I will

Orrmin's

like
about

'

Crist
ivi]"]"

put

our

adverb

an

is

an

that

that.

Orrmin

be added.

(hence
ivty\"

upp

is made
ivi]")"
of emphasis ;

by

annd

alters

he

He

'

this

allow

that, if that, and

generations,it

(men) fowwerti^

"weress

Virginius:

cefter]"am

affterr]"att;

Prepositions:there

to

authors

Conjunctions

clipthe

to

apt

now

English

somewhat

beforethat,for that, in that,through that.


further,

'

not

us

instead

has

Old

standard

Let

those

of

instance,

one

true

to Knowles

perish utterly.

the

by

new

it,down

English shape

formed

English.

negative. Many

that

say

fine old relic to


the

we

Middle

this

twofold

needn't

'

and

bi ]"e

forby (preeter).

Middle
The
himm

wholly

to

be

his

on

I. p.

set

58,

to' "c,

the

Magi

idea

of Ruf

us,

upon,

find

stolen

inntill

book
I

fear,

and

it survives

Ennglisshe;

oferr

er]"e. The

hear

in II. p. 110

Scott

keeps

long

was

along
Toivard

as

old

He

Indeed,

'

when

it ;

use

gelang

on

old

phrase in

'

but

the

common

on

and

the

the
the

old

for

his

also

his

the

encroach

replaced

turning

read

I. p. 250,

is

flood

(per)

is cut

ened
strength-

Dark

all

passed
down

Cristess

lang 0

to

seems

in

Over

'

sammnenn

inntill

folk

; we

hellpe;

Musgrave,
now

prefer

it

'all

of,as usual, interchange.


and

as
tenj",

of
Orrmin, in the eyes of some
appear as ignorantlypresumptuous

as

idea of their barbarous

accounted

jargon being

of their

old to is

has

his

that

about

the

iss

This

polished enough,

we

something

replaces

we

views

also
men

thinks

of

not

that

this

of thee

of thee

The

pe iveg"e inntill ]"atttun.

by all, much

to draw

seize upon,

our

was

has

II. p. 180.

boasts

he

he

Chronicle

man.

until, unto,

our

hemm

in

of semi- Saxon.1
an.

say

with

the

Orrmin

(gather) pise inntill


ledenn

in

seen

goods upon

'

we

called

replaced by

was

faderr;

cumenn

be

is said

by himself,'

I. p. 248, Herod

may

to talk

foreshadow

in

to

upponn,

himm

(into) when

inntill

Where

substitutes

upponn

time

by

his

hostility
;

were

; the

own

biddepp uppon
him.'

Orrmin

power).

Englishmen

the

us

don

see

in their

taken

'

how

upon

marks

upon

Crist

name

shows

is

Earlier

nature.

; Orrmin

to heaven

to

that
selfenn,

own

We

usual.

as

233

in I. p. 104 -, Christ

appears

himm

inn

(per se),in

'

interchange

on

idiom

new

Godd

at

Cultivation.

peggre walde, II. p. 221, (put him

on

and

pair in

English

our

would-be

King

lufe

towarrd

must
philologers,

Alfred

himself.

English !

The

Old

234
Godess

hus, II. p. 188


here

John,

p. 25.

heretics

say

Marge,

II. p.

the

295;

Scandinavian

From

is

before

put

ehces all att


Danish

the

heftan

has

both

free of

in many

is itself used

begin ;

for

has

been

Noun

de), in

Latin

think

of, hear

following.
by from,

on

find

of,glad

ware

of, bigripenn (rebuke) of,irrite of


Genitive

makes

for

way

in

of

hope of,love of,need of,loss of

two

of,upper

in the

"ife,and
form,

are

such

phrases

as

see

more

Orrmin

work),

as

ne

him.'

the

of;

to ashes

burn

(obedient)
Verb, has

till him
to

p.

funderni nohht

of

often

The

find

we

;
;

to

252;

wass

off himm,
is

look

the Dative
the

burrh

as

to

is

much

the

old

of eight,

first Godess

is the

there

witness

of,aught of
old

off^errsalem.

ifellende off

see

174; off si]"re(of late), I.


I. p. 8 ; te^

form,

new

tale

find

we

gifeoffGodd

the

was

somewhat

in II. p. 125,

line

next

burrh, and

Rome

There

of;

it

repent of,the

the

hand

how

old bi,

of, bear

of,ask

in

Orrmin

of,rich of,kisstig(liberal)of; this of replacesthe


(the

p. 120.

addition
hence.

we

from

fra ]"e]*enn-

encroached

senses

new

phrase,

comes

as

our

with

Sannte

wille, I.

needless

free from,

Preposition,which

That

such

hiss

St.

bi himm

verb

of at

\e\enn

stands

fra

and

in

now,

forrp (from thenceforward),


Scandinavian,

before

kata

ane

after the

employment

he

used

now

Greek

the

sition
Prepo-

bigann (ortus est) att

new

used

at

should

we

Another

from.

find

Christ

is

Bi

the

cu]"e ben himm

and

up
We

that

Homilies

Essex

isolation,like

hear, grew

we

English.

togenes.

was

to express

I.
sellfenn,

use

Middle

; in the

employed

Pronoun

and

himm..

I. p.

off his Jcinn,


I. p. 310;

like

developed by

himself,fresh
replaced,in

to

(his

herrsumm

Infinitive, following another

prefixed,as

forbid

to

go,

help to do,

set him

do, chose them

to

of

one

in I. p.

further
'

oldest

our

am

old 0$ of the
Orrmin's
not

Southern

shires.

work

the

We

degenerate
but

writers
with

falls

woefully

Most

striking is
with

the

and

have

them,

best

our

such
Orrmin
when

the

had
had

he

their
the

need

no

ready
writes

peoples, as
two

'

he,
1

should

the

feelinglyon
be

Henry

natural

II.

be rihhtivis and

the

'

milde,

doubt,

Teutonic

to

substitute

word,

unseaworthiness.

more.

unndafyshiL

as

Latin.1

in

of

born

Christian
and

for
impontadaptability

but

immortality

duties

professor of fine writing was


very
He
ideas about
English compounds.

loss, and

once

Latin

of

many

our

in

word

than

more

would

of

such

ning
begin-

diction

of

the

tongue)

lost

coming

write

to

in this

words

our

sense

are

to hand

even

to

pounds
com-

Germany.

and

have

One

for my
no

sons

awaking

unwisdom

di^nesse,implying
Orrmin

We

wan.
verse.

our

Orrmin's

sadly weakened

thus

as

with

few

use

under

India, Greece,
of

his

to

point of

weak

the

pith

fore,and

over,

number

are

had

country

Euglish

privative un.

writers

words

out,

of

short

New

of

(it is

respect England

and

strength

the

replaces

to

Trent

the

]"iss

comes

compounding words
prefixesas even, full,un, and

such

those

the

still say,

we

133,

little

of

power

wonderful

gives

this

gode ;

to

; here

that

proves

give to wife

carries

II. p.

At

]"egrund

Prepositionsand
This

\u dost

to

lost

yet

ivhattse

good.'

to

iss drvnhenu

winn

Orrmin

the

much

so

to, be loth to,

idiom

The

to.

phrases

255,

235

to, doom

be, care

to

forletan(neglect)to, behoves
is

Cultivation.

English:

Middle

kings

subjectof
King,' says

god wip}
in

wroth

would
Mr.

to

all hiss

print with

be

me

glad, I have

Plimsoll's

vulgarly

Old

236
folic,or

God

will

who

drove

Emperor
for

of the
the

was

bard

hold

of

cause

writes

of

later

must

as

and

name

have

known

in I. p.

be killed

to

to cwenrikenn

One

of

the Danes

word

Orrmin

oferrgarrt. The
German.

for

observare

the

to her

Welsh

own

old word
both

of

is wont

the
are

the North

Iceland

using

day,
of
the

to

ought

man

Crisstendom

our

at

of

leiha.

Orrmin's

of

leap ;
to

in

is used

a-gog,

the

follows

Icelandic

Orrmin's
either

come

cleaves

the Danish
The

Old

Orrmin's

say

follow

word

ZeiS

'

we

speech;

in

may

(ludere),the

him

Adjective,

in the Ormulum.

England

by

England
to

in

nor

Northern

our

and

Icelandic

Danish

Scotland

lark

When

be found

High

first appears

found

by

gow

Orrmin's
out

hither

forrgart

in

Scandinavian.

the

or

neither

lexicographers,and

to

are

lacan

died

not

(loup) ; they

England

no

compounds

comes

watch).

the

puzzle

reignty
sove-

talks

eye

brought

Scandinavian

hence

the

(vituperare),which

work, is

an

(facere),still to

is found

verb

trigg (fidus),has
hutenn

He

sway.'

slay you, forr

to

gar

uses

The

gcegium (on

from

seeks

that
of his

that

of

English

documents

peculiar shibboleths
the

was

Low

the

all about

says

old

the

Kaserrhing,

evidently has
he

who

(quench).
the

Scotland.

he

gold ;

puzzle

the

153, where

unless

doubtless

had

of much

German

the

oppression, and

Bomanisshe

an

to

b"g""ann'" (besants),and
Crusades

for

heathen

Emperor, Henry VI.,

styled in

was

that

Orrmin

much

so

seems

Roman

the

286.

Augustus

which

than

worse

Archelaus

p.

of

English.

drainingEngland

Orrmin

day.

our

him

out

doings

title which

'

Middle

nothing else,' I.

heard

and

my

laupa
South

English
le'g"kenn,
lead,'we

(ductus)

; the

Middle
Old

and

"

means

two

of

to

only

(chemise) means
'

sticking a

akin
(figere),
1

to

Danish

form.

early

instance
into

one

is akin

to

Nouns
this

His

It would

writing
1

et

'

in

He

to

In

our

it sterrne.

He

phrase

lik ajj

well

of teinds.

Kirk

not

Like

the

get

some

of 870

has

had

an

He

ar^.

the

our

He

Danish

tenth

Church
a

uses

to

talks
crowd

they

have

that

were

upon

our

the

his

rather

be

of

the
tithes,
words

work

that

the

tongue.

for

the Old
of the

Scotch
which
of

use.

fra,wicke,

weighing the
in his day, we

Danish

give

out

has

Danish

word

compound

dropped

for

tives,
Substan-

than

of Danish

clearlyat

of the influence

word

tende, his

tiende

seems

in

ness

In

stella,he

Danish

employs

English

dinavian
Scan-

English steorra,

og, the

uses

the

Old

wiless, ploh, kirrkegmrd. While

idea

true

Teutonic

Latin

Peterborough Chronicler,Orrmin

mighty changes

offendere,
Icedere;

for the

the

to

occ

notice, since

I do

wrang,

word

even

as

English

The

two.

is

say

all Orrmin's

point out

stierne

Danish

teofia ;

steken

Scotch

and

hurt for

uses

of

Dutch.

decimus, he follows

English

shift

speak

The

French

modi^le^c, modi^nesse.

as

word

We

word.

compounding

be endless

ending le%"c as

speaks

Orrmin's

is

the

mag"stredwale (arch-heretic)is

leanings.
prefersthe

he

Our

word

see

for Jerusalem
"Qerrsalcem

word.
the

We

of linen.

thing ;' this

the

latter

13, where

p.

modern

onr

Scandinavian,

Temple.

change

His

of

more.

old German

an

door.'

the

steke

into

man

nothing
the

in

service

Zachariah's

the

work, I.

Orrmin's

the

in

English ;

distribute,'and
in

senses

Old

the

from

not

237

derive

We

from

shift(mutare)

word

of the

Cultivation.

only iter.

lad meant

English

nse

English

settlement
list of those

238

Old

Scandinavian

words,

place in

English.

by him,

used

which

have

kept

their

speech.1

onr

give in

my

list the

originof

few

Scottish

phrases, and

the

'

sense

Hence

French
5

Middle

talk of the gainest way


to a place.
why Yorkshiremen
bound.
A ship is outward
the old sense,
to dwell
We
still have
long upon a thought.'

reason

The

and

of habitare
conies

gagner.
the
Ster was

this time, at least

quitedriven
ungainly. But the

has

our

not

sign of
in the

appliesthe ending

the

feminine

South
ster

to

; we
a

man.

see

out

the

verb

'

sense

to

for hundreds
a

change

of onorari.

gain''is

from

of years
at work
when

the

after

min
Orr-

240

Old

Peterborough

If

we

wish

is

leanings.
be
syllablemust

metre, every

thus, Herode

Southern

of his few

one

his

relish

to

pronounced
vowels

this

English.

Middle

and

takes

accent

an

all three

on

alike.

MIDLAND

EAST

THE

DIALECT
I.

Ormtjlum,
Herode

king majj

forr all hiss

and

his

gast full cweme,c

himm

onn

sellfenn
sinne

ajhenne

biforenn

for well

himm

wass

patt he
inn

batt

shall

bigunnenn

wa*

dreghennh

warr]"'seoc, and

to

bufennk

tohh1

he tocc

J?attnan
and

stannc

himm

full

and

all himm

lsechess

ba

and
he

ne

himm

off all hiss


and

let hemm

fet and

;n

]"eos"

own

died

woe

b.

suffer

became

above

yet

every

approach

"

thighs

swollen

haelenn

inn

they

heeded
to

not

protect

him
mann

kineriche/
u

an

hus,

"

head

kingdom

had

them

shut

and
and
son

haldenn

badd
summx

tatt

swibe
mann

fasste,
hemm

he shollde

to

to

comenn

ha3fedds

stekenn

pleasing

n"

mann

to nehhghenn
la]"

mihhtenn

iwhillc

he toe

fillenn,

himm
sloh,and segjde batt teg;*;*
ne
kepptennr nohht to berrjhenn.

and

loathsome

swa

]"attiwhillcm

)"atthimm

himm

bigann

toblawenn.

and

wi]"bmete

wserenn

tobollennp

he

a^j

occ

eorbe,

mihhte

ne

he

swa

was

swalltf

agg
helle wij"]"
J"edeofell

rotenn

right

d enow

he

forr he

and

inolid

was

sene

batt

all hiss will

and

werrc

ifell

wass

gast bitacnenn;

labeb

be

wel

swi]"e

1200.

280.

Page

"

OF

shollde

dejenn.

slaen,
x

as

soon

as

he bohhte

dae]"swipe blipe,

wisste

full

wollde

]"efolic

shollde

wepenn,
shollde tindenn

himm
itt forr hi

affterr

]mtt ta

283.

shaBwedd

till

brohht
peer itt wass
forr all pe baered wass

licc

}"attstinnkennde

abutenn

"

oferrgarrt*

modipiesseb

and

daed

sinne.

mikell

wass
J"aer

ace

he

wass

all hiss miccle

In

deed

waere.

ne

mm

Page
And

"

waede

bileggd

patt taer wass


J"ebaere fundenn,
itt off ]"ebettste pall

all batt

uppo
all wass

anij mann
J"att

and

all itt

and

deore
wi|"j"

onn

waere

hiss haefedd

himm

an

and

wass

dere
swa

hise
forth

"i

bier

"

everywhere

precious

apparel

mami

ii own

honourably
clothed

twa

waerenn

sette,
sett

inn

hiss rihht

barr
bedenn

cnihhtess

hannd
k

kinejerrde;*

till J"aer
he
and

body

staness,

wurrf
o life,

gildenecruness
and

pride

ajhenn,11
gold
wi]"]"

like shridd

wass

alls iff he

and

ma^j
wundenn

wass

sett

all he

and

ness

eor]"e;

gold and sillferr,^


and all itt wass
ejgwhser6 bisett
staness,
deorewurrJ)ef
wi])]"

haughti-

baetenn

wibb

and

then

pa*

wepenn,

sare

]"attall

swa

patt time
mann
]"att
pohh

rnimnde

mann
]"att

for hemni
aud

241
7 would

beon

munndey

|"attmann

off hiss
and

Cultivation.

English:

Middle

batt fule

lie

haffde."1
alle imaen11

jedenn0 wifj)]"ebaere,
R

seep

foul

""

had

bidden

together

went

Old

242
wibb

heore

swa

and

itt

to

and

wibb

batt

swillc"
batt

mikell

bger,

it befits

servants

herbs

where

such

swete,
lie

brohtenn

lie

let te cbilldre
wollde

cwellenn,

CONTRAST

mihhte.

THE

TO

(About
Anger

hit

mid
bat

his

he

feol iswowen

he

he

mseiden

up

weoren.

heowe,
ihsermed,

wrae'SSe

beere

Speech.)

blac,

swa

and

sube

was

late beo
bat

Cordelia's

cloS

blac

MIDLAND.

1205.)

a.d.

at

iweertS his hude


for he

EAST

Leir iwerSe

pe king
swilch

Crist

cwellenn

hemm, giffhe

Lear's

se""d

brinngenn sholldenn.
batt Ilerode
king

wass

mann

he

himm

haffde

be^m

himm

tejj

isweved,

wes

fusde,
afeared,

wes

hit alles up brae,


hit wes
vuel bat he spac
ba

Haerne
ich

be

of mine
nu

ready

modijnesse

bger

amang

(King

gresess

swibe

alle
be";j;

for batt

itt T^erenn sholldenn.

menn

till beer

THE

gode

bewwess,*

]"attstinnkennde

tuss

like,

wibb
birrb,"J

stunnkenn

biforenn
bser

bun,p

fif liunndredd

strawwenn
batt

English.

be lie
^edenn v?i]"]"

bser

full wel

alle

wsepenn

summ
ec

Middle

and

Cordoille,
telle wille
dohtren

J"ueaert

me

mine
bu

wille ;

were

aire lseSes

me
:

durest,

English

Middle
scalt

ne

ah

lande

dohtren

mine

riche.

mine

ich wille delen

warchen,
]?uscalt worsen
in
wonien
wansifte,

and
and
for

ich

navere

wende

ne

Jms scanden,

woldes

]"at]"ume

j)arfore
pu

scalt beon

ic

died

nig ut of mine eaeh-sene,


]"inesustren sculen habben
is iqneme ;
and ])is
me
pe

243

halden

]"unsever

of mine

dale

Cultivation.

wene

mi

kinelond,

of Oornwaile

due

Gornoille,
]"eScottene king

seal habbe
and

Regan ]?atscone
ic hem

and

pe

compiled, as

The

and

hardly
he

beer

hafvede

lines

are

it would

arm.

in

same

thus

earm

English
bar

penne

; there

in

the

about

Teutonic
as

Brut,

words,
the

now

Ormulum.

(brachium) is written
is still found

Layamon's
e, for he

here,
time

has

but

this

only
her ; he has pcenne (tunc) and
well as faren,
is fceren as

into
and

ce

after
a

and

not

Layamon has added much


Layamon, I. 130.
the additions
his own
to the originalin this story of King Lear ; and
them.
have been copied by later writers, Shakspeare among

I1 Sir F. Madden's
of

of

is the
;

Layamon's

in Worcestershire

diphthong

alters

but
(sustulit),
and

or

The

sometimes

also pane

from

taken

proportion

ce

appears

over.

idemed.1

seem,

whole

the

becomes

ea

cerm

ce

he

pe

]"awinne

king dude

aide

swa

The

obsolete, to

weddinge

sem

al

1205.

year

all

geve

and

above

The

ich

Old

244

and

lafdies(dominee)
Cdsere

(Caesar)

becomes

hot both
are

oldest

Worcester

Charters

I. p.

Orrmin

What
calls

and

drof;

is found

of

of the
The

French

old

is

weore

word

of

Perfect
becomes

is

of Orrmin

hence

(taurus) appears

and

wone

goud, just

as

volui

still

Western

for the

Latin

is much

the

(cadere).

est varies
same

The

going

seen

with
Plural

as

the

shires

haze becomes

this

of the
The

it

now

The

change
inter-

on

Orrmin's

hide

well

as

it.
in

as

The

old

written

English
shapes,

many

in the

in

the

as

is found

as

ic wulle

the

ool.~

beft,oeofi,lift,and
Vowels

form

groves.

walde, wolde, wulde

our

is

wore

lou.

gro?fess(nemora)

pronounce

wille, luolle,ivulle
lingers in

The

god (bonus)

now

sound

\idde,but

once

is mornede

wune;

also

also appears.

our

at

leo and

oldest

wurches

is

form

the

and

were

the
oaft

(nihil) and

in the

groven,

there

volo,

to

counterpart

as

and

we

both

was

of

quote

likelycame

thud.

our

seen

now

between

hiumede,

form

draf

modern

(ecce) becomes

Vowels

the

Our

is nawit

la

]njden (premere)

\udde

men.
kins-

Version

manuscript

replaced by

sounded

were

Frisian

first-mentioned

all three most

that both

to show

seems

There

Orrmin's

oil.

('Cod.

lande, Layamon

our

aft ; the

Worcester

; into

nauyt

the

in the

as

Kemble

onr

talk.

common

this book.

and

in

used

ceftand

the

calidus,and

drmf (pepulit) becomes


is

our

as

of

us

200

nowit

well

as

reminds
p.

latter in

the

called

have

Verb

by

often

land, hand,

is also done

former

the

for

for

English

The

printed by

would

The

londe.

Bible,

This

100).

stand

written

lond, hond,

Old

The

Kaisere.

becomes

words

Dip.'

English.

leivedi.

also

now

and

; hat

Middle

and

Our
bu$

Perfect

Layamon

word

; and

it

oifall
]ms, ]"es,

)"eos,yis;

we

in

the

and

]"ou,nou,

the

latter sound

the

than

Orrmin's

in

this

in

rule

muche.1

country

turns

form

Franhis

in the

iv

dochter

as

seen

for

and

there

iteied

gebredan),
written

well

as

(obtulit).
all these

We

old

changes

mycel. By

patriotsof
names,

the

1848

crucche

hundred

as

we

with

with

thus

proper
the

the

The

held
Severn

exceptions

we

what

who

leader

except perhaps Smith

the

find both

pent,

old

The

word

cycene

of former
;

forty years

the

old

longer

doliier

is

5, sometimes

sometimes

buruwe,

all three

the

peni^es,upbrceid (up-

the

disappears in wat,

brohte, brouhte, broute

find

has

been

the result

of

Layamon fluwen (pur flew)

Mickle

names

way,
a

bination
com-

word

(French)

England.

becomes

wheet

Frencisc

The

and

little confusion

Some

have

replacesc

Frensce

(getigod) ;

as

is

find

sclield,sclieap,schip,

are

hurh, buri^e,and

are

we

five

but

are

and

and

of

East
the

ou,

accordingly

we

on
stedfastly

(kitchen).

clipped or softened,

g is

the

by

such, muccle, muchel, mochul, and

lingered a

North

oi ;

both

ou.

beginning

ch often

Frenchis

into

days

French

there

brech

kuchene

becomes

now

the

sc

which

the

But

are

of

before

as

there

more

Layamon,

There

old

the

dich, swile and

and

die

(secare);

(true)
and

ow

sh far

scholde,schenches.

hewen

are

for Gloucester.
:

new

last. There

expressed by

written

Consonants

to

of the

on

treouwe

be

might

against

out

In

245

supplanting

goes

way,

English

Gloichester
As

to

same

hour.

of

find

new

\eou (servus). The

\eoive and
sounded

the

and

old heowen

the

both

sound

the

follow

now

Cultivation.

English:

Middle

and

formed

Mitchell

strange irony furnished


boasted

the

most

from

the

Celtic

Teutonic

of all

the

replaces

(fugere).

Letters

of

word

loaf,the
/ into

old

rather

nothing offleon

writes

brude

is

measure

English,

is

Accusative

here

the

Substantives

which

talk

further

used

in

his

mind
of

Feower

keep

for
their

thews
sense.

noked

it

and

is

takes
had

now

Layamon,
he is ;

we

in

hence

the

used
of

applied
the

nook

few

conditio,

body,

hitherto

of

been

Spenser
word

time)
A

pliht had
sense

The

sative,
Accu-

on

in

pleo^ede

Orrmin.

the

our

he

This

aid.

of the

of

speaking

wintre

winter.

(once

Old

in

word

Instead

as

when

idiom,

phrase

hitherto
used

lingers in

fiftene%er

meaning

sinews.

'

old

(equi)

twelf wintre

W03S

the

olim,

now

\eau
it

only;

in

the

tide

ane

hors

appears

was

play).
an

change

we

its old
'

he

mnes

the

as

word

Englished by

find

pericidum

meant

the

he

as

is

stands

aines

of

we

find

we

well

great change

annus

flaxen (played

Perfect

in the

formed

are

form

number,

20,

great

transposed, for

expressed by

was

age

is

old les ; in the Past

specified,now

altered, for

now

the

There

as

Plurals
old

be

to

ii.

John

his

the

the

turns

(mulier).

new

cardinal

the

as

sometimes

burde

and

foot.'

and

horse

well

are

Plural

(amittere);

cujie

last letter of

the

loaves.

(our lost),comes

horses ;

becomes

keep

to

middle

and
osllevene,

in the

our

leosan
as

Substantives

In

is

of

Consonants

find both

We

in the

out

into

Layamon

laves,

in the tenses

iloren.

St.

but

say

cast

turned

(cowl).

cule

ParticipleHosed

with

sometimes

(our lost)comes

losede

'

puzzling, to

are

hldf;

v, and

change

tlie

endhtfon is

(cucullus) into

likeness

fiugon (volavernnfc)
;

old

flowan (fluere)is

English.

Middle

and

Old

246

mere,

as

word

to
we

in

says,

(angulusj,

Old

and

one),

mony

248
(many

mine

also
eon

war,

III. p. 399

the

Nominative

far

were

Pronouns.1

is the

which

of

South

about

here

hundred

reached

1100

who

and

the

would

with

he writes

also

Brennes

to

Lest

has

is added

to

is

the

sent

They made
me.'

one

of

slip in

waldinge.

The

the

is followed

by

his

iveore

wes

dative

wel

Genesis

itaht,I.

Mod, II.

Accusative
xlv. 8

junctive.
Sub-

203.

altered

Orrmin,

of the person

cert ilete

shoidd

manbicumen;

I. p.
ifloxen,

in

idiom

ivurrjnvin (factus

wass

as

fusion
con-

old

of the

by

Verbal

it,as]"e 11 flaxen- toeoren

Voice,

Passive

instance

\u

inge;

English

new

the

adopted

gewunian (solere)is

heo

first

(ne)

awcei

developed; we lightupon
though teach governs the
strikingis the phrase ]"u
the

into

speech.

wholly

in

corruptions

our

Participle and

ives

of the old

The

modern

the old form

Layamon

94.

of all

This,

inde

unhappily

was

our

none.'

Layamon

it turns

1204,

Infinitive,instead

used

Auxiliary Verb
II. p.

in

Active

this

construction

he

to

ende, became

this worst

1770.

the

Orrmin
for

had

comes

ParticipleActive.

in

and

Bible

of these

use

owe

we

the

English

queen

that

now,

; it led

about

up

later

'

he name,

Present

shaped

is endless

cropping

in

in Verbs

Lincolnshire,

Noun

known

navede

later

between

est) ;

well

of

in the

Layamon

be

is employed

eou

translators

in

occurs

berninge,fraininge, singlnge,and

years

man

and

than

terminated

find

we

the

Our

thing), so

change

ye.

of the

old

wonderful

the Accusative

great change
alteration

]"ing (many

here

form

in I. p. 132, queue
The

careful

more

English.

enne

hundred.

half an

for

Middle

'

The
;

iamned,

is further

p.

268,

even

; still more

p. 372.

This

following
It

was

the

not

you

the
that

Passive,
I

'

say,

forbidden

am

well

venire, as
widleft

to

etcercliche heom
ich

is

wene,

found

has

of

the
it

will

not

he

'

talk

on

of

has

maircoden

had

change

in

Ms

old

this is

sceawian.

gyrd

of

Our

allot

puzzling word,

is

verb

is turned

became
into

Weak

where

scipen runden,

in

the

we

of

is first
Perfect

first

it

of

the

seen

in
our

in

his

later

the

says

old

of

seen

Danelagh.

Strong

(I.p. 57),
his

correctly say

more

Layamon

converse

he

borne
sonare

eighty years
when

one

still

we

meant

videre

the

he

as

had

130.

p.

just

I. p. 335

gyrdan

Shakspeare

so

noun

(vagari), a

rameden,

old

Gods,' and

The

as

expletive,

ccedere ;

68 ;

I.

sense

p.

The

hitherto

swoon,

new

ostendere

in

(destinatum).

of this

Verb

the

(ferire)appears

the

had

of
heo

of

old

haboen

sense

II.

The

p.

we

14;

in

iloten

writings
a

of

sense

further

sense

The

man.

virga. Swogan

the

Layamon's
roam

in

expressed

131.

gird

to

spare

got the

now

p.

I.

; as

phrase

465.

p.

]"at liarfd,I.

girding at

meaning

on

II.

further

the

Suard

lay

on,

in

the

249

times

the

see

trahere,

Our

leggen

(cingere) gets
gurde

of

that

dra%en.

me

We
takes

draw

as

modern

in

meat.'

Our

I. p. 16.

care,

idiom

English

most

Cultivation.

English:

Middle

ships

ran.

As

to Adverbs

for

used

is

cito

three

times

poem,

drawn

up

at

laste

comes

\an

of the
be

used

do3i

Old
as

longe

in I. p.
in

200, though

the

about

p. 160

English construction
Adverb

and

aide

in

longe

is

There
;

this

seems

ait nextan.

Layamon's
niht ; the

meaning

but

version

later

1260.

(denique),I.

an

its

quiclichechanges

new

only

once

of
a

and
; it

Layamon's
phrase,

new

an

Long

imitation
seems

to

phrases \ene

livelongday

was

to

Old

250
later.

come

adverb
find

The

nntil

day.

We

as

In

Old

lie

swa

find

to

the

iwarft

ofter

Chancer
see

ne

this

tnrns

no

feden

\ene heo

nsed

more

; in

seide

butenfor
tell

is

whether

ofter wiles
would

of mid
is bisiviken
a

the

older

of.
ut

The

468,

(whence

II. p.

142,
no

we

more

heo

sense,

wel

]"an hinge
hard

propter.

ofter

heom

to

There

raiden,
or

else

Adverb

in

(aut)

is

de

used

was

The

Verb,

the

tion
construc-

of), and

nu
'

to

heom

mcehte

it

of

mine

again !

(usque ad), as

'

; in

this

gumen

of,is

to, nu

of

weri

instead

of in

out

There

Verb.

no

to, like the

as

old oft

the

king of mucle

Shakspeare's

begins to supplant

cheat

Englished by

p. 25.

an

332;

being

our

Genitive

the

without
like

hem

hine

into

turned

of \riti%eren,

II.
of Galivosifta,

II. p.

for

either

(offwith),

richen

tongue

used

I. p.

395

suste.

lihede

or

al hit

II. p.

different

beden

is curious, there

here

Latin

so

quite enough.

breclies

mon

this

has

it is sometimes

sentence

II. p. 82 ; here

been

of

he

In

hit

264;

here

sor^en,

in

Prepositions of is

to

of mid

the

in

206

expressed by

was

nolden

in

for nisi

stands

the

see

between

made

]"emie hure

more

appears

but

"c,

have

As

is nsed

p.

We

Layamon's

(other than),

longer,lieo

no

more

new

pleonasm

for

III.
]"inge,

ane

after

changes this, for

iwenden

)"ingsefi,no

Something

np

other into othenvise.

I. p. 128

na

II. p.

of difference

ungelice]"o?ine. Layamon

an

\e ofter hafde idon, I. p. 288.

ase

idea

came

We

in

distinction

per agon

English

in II. p. 19.

as)

as

p. 57.

halffisc,I.

and

whereas

and

employed

seems

(when

so

1670,

begin

half

half mon

weonne

lasted

English.

the first time

defterfor

combination

Middle

word

in his hit is

her

and

and

times
some-

heom

to,

This

to

silken

to

\an

Middle

hare

preaching
English

'

of this

cases

early times

changed,
The
is

is

old

The

in

as

to express

is

I. p. 66.

used

We

as

have

time

Our

vqjpe

ivite

clipped

and

used

in

III.

32.

Layamon

p.

rather
al

hevenliche

repeating
side.

also

to in this

this

using

inter
I

give

more

wi"$

hond

It had

He

has

best.'

of

This

]"an hulle,

he

hi

swor

when

uses

side

as

older

hi

English

verb

metau,

Layamon

having

or

is

alters

hlood, instead

Prior's
with

seen

uppe

up

the
;

with

run

talks

He

'

the

had

raid

mid

weather

line,

of

Colonel

expressed

English.
Scandinavian

list of many
which

from

The

sense,

employed

on,

nihte,

writes

the

Accusative

an

brume

Preposition

he

him.

aym

Gothic

honde

foment,

pain of,'is

hi

now

sumere.

seoven

sti^en

adverbial

an

this is

by Layamon

'.on

This

p. 74 ; whence

Old
a

daii

the

146.

in

case.

the

in the

Layamon,
Severn

I. p.

with.

simple
with

to

sense,

follows

immediately by

]"an he^sten,II.
toasted

new

sense.

into meet

fom

used

English )mrh when

main,

has

followed

comeft

hefde

or

to

togeanes in

\an

offeoivertipun-den.

Substantive

He

used

Old

the

than

on

threatening phrase,

218,

I. p.

the

; as,

he

in

Adverb

an

Old

in most

Scotch

; saet

of

stand

now,

of time

the

comes

II. p. 353

at

we

touward

read

we

'

approach

near

whence

dropped

future

mark

I. p. 232.
at

for

Orrmin,

forariongean,

on

to

used

was

One

to mete

notions

In

kind, preferat.

slightlyaltered

seen

in iseten

this,though

of

survival

talked

sexton.'

the

to

251

Smith

Sydney

of to is continued

use

arms

your

'bare

Church

p. 428

hcerd,II.

his

lichen

Cultivation.

English:

the

in Dorsetshire

must

have

made

and

East

North
a

few

years

words
their

; we

later.

way

used
to

by
the

shall find many

Old

252

Middle

and

English.

Club, from the Icelandic Hubba


Draht
(haustus),from the Icelandic drattr
Hap (fortune),from the Icelandic happ, good
Hit,

the

from

Icelandic

luck

hitta

Hustinge (house court), from the Norse hus and thing


Raken
(rush),from the Swedish
raka, to riot about 2
Riven, from the Icelandic rifa (rumpere)
Semen
(beseem),from the Norse sama, to fit
To-dascte
(dash out),from the Danish daske,to slap
Instead

of the

Old

enploys

ceite

(ait),a

Danish

It is the
to

Mr.

in the

Dasent

tells

(puer),thus

of

Western

had

There
first
the

been

writer

English
and

little

piece :

English
Old
from

stoHen

tale.

Bal

Hence

Hence

and

has

croice

We

the

Fake's

the

was

; the

term

which

he

sturte
new

came

is

he, living

the

out

ta

near

cw'tt, a
the

(started),akin
Verb

the

Welsh

the

Welsh

driven

almost

the

vian
Scandina-

English

Thus

happy, haply,
Progress.

see

has

words,

(our ball),draf, and

words.

the

French

in

Danish

He

swan.

(catenae)from

gyves

has

the

swein

Chronicle.

use.

employs
;

happen,

older
2

He

carve.

Dutch

last

this

and

Saxon

(secare) from

cutte

swain
of

on

the

in

common

to

Severn, has taken

gevyn

first time

tacked

ey-it,eyt, as

sound

the

employed

other

some

are

writes

England.

for the

Whitsuntide
Pentecost

; but

Article
way

English

all Etonians.

to

Definite

Old

the

insula, Layamon

known

Vowel

the

(crux)

cros

in

form

usual

the

Layamon

us.

that

form

well

Scandinavian

usual

following

sveinn, not
Danish

word

eij with

end

the

for

English,word

to

Old
the

Ik, springing

picclien(pangere),
into

England

and

planted
sup-

Middle

akin

are

Dutch,

the

to

is found

twenty

years

He

also halede

happens

in

after

in the
his

same

; at

German

High

weak

At

origin of

different
Soon

Worcester
in

and

forms

comes

ghostlyand

Verb

back

aghast.

For

Gothic

the

to

from

ghastly spring

and
in

islein

widely

ending

fur

and

the
one

of the

Great

Line

second

Person

Northern

gast

Yowel-change
1

are

far

; es, not

Phillipps,
well-known
in its

Past

we

found
has

in

from

his

the

word

new

piece may

have

county,

est,is sometimes

close

had

ciple
Parti-

saw

Singular. The

Early English Text

to the

Midland

The

This

not

that

Margaret

akin

Layamon's

on.

transcribed

or

the

is

St.

terminate
Participles

what

There

expressionto lay

to

the

resembles

Chronicle.

composed

its

East

in inde.

ende, sometimes

(page 11)

his

the

(sunt) ; and

aren

Peterborough

nearer

it touches

But

work.

sometimes

here

our

the

Layamon's time the Legend of


have been compiled.1 It has forms
manuscript printed by Sir Thomas
other
a
particulars it resembles

beon

talk,and

first time

our

go

has

come

may

for the

must

we

the

this

see

we

sources.

Dorsetshire

but

from

275,

his fluhtes,'

weofteleden

122)

p.

ninety years

up

after
to

seems

this word

Our

usgeisjan.

been

says,

agaste (terruit),whence

word
the

I. p.

often

as

likelypronounced

most
'

and

(agitare).

halia

cropped

were

(I.

brother,

ivobble.

verb

see

first,
they

rock

as

work

remains, and by its side

hale

word

haul, which

flightsbecame

Layamon's

Frisian

(duxit), the

Layamon

way.

in

and

253

bal,draf,pichen.

it appears

time

his

form

after this time

words

in Dutch

English,the

another

stands

Cultivation.

German

or

both

Ruckeu

has

English

Southern

together. We
great influence

Society.

Old

254
Standard

upon
are

written

it

comes

Book),

Layamon

if, bnt

in the

the words

and

Western

fej";

Singular ;

the

swa

for

Old

old leosan -is


to

Consonants

gullen

becomes

point

to

Southern

the

old/

these
thus

are

in

and

the

brethren

this

two

forms

may

Adjectives

here

of

Latin

one

find

is

cwcep

struggle

oleum

; eoli

wrestle.

lahe,and

vowel

The

to

ending ful

for

used

derive

at

vet

The

the
13

p.

from

belief. We

modern

word.

to

seems

reading

perhaps

our

Layamon's

here

was

On

i.

our
glistnian,

the

is

in the

(p. 13).

Northern

feat (p. 17), and

; we

the

geleafa turns

as

old

There

the

different

widely
The

lagu becomes

glisnian becomes
In

latter sound

wro?stle becomes
leowse

where

jib,even

our

and

East

follow

now

the

quoth.

we
]"u fikest (tu fallis),

verb

of

the

tee\ replaces

of the

; we

the

word
in

see

wimman

%ellen (clamare) ; the

Salop,
u

so

new

of ea,

the

We

as

ea,

Southern

the

forefathers

and

to

preservation

English.

written

once

the

wummon

upshot. Layamon's

altered

the

ml

North

English diphthong

The

English

the

(see

Old

and

modern

our

Darby
to

spelling.

Standard

Hence

owe

our

instance

mearc

we

its

Plural

the

and

as

It is to

owe

we

of

curious

our

the

As

that

more.

way
in

replaced by
is the

old
once

of

between

Derby

this is often

changed

sound

sources

that

dearc

is also smart.

there

of the

combination

makes

former

change
fond

shires

comes

Midland

marcke

clean, heal, least.

both

roa

was

never

Legend

like

words

present work

favourite
has

English.

pronounce

we

West.

flea

and

that

in

Middle

English;

darch

Domesday

and

(vat) p.

this
find

18 ;

t is inserted

glisten.
was

driving

fearful (pavidus)

for

out

the

its
first

Old

256
lie* "c. ;

At

p. 22

Pronoun

we

read,

There
them

and

are

is
'

Icelandic

and

drupa

have

(transversus), rather
verb

versus) ; our
later in East
for

akin

in form

the

comes

found

German

The

schoolboys still say


is

for ponere

hence

seems

time

syllableof
]"vert

English )nveorh(per-

overthwart

than

made

words

akin

stutten

(whence

the

of

the

Icelandic,tells
words

akin

now

to

whence

us

which

into

wipstew is

English

19,

page

to

more

Old

to the

(sonans), at

and

has

seen

stew

as

studge (go haltingly)is found;

verb
'

before

stodged

was

(p. 22),

as

well
is

in

lesson.'

my

for trudere.

as

coupled with

Put

There
dread

to

dither.

our

The

the

Icelandic

the

many

tocken

verb, diveri, which

new

among

toggen (trahere) seems

former

The

(compescere).

first

drivel,gape,

as

schillinde

its way.

is used

such

shrill,one

our

are

shudder;

word

High

piece ;

seemly, from

the

Old

long

There

to the Dutch

teogan. The
both

; it was

German,

and
stutter},

the

Noun.

tliwert,thwart, cropped up twenty years

Anglia

our

In

followed

than

athwart.

and

and

the

yell.'

to

in this short

scemiligr.

we

for

they began

words

new

}m-ertover (p. 10)

Dutch

substituted

now

ivift \at

many

English.

drupest (most drooping)

are

way

Middle

Legend
to

as

been

have
the

St.

of

Katherine

drawn

(Abbotsford
about

much

up

It

foregoing piece.

Club),

the

have

must

same

been

from

translation
many

French

idioms

translator, stuck
The
the

Legend
Great

the

seems

far
to

we

closely to

more

belong
to

to

the

Southern

Orrmin's

took

the

judge by

may

Layamon, though

Line, perhaps

Layamon's agaste, and

if

French,

he

the

too

was

idioms.

old

neighbourhood
Salop ;
on,

an

we

here
hwat

of
see

(una

English: Cultivation.

Middle

(ibi),and dun ; heo (ilia)becomes


ha;
is Englished by clepes,not
clamas
clejoest.
Englished by the Northern
ron, not by am.

res) surnwhat,
Latin

the

is

Cucurrit
There

is

ter

Southern

one

line buhsume

thing ;

the

one

is

and

the

for obediens

running

after the

Conquest.

The

ewt,

French
dol

and
as

ou.

The
we

oa

diviht

dul ; the

find

]"oa.

The

old

osmtig

inserted

the

and
;

becomes

Verb

years
now

like

the

Wednes\lei
of

the

East,
South.

and

usual

more

strangian,taking

this

English

(aliquid)is

empti,

for 140

wimman

becomes

now

the

in the West

wumman

we

same

word

becomes

now

the

sounded

was

97

the
(flecti),

of

again, replacing the

appears

page

same

together

on

showing us that aiv


The
old Wodwemceg

see, becomes

here

we

of the

former

(hebes) becomes

bug an

variations

synonym

written

old

form

of two

instance

At

into heo.

beisume, meaning

from

comes

begean, another

curious

ha

mid,

p. 20 ; ivfiS into

from

buheft
piece, where
(est),and is altered into

for bue"

find in

other

of this

version

mistaken

is
(inclinat)

beofi,at

257

with

Consonant,

strengthen.
often

has

Fault

been

found

with

the

word

polis
metro-

East.

applied to London, when


capital is meant
;
mother-state
is
true
Anglen, far to the
English
hear of pe moder
Still,in this piece (p. 3), we

burh

of
(capital)

gets

the

as

our

wT"rd

of

sense

new

for

Alexander's

wood

in

kingdom.
materia, just

Aristotle's

leof (vir amatus)


at p. 82

the

we

have

thing,into

one

now

run

word.

'Ethics.'

is turned

leofand
The
s

In p. 63
like
The

the

timber
Greek

old

into luve,our

lufu,the

old mix

person

(stercus)is

stantive
Sub-

love,
and
here

Old

258
used

as

far less

onr

whence

the

England,

made

find

we

done

the

]"e ilke self (the


Southern

we

seolf ]"e ilke.


p. 110

he

het hise (he bade

and

the

In

but

by
ofter stood

going

the

that

promised

confusion
on

is

Godes

rud

into

use,

this has

been

here

the

Noun

often

the

crops

up

for

is, besought

comes

dropped
mine

Noun

the

who

man

found

be

may

the

into

is

'

this

in

after

stands

like

comes

p. 74

case

had

altered

idiom
At

p. 58

sune;

art.

was

from

(Orrmin

; at

person

in

English.
old ofter had
second

; at

between

have

every

other

Strong

throughout England

ahongen (theright form

of the

and

what

planted
sup-

78, Katherine
Gwen

alius.

'

been

yet

after\e

and

secundus

phrase,

not

page

she shall be \e ofter

our

French

more

\at ]"u hit

men)

the

French

for both

upon

The

in Old

not

in

sense

see

French

Something

Numerals,

to

touched

as

now

128, the Pronoun

the brand.'

As

his

that

selfused

Noun

tvi"$\e brond, that

him

Gothic,

was

p.

word

new

mon

Pronoun,

thine.

hisohte

bore

wrecche

in

the

through

pinful.

Legend

curious

at

is here

fode (cibus)

all

coming

was

person)

same

word

word

We

slec,

comes

desputing.
(ruddy), is formed

the

were

of the

copy

The

to

; as

the

see

old

is used

compound

new

if it

this),as

after

Noun

the

rise

gave
90

page

alumnus

and

ending fid

Pronouns

In

of

Katherine.

Verbal

The

At
since

Adjective,rudi

new

(ruber).
for

St.

perhaps

slough.

our

half of
of

and

come,

meaning

Legend

word

sloh,

English.

minx.

further

the

Western

word

flush may

with

conpled

Middle

reproach,

severe

our

took

of

term,

and

; the

is
old

already

man.'
Weak
in

Transitive

Verbs
the

was

South

Perfect),

English

Middle

idiom

old

the

see

find \e

we

p. 131

}w min

phrase

that

as

altogetherchanged

don

53,

p.

help thinking that

it huten

French

the

Scandinavian

version

sans

Infinitive

in

Southern

the

'

still say

another

and

for

p. 130

; heonne

37

p.

where

our

every

few

words

tenne

have

ge,

so

very

do

we

the old

is

of

beloved

that

it

now

still

at

mid

the

or

as

The

begins to

the Northern
;

the

Verb

in

(debet) ;
A

we

Verb

is

gleam (splendor),

Legend,

24

hwen

this

is the

we

p.

'

In

p.

till that
had

of

1 10

hitherto

moreover,

hear

that

ever

of the

one

time.'

of

112.

gehivcer

corruption

vvipalle

it ; at p. 99

at

old

for this is

at

eaver

Century prefix

of

meaning

liiderto is

se

(henceforward)

forefathers.

alle

takes
use

p.

instead

comes,

it

had

ing.

now

him.'

Twelfth

our

in

for

still sound

we

idiom

new

ah

speltwrong,

now

have

must

en

into

in the

eaverihwer
usual

at

not
can-

deah

the old

found

wardes

for$
the

that

clatrung.

first time

in which

seen

well

from

Adverbs

then)
(till

wholly ;
sense

will

comes

(ubique) with

old

is altered

the

found

At

version

from
the

Among

Drihtin

as

(p.89) formed

seen

now

that

be

perdre),we

; in

of decere

sense

(p. 99)

read

we

84, where

p.

(do

slightinfluence, in forming our


regards what are seemingly Verbal Nouns
old dugan had always meant
prodesse; it
the

is

to leosen

ewt

some

take

Verb

it may

; but

seon

we

replaces a Noun
Participle
such
see
we
(bride). When

losingaught, the

without

to

p. 102
the

at

we

hveddet
in

At

(arose).

longed to go,'where

me

Dative.

259

(p. 18) ;

country

aras

longedefor

cwen

is here

cwen

'

this is

Impersonal ;

of

instead

find arisede

even

Severn

the

in

hongeden

became

Cultivation.

the
aftat

We

meant

in which

Christ

came

Old

260

with

himself

on

up

up

was

swa

or

was

French

the

in

forming

we

should

this

who

si que,

phrase, par
a

p. 102

As

for

the

French

reminds

of

us

himself

England

with

Legend

fyrir

in

the

now

onont

This

new

thing
'

we

The

and

oner

Chronicle

in

'

him,

as

where

concerned.'

am

study.

for hireself,
p. 6,
I

be

must

'

that ; at

careful

employed

upon

Brummell.'

upon

There

say

(anent)

31,

cry

of wonder

deep

heard

persons

sentences

sounded

root

with

in

or

hey,

pleasure ;

England

(above

like

Interjections
;

new

some

are

taken

is

is iwent

French

into

old

both

of

sense

that
to

is

form

is used

freely.

most

p.

is

upon

have

Another

repays

for woruld,

likeness

his

as

regarded

\at (provided that)

and

far

so

he

as

(St. Jerome's

writers

Scandinavian

'

al

used, where

as

brought

the

find

we

the

wis

The

]"ing\at

after

formed

the

1057.

year
p. 53

moi,

pour

saw

of the

of

French,

like

is used

the

the

whole

Prepositions:

to

have

live, swa

me

the

from

translation

let

is

as

read

we

bearninde

quicunque.

idiom, instead

The

nothing.'

lose

at

'

read

we

The

English

to

seems

conditional

new

for

p. 3

the pattern

86, 'they

other

that

who

and

so

'

p. 72

been

idiom.

new

smeared

quia) they

; at

This

up.'

; at

ways

have

that ; in p.

put

new

wes

must

que

is bestowed

Verbs.

other

in

he

as

Adverbial

new

them

'give

up,

many

is used

as

Scandinavia)

civefie ham

follow

English.

wift alle.

from

come

heaftene

tyrant

to

soon

The

of

to

p. 47

at

maidens

many

(itseems

sense

Middle

and

the

but ; in

in

lower
other

eh, Chaucer's

ey.

is used

hei

this French

cry

Derbyshire

class) begin
parts of

our

Orrmin's

has

have
their

land
la

at

it

here

becomes

low,

which

is

French

them

the

Katherine
the

oile in

have

and

The

ulzie.

1280.

I.

"We

255).

for

lei,standing
used

just

What

the

written

becomes

Frenchified

the

Verb

of

earn

ofserven(deserve) in
mais,

is often

The

used

Legend

Society) is probably
Legends.
it has

wit, and
a

is

that
as

begin

for

many

might
the

(p. 17).

laws

Homilies

is

copy

now

at

p. 53.

turned

into

the French

sentence.

Juliana

due

to

aw,

as

the

same

words

more,

French

Sawmuel
for

stand
ou.

Text

(Early English

Orrmin's
no

France, is

in

hand

and

want

and

through

(p. 62)

the

broad

Na

is

huting ;
through,
of
:

showing

Italian

found,

going
fore-

the

as

Interjection0 ; stew, drivel, out


such, are
repeated. As to Vowels

French

sometimes
aw

did

Essex

French

The

(p.121). Me,

St.

It has

the Verb

(humanity)

South

Layamon's phrase

his

and

in the

Northern

the

to

of

it

as

mannesse

the

writes

('ReliquiaeAntiquse,'

English lahes, our

mannisse

written

eel,but

puison (venenum).

religion,even

before

was

The

find

also

whale's

Shakspeare

form

1588

now

eoile, pronounced

about

English

St.

this

'

Pirate

in the
year

written

anoyle was

the

of

(oleum)

written

much
French

word

unanealed, followingthe

applied

The

compiler

eoli

"

the

to

not

they talk of
(see Littre) was

until

France

the

is

Scott's

in

Anglia

appears.

seen

French,

e-ool-e,just as
or

of

spelling

points

untidi, here

East

now

scourge

we

in

dame!

nu,

Interjections.

onr

word

found

is

and

of

261

hu

comes

new,

most

owe

word

influenced

follows

113

page

Scandinavian

tidi

The

later.

ulyie

we

find the

weather;

to

At

lo.

our

something wholly

; to

We

Cultivation.

English :

Middle

and

his

the
us

as

well

also

our

262

no

Old
becomes

; sjpearc

reafode (rapni)
Southern

The

becomes
of

is written

final

Consonant

this Southern

Standard

our

both

and

milzful

; it was

it

write

we

flue

Gode

for
this

We

into

(by

see,

at

of

way

p.

wind

neither
*

against his
p. 70

At
;

water

own
we

English.

not

to

But

in

last

the

at

the
much

French

old

citeien and

is cut

down

in

Shakspeare

turned

eornost

beaten,

as

on

Our

pignus.

his

as

1300.

Adjective

phrases

to

appears

in

about

be

owing

y ;

Gode

used

sound

ernesse

word

for at p. 45 it is used

new

weather,

top

as

of desire

toe,fear

to

teeth, p. 36

lust

that

is,

will.'

Adjective coupled with

an

The
p.

hat

had

Substantive

oldest

see,

such

is wallinde

We

often

old

meaning,

see

earlier

construction

so

find

We

new

for

as

appeal heforan

Latin

nor

well

flugon (fugerunt)

earnest),the
find

Orrmin's

chastise for the

17, the
;

later.

years

as

shalt

We

pray.

thou

still kept its true


to

for

old

Substantive

hundred

two

in Gloucestershire

use

version,

find

14, the oath

in

was

into

(p.53) ]"u havest ido, not


corruption all but rooted itself in

earlier

at p.

(foes)

is, in this Southern

stand

The

fan

The

40.

p.

(p, 33).

dru

citizen and

p. 53.

at

is at work, for

alters

milxful, showing
to

chastise. The

Contraction

piece

; we

English

of the 5
to

away

English.
cV

refde (reft) at

this

dry

altogether pared
idon

Middle

sparJce.

version

and

van,

and

56,

been

used, walm

we

longer ;

the

old

reappears

(Southern version),stands

ich it am,
to

were

in

}n meiden

use

this
an

pages
in the

hat, as
in

eft to biwihelen

beon

we

; two

is used

Adjective easy

Pronouns,

que

(boilinghot)

ciple
Parti-

new

(beguile).
which

the

piece ;
]"atich

am

at
am.

was

he.
p. 65

Old

264

There

\e king.
hire

of mine

ut

where

the

curious

English.
idiom

ehsihfte, quick
'

the

dropped

is

of the

something

saw

we

Middle

and

The

verb.

mental

of

cause

tendrin

tyrant began

in

action

an

'

of teone,

ut

of my

in

is to

be

sense,

marked

burn,

to

also

new

'

sight;

who

Layamon,

is used

of

ut

her out

with

kind

p. 71 ; siuifie wi$

at

of

out

;
noyance,'
an-

p. 29.

The

verb

There

is

German

word

new

eighty

face ; hitherto

Jcalende

so

p.

Roman

way

late

it'was

1300.

as

to

The
written

low

treatise'
the

(ecce) ;

becomes
often

scho

becomes

35, where

stiche

this

to

old words
there

for

sworen

is

for

the

last

pangs

see

the

the

of childbirth

substantive

has

in

the

likely

foregoing Legends.
in

contraction

two

the

^ulielunge.

most

was

at

seen

sound

old

words,

sceawian

already undergone many


still pronounce
(p. 17), as we
we

even

jangling ;

forms
are

been

as

(ostenchanges,

had

ch ;

into

eoile,puisun, wrevche,

as

in the

its way

word
as

us

three

same

changed

be

made

Meidenhad
the

of the

remark

exchanged

reappear,

is the

We

its soft

is

compiler of

days

to

moneft, \e fortende

French

known

the

in Gloucestershire

bay

curious

Hali

on

sworn
]"roffor ]"erof,

which

at

face

New

to

has

written

the

now

efter.

Danish

this word

version

of the

dere),

was

already assumed

have

by

Some

this

kept

56, gencling,better

Southern

reckoned

]"at cumeft

Mearch

of

numeral

seems

p.

had

and

the

to

be

to

was

Old

the

see

sentence, that the

above

the

we

this

o]"esixterifte dei of Feovereles

read

we

later

England

in the

month

in p. 71.

slcolla,
appears

bistapet(constitutus),akin

years

p. 78

In

bestead.

Swedish

scald, the

it.

The

side

by

side

at

called

rather

stihinde
lowered

Middle

since those
is

English
The

days.

the

and

twinni

verbs

265

of the Present

of the Plural

ending

altogetherclipped in

Cultivation.

totweane,

p. 13.

The

from

reowful;

this

We

reowfulnesse.
harm

exchange
*

whoso

At
old

At

man.

for

at

seen

'

leose

foreshadowed

to be

In

think,
As
p.

35,

5 ;

Verbs

There

the

to

of \e

(turba) ;

Preposition.

How

Genitive

is

and

is

maiden

form

new

lut

(p. 47)

for

the

for the

first

of

often

has

at
(steadfastly),

comes

p. 5

omnino

stickle

verb

ofires

for

phrase

Our

form
;

we

seems

p. 17.

time,

of the

Partitive

here

Our

ansine

ansine

to

had

of

face
;

to

'

this

say

command

is

o/at p. 21, wile

in

was

before

come

lust

before

pared

down

the

on

of a

little moment's
cleave

lute

in

beon
the

old
hwile

pleasure,'

fast to
tne

of at

guild,' "c.

the

encroached

would

face

of

should

one

strikinglyshown

this last construction

for

sense

new
'

'free

here

freo of hireself,has

comes

the

should

English.

is

there

Prepositions

good

is

as.

p. 3.

at

herself;' hence

over

curious

forth

future

At

by

in,

ivell

stands

our

The

was

innovation

below ;

say

stikelinde

show

our

as

(aliormri).

for gode.'

by

is also

last word

Plural

Our

of.

ha

as

5, points to the

wonderful

should

we

earlier

p.

is

mare

\at sehe,

Jiwa

sikemesse
p.

the

Genitive

the

an

an

19

p.

where

stands

replaced
is

rnoni

on

There

say.'

sentence,

parenthesis.

goes

se

"c,

ase

to

as

see

we

is used
lah

much

as

p. 39

muchel

ase

of

as

17;

at p.

of

middle

and

that

formed,

Substantive

new

early instance

an

sees,'comes

is

that

see

find in the

between

7 ; seift

p.
1

9 ;

is,p.

we

into

altered

been

(tristis)had

hreoivlic

old

the

Old

Conquest of
the

present

266

Old

treatise,where

There

p. 21, in

the

this

in the

dale wi"

calce
also

two

crune

At

has

Homilies

of 1180

husband

'

'

this

last

the

Icelandic

the

meaning

31, that the


down,

J"e and

bustefi
baste

to

and

hream

Our

baton.

or

seems

is also

; there

same

is

in the

beysta, our

baston

English

as

lish
Eng-

little lower

first time, and

Old

in p.

beate'S

'

French

Old

The

told,

for he

such

words,

in .ZElfric and

|"e.' A

the

also the
for the

between
each

is

verb

like

there
is,sterilis)
;

as

is

cheoweft
;

at

Jcepan half

comes

Dutch.

jaw,

maiden

threatened

is found

ysgarm,

the

(ferire). Hence
scream

of

idiom

something

Scandinavian

to the

sense

chit te and

is further

]"e;

the

first

with).

gealde (from geldr, that

ceowan

Latin

p. 41

measures

akin
crupel (cripple),

she

of
crune

upon

three

or

nebbe, dropping the

imitation

an

half

English.

to

Chronicle.

(keep

find
and

is

phrase

mon

We

Middle

it is nebbe

Preposition.

came

and

be

fusion
con-

the

Welsh

navian
Scandi-

shramsa.1
To

this

Morris

time
his

in

245-267).
with

old

of the

We

also

has

see

have

we

The

now

which

; it was

word

now

that

become

ido

from

been

(sunt) and

dol

was

long

other

(p. 199)

different
has got
squeeze.

talden

side

(factum), wulleft,and

useful, since
the

(pp. 183-217;
compiled in Salop;

Homilies'

have

aren

in

it

prefixedto

libbinde.
our

prevailingthroughout

distinguished this
statuere

of

for the
hream

side

by

(p. 211),

mone

sense,

instead

senses

Dr.

pieces printed by

(lugere) becomes

mcenan

England

to

seem

Northern

change

moan,

few

English

Southern

the

The

'Old

They

find the

we

belong

the

reminds

(our mean).

old dart
dole

nouns

us

sense

(pars);

and

of cwysan,

deal.
that

Middle

On

reading

we

see

goda (bona)

from

into

p. 211

lowe

As

in

form

onr

burrow.

this

The

263

In

becoming

was

iheved

of

other

man's

taking

the

phrase

bi stale
Ir

robbery.
bearing

the

it is here
At

old

meanings

old

The

St. Luke

in

latter
xii. 39.

ure

in p.
'

sense

was

Tyndale

he ;

205, ich habbe

rit hond

of

Warde

ende,
to

'

borne

secrecy,

sometimes

wif
in

here, good

man

not

husebonde

to

huswif.

quarters,' this

our

vanish, and

by hoscbonde

was

paterfamilias; l

conjux and
to

part

249, the

p.

see

we

had

(p.217)

At

only, like Audley

has

so

English

I have

say,

right half.

soon

was

names

ail.

been

eaganan.

see

we

new

sometimes

ende

in proper

been

Sawles

treatise

read

quod

had

(by stealth) is used, implying

two

we

of the

sense

the

opposed

p. 265

into

turned

should
The

the

comes

eilin,onr

declensions

; for

; we

of

becomes

is

had

form

goods.'

place

other

the

(oculi)is constantly written

eagan

of ofter monnes

buruwe, whence

as

old

terse

very

buri,which

elsewhere.

the

old

boon;

bune, onr

new

Shrewsbury

civce]"he

that

if the

as

like

seen

already seen

completely lost

parts of England.

becomes

burg

egliannow

old

Substantives

ehnen,

old

places

verb

the

have

we

the

is here

burug

the

like

sonnded

been

in the

seen

distingnished

(humilis) is changed

in other

huh

of

sceotan.
:

of

names

old

p.

old

disappearance

accent

Lah

have

is

Consonants

to

kept

At

it may

into

the

(Dens).

for the

schute

and

is

of

change

in the

times

ou, for it is written

French
The

at

God

26 7

ofallegoddful (p.209),

had

have

we

earlier

; in

accents

onr

loss

Cultivation.

like Godd

sentence

what

English

man

of

to

be

served
pre-

End.

in Wickliffe
the house.

se

268

Old

and

Middle

English
"b

Among

Adjectives,
fid
has

endings, as
rueful and
of

alle

Bible

our

Pronouns

Nominative,
fie world
we

that

persons

as

out

on

stands
an
'

ifuled, of

fourscore
There

stood

for

as

is in page

209

all sinners

construction

new

at p.

celc

(quisque)

is

an

the

steadily
heorte

anes

as

now,

idiom

Another

ich

of alle sunfulleam

the

one

'

defiled ; '

most

the fairest/

one

am

215, twofold of
*

should

we

; two

in

quidam,

well.

am

to come,

for

p. 265

and

comes

page

aliquis

At

ow,

(p. 263),

an

beo

upon

old

The

same

was

of

the

comes

\e worlde.
encroached

seen

for

used
p. 211

at

is

say,

now

bittre ;

twice

as

bitter.'
The

muchel
be

terseness

same

menslce

to
'

mother

p. 211

(debes)

One

where
in

English form.

was

moder, (p. 189)


is should

come

Hali

very

'

great honour

after the

first

stantive.
Sub-

ellipsein Godd, ]"imilce,

is not

expressed.
is here

Meidenhad

angry

exclamation, 0

the

in

is found

is another

give me

the

critic

beon

here

There

the

l
light.'

eifter

as

nofires.

usual, is dropped

as

being

first

lesser

having long

later

years

is

much

to

an

with

mest

dcel

in

to

p. 189

; at

(minor)

meet

ending

lasse

'

me

me

is

for the

nsed

Accusative

it's

euch

eaver

here

we

elsewhere

the

'

the

Dual

incker

to

Essex,

connected

old

being
saw

of

and

me

comes

replacing man
(alicujuscor)
in

to

before

Orrmin's

in

addressed,

are

is spun

we

see

do

we

the

line

same

as

talks

we

(dead)

see

was

helpleseshelp.

lessere ;
In

Plural,

es

supplanting earlier

now

remarked

The

wilful.

Genitive

the

comes
as

been

was

with

me

for

What

was

seen

as

using

ahest
owest

this classic Old

Middle

while

in liun

seen

The
Our

old

sentence

betere

are

'

ut,

"We
of

turn

the

sea

akin

Yorkshire

with

'

rage

p. 255.
sone

at

ase,

in the

to don

the

213.

p.

middle

al, ge,

of

makie

1350,

or

same

Churchyard
Baxter,
of

passing

the

so,

who
the
over

have

comes

schimereft

is,
me

gon

recess

(fulget);

in

used

these

with

Lothian

forms

In

each

from

first heralds

The

been

written

here

First

about

of Palerne

Audlay

wrote

Standard

all his old

Salop, appeared
the

English

substitutingDryden's style for

change
prose,
that

1210,

Series, p. 269).

of William

of

the

succeeding century
of
Wohunge
ure

front.

dropped

in

employed

(Percy Society,No. 47).

not

and

something resembling

1420, John

dialect

came

goste,that

dingle,applied to

clashed

Romance

In

had

lioli

me,' evenire.

English Homilies,'

here.

compiled

the

to

(Morris' 'Old

; in

employed

at p. 213

were

upshot.

to

seems

'

or

Dorset

and

comes

of \e

word

that

to bave

was

Lauerd

one

burst

icnou-

words.

forms

seem

Ormulum

for

sclivnvme"

Gloucestershire

in the

already

p. 205

still further

given ;
new

German

to

of is

better

the

and

Salop

Salop

have
at

mihti

(donum)

was

out

lighton

In

In

the

\e %eove

Spiritwhich

the

We

ness
indebted-

"c.

stands

p. 209

ase

read,

we

Prepositions:

In

imply

impressivelyused

p. 265

; at

to cwdkien

becomes

siva

269

to

our

(leo iratus),at

{burst

sone

idea of

The

is sometimes

yea

use

we

this becomes

(confiteor);

lechie,acknowledge.
is

Cultivation.

oughtest implies duty.

cnaivlece

seen

of the word

form,

this is the

English

was

his poems
In

1580,

Salopian forms.
about
that
and

1650
was

that

of Milton.

as

then
was

Soon

Old

270

1700, Farquhar,

after

of the

much

us

and

Northern

of

Line

herte,kinsman,

to

and

uppo,

til

makes-, the

raise, he

There

also the

are

Severn

the

of

The

The

words;

we

change
form

the

(ecce) at
kiss

hredden

other
as

setis

\ai

Northern
Midland.

]"oa and

huide.

long peculiarto

was

hleahtor

in

bitulien

h in the

middle

sound

awful.

few years

Great

(between)

about

the

to

rid,

At

p.

273,
sonants
Con-

Line.
we

1210

be

may
had

word

When

lost

ahful

was

we

pretty
much
used

end

271, ]"u

the

later in East

we

cuss

p.

redding straik.

gastli,hertili,rewli.

of

the guttural at the


especially

of the

end

becomes

lo,p. 283

this work

of the

(vocatus),

(risus)

last becomes

found

still talks

see

in cald

(liberare)becomes

be remarked

may

guttural
say

is

(fecisti)is replaced by \u mades-,

macodest

the

old

old

pared away,

are

at

Scotland

though
of

la

old

South

the

(peccatum),

in the

forms

of letters,as

paring

preferredthe

have

sin

Northern

more

yet

as

already

the

instance
a

is

(eras), hwat

; also

is

shire

have

was

(ego),

seen

the

this

country.

offeard (timens).
lahter.

\"u

Southern

for

ui

is much

There

have

more

combination

The

283, which

anything we

than

form

which

strangest

(attollunt),
page

up

to

(ad)

(sunt),have \ai, buhande,

am

belong

Orrmin's

see

always

must

; we

thing
some-

in view.

Lauerd,

ure-

interminglingof

Salop produced

English

seems

here

We

named.

This

in

Standard

Sundering

Wohunge

the

Recruiting Officer,'
gives

'

forms

piece, which

One

his

in

Southern

Great

the

keep

English.

Salopian brogue.

unlike

not

Middle

and

same

Anglia,
see
sure

such
that

of its old
where

we

Old

272
At

p. 281

hadst
as

is deore

thou

in

Middle

the

!) ;

is used

employed

English.

clieaphefdes tu

me

anent, which

thus

and

on

on

in

reappears

this
'

our

dear

is much

in here

or

freelyin

so

(a

me

bargain
the

same

The

piece.

in

mistaken

was

in

you.'
At

p. 287

comes

(transversus)is
word

queer

man

that

seen

we

still apply to the

in

an

odd

acts

eccentric.

277

in page

this is

good example

of

version

the

Scandinavian

our

of

be

man

poor

rich, his

i rattes

is rogg

originalword

of the

whence

doings

if the

The

(in

(villus);

interchange between

interchange

between

becomes

(palus)
it

drop

should, we

old

The

416.

strangely

the

or

Halloween,
left in

island.1

our

Verbal

Noun
becomes

now

the

one

At

slibbri

syllablefor een,

called

perhaps

be

All

Hollands

still alive.

in

seen

the

p. 184

in

pronouncing

schuden

the

Plural
find

we

the

Scotch

at

Some

page
is

this

served
pre-

kind

henginge,the
The

new

parish

have
of

Verb.

preserved,from

(Omnium

but

hale"ene of another

Genitive

evening.

old

halgana (sanctorum)

(slippery).

suspect that it has been

last

94;

off frt)m

struck

In

mor

The

South,

baleful.

halelienes

here

becomes

version

the

in

The

when

328.

p.

be

to

this time.

plainlyseen,

Plural
p.

(shortly

about

moor,

this is

I;

at

is

to

Genitive

altered

Salop

kept

was

down

cut

Kiwle

our

mure,

was

in

and

baluliful (p. 114)


Salop

Ancren

the

compiled

described) was

were

way

\weor

g.
A

the

former

qu,erfaste(p. 285),

as

rags) is
and

The

that

doings become

(loqui).

carpe

slipur
Adjective is

the Scotch
churches

Sanctorum), and

old

this

mistaking
England

in

name

may

Middle

formed
of

from

which

74,

Salop

it is

South

in the

p. 272

of the

filtered into

and
and

at

the

In

context.

into

been

altered

copy

into

the

case

the

either

Legend

of

encroachments

From

St.

the

Dorset

in

this

the

the

at

text is

one

a,

words.

(Camden
1220.

Dialect, about

piece, this

been

Riwle
0

to

has

Salopian gris (porous) comes

our

well

suits

Verb

has

Salopian

the

pleid,

has

sentence

which

two, whoso, no,

copy

(altar),

awter

Riwle

for

the

schrepeft;

Teutonic

idea

new

In this

p.
as

passage

; but
as

has the
has

in
-pleideft
;

the Ancren

Margaret
on

of

synonym

of the

sense

found

originalversion by

French

English

is made

Reference

copy

version

Ancren

in the

one

Salop

such

an
(luditis),
76, %e pat pleieft

p.

(p. 244).

Scandinavian

The

copies had

the

that this is the

see

of

t and

terms,

other

Society),as compiled

children

the other

between

to

come

be

South.1

the

French

now

can

to

uggi (timere),replace the suluh,

and

the

is to

wenchel.

and

wif

interchange

brought in,where

We

and

wummen

agrupie of

many

We

slideft,

(p. 114)

oftoken

to

alliteration

(scratcheth),where

are

labitur

far off

not

county

overtaken

new

English

were

is the

there

for

forms

different

by
Participleis turned into an Adverb
masedliche
(stulte). A curious instance

men

and
pi(j,]"url,

here

sound

Southern

the

in

Salop preferred undertoc

jploh,gris,windoh,
scrattefi

(solutus),the

teste.

three

the

Old

the

273

Past

true

p. o34

unaltered

slides,in another
slit.

liche

adding

kept

see

we

underfangen,and
At

is loivse

written

was

Cultivation.

this

have

we

p.

At
in

leosan

this

version

English

moten

; in

mistaken.
the

made
lone

earlier

further
for

griskin.

Icen,

Old

274

and

(commodatuin),
combination

of which
Here

there
of

sonnd

is much

keep

be

can

for
sloh

sound

Eastern

shires.

become

On

is here

gest (vadis) of this


and

Salop,

still further
and

for herd

e,

East.

seen

now

are

lexicons, heord, herd, and

the

same

herd

in

the

hord

had

Much

in

before

the

same

spred are

found

Northern

shires.
written

was

Dorset.

The

(swallow)

is curious.

added

to
g

the

and

The
both

the
The

old

old

is often

softened

stige(hara) becomes

awel

and

of

old

is

lad

and

eivel

under

pecus,

which

becomes

and

weien

(the

Led

of

rather

and
more

aul

sivoluwe

between

I and

out, when
The

grunten.

are

in

later

badg (venter) becomes

sti ; Men

while

becomes

nemnede.

thesaurus.

to

becomes

now

in

Indeed,

sprad

(subula)

old

feot

English word

altogethercast

the

i ;

for pecus

stood

of the Vowel

replaces
grunan,

Old

apart for

had

owel

insertion
letter

one

the

not

in

county-

divitice,all three.

and

u.

gas

down

appropriated

feoh

swelgan

(named)

nemde

hard

been

way

here,

of

old

into
some

put

are

is set

word), prcemium,

kindred

it

work

present

long

the

the

sicness ; it sometimes

hord

varying forms

as

for

the

in

becomes

eo

inoh

long

(pecus) replaces heord.

the

head,

The

fileand

as

for

in

longer-livedgost

terchang
in-

(slew) ;

altered

was

the

ivoo

slouh

written

for

and

our

bay

at

often

version

South

the

to

seocnes

becomes

the

into

kept

was

of

and

vowels

stands

au

wowen,

inouh

becomes

Staunton.

name

sounds

becomes

of the

the

that

The

a.

(macer)

lauhweft, the

into

The

liflode.

sope,

lame

doubt

ivogan

changed
The

use

it is like

no

Italian

the

(satis)and

in

(ridet) turns
still

we

English.

(oats), clo%,

oten

ea

hlaheft

leane;

Middle

in the

is

The
beli ;
same

Middle

for

change

the

sense

fawn

of

of

word

which

of

had

senses

the

shot in the locker.

two

I sometimes
becomes

now

into

bag.

ends,

not

Plural

monglefi;
A

412,

later, this
hundred
read

The

was

years

into

106

last word

later

in p. 418

have

mengefi (miscet)
; the

reappears

of

'

the

her

now

Genitive

tears, and

te

is Plural.
comes

is Intel strencfie ;

of

them

is

still,force

of

scotten

employed for s,
(misericordia). The

in p. 10 ; hence

'

be

blandiri.

hand, bcelgis turned

read

we

old

is

word

and

in

base

scot, sailors

Singular,but

read, of ham
to

the

forms

two

pay

the other

on

of St. Jame
we

the

see

milce

Genitive

in page

thus

hear

p.

the

gaudere

of Orrmin's

usage

only

o$re Maries.'
We

; also

and

word, the

same

French

its way

makes

we

the

difference

fain

townsmen

The

(osculum)

in husce

We

harmless

corruptions

(solvere);

schotten

At

the

off

mark

can

sentence, in p. 348,

one

and

Consonant

both

are

f"gnian,

as

275

g is often

the

Ctdtivation.

sawe
(dictum)
changed into aw;as
(sequi) for folgian,guwefie for geogvJS,
sagu, volewen
is a good instance
how
iiange for fcegmmg. This last

This

case.

In

English

Jem.

our

eightyyears

little force ;

would

become

parish officer who


called
the heiward, and
a

looked

'

one

matter.

after

the
hedges ; he is here
proper
name
us.
Hayward still lingers among
Among the
untowen
(untrained), which
Adjectives appears
was

afterwards
the
here
were

into

to

become

wanton, the

un

and

the

wan

having

The

ending ful was


coming in ; we
find jpinfal(painful)and
dredful;earlier endino-s
disappearing; thus the ]wrniht of old was
changed
\orni. In ston-stille (p. 414) we have a Substantive

same

meaning.

prefixedto give strengthto


t

an

Adjective.

The

French

Old

2J6
to have

seems

given

been

hitherto

it had

wholly

p. 258

the first time

only

This

of alls.

(ma chere),p. 98, where


becomes

Adverb.

an

form

new

Adjective;

an

In p. 1 76

have

must

read, his earlich

we

became

find

we

from

come

English Superlative,\e

old

replacingthe
secnesse

At

idiom, which

new

English.

deore

mi

alone.

early for

ariste ; here

Middle

us

Adjective stands

the

and

France,

dredful

meste

in

common

very

following Century.

the

Id

Pronouns

that

\eawes, hi hivuche
found

in the

lasted

is almost

astonished

(p.252),
but

not

'

where

hear

we

we

the
see

your

idiom

new

of sins

formed

by

with

We

gather

How

much

and

more

compound

an

vvith the
the

side

old

let ; let oftre

go.'

'

Be

let !

is

Verbal

Article

(one)

is seen,

ter

at

abide
.

geft

p. 194.
in

sitten

and

on

enemy,'

your

Greek.

in

the

p. 344

to

'

Come

glory, and

be

something
At

p. 360

later

we.1

Here

weal,
mine

Imperativesthan

longe;

one

the

older form

in these

have

Noun,

Imperative

the

would

repeated

.of

sense

hwas

say

now

Thine

there

present

'

atiffen

the

use

pith is
with

as

in Dorset.

ancren

aliquis;

of Verbs

is used

still sometimes

we'll

We

of grucchunge,

Infinitive
side

The

be

to

this old

quarum

man,

goes.'

man

this last Infinitive


like

of

comes

was

in the

find

traitor ; ' this last is found

'

Orrmin's

We

generation.
sum

as

qualis;

1400.

to

before, standing for

as

Latin

translation

earlier

an

well

as

word

p. 354

; at

always employed

down

this

hivuche,the

]"eblisse. This

to

later in Yorkshire

West

(p. 348)

blisse

of

Relative

for the kindred

to stand

work

climbed

me

thirtyyears

this hivuche

Yet

in favour

Neuter

for the

still use

we

hwat, standing for the Latin

laid aside

quod, is

Relative

Orrmin's

come

woe,

the shame.'
in the

brous
cum-

Middle

writer
his

does

not

English

and

such

many

of

Charles

'he

that
if he

would

Riwle,
hivule
well

p.

he

338,

could

read

\et lie muhte.

in p. 72.

beren
hear

In

him
of

if he

On

he

The
is the

p. 106

veolauredden

'

hwon

Transitive

said

was

that

he

Ancren

the

to

nolde

wule, \e

been

have

to

it

was

of James,

byword

stop is found

Verb

phrase bring to nouht, andAt

(company).

who

jugglers

Kings

looking

seems

said

are

210

page

mahien

to

an

vuel

pithy phrase

would

mei

ne

This

in 1220.

known

last Stuart

could.'

we

like

writing materials,

our

forms.

two

our

addressing

vallinde

of the

hear

come

flexible

applied to

once

; we

hence

(fallingsickness) ;

277

Participle is yoked,

The
Substantive

Cultivation.

in
letefi (sinite)

the Plural

use

Anchoresses.

Adjective, to

cheres

also
we

(make

faces).
find

We

Adverbs

new

(at once), enes


so

wike,

cropping

hu

se

offeor was

(our albeit)is

remarkable

in Middle

occurs

took

now

the

completeness

see

(certe) is
for the

in

his

turned

of the

concession

into
in

new

ever,

enes

sumetime%

; the

Verb,

al

the

I wis.

al

In

be
Our

shows

p. 288

later

beo
kind

same

prefixed

years

should

the Adverb

of

made.

six hundred
what

The

sense.

something

German

Lays;

first time

High

mistake, repeated

Macaulay

et

as

neverthelesse;
(beforehand),
afar ; eallungatvas replaced

later to be written

by utterliche,which

hwerse

ever,

muche\e rafter,bivorenhond

such

up,

we

Lord

by

written

iivis

squintis

found

212.

There

asquint,p.

is vuele

86).
much;
the

old

inouh, very bad ; inouh refie,


very readily (page
A
new
Adverb, greatly,crops up by the side of
see
ne.

p. 426.
Hwar

Nout
ase

(non)

is in p.

is sometimes

used

for

200, translatingubicunque.

2? 8

Old

We
the

neruhliche
has

(mox)
An

attempt

do

duty

stude

narrowly

as

say

ase

sona

to

'

now

the

heo

ase

is made

of

would

inn

an

other

versions

In p. 110

in the

out

how

of

vor

The

also

the

by

Our

truce.

this and

to be

in the

words

many
Greek

lasted

blunder),
perhaps

'

the

the

to- 1660.

from

to

club

the
a

from

first time

formed

anvphi ;

down

the

Dorset

same

page

dropping
but

was

in.

by

from

our

old

treow

the

At

old

Icelandic

regiment.'

there

lost

46

is

this

in

triivs,

Imbruumbridei

English

of

preposition umbe,
(circumference)
comes

gluffen (to

glop (incuria) ;
Sorh

are

withhold.

guise of

survivors

umstrohe
page

Scandinavian

in the

sole

At

find

we

backbiter

days, the

Ember

are

purch.

changed

Dorset,

in p. 106

becomes

now

is formed

umquhile

and

pe luve of him,.

vor

for the

appear

the

for this

another

in

over,

used

expression,pet fur (ignis)go

new

bac-slitor

in

employed

plied
sup-

England,

over

In

ine

thing. The

wi$

use

anent.

encroaching;

Substantive

dagar,

the

to

cheffare(chaffer),overturn, withdraw,

new

the

been

onevent.

as

our

common

our

his luve and

old

still

shire

o/was

had

Preposition %eond (per) was

was

one

find

we

The

our

in

far from

cradle

onefne came

it is found

old

it

use;

replaced
p. 426

the

Riwle

old

comes

p. 300

at

per

Ancren
the

not

form,

new

his

earlier all

used

word

'

260

p.

person,

Latin

how

not

onont,

vogue

stead

his

of

sonest.

him;'

in

been

the

Salopian copy

see

ut.

of

mark

we

as

copy
we

have
kindred

Englishes the

and

at

herbarued

The

(p. 414).

bring into

before,but only referringto


for,which

mei

Preposition;

can,' instead

she

ever

as

ever

to

his cradel

lack

English.

sonre
offspring,

new

for

of in,

Middle

and

(dolor)had

hence
taken

Old

28o

and

words

against beginning
rather

later

into

prod.

We

find also

Welsh

in

without

players.'

From
first

griddle, now
Peoddare,

derives

Forby
covered

pannier.2

Biwle, which,
the

sound

Riwle

'

; it seems

p. 106

This,

The

pedlar ;

the

comes

corrupted
as

to

into

the word

are

are

The

chatter.

from

'

is found

the old

our

first

Norfolk

babe.

time

is

Ancren

in the

formed

from

adjectivein
in the Ancren

cof (impiger).

which
blindfellen,

verb

harlotry

cudgel and

the

words

thinks,

cwiferfellow

'

baban,

in

Chaucer

by

has

for

which

many

gewgaw,

new

the

we

In

have

blindfold.
might

now,

ending

There

come

also

found

also

ped,

little

(acnleus)

come

source

English

from

as

is used

word

Celtic

Wedgwood

as

such

Shakspeare's

is

broddr

Shakspeare

in

seen

it

the

same

pedlar,

sense

the

were

we

harlot, a vagabond, from

yonth

bad

any

letter

the

Scandinavian

this work

herlaivd,a

English.

with

the

turn

to

Middle

are

express

proves

is sometimes

poltroon.

ought to write, not pedler,but


given as a puzzle in spelling.

that

we

English
"a

Middle

The

Third

in Warwickshire

been

drawn

np

have

been

done

The

clohes

of

(clutches),p.

Salop

become

174.

There

into

vogue

in Dorset, and
also find

to

has

version

mistake

in

Orrmin's

of

where
the

see

and

one

all and

At

all.'

time, the

nonsense

In

Southern

I.
this
here

in

282)
the

stands

In

"while thilk

thick

or

witness

thick

un,

but

thuck

as

p. 26

At

the

of

for

stands

into

we

source

flatterfor

this

one,

the

first

word

the

was

falter,making

wumbe

heard

to

say

hit thick un.'

have

'

to

it

express
was

not

still sound

we

it ivomb

written

to

meaning

write

we

thucJc,seems
its

tique,'
('ReliquiaBAn-

time

elsewhere

changed
un

of

was

thulk, or

huse, ofter

shire,
Gloucester-

into

Salop

changed

though

way,

has been

in

leads

used
This])ilke,

sum

our

becomes

wambe

for what

find

the

i^flaloer.

Creed

old

this shire

it is

it

in Dorset

we

in

present version

sum,

the

flafira;

for

iften ilke

)mlke.1

as

14, where

the

al cfoer

some

p. 222

Scandinavian

understood,

not

of

coming

p. 68 this

In

spread

soon

; we

talis the

For

p.

ubi).

it is found

instance

forcible

at

ubi), but

aut

\at,

1300

in

first

Dryden's
1

domo

erinde-bere

\ilkewas

has

version

Dorset

was

er

present version

\ilke hus \er (in ista domo

instead

ending

became

\eo ilke fuweles.

the

\er "c. (in eadem


has

The

in the

(p. 44)

used

cleches

nants
great clippingof Conso-

luffer(amator).

word

new

Line.

Southern

iste,\ill:e
fu%elesis used

express

cannot

Great

the

more

cerendraca

beorere

was
]"ullich

Dorset

is

the old

erende

the

Pronoun
to

the

have

may

rate, it

any
of

Sonth

the

to

; at

halpenes and peni (p. 96).

in

coming

far

Riwle

Ancren

the

of

version

281

Cultivation.

; iche

eche

(quis-

used

for iste,

been
hie.

thick

tershire
Glouces-

A
un

as

hit

Old

282

que)

still

we

and

keep

English.

Middle

this

old

of

sound

the

in

ing
pronounc-

each.
We

have
the

years

words,
old

sounds

weighty

most

much

c,

sc,

a,

be

and

for

my

have

seen

eel,
been

by

wrought

changes

may

ship-owning,
y,

the

beheld

now

in

scip,
all

the

short

three
here

agen

altered.

100

the

Middle

Neglect.

English:

CHAPTER
MIDDLE

THE

283

IV.

ENGLISH.

NEGLECT.

"

1220-1280.

Up

this

to

cultivated

1220, English had

time,
it

be

to

now

was

English pnblic,
French

to
we

are

English
and

about

now

writers

were,

Anyone,
in

this

chapter,

Teutonic

will

fewer
is

very

due

heed

that

see

in number

being swept

by

period

different

after

that

1220,
1280.

specimens given

obsolete

in other
We

lightened
en-

few

very

before

the

away.

by

different

the

the

ferior
altogether in-

disastrous

very

be

with

reads

degrees become
old

to

aside

is illustrated

things were

moreover,

who

The

consider

to

fairly well

something

as

Latin.

or

thrown

been

by

terms

words, much

begin,as

before,

with
EAST

THE

MIDLAND

(About
I first call attention

is

English
same

in

English
to

Dr

printedin
Text
its

Suffolk.

Morris's

Society).

dialect

Text

to

as

the

a.d.

DIALECT.

1230.)

poem

Old
This

The

"

common

"

English Miscellany(Early
is very

poem

Genesis

marks

nearly

Exodus

and

Society),a piece which


The

Bestiary- that

Dr.

of the

(Early

Morris
East

the

refers

Midland

Old

284

speech
in

ande

other

the

in

one

resemblance

some

translation

Third
in

Rehoboam

ande

and

tense

ends

The

Proverbs

of
the

about

beginning

was

eiide in the
in ew,

of haven

found.

are

much

Participleends

seldom.

most

the

to

made

the

Henry

til

and

Prepositionsfra

both

instead

Participlecomes

Past

Present

Present

have

dropped altogether,as
to the

in

of the

English.

the

case,

Plnral

the

both

in

found

are

Middle

arid

Northern

Bestiary bears
that

rid

King-

his

of

part of

the

play

England, having got

it is

Alfred;
time

to

Prefix

; the

The

is

or

wise

counsellors.1
Here
almost

the
all

wrote

find

we

last time

(solus)has

ane

had

driven

long

shires.

recurring here, as
in the

seen

latter.

of

Fugelas

is

(which

meant

though

we

Now

alternate
'

His

mu^

pared

have

lines

riming

is get wel

wift pater noster


fare

he

leren

broke

into

new

(fregit)
of

the

speech

out

saw

; we

of

Proverbs

splotch.

always

on

common

our

Alfred.
old

The

locus) here

and

for

version

our

fides (fowls).

loses

splot
its

Bestiary refers

The

English metre,

with

l"
to

the

"

bidden

unku'S
and

crede

norlS,er fare he suft,


he

Eastern

in these

of

see

Southern

The

he calls brace

the

first time

for the

also

turned

in

to

of

; we

former,

ut

macula

still talk

we

the

kind

both

olon

semel.

what
as

poem

down

Orrmin

substitution

also find
the

what

old Northern

adopted

"We

something

Latin

for

(sunt)

hand,

become

live. But

present

Scriptures has
the

other

now

Orrmin's

find

We

the

out

sinden

English

the

; on

(formerly cenes),the

ones

is

Old

the

sal his nede

and

bone
tus

tilen him

to

Gode,

his mu'S
so

fturggrace

rigten,

fte sowles
off

ure

fode,

drigtin.'

Middle

Red

(p. 93)

Sea

(onus)

is formed

Noun

page

from

the

This

formation

foxing (dolus).
become

to

soon

shires.

of

endings

the

East

(maestus),but

p. 21

In

the
18

p.

Adverb
sal

him

we

see

rewen

how

conjux

we

comes

tirgenat
; it

Wedgwood
passage

is

has

seen

Lever,

colonus.

to

more

for

have
from

Adjective
reufuliJce,

it

is

comes

than

The

German
to

hundred

length.

at

those

of

in

the

(deficere)

the

word

to

purlih.

The

Devil.

Mr.

much
fingei-ed,

years

is said to tire.

claiv ; hence

The

end

(burly) applied

Adjective fine,the

first time.

three

borlic

applied
from

teorian

elephant

High

of nimble-

sense

the

the

in the

by

an

lengfteit

on

for

as

expressed

old

an

used

colonus, whence

was

The

is akin

rapio.

here

old

besides

means

which

first time

the

the

we

find

we

sense

now

for the

says

from

comes

it

12, where

(clever)

diver

word

third

bonda.1

p.

p. 18

tandem

to

takes

At

English

came

becomes

elephants

was

between

is

(merry)
stand

husbandman,

here

Dano-Anglian

Adverb

new

words

first two

English by

find

dot)

Nouns

the

kept

mirie

the

oldest

We

Verbal

godlily,formed

the

paterfamilias ;

our

birden

Devil

Adverbs

of

write

singed.

husebond

and

the

the

rapidly spreading through England.

ge
;

the

arising

writers

Adjective

mirie

Verbal

of

those

formed

was

the

p. 13

In

ful

fox

now

to

Anglian

reuli

Bestiary a

in

and

it awkward

of The

word

was

Adjectives

godly

poet prefers

common

very

confusion

found

long

14

At

byrften.

to

calls

The

salte spot.

285

Exodus

and

Grenesis

spottes; the

Panther's

the

English: Neglect.

it in

this

rapidus
Icelandic^mn,
snute

later,used

as

(snout),
husband

for

Old

286

(manere),

is hoven
in

found

whale)

the

Singular

of

What
into

In

East

an

Antiquas,' I.

also

; as

English ceaflis

old

the

in the

the

Person

Second

Strong

now

of

actount

The

joivl.

of the

Perfect

word

German

(in

onr

undergoes

Verb

Gcspels.

Lindisfarne

is turned
]"u Jiehte,

would

second

for the

In the

Version

interchange
kali and

at

page

replacesce

into

to

the

pride;

oldest

('Reliquiae

lover d, written

anlepi^ (unicus)

form

new

drove

English

and

find both

we

Exodus,
becomes

stcerfbecome

ei, for

find

we

out

an

find the

we

we

is

The

niaidenhed.

star/.

i is

written

ce.t

clearly

kiss,unMnde,

meet

an

fer and far,

(insula);

eilond

systir (soror),here

Icelandic

there

slaglitand

(p. 97).

at

Southern

the

old

mayHenhad

becomes

(manducavit)
opposed

and

slceht and

turns

ea

the

Genesis

of

Orrmin's
;

the

time

for solum.

between

heli.

used

in

this
onelic

tire

Thus

word.

dnlice used

Adverb

of

find

have

However,

one.

Creed

Anglian
234), we

Orrmin

where

The

es).
higtest(pollicitus

tu

older

to

of chauel

far from

the

English.
cV

The

change already marked


in Old
English was

the

akin

p. 16.

shape

it is not

Middle

elephant,is

of the

used

and

and

sister,

suster; the
(p. 109), is preferred to the Southern
The
i kept its
sweostor.
Old
English had the form
sound, when
coupled with a, in Sinai, for this is
own
made
the

to

ie

e, for

was

we

find both
pronounce

rime

with

here
meet

with

8*8 and
the

the latter way.

no

hi

(p. 96) ;fir (ignis) becomes

longer pronounced like the French


both
drige and drie (aridus). We

ftese for

word
The

fier;

in the

old

the

Latin

former

yldestenow

Plural
way,

and

becomes

hi ;

we

write

now

it in

eldest ; and

Old

288

we

struck

are

Middle

and
the

by

poet'ssturdy cleaving to

English gutturals g

and

in the

find

of his way

out

gone
in

Bestiary,we

has

that

kept

gevenlike,where
prefix a

hard

the

before

is

alive.

letters

spelling Caxton

So,

writer

what

It

Old

the

of words.

beginning

Scandinavian.

these

shires, whose
should

h at the

to

in

English, iafn

English.

has

efen

was

East

But

Anglia

for

these

happily followed,

we

be

writing to give (donare), to yet (adipisci),


have
ayain (iterum), smdyate (porta).1 We
unluckily
now

Orrmin's

followed

East

These

young.

all Southern

when

drulili\eis

Anglians

yield,yelp, yearn,

talked

turned

now

into

The

instead

deigen (mori),

ditch.

Orrmin's

remarkable

which

change

There

deye.

and

dyke (fossa),

drugte (drought),

most

of

of

of

England spoke

followed.

have

we

in

corruption

is

the

also

Peterborough gede (ivit),frigt,nigenti,wrogt, and,


more

wonderful, preige (p. 114)

into

Suffolk

We

find

(sequi)

well

as

its

with

from

English
1

East

Our

Meg

is

proper

of onion

Merrilies

and
says,

to

'

'

the

to

the

from

have

one,

To

drag
a

softer

horse.

folwen

changes

but

draw

to

dray

richer

and

ogen,

way.

South.
Our

word
'

out

man

out

man

having

two

each
a

of

'

the

over,
MoreStandard

sprung

up

in

have
arisen in
cannot
(ostiarius)
curious that some
people say ingun and bayonet,
bayonet,puttingin a letter hard to pronounce.
Sair I prigged and prayed.'

name

It is

phrase
of

the

much

had

meaning.

opposed

speak

may

Anglia.

instead

the

is here

North
we

of

shade

own

as

sometimes

we

forefathers

our

is different
hard

shires,

different

where

words

well

still
even

its

forcing

folgen. Owing

as

But

preeda.

was

(proprius) as

owen

in

letters

Southern

the

for

is

'

Yeatman

Middle
shires
7

English: Neglect.

from
tria-ger

which

oath

the

fei was

in France

kindred

Old

the

French

the Eleventh

(about

in the
form, especially

commoner

The

fay.

ma

par

the

undergoing change.

were

here, represents

earlylost

was

borrowed

of

Germany.

fei-6(fides)found

Century)

variations

foregoing

have

of the other consonants

Some
The

if the

widely apart. As
not
were
enough, we

289

takes

contrary change

place when

we
cude,which
(potuit)becomes
unluckilyno longer
spellaright; the same
change takes placein burden and
'fide ; peofft(furtum) turns
into fiefte
; both ]iyf$and
The Peterborough scce (ilia)
\njftexisted in Scandinavia.

cioSe

becomes

now

replaces hu,

quow

as

years,

of

end

fee ; ruh,

our

clippingof
The

in

as

just

the

changed
r

for don

The

the
to

tiller

word

is

all

on

repeated,
44

at p.

ru

the

over

at the

Scotland

in

this

South.

made,
;

this is

turning into scob (she)


gesamnian
(congregare)

here

the kindred
The
in

turtre

the

forms

turturi

hunter

is

end
in

French
of the

and

(the

of

word

Bestiary

present work;

(p. 43) replace the

clippedat the
(factum) ; this is found
n

seo

(p.27)
two

The

(factus)becomes

influence.

some

is added

old

hundred

fe

as

sal,as

former

(p. 110)

had

hwndter)and
tilia.

the

into turtul

Scandinavian

seen

two

Letters.

gutturalwent

The

semelen

lasted

This

in Scotland

as

Orrmin's

clipped;
rough, is

of

had

former

into

into guen.

much

as

Paston

the

seal turns

reverse

have

Anglia

out, for macod

1160.

must

The

final

is thrown

becomes

is

our

the

Salop ;

about

is

word

is turned

cwen

the

and

by

see

we

she ;

or

in East

favoured

was

gu

sche

the

the

turtildufa.

Scandinavian

old

hunta

as
Participle,

Paston

and
do

Letters.

Old
This

letter

(p. 109)

Middle

and

almihti

time

North

for

daigening replaces dagung

seldon

all

becomes

ftwyrian (adversari) is
stalu

of

after

done

for

what

was

kindred

the

dropped
written
Milk
;

found

are

As

middan

ea,rd.

its
our

Moses

throws

sweet

on

at

p.

79, the

source

forms

two

insertion
;

here

this is

written

aldre

(p. 10)
d is

hand,

plain,when
the

The
is

puddock.

of
the

times
some-

podes

Scotch

of

is

(golden pins).

; hence

for

fiunder,and

is

other

prenes

Orrmin's

we

find at p.

4, middel

Latin

The

milch

our

word,

same

oe

ger;' that

tree

for

into

; at

(p. 89)

*a

10,

p.

for

time

in

in

is

sake

now

'

I shall

protenus

the

second

replaces the
of

one

come

old

year.'

larging
en-

is sake.

for

comes

old

Englished by

manie

so

p. 88

at

is

sheep

find

spot

p. 30

Accusative

be

to

was

for the

used

; but

we

world

at

the bitter water, which

often;

so

is, 'this

The

p. 106

At

stede.

(time)

; at

the

werld

1340

to

of

sense

used

causa

down

on

common

substitute

sep

p. 85

the

The

to

for

m,

added,

(p. 38)

cunrede

t is very

wrake,

meaning

know

ger

and

at

lasted

]"ing,which

hence.'

gol

Substantives

to

sifie

find

t is

is curious

word

the

inserted,

in line 552.

in ;

one

; we

The

gives place
On

which

replaced by

ftunor becomes

1600.

and

coming

ease

is

stalfie.

written

milche

wreche

of

to

toads

for

becomes

cows

of

between

connexion

becomes

(omnium)

lasted

is

fiwert

as

middle

sake

aire

form

this

the

elsewhere

found

(fartum)

in

; it

often

change

the

(seldom).

seldum

added, for

the

over

oft becomes

almihtin,

becomes

for

spread

for

added,

is sometimes

and

English.

"We
p.

becomes

times, we
bisek

year,' 'a
Genitive
same

see

God,

ftis time

The

94,

fiis

ofter

year
in

on

case

Middle

prominent in

becomes
which

would

go

wur"

name

At

p.

speed,'where

291

lettre

(p. 29),

mor

formerly 'it became

written

letter.'

full

'

his

been

have

(longer)by
our

English: Neglect.

73

drop

we

the

see

we

more

of

source

preposition
; it is

sped. The confusion


in to fechen
is
and Accusative
Dative
between
very plain
Se
read of rights,
Ysaac horn a ivif(p. 39). At p. 43 we
born
queftenben Se jirme sunes
(which are promised the firstand
more
sons). The English was
becoming more
in this piece. A
Substantive
is
see
new
terse, as we
formed
in p. 62 ; bi gure bering (your carriage)
mai
men
said that the

it sen.

Hebrews

Another

is formed

from

the

word

ride,the Scandinavian

he his

wente

rnichil

waxen

ridan

reift.

In

compounding Adjectives,the ful


the
employed, as dredful and frigtful,

was

first time

; the

lie,cut down

to

when

alive
hem

read

we

instance

is kept.
of

at

our

like,it may
from

be

seen

In
fain,joyful.'

'

much

crept
or

down

twice

latter for the

favour, as

uggligr,the

full

Adjective is clipped,
There

is

curious

in

them

Adjective being kept


common
speech ; he bade
good day' (p. 41). We

but something
phrase awfullyjolly,
at p. 38 ; Abraham,
when
prevented
son, becomes
frigtifagen, frightfully
25 we
see
gretfolc(multi); here gret

'

the
from

'

p.

eel ;

people

Among

South

modern

slaying his

r3placesmy

the

of the

use

'bade

of the

at p. 95.

goldpot

its constant

godun dai,

laugh

en

Accusative

of the

by

The

of

also in

li,was

reuli; muglike (p. 80),the Scandinavian

English form

112,

at p.

we

now

of

talk

great number,' but

'a

is obsolete.

Pronouns
the

North

gives place to

find

we

iSei

; it comes

The

I.
u

Latin

which
(illi),
but
tu

once

is twice

ic

had
once

Eng-

Old

292
listed

(nisitn) iviS us
Joseph's steward,

East

French

the

suggests

of

What

Orrmin

guise.

new

p. 67

hire Se ton.

is much

in

tu ; this

Alfred) was

the

speech.

common

in

here

seen

77.

"Se tofter wrong.

don

employed

our

Page

"

Neuter

78.

Page

"

p. 60

at

Riwle, for the

in the Ancren

of

Latin

This

he

...

quat-so-evere;

comes

the

\att o\er is

likenesses

wulde

on

in

Egypt,

to

go

brogt agon.

for

and

called ]"attan

Gaf

At

used

64, 65

pp.

'.they afterwards

(see the Proverbs

Two

Dis

Beniamin

great change

and

silver is gu

gur
vous,

Anglian usage

harbinger

him

obey

to

senden

but ge

tell

English.

addressing a superior,at

refuse

children

Jacob's
1

in

ge, used

by

Middle

and

quilheis used,
Relative.

as

al

The

strengthening phrases, as

fte

al

bettre,p. 66.
The

for
or

twenty

it

At

p.

in

97, the

Gon

p. 44 ;

first four
hundred
As

an

would

shearing

The

Celts 3,

whic
style,
read

we

d
a

use

"

as

if it

were

idiom

new

his tile ; of old

wex

been

is

the

expressed thus, by

fold.
to

Verbs,

rested; seventy
very

find

we

sleep ; Se folc reste


became

have

is

ger.'

wold.

mihel

so

in this

is used

meister

of

twenty.

score

thousand

hundred

words

VII

woren

adde

habit

In p. 91

English.

Numeral

ftusent
; ilc

Noun

in

score

old
to

up

is that

something

counted

first used
1

the

wood

on

Danes, and French


now

Numerals

from

comes

scoring notches

was

in

great change

dede

years

common.

an

old idiom

(p.57)
later
In

this
the

here

revived

long

did rest stands

usage
Old

after

of do

English

for

and
we

did
i

Middle

wished

him

Infinitive

Passive

is

p. 74

Pharaoh's

like

sentences
the

English: Neglect.

bid ; at

'

Participlehad always

after

Transitive

Intransitive

embrace

'it
rnisdon.-,

Passive

seemed

Voice

'

brothers

at

%uvg

him

misliked

'

they

Proverbs

110

p.

$at

; also

where

the

of

Alfred,

and

becomes

Verb

in its

new

At

hem

21,

p.

we

is used

bifelSavvai,
this

time,

niman

acquires the

farther

sense

Up

to

peculiar marks

of the

hundred

years

meanings

I have

same
on

at

sense

this

seen
woman

leave.

in

p.
of

sense

50

take

When

repeated

last has

we

hear

bigata

Laban

this

take

and

63
wife

it

here

in the

is used
and

fohvede

be

of

taking

we

hear

wente

next

Latin

the

it may

the

of

one

of

wente
;

for the

both

phrase
Lot's

is

Dialect

Verb

page

Verb,

new

eve

cap

is still alive

at

old

gelimjpen(accidere).

now

toe

the

out

sune.

meant

has

that

struction
con-

adipisci,and

driven

ive,and

The

; and

its

114.

Page

"

Midland

Orrmin's

ovevtake.

is

of

get

the

in

as

had

named.

of like in

use

changes

for the old

East

our

sworn

use

new

24

p.

he walheden

in its old sense,

he

see

The

; at

were

old

Verb

"c.

both

seen

him

al 'Sis quefie,

gigneve ; this

sense

cennan.

in 'hat

ledde

begetis

the

Transitive
misliked

And

ftugteit

aven

the

see

(p. 50)

began

now

they

We

The

Accusative

an

is

"5e desevt

walked.'

are

V6rb

(peccatum').
'

comes

the

its conquests

sivoven

of

use

brogt.

usage

misdone

bveftve

Balaac

The

him

with

with

p. 48

; at

this

it ben

this

spreading

he

woven

comes

see

Verbs

to

was

bad

used

been

Verbs, like

'

named

coupled

now

daughter

Past

to

(to) be

293

further
with

of

in to

taking
a

ston

Old

294

and

(p. 32), it suggests


wendan, the Latin
to

tit

that

of Paradis

the

But

is

72, we

that

see

common

Clip is

used

in

Old

in the

not

apart for

Orrmin's

Participlehas

lost

the

and

Active

the

Verb, which

mourning,

we

end,

of

ing

from
the

with
it

French
was

s,

and

formerly
Among

the

in

that
not

the

written
Adverbs

Long
this

Old

p.

more

after

death.

of tondere,
navian
Scandi-

the

34, where

we

understand

for

inde

p. 41

This

sorge.

bave

been

before

Verb

we

English

S.

have

Infinitive
A

new

Isaac

was

mation
for-

new

confounded

Chaucer's
should
Our

the

how

must

easilythe
in

seen

(facilis)
may

aaisier.

French
settled

was

eafte

is

At

wake

be in

confounded.

efiftede his

Eliezer

but

how

and

keep,

form

sense

at

Participlewere
still

do; the

(p. 94).

to

was

waked

de at its

spread through England,

this

amplecti ;

smoke

easily Layamon's corruption

died.'

'

p. 50.

at

stinken

At

specialmeaning,

one

of

sense

At

fear.'

or

Anglian

Scandinavian

English

phrase

in

put

8e desert

was

were

de).

est

upon

watch

Joseph's body

Eve
the

end,'

an

The

cheating.
'

in age,

East

corruption

see

we

for

(actum

encroach

to

hard

set

must

don

made

'

shift(mutare) comes
"When

be

(sojourn)in

to be

use

This

Aaron

fin,

the

Southern

the

him

deden

deden

and

of

present

rage.'

that Adam

expression

mid

suriuren

(vigilare)was
while

modern

our

meanings

into

he went

hear

; we

beginning

maden

'

old

two

the latter is most

(ejectisunt).

they

make

people

phrase,

Israelites

p. 109

At

of the

"ndmutare,

it wufft

comes

p. 101

that

used

suggested

p. 69

p.

is much

do

Verb
don

in the

minds

onr

ire

English.

Middle

time
use

the

uneasiness

uneaftnes.
are

found

quilum (ohm),

which

Old

296
lished

dun,

as

Adverb

in

he

Middle

and

is

used

English.

like

more

figten dun

herbi,

Preposition than

101, like

p.

an

down

onr

there.
find

We
of

dwell

of

'

and

Egypte

in

East

verb

has

still

; we

There

clothed.

here, such

This
down

been

softened

this

Ransack

Rapen, to hurry, rap


Rospen, rasp

the

in the
for

Old

aer

English

then

the

61

page

Participle

as

well

as

Chaucer's

words

found

dream

Icelandic

only sonus

meant

or

and
gatcdium,

is

so

Bestiary.

This

is

This

as

yet only

word

out

Skie

Past

the

right

Draunir, Icelandic
Glanta, Swedish
Lygne, Norse
Mykr, Icelandic
Ransaka, Norse
Rapa, Norse
Raspa, Swedish
Sky, cloud,Norse

Muck

in the

its

In

down.

Buskr,

2
Levin, lightening

used

al

as

Glint

The

biging of

since

Scandinavian

Busk, bush
Dream, somnium1

in

Tdceddr,the Participleof

form,

other

are

known

kept

to 1440

Scandinavian

keep

non

is

; this

well

word

the

that

beein

was

cla]"enn(vestire)takes

clad ; this is the


Mcefia

that

corpse.

Anglia

middle

in the

Orrmin'

as

bigging,so

read

we

will remember

house

Scandinavian

without

spelling

of

speak

p. 90

Proverbs, the

Salopian windoiv, here repeated.


'

the

At

Alfred's

King

Copperfield

peasantry

Scotland.

of
the

David

explained by

weWe

Orrmin,

Readers
Suffolk

the

curious

means

lasted till Chaucer's

sBy.' Twenty
in Yorkshire.

of the

instance

years

in

interchange between
g and,/.
and
this
of
sense
English a cloud,

time.
after

the

Til

skyia

present

in

Norse

poem's

date

means

sky

'

up

stood

English: Neglect.

Middle

We

German

the

We

in

see,

began

water
is akin

fail

to

of

French

(a

Teutonic
;

longer.
the
how

form
as

yip

out.

of the

regards

the

see

p. 94

its

that

common

poem

seems

We

meaning.

French

to

of

when

by

we

have

lie

be

to

of

Past
now

been

at

Participleof
use

it

as

written

an

were

pert
in

we

and
p.

day
p.

We

flower.
27,

29,

wisely

now

its

with

this has

become

Adjective.

about

this

our

Abraham,

fluresored\
sacrede,

of

side

the

names

proper

spellingflour

Verb
; the

with

much

HJgypcienisshows

is said

read

kameles

ground

written
like

form

road

the

its

the

ollfentess
as

apert is strangely altered

French

English ending
so

! when

from

come

appears

(draco) is

drake

88.

skipperes,p.

called

hold

to

English endings

difference

had

not

entertainingthe angels
make

Orrmin

years) now

was

ysgip

liu
Interjection,
have

of

second

Welsh

the

must

we

trements.
taclau, accou-

called

are

the

dragun.

In

Welsh

26,

p.

The

orf.
from

comes

locusts

of 800

old

Old

the

dying

old

French

new

the

What

usage

The

from

; this

Moses

the

and

uses

In

(the
deesse

for

word

new

'

taken

water

(defect).

takel

skip

hence

comment.

(p. 39)

laecke

88, Pharaoh
with

enraged

This

them).

word

(a quick snatch) ;
p.

to

104.

Page

"

oat

gan

comes

Our

At

hem

tol and

Substantives

these

'

Dutch

mention

eten.

forhirkedto

35,

p.

the

to

ben

he

manna

it is akin

(fastidire).

erken

Of

find

irk fbr the first time

find the word

297

1230,

This

and

to

Old

298
have

been

many

of

old

words

writes

Norfolk

1244,

Willekin,found

about

THE

EAST

and

wex

Noe

form

here

of

and

Sise viii hadden


arche

Dat

set and

was

hise

nailed
and

elne

and

deres
ore

Sor huten
an

hundred

welken

and
hi

oe

and

seven

and
"Sot

Genesis

and

hem

wi(5 ;

God

strong,

consider

their
peace

vessel

closed

"

high

bore

had
Sei

Exodus, p.

wunen,n

by

or

seven,

"

except

"

wel;

oerinne

him

xxxtJ

werlde

on

animals

long,

ended

was

sunen,

grio\f
good,

it

and

quorhi
quileshe p woren
mete

kin

Se flood ;
was

foueles,weren

Almigtin

it

orm

of alle der

heg1;
he
Noe
dregk;
long swing
winter, everic del,1
wid,

the

"Then

rigtmunen,d

sperd,hSig and

lli elne

wid-hin

woren

feteles

agen

hundred

ore

been

Flood.1

in Se arche
a

limed

have

short

1230.)

the

"

wifes

foure

Chronicle

DIALECT.

a.d.

Sein,Cam, Iaphet,if we
and

criber,
trans-

(Willy),the

must

MIDLAND

ouer-flowged men

wiSuten

time

wcestm,

the

to

Lanercost

of Wille

flod Sis werlde

thus

that

1190.

Account
a

the

to

name

(About

Do

ont

meaning

no

the intermediate

by

it wasjpene.

bearing the

of William

later ;

died

had

lad is referred

as

English.

seventy years

(forma) conveyed
who

for

Middle

transcribed
the

wastenie

and

toil

bit

passed
dwell

cumen

two

"

two,

it so,

migten liven,
on

16

water

driven.

(Early English

Text

whereby

they

Society).

ere

English: Neglect.

Middle

hold
was
ger Noe
in fie arche-wold.
him

hundred

sexe

he

Quan

dede

elde

of werldes

weren

fian

Noe

and

numen

gette y dun

everilk stede

on

dais

and

De
and

moned

sevend

fiat arche

in Armenie

fio

wurfi

so

dunes

dragen
lasted

arches
fie raven
e

he

fie duve

fond

nod.

nogt
h

wind;
wifi-drog,

and
seve

he

so

to fie arche

clene

no

hen,

it gan

agen.

stede,

wente

brogt a grene olives bog ; k


nigt sifien l everile on
is let ut flegen,"crepeu, and

wifiuten

ile sevend

fie he sacrede

when

each

poured

on

an

mountain

"

flesh

began

same

force

enough

flew

fiis,
it is,

and wel it dede


agen
eft ut it tog,1
fie sevendai
and

taken

in,

long anog.e

windoge undon
ut-neg,fhu

cam

ile

fie watres

dais after

Fowerti

numen,

came

fie flod

wexen,

It adde

ne

moned

fie tende

Do

those

stod,

wifi-dragenfiat

was

beside

in cumen,

was

xxtl dais

and

sevene

fowerti

nigt,
wifi magti migt.
water
so
wex
and get
it wex
wunderlike
so
Sat fiftene elne it overflet,
ile hil,
ilk dune,2 and over
over
fihurgeGodes migt and Godes wil ;
and ofier fowerti
fiore-to,
dais and nigtes stod et so ;
So was
ile fleis on werlde
slagen,
fie
him
fio gunnen
wateres
wiS-dragen.
fowerti

'put

cumen.

undede,
springehere strengfie

wateres

iold

mo,

fio,8

in to fie arche

was

reyne

hundred

sex

ger,

fifti forfi to

and

sex

He

fiusant

Two
and

299

clene
aucter.0

der

out

snor
h

found.

went

bough

afterwards

gon,
n

to fly

except
altar

hundred

Sex
Noe

sag

get

he

gede

THE

drie "

erSe

awai

to rad

nogt

(About
Ar

ich

Nu

mot

wel

ihc

Geltles

Help

Kyng

nion,

nun

ich

sore

syche ;
schame

tholye muchele
for thin

God

swete

name,

of hevene-riche.

Crist,sod God, sod man,


me,
Loverd, thu rew
upon
in
ich
am
prisun thar
Bring me ut and makye fre.

Jesu

Of

Ich

and

mine

God
For

othre

Ben

feren

sume,

lyghe noct,
habbet
misnome,
in thys prisonibroct.
wot

ich

ne

licth,
Of bale is hale and bote,
Hevene
king, of this woning
Ut us bringe mote.
Foryhef hem, the wykke men,
God, yhef it is thi wille,
For wos
gelt we bed ipelt
In thos prisun hille.

Almicti,that

Ne
Her

hope
ne

non

mai

wel

to

he

quick

went

MIDLAND.

sorghe non,

manen

Karful

1230.)

a.d.

ich

kuthe

ne

;
q

EAST

THE

TO

looked

bad.

him

he nogt ut, til God

CONTRAST

dai,

te water

and

wis

was

olde

dan

on

te first

and

"Se first moned


he sag

and

ger

of fie arche-wolde

ut

English.

Middle

and

Old

300

his

live,

belive,

Middle

English

stighe,
grunde.
wele and blisce,

him

had

Nu

Rathe

wele

Ne

And

And

stunde.

on

heven

the

king,
thing,
sone, that swete
he habbe
of hus rewsing,
bring us of this woning
thin

his muchele

live go

those

That

misse

ey

the

and

blisce.

eche

is taken

poem

sit go,

wu

moten

we

Habben

above

ywise

bring hus ut of this -wo,


hus tache werchen
swo,

He

The

misse,

buten

hare

that

For

In

mid

lasted

Maiden,
That

tharof

shal

Worldes

Bisech

felled to

man

he

from

the

Liber

Legibus ('ReliquiaeAntiquse,'I. 274), in


of the

attached
is much

English
The

speech of

becomes
it is

day
we

the

misused,

li is sometimes

saw

in

England
d

it.

The

the

Essex
the

between
in

(habere) is

many
a

Genesis

therefore
or

possession

so.

Twelfth

to

mark

as

even

sometimes

gh

Homilies

represent the

What

words

of the

and

in

Londoners

this

York.

is curious.
South.

folk
g in Suf-

was

Century Homilies;

change

greater part of the


London

Exodus.

and

replaces the
:

cal
musi-

of obsolete

brogt; gelt replaces gilt,as

broct, not

misuse

in the

the

proportion

1230,

Antiquis

de

manuscript has

in the

seems

year
as

The
as

same

300

here,

overspreading
into

the

the

it.

to

of page

poem

London

The

of London

Corporation

notes

301

he

Heghe thegh
Ded

Neglect.

Eastern
The

The

Kent.
of

old h,
was

as

now

side

change
form

our

of

of ]"

habben

Old

302

THE

and

Middle

EAST

MIDLAND

(About
The

piecethat

Creed,

DIALECT.

1240.)

a.d.

next,

comes

version

part of Lincolnshire, perhaps


see

the

is

used

Northern
for

often

ends

in

But

the

the

Northern
find

third

as

saw

the whole

we

no

making

was

in

endings

cut

down

to

clipped.

The

found

he

hades.
still be
mikel

does

not

We

(sed)

and

he
once

who

wholly

words

see

(cum)

the

of

use

prefers noht, as

in

has

nil

the

(nolunt).

of

We

East
see

of

for the

will

seldom

piece we
in

short,

Chronicle.

into

yh

heli

; and

ne

here

obsolete

name

Creed

could

the writer's

hensible.
incompre-

our

first time.

their other
Unlike
for the

Bot

English

that

poet,

Latin

Anglian pieces:
the

is

this Creed

French

the

sense*

present author

in

the

on

Gospels ;

the

by

writings.

as

beofi.

and
sauf,sengellic,

preferred to

are

so

English ; though

bifore-said

our

who
,

specimens

convey

tense

old

the

Englished

Orrmin's

synonyms,
our

with

in sound

come

Participle geboren

deep theologicalterms

expressed

wTiilh

in this

is turned

calls persones

commonly

The

writer

three

only

thus

Present

Northern

The

The

We

inroads

great

Anglia

the

for outlandish

the

are

persones

are

born.

has" little love

the

of

Manning's riming

(sanctus) replaces hali.


many

East

in

as

e,

Hull.
;

(erit)replaces

foreshadows

becomes

Northernmost

als, til,sal, \air, "c,

whos, poiv (tamen)

mo,

poem

the

far from

not

Singular

in eth ; bes
o

of the Athanasian

great abundance
;

Person

Southern
a,

in

Relative

the

so, non,

The

forms

es, not

in

likely written

most

was

English.

non

but

he

Participlelastend,

Old

304
Den

is trauth

ever

leve with

Dat

we

Dat

oure

Godes

and

louerd

alle

of fadir

kinned

Man

of kinde

of moder

into

fnlli

saule

the

Fadir

Even

to

Lesse

pen Fader

werld

werld

biforn,
born,

begotten

reasonable

livand

man

Of schilful

his,

of kinde

God,

belief

Crist in blis

God

Fulli

miht

oure

he

man

English.

right

Jhu

and

son

Middle

and

flesshe

mannes

beand,

jmrght godhede,
jmrght manhede,

pof he be God and man,


'
'
is,bot Orist an,
Noght two ])rwa3]"er
in flesshe,
On, noht jmrght wendinge k of Godhed
in godnesshe,
Bot jmrght takynge of manhede
'
be menginge of stayelness,1
On al,noht
of hode
onhede
Bot burht
bat is,
Dat j)oled for our
hele,doun went til helle,
De jn*eddai ros fro dede so felle,
Upstegh til heven, sittes on right hand
Fadir
alle mightand,
Of God
is he
And
yhit for to come
To deme
])equik and dede that be,
Dat

ra

"

Ate
Sal
And

Of
And

whos

alle

come

baire

rise with

yelde
awen
J)air

sal

j"atwel

bat

men

bodies

doun

changing

substance
person

suffered

"

went

UP

are

bare,

bai,nil bai
dedes
il,

haf

still

ne

wil,
p

own

}?atdai
ai,

Sal go to lif ]?atlastes


sal wende
And
ivel haf doun

in my

cow

box,' said

Frenchman,

meaning

cough

in

his

chest.

coughing,
dough-facedploughman, coughing and hicwent
tlwughtfullythrough Loughborough, we find ough
sounded
in eight different ways.
The
Scotch still sound
rough and
ended
in kh ; this was,
the proper
name
Brough as if the names
In

the

until

short

sentence,

lately,the

usage

in the

Yorkshire

dales.

English: Neglect.

Middle

Dis

is

]"etrauht pat heli

Saufe

mai

ne

he

TO

Owl

londe

In to other

That

lond

nis

and

Knarres

Snou

and

That

lond

The

eludes

horn

do,

to ?

com

hit nis

este,

weste,

h,oventinge,

hagel horn is genge ;


is grislich
and un-vele,

Hi

nabbeth

Hi

ne

Hi

eteth

Suich

fare

ne

hit is and

both

men

ne

993.

singethare.

god, ne

wildernisse

Ac

Line

"

ich among

blisse

never

ich

and

sholde

! what

War

Hi

wi

]"uaisheist

No

^e83

1240.)

a.d.

Nightingale.

and

Yut

DIALECT.

MIDLAND

EAST

THE

(About
The

holy

be.1

never

CONTRAST

hisse

he,

fastlic trowe

and

Trewlic

isse,

miht

botr ilkon with

Whilk

THE

ende.

withouten

In fire lastend

305

wilde

nother
hu

reccheth
fihs

an

Hi

nute

Hi

nabbeth

Ac

libbeth

flehs

noth
al

so

un-sode,

mile, and

elles wat

unisele

grithne sibbe
hi libbe,

hit hadde

wulves

drinketh

and

to-brode
wei

thar-to,

hi do ;
win ne bor,
wilde

dor ;

mid
goth bi-tigt
ruje velle,
ut of helle ;
Ri^t svich hi comen
to horn come,
Theg eni god man
from Rome)
(So wiles dude sum
Eor horn to lere gode thewes,
An
for to leten hore unthewes,

Hi

Hickes

I leave

as

has

mangled

he printedit.

some

of the

words

in this

It is in his Thesaurus, I. 233.


X

piece,which

Old

306

inijtebet

He

rnijtebet

He
To

me

That

hi

lines

from
No.

Most

here

again, 340
'

worde

his

such

We

see

folc

have

The

Vowel

been

habbe

how

England's

to

p. 44

Riwle

work

come

find

fuleth

the

that ilke
his

again

and

read

that

we

other

also

saws,

old

lost ; this form

transferred

Present

sometimes

first hint

as

for

52
to

our

prise(turdus)
The

paring
p. 18

for

used

in p.

stands

the

most

away

we

read

The

French

the

remarkable
of the
wane

old

the

of
our

brethren

The

former
not

Past

thi lust is ago

imprecation dahet

Participleischud
here

we

sounding

get the
The

shoe.

thrusehe.

Participleof
; the

shows

yet

The

effect in Consonants

new

he

as

Perfect.

gesceo-god;

becomes

in the

Past

its

was

the

to

present way
now

upon

(metere).

mawe

he

from

best,

nest.' l

owe

encroaching

Ujst(amittit) becomes

it!'

Ancren

taken

In

We

Percy Society,

present

him

to

his death.

is

replaces

mowe

the
the

had

attributed

Dahet
That

old

in

translation

no

as
'

is

been

the

shire
Dorset-

charming

most

goddspel.'

was

i-bringe,
i-here singe.

from

name

after

spere,

found

forms

proverbs
years

and

published by

was

Alfred's

The

heart.

to

of the

bore

wolde

segge

seems

repeated.

warmly King

wilde

from

It

spille;

ane

sheld

taken

which

the French.
39.

are

are

stille,

teche

that
me

English.

he sholde

bothe

we^e

Than

Poem,

sitte

al his wile

Vor

These

Middle

and

is the
; in

agon

corrupt Southern

whence

comes

our

'

dash

Middle

kept by

form

English

the

same

In

eve.

another

and

like Hester

praise of

bo%e, sometimes
the

turned

when

find at p. 30

we

One

find
the

holeuh

becomes

it is

crux;

The

word
the

bonda

(hollow).The
seen

now

As

Adjectives

Substantive, as

is written
to

how

see

inge,

rode

becomes

the

gidigseems

and

West

in

hitherto

bondeman.

(trap),which

old

had

the

We
from

comes

to

alone.

have
This

been
poem

deme

the

(dark), into the


Adjective is used like a

find

thilhe,which

in Greek.

Pronouns,

we

old

sprenge

bare, in the thich, where

is,when

spelling

rodde, meaning virga.

as

(colonus)

spring.

(p. 36).

the

here used

preserved by the South


has many
forms, such as,

once

find

we

Participlehide into
singingeriming with avinde.

Substantive

Among

is loud

Active

Verb
to

nihtegale

Dagley

It is easy

owlet,

or

for
gains a syllable,
more^eiing(morning), just as holh (ca-

becomes

meant

Mr.

boga (ramus)

bowe.

of the Substantives

morgen

hoivlet

English

is inserted, for

old

The

Layamon

vus)

either

Binform (Reform). When


Alvred
(p.9) we see a relic of

Book.

Domesday

sometimes

out, for

the

Alfred written
of

The

Esther.

is thrown

h is prefixed
to the Old

still write

in

begangan
aifen
(vesper)here

agon,

the

remains

from

comes

in 'Middlemarch,'
nv"tingale
;

becomes
in

word

The

halter.
h/elfterhecomes
tile (bubo) ; we
may

as

way

307

older form

The
long ago.
Participlehere

in

us

woe-begone; the
(cirenmdare) In
becomes

Neglect.

One

wish

we

of
to

Hervore

be

modern

our

emphatic.

it is that
x

me

usages
At

is used

is to insert it

p. 40

the shuneth.

only

we

read

"

Old

308
This
At

and

is stronger than

p. 4

old

Verbs,

old mot, most


of

the

this

down

be

driven

out

as

us)

the

if the

We

old

have

p. 50

The

stands

of

usage

in

the
of

used

in

Must, used

sense

the

masons'
Free-

in the
and

must

thu

us

art

so

(it
the

ishote,

tive.
Accusa-

an

used

new

it

Mysteries,about
Passive

londe

of

oldest

always governed

extended

sense

oportet;

most

its

Adjectives here
is

one

stantive
Sub-

Pronoun

oportet, that
the

had

; in

and

without

English thearf;

Townly

comes

many

stantives
Sub-

as

Participles. At

to

comes

Wanne

Old

in the

hule

an

45, \u

p.

it be.

the

distinct

meaning

lasted

mot

p. 39

seen

the

in

mote

sceotan

this

takes

meaning

is used
At

1430.

year

say

springing

earlier bore

still,I believe,

it is
so

entirelygot
behoves

we

having
betere is win
on
(craft).
change of meaning in the

the

Verb

but

appears

this Verb, which

the

of

Possessive

remark

formula,
has

sense,

(unus)

on

plainly seen

1550

to

the

licet,now

Still

fleo.

as

both

one,

read

we

poem

25

we

Latin

may

thee/

bredde.

yet anything

as

were

an,

arts, the bird says,

of

past time,

the Numeral

coupled with

and

spoken

to

""?;"afaukun

and

an

ni^tingale. At

In

other

line of the

4th

referred

shun

men

"

Article

the

from

on

day.'
That

The

English.

this account

'

other

see

we

other

'the

the

Middle

ich iseo the tohte ilete.

taught (tensus) let

out.'
'

At

they yelled; this use


sentence, is something new.

for

'

if

p. 34

solde

hi

of slwuld, in
At

p. 20

we

pollen
a

ditional
con-

hear

English: Neglect.

Middle

of

that

man

is used

it

as

Orrmin's

like

(homini)
pot

me

me

for

let

sense

The

We

to

the

as

old

and

his

life,'(p. 37)
that

'in

'

'

at

one

There

The

are

utlete

horses.

The

Break

in

now

wide, (p. 25), as


'

he would

not

the

short

of

Old

for

stands

the

English polian
In

of,disappointof.

one,'that is,

at

from

this

atonement) ;

we

the

at

Prepositionbehind

have

'to

often

has

is used

as

p. 21.

few. Scandinavian

(outlet),and
we

always

(fimbria).

hem

the

onan;

(cuckold), cogge

(sloping);

of

breke,'(p. 37).

strength were

old

of in.
at

cnkeweald

all

comes

Substantive

be, instead

of thy mind,' (p. 52)

are

follow

(whence

meaning

they

failof,come

though

to

poem.

are,

in this last

to

place,' the

one

'

used

Hence

stands

from

stand

be worth

bode

nolde

remarked

be

;
'

of fairhede

miss

p. 27

'his heart

'

our

near.

Prepositionsto

(carere).

the

far

let

verb

phrase for (far) and

The

Genitive

set

the

find

phrase

present

is formed

that

pot,'

mon

nevre

'

to

the

in the

seen

thu

comes

me

use

nought,something

suggests

The

We

in p. 58.

this is

this

pot.'

bihemman

verb

well

as

56

p.

stand

'

intransitive,as

becomes

'

much

so

stode
for

is short

alone, is

bad

for

'

At

idiom.

goelene

to

the

appositionto

in

were

the Infinitive

no%t bute singe ; here

can

ne

309

shrew;

apply

now

verb

(of

beshrew

the

shrew
was

words, such
a

mishap,

wheel), fait (falter),

last
to

as

comes

and

women,

formed

from

from

skraa
screw

this in

to

the

Century.

next

There
Dutch
cremp

and

are

many

German,

words
like

(contrahere),hacch

cropping

up,

akin

clack, clench, clute

to

the

(gleba),

(parere),luring (torvo vultu),

Old

310

and

mesh, {silked (whence

Middle

sleek),stump, twinge, wippen;

our

last in its intransitive

the

In

27,

p.

we

sense.

the first

see

English.

of

nse

well-known

tive
Adjec-

That

is,

deth

That

other

it is

'

vitten

Dutch

mid

Mon

strengtheand mid witte


thing nis non his Jltte.'

match

no

48,

p.

akin

sqiiashand

our

thi

sputing

schal

aswinde

few

the

Among

for

stable

old

word

with

giftof

The

names

is

poem

mostly

form

Cotton

The
last

as

the

of

here

Scotland

the

in

Nicoll

al

the

embodied,

Northern

contains

These

about

are

this

of

the

prefixed to
we

Nicholas.
in which
other

many

repeated

as

French

surnames

our

twenty years

forms, such

ning
begin-

still talk

in

one

French, each

first time
;

the

Riwle

and
we

are

poem

in the

Ancren

than

more

at

Manuscript (about 1240),

Southern.

are

to

genty,)at

is used

the

Nichole

long

as

French

meaning

printed by Dr. Morris,


(Early English Text Society).
These

read,

we

of spouters is

race

in this

gabbing

Maister

Manuscript, compiled
are

; the

is for the

Master

gab.

follow

now

with

word

shade

different

proper

whence

akin

Noun,

English, Scandinavian,

was

the

p. 54

at

the

(com-

cwesse

quassen,

the

here

in

mockery, (p. 22), as

of

and

words

French

is found

clipped.
sense

Dutch

sermo

pie (picus),gente (stillused


acorde

is also

to

extinct.

but

anything

the

squeeze

spuiten,stands

Dutch

There

to

is akin

This

man.'

(convenire).

primere),at
comes

for

in

the

pieces,

the

Jesus

later.1

There

ivhase, saule, and

in his Old

EnglishMiscellany',

Old

312
the

judge by

which

encroaching
in

Pronouns,

addressed

seen

in Goldsmith

used

as

of

olon

Old

changed

at

What

in Essex

had

of oportet,as
the

by

p. 141.
The

is
Infinitive,
The

Infinitive

idiom

with

carried

now

him

97)

At

folde.

becomes

now

in the

Dorset.

The

old

last

time,

for

seen

the

beoft is cut

step further

down

\e

; at

in

p. 99

think, at

beo at p. 78..

heonne

(hence)

The

falle.

before

sense

ute, followed

to

in he schal

him

stand, seen

p. 139

hundred

an

In

hundredfold;

in

last,withal

cum.

better be

used

stel

old it is

(p. 85).

one

moste

the Adverbs

see

the
; in

Latin
but

muchel

stonde
We

say

cjodspelle.The

remark

is he made

verb

see

of the

]"at an

be

may

we

we

faren is dropped

the

evidently

(p. 101).

Imperative

p. 94 ; at p. 186

at

is

saw

we

al

and

sometimes

73

p.

he is betere

called

is

; this

imitation

found

into

been

Verbs

the

Among

At

an

have

p. 98

South,

come

you

becomes

still keep

we

of the

\il~ke(illi),

the

hit sey\ in \e

now

should

we

and

85

p.

single person

lightupon

this is

which

form

(vos)

etc

Knowles.1

Anglia

East

English

on,

to

and

here

we

96

p.

Impersonal Verb,

an

at

see

of ]"e (te); thou

instead

written

another

be

we

J"o. At

upon

speech

it may

slowly spreading through

was

written

English.

diver.

the

Among

Middle

context

Anglian

East

and

peculiar

Dorset

hit

comes

poem,

wolde

(in great stead).


]?eruppo?iand
for the

\arwy\al (pp. 78,

first time

afteris used,

not

Englishes

as

the

Preposition,

for jpostea.
At

82

p.

we

see

See Matzner's

our

Verb

hwyne

English Grammar,

(whine),
III.

225.

which

English

Middle
follows

There

wanian.
honnds

We
word

which

said that

'

And

chiverin

in ise.

'

hence

dale, who

lived

something

that

Scotland

for

in

ten

the

relic

of

back,

find

of

we

the

their

Good

named

found

from

in

the

had

and

bwg

mean

for

bug

uses

in

he is the
Irish

98

p.

in

most

cryed

already

of the

seems

to

French

to
out

show

that
The

"

The

English

about

of 1240

glad

were

an

to

oppressor
as

he

of Bedell's
1630

of

words

Insomuch
P. 105

for

further

Usher, brands
upon.

lines

English

and

away,

of Pouc'

ou

the

French

written

couple

to

terms

the nickname

This

able

letter

been

gemme.

ymstone,

see

few

rime

one

rival the

we

had

England

dying

to

90,

at p.

seen

in

end

lines

been

is

poem

hope

At

outlandish

printed in 1685.
curious.

It is

bogle is employed

French

words

the sound

English,

\e puke (given

border,

the

never

new

Bishop Bedell,
'

into

bugbears and bogies.1Tyn-

gim-stdn, that

600

own

Cooke

ptvcca

long

could

the

with

own

their

saw

twelve

years

year

Welsh

in

influence

old

hundreds

scarecrow.

or

the

bitauht

Welsh

riming system.

of

be

our

the

was

immortal.

make

frightenschildren

English

this

come

p. 176

at

brought

to

was

The

near

French

where
but

word

shall

Fiend).

hobgoblin ;

The

monks

greedy
the

to

over

bernen

Shakespere

old form

true

to

in fur

ich schal

Celtic

English

(p. 92) applied

comes

For

313
Old

the

the

for tremere

p. 76

than

rustet

racing about

word

in

see

the Verb

or

new

rather

veina

is

rushing

rcesan.

Icelandic

the

Neglect.

our

interchange of

oo

hath

Life,
had

and p is

Old

3H

replace them
for

Middle

and

is in p. 92.

used

well

as

When

have

the
each

paid

Cotton

\e gyle in the Jesus

'

of

source

tolde

is in the

our

that is,
quits,'

are

we

script.
Manu-

Tier ale, at p. 190,

quiten(pay for)

see

we

do

pejple,

new

folk; \e peple me

as

\e biwilen,which

In p. 122

Manuscript, is replacedby
have

The

by purely foreignterms.

instance,was

we

English.

'

we

other.'

EAST

THE

MIDLAND

DIALECT.

(About 1250.)
I

from

Century,and

printed
have

must

Mercia, perhaps
a

is not

find
But

Northern
have

we

Present

Plural

as

o,

the

of the

Verb

present

Genesis
new

way

God's

'

Humber,

it is

now

has

no

by

prefix.

beginning

of

The

Words

also

as

til,fra, als, alwaldand.


shibboleth, the

Midland
in

en

Third

this

used

Prepositionfor is
in

stand

French

the

hevirilk

this,to

been

ilk

Latin

stmt.

like

sentence

an.

The

most

uncouthly.

(genitus)is replacedby begotten.Heli

stands

in
'

for

merci.
of

is used

for

Past

is sometimes

letter

the

North

the
Sal

times
some-

unlike

is most

s, which

is

Singular

Person

to

for the

for the

We

Anglia.

prefixed
have

would

is used

Are

The

East

The

in

abode

in

ending

might always

is translated

shall.

the

Exodus.

it

sake

Omnis
the

and

ends

now

22.

part of

Northern

the

Orrmin's

great

altogetherdropped.
of the

in

from

forms

here

ReliquiaeAntiquee,'I.

'

used

far

not

replaced by

such

the

Belief,

of the Thirteenth

middle

in the

in

been

and

Prayer, Hail Mary,

manuscript written

This

Lord's

give the

now

ciple
Partiset

at

Acennede
for the old

English: Neglect.

Middle

in the

halig,as
French

lele

other

hand,

upon

the

time

find

be

was

likely a

town

imagine

the

as

may

aside

Roman

flock

for

and

of Lincolniensis

THE

studies

with

the

wrangles

that

the

made

EAST

MIDLAND

a.d.

milde

name

DIALECT.

1250.)

stevene

raise

fader

his

ing
hear-

he

throughout Christendom.

with

following

lines, while

known

[I bjidde liuve
ure

same

light

ham
Notting-

the

for

any

the

for the first

hiaedom.

from

the

from

On

great Bishop Robert

time

(About

prayer

as

The

We

]"am.

kingdom

repeat these

short

Court,

til

and

earlier written

We

not
(illos),

latter

his Mercian
turns

ham

p. 138.

at

is Northern.

mankind

would
rimes.

which

(fidus)appears,
we

given

full forms

the

Creed

Athanasian

315

voice

]"eking

of

lievene,

to

in

for

of Cristis

fe

mununge
remembrance
of

J)elaverd

hus,
Jris

pine,
and

al

lele

hine,

faithful hinds
for alle cristinfolk that

that God

schilde ham

for alle tho

that

men

is in
to

are

dai

gode lif,
fro sinne

in sinne

and

fro siche ;

bunden,

those

that Jhesu

Crist ham

leyse,for

is hali wndes

loose

for
and

quike
J)atws

and

for deade

here

God

and

wounds

al mankinde

don

in hevene

may

place in heaven

mot

]mr it finde

for alle

and

fostr

fedin and

herpe us

pat on

English.

Middle

and

Old

316

earth

saie

alle

nu

we

pat

halged be
samin

pater

noster.

in

hevene,
with
giftis
sevene,
pi name
pi kingdom,

fadir

Ure

hali

pe

cume

hart

likewise

bred

ure

herpe als

in

pi wille

done,

lastes ai

pat

pishilke dai,

it hus

gyve

be

in hevene

same

and
als

ure
we

pu forgyve hus,
forgyve pain pat misdon hus,
misdedis

leod

and

intol

us

na

fandinge,
temptation

bot frels

Marie, ful

Heil

blisced

pu

us

every
alle wimmein,

wre

pat

bar

Mng,

pe hevene

wyper-wines at

bending ;

ure

ending

enemies

defend
blisced be

Amen.

pi wambe.

of

pe blosme

moder

and

fro

of grace,

mang

be

blisced

Maidin
wer

be

Amen.

pinge.

pe in hevirilk place,

with

pe lavird

and

fra alle ivele

us

Godis

pe pappis pat

sauk,

sone

sucked

pat bargh

ure

protected
Moder

of milte

kinde

bysuak.

nedre

pat pe

serpent tricked.

race

and

Mari,

maidin

mercy

help us

at

ure

hending, for pi merci.

-patsuete Jhesu pat born


pu give us in his godhed
Jhesu

for

pu leise

us

pi moder
of

pe

was

of

pe,

him

to

se.

love and

sinnes

pat we

for

pin hali wndis,

are

inne bunde.

Middle

Hi

heven

laverd, pat

to

Marie, pinid under

mainden

the

rode, ded

the

dai up

fra

ras

and

dede

hali

pe quike

hely kirke, pe samninge


uprisigenof fleyes,and

CONTKAST

THE

til

Hy

of

of

helle,pe pride

live, stegh intil hevenne, sitis

to

pe dede.

an

born

Pilate,festened

in

is fadir richt hand, fadir alwaldand,


deme

gast, and

Punce

licht

dulvun,

makede

Krist, is anelepi sone,

bigotin of pe

was

317

hal-michttende, pat

in Jhesu

herdepe, and

and

hure

fader

God,

in

true

English: Neglect.

he

pen

sal

on

to

cume

hy peli gast, and

troue

halghes,forgifnesof sinnes,

life with-hutin

TO

THE

Amen.'

hend.

EAST

MIDLAND.

(a.d.1250.)
Psalm

Laverd,

oure

Laverd,

Name

pine in

alle land

For

upe-hoven

Over

hevens

ere

of childer

Made

pou

lof in ilka

For

pi faes

For
And

I sal

werkes

"We

such words

pis.

brade
and

soukand

land,

him

unto.

pine hevenes hegh,


of pine fingresslegh; 2

still say

hell

asfanding, stegh,and

samninge
have

our

Sly (sapiens)has here a most


degraded. " Nasty sly girl! says
speaking of her son's enchantress.

It

day.

fire, Lady

speech, since they must


Englishmen that knew the simplest truths
of

out

is

pat pou for-do

wreker
se

selkouth

find*the old genitivestill uncorrupted, as

We

hand.

pat

hou

pi mykelhede

es

Of mouth

^e fai,pe

VIII.

'

one

should

of

of

ever

king,fadir
strange that

most

in the

been

exalted

is

hevene

have

dropped

mouths

of all

religion.

sense

Mr.

it has

been

sadly
Trollope'smatrons
;

318

Old

Middle

and

and sternes
mone
"j)e
*J?at
pou grounded to
is man,

What

for

son

With

blisse and

under-laide
"jJou

of Mm

]"ou sekes him

and

of

])ou crouned

]"ihend

The

beestes

pine in

above

Psalter

for to

of

welde,

spoken

that
of

held

its

Scotland, the

Parliament
been
die

out

It will

to Yorkshire
to

London

until

some

1520.

earliest

and

our

Law-courts

time, and

which

classic

of its forms
How

speech

in Acts

was

driving

the

was

Makers

that

and

it

embodied

was

Anne's

Dialect,

alike

Aberdeen,
Palaces

which

found

be

is the

Edinburgh
it. This

piled
com-

only in

Northern

the

its

us

to

of

world-renowned

by

down

from

been

This

the

Queen

to

have

later.

before

in

own

Northumbrian

which,

must

and

Ayr

to

speech

down

handled

much
way

its way

of the

come

and

Durham,

Celtic dialects

old

long

sixtyyears

York,

making
the

words

long specimen

at

is

translation

1250, though it has

well-marked

out

specimen

of obsolete

transcriptmade

now

is

se,

pis.

(Surtees Society),a

about

yet,

set.

pe felde,

alle land

Psalm

large proportion

him

pinges
pat ought forth-bringes,

schepe bathe

and

him

Fogheles of heven and fissches of


pat forth-gonestihes of pe se.
Laverd, our Laverd, hou selkouth
Name

all

his fete

In-over

mines

mensk

werkes

over

Xeete

swa.

wight
pine aungeles bright;

fra

Under

be

ma,

litel

Lease

And

inani

pat pou

of man,
-pouliteled him

Or

English.

may

it

has
never

English

did not
different

of

owes

make

their

would

our

older

for the

fa

ogaines stands
in

in

end

The

old

think,Vol. I. p. 3. The

becomes

and

hive

the

I. p. 221

Vol.

Vol.

the North,

soru

the

later

was

be

to

Consonants

were

North.

The

k is thrown

out

which

become

and

tane

poetry.
p. 33.
arcus

The

The

tas

old

g sometimes

both

is written

Scotch

yhate,the
the

South, and

between

this

was

word

and

yett ;
the

in
the
and

arwe
aru

and

o.

down

to

Danish

lives

to newe,

the

bowe

here

perhaps glad
and

from
doer

like

latter

the

becomes

bough

bonden,.

in the
roughly handled
altogether in takes, taken,

is cut

cneowun

the

lives in

written

replaced by

old

The

see

once

becomes

sounded

are

pa.

was

his

earlier form
words

and

be formed

to

seen

forgmt

; we

fully
care-

is

swa

what

(ostium)

lose their last letter,and

sorwe

for

and

soon

The

Durward.

name

proper

doubled,

ce, for

becomes

now

the

seid ;

confusion

no

upon

were

II. p. 153

said

the former

(amare)

love

old duru

Participle. The

this

between

words

; new

be

may

found

]"o are

new

The

]"encan (putare) is

encroaches

(vinctos suos)

his

gebundne

and

swo

confusion

is much

There
old

forgot ;

only

is often

in the North

(videtur); but
pinkeft

with

the

(jumenta),

meres

the

clipped

Southern

the

in

there

that

South,

in the

kept

aright ;

is

left.

have

we

is

Southerner

gainsay

stands

The

beest.

feet,neet,

where

beaten

still pronounce

we

first letter

the

This

in the

in Scotland

remains

gain that

with

slaine.

is also

which

sound

ayensawe.

has

Psalter

there

as

put

compounded

of the

this

and

English.

is written
gaine-sagli

have

Verb

Middle

for contra, but

compounds

would

as

and

Old

320

in

Vol.

English word
;

make

I.
for

comes
geat (porta) beNorth

the

our

followed
distinction

gait (iter). Heg

English: Neglect.

Middle

in morgen,

which

becomes

the

Scandinavians

We

also

find

old

The

words

the

Lowlands.
sometimes

by
The

wickedness
Vowels

word,

also have
has

hoast.

The

South

of the

often
have

the

The

(cough).

slides

The

p. 241.

What

lightned,with
1

Morgen

On

old

into

used
a

be

to

strange

of old meant

old

in

both

eras

and

as

We
old

into the

hand,

we

now

The

Verb

haast

hwostan

]" inserted

I. p. 173.

old

;
seen

or

u,

]"

sestrede,Vol. I.
now

\urh (per) has

mane

afteastrade

was

er

The

(inluxerunt) is

is

expressed by the change of consonants


meaning is expressed by the Southern
w
The old word becomes
two-pronged.

has

850

inlihton
The

the

hence

\",for hea\o becomes

seen

n.

an

to

hosti.

was

old

lengan

now

reft,where

call it hoss.
the

and

t is added

the other

what

is

poeticalo'er.

haast

Vol.
lengh]"ed,
s

The

leftand
The

horse,and

(obscurati sunt), is

smd

in

form

from

Scotch

the

wrecchedness

later put

replaces the

height.
heght, our
elongaviis translated
sometimes

in

formed

been

in

as

Scandinavian

called it hoarse.

drop

the

becomes

years

after

long

noht.

hence

t, as

(raucus)

in

of

principesis Englished

mauled.

been

hundred

Adjectiveand
may

replacedby

when

as

Scotch

it is

for

inserted,

sometimes
;

written

43)

middle

dales

heard

p.

the

in

still be

out, for super

thrown

is

too

not

see

princes (Vol. II.

our

the

may

slaine.

heghest,sight,

see

we

The

We

morginn.

as

byegan (emere), slaer,and

for

1800, and

year

out

well

as

guttural sound
lingeredin the Yorkshire

neghbur, sagli.
these

mornan

replaced by gh

is

altogether
morning (Vol. I. p. 157) ; l

our

wrote

bie

g is thrown

The

liai.

(Joenum) becomes

321

the

latter

here;

its

meaning

the

replacingthe

former
old g.

Old

322
letters

and

transposed

'

ale and
A

be

number

the
fast

was

the

is

Englished by
such

]"e

and

process

Plurals

new

day, when

ivories

of grenes

Bona

is

far

this

from

the

1250

for the

to

the

struck
;

captio

there

is

number

the

not

that

are

105;

old

of
gong,

undergo
Vol.

ending,

Yorkshire

he

our

turns

of

to

this

that

we

even

ness

adds

longa

stantive,
Sub-

(Vol. I. p. Ill), is translated


for certain

name

Such

phrases

vegetables.
as

of

name

of sorw, folk of Israel,become


speech

noun

first time,

bard

Adjectiveinto

an

once

pigheadednessand

as

this

becomes

now

is

I.

II. p. 91.

iniquitateshad

Substantive, it

bred

Our

noun

words

The

goods.

turn

Latin.

verbal

are

at
fablinges,

75.

new

hence

of mercy,
;

I. p.

stranger

Romance

lierbarnm

goddes, our

might, man

tendency.

yerl,

seemed

Nouns

ivelnes,halowingnes;

as

for the

for olera

The

yilland

We

unrehtwisnisse, this

Sometimes

windedness.

Verbal

formed;

I. p.

coin

we

mostly employ

but

are

words,

old

to

common

of

time.

takeing,Vol.

others.

many

wickednesses, Vol.
ness

Scandinavian

pair leviuges(quae superfuerunt),Vol.

Englished by

been

this

at

fabulationesbecomes

Other

times
some-

Substantives

gainges (gressus),

as

I. p. 115
;

y is

North,

old

newly-coined

fleing;
fulfilling,

p. 41

the

talk

the

of

losing

of

number

by

Plurals,

in

largely spread

process,

England

Vol.

Scotch

the

The

earl.'

replacing

also

thrugli.

yertlie(terra),

p. 3 ; hence

jarfia,is in

English.

becomes

and

for

prefixed;

Middle

comes

we

owe

to

translaters

understanding,appearing in
straight from intellectus,

govemessing

is

curious

instance

of

this

Middle

as

here

we

phrase

see

the last two

though
knew

me

nan

English

had

always

we

dele is used

stand

words

Neglect.

the verb.

in Vol.

aught, and

for

323
The

II. p. 155

hence

'

conies

Substantives
good deal,' a bit,'"c. There are the new
like the
foundling and handmayden ; the last is formed
old wood-honey ; English delightsin compounding two
Nouns.
The Scandinavian
word
kittingis first seen.1 The
*

old

had

wolcen
of

second

laid

that

vapours

upon

clote.2

Dutch

'

\e skewe,

In Vol.

in

into

aeris.'

Shy

this

or

it

the

means

the

masses,

read

in

has

therefore

shiftingof

the word,

kloude

clods

we

nubes

from

taken

word,

up

meaning

is most

here

I. p. 43,

nubibus

got its modern


words

drawn

are

and

Jirmamentum

meanings is
a
wholly new

these

and

both

meant

]"e kloudes

the

of

at last

of

senses

curious.

In

Adjectives,we see the ending ful growing apace ;


it is found
but in
not only in gladful,wonderful,blitheful,
and mercy ful. We
the foreignfruiteful
adolescentior
see
Orrmin
had
Englished by yonge-likein Vol. II. p. 101
~

Superlative innresst

the

used

forms

other

whiles

Fresh

This

guest in

word

takes

I have

Englished by a
bence, perhaps, our

meaning

new

says, in his great

he will

no, not

105)
the

so

taken

mxich

throw

never
as

this from

this

Adjective is used
177; \air ivorthi

is stillalive in the North.

Yorkshire,

election,that
'

p.

first find

now

is

Molestus

(Vol. I.

cough.'

II. p.

in Vol.

eorum.

hackande

An

utarst.

Substantive

we

utterest
est, netherest,

over

Scandinavian

the

recens

Burke, who

speechbefore

kitling.'
Wedgwood,
y

of

people
and

any

much

the

last is the
without

translates

word,

new

'hacking
in Vol.

was

I.

often

losingthe Bristol
creature

besides.

to

ment,
tor-

Old

324
273.

p.

the

What

North

and

'

does

in Vol.

longer by

no

As

Dative,

the

inciderunt

after

is there

as

in

thae

\d

use

with

the

\d.1

Vol.

translated
instances

]"ese,as

old

1530.

its

The
lower

about

wholly

'

Southern

in

old Dative

of
'

orders

as,

in the

be

Essex

ninety

given.

Homilies,

years

to

later, has

translate

England
them

at

be

to

lads.'

used

for

qui teoderunt,' is
and

writer
translate

the

Neuter

those,a confusion

eorum

The

that

seen

this, ]"dm,is still

look

1250, ]"as,our

Superbia

form

(Scott talks

in Scotland

ground

this

new

old

]"",to

its Plural

pride of pas \at \e hates;


could

have

\at, the

of ]"es(hie), began

Plural

I. p. 243

Hampole,

for \"a.

writers, used

our

the

qui sepeliret

biri. But

We

in this Psalter.

it held

Yorkshire,

his

effort made

an

erat

non

the old there.

ille ; and

our

among

in

But

to

see

as

ipsi

181, where

\"atwalde

nane

is still to be found

loons):

]"o down

it

was

out

translate

This

Mi.

into

is found

article,to

I. p. 265

In

while

109;

I. p.

haf

used

205).

p.

I. p.

We

becomes

wrongly

ylie (Vol. I.

ipso,Vol.

in Vol.

first of all

Orrmin,

find ye

Nominative.

drive

of Pronouns

min

Vol.
felle\am self,

idiom

never

mildsa

We

al

semel

as

turned

it could

telle

becomes

new

old

I. p. 71.

in

is used

Dative

the

sail

self translates

handsome

that

synfulla.

Vol.
I

before

dropped
is

for

23, peccator is Englished by sinful,

I. p.

se

of me,

form

latter

was

'handsome

our

Pronouns

to

mercy

of

in

Adjective, as

an

Article

Definite

The

lubricus.

sliper in

was

the

followed

have

we

South

the

in

slider

was

English.

Middle

and

same

many

has
the

such

elsewhere
Latin

hi.

corruption,\"as

English: Neglect.

Middle
this Psalter

In

in the

embodied
often
Old

with

are

which

phrase

these

our

find in

do not

; we

talk

day

every-

Relative.

our

nakin,

We

is

the

Verbs

In

Orrmin'
has

been

Verbs

the usage

which

On

Addison,

these

Relatives

He

is wrong
\"e; the others

Yorkshire

had

That
are

far

amant

1250.

is the

Thirteenth

Old

If

we

by they that

since

1440.

wish

of

love

oportet,as
The

been

Strong
Perfects,

going

holpen,which
hand,
'

'

Who

in

there

and

'

in

on

lingers
is

some-

Which,'

makes

Sprat That, their supplanter.

English Relative, representing

than
to

(Vol. II.

Weak

take

It

Century upstarts.

influence

more

translate

true

Jack

true

borough
of Peter-

employed

to

other

the

the

ivhatkins,

ilk

ever

always

Petition

complain of

capital in 1520.
'

Humble

in his

forms

mon

wepe

has

helped replaces the

Prayer-book.

our

than

and

unluckily

that

old

four-skore.

not

North

delve,cleave,swepe,

England

qui

futurity;
of the

the

of mani-ane.
Danish

the

in

capitamulta

who

he which

make

; the

like

tion
Reforma-

the

or

new

North

is found

see

of

sense

process

the

we

the

hevedes

Numerals

he ivho

everilkane

Englished by

Among

the

luhilke

es

Nominative
until

always

see

of

becomes

now

53)

now

mark

sure

South

Bible

almost

we

nane

long

something

Relative

the

our

; as

forms

had

in the

used

took

God, ]"at
(qui statis),/es",

standes

phrases ;

commonly

South

the

to

whilk

Yorkshire
not

was

their way

yhe

forms, which

\ou ivroght. Orrmin

whilke

'

speak ;

rightfulthey that speak, the

the

Relative

new

find

to

saufe mas;

in

who

corruptions

English ]"d\"e.Y

time

of the

beginning

those

phrase

replaces

us

There

p.

the

see

we

325

be

Kent

upon

correct,

those who

love

we
can

is curious
the

that

language

should
date

of

translate
no

higher

Old

326
times
one

and

]"u geherdes. We

like

had

is

usage
p.

131,

noght

hear

we

absolute.

be

anything

In

the

the

stands

for

change

from

in

translated

was

confusion
forms
time
a

of

Verb,

translated

Johnson's
is

given

now
(effusus)

in
be

our

to

often

language is,how

supplanted by

1500.

The

former

the

ever

does
the

of
es

custodiri
constant

other

be

English

turned

into

dominatur

qui

happens

(subdere),
I. p. 267

old

was

spilte.One

could

Celtic pour

word

the

survives

the Old
;

is

in the

blod

Dr.

ing
mean-

is

of the

agoten

puzzles

English geotan

this took
in the

to

like

new

is

to

(pra3valui)
; and

In Vol.

seen

faciendi becomes

like

under

to

is

custodiri

The

could

betred

blode

becomes

what

spill;

Orrmin's

yhemed

haldan.

Substantive

find

Egypt

gesprecenum

earlier

II. p. 99 ; tempus

him.

I downed

be

to

Participle and

we

II.

Participle

tua

the

Comparative Adjective,I
Preposition,for

bodes
years

pat laverdes

by

of

Infinitive

Passive
mandata

pine

Shakespere

as

this

Vol.

absolute.

Active

mdkande.

made

at

heom

the

in Vol.

seen

the

hundred

by

pou

speaking;

Passive

1000,

to

between

is

of

the

Active

four

made

version

else than

English

bade

right

sentence, standing by itself,

Participle

Englished by pou

the

Participle

the firstborn

75 ; mandasti

II. p.

Vol.

him

Active

the

Active

Passive;

smote

This

left pare.

ane

The

the

to

God

that

has

161, ten-strengedsautre

p.

absolutely,as

extended

now

hardly

can

used

been

always

Strong

Participleis employed

cordarnm).

decern

(psalterinm

version

The
II.

Vol.

Adjective at

an

into

Participialidiom

the

I. p. 247.

in Vol.

herd

Perfect

older

the

see

English.

Weak

]"ou herd, where

; as

dome

turn

to

attempt

an

Middle

place about

Lincoln

goijts,

Old

328
various

sumlice
of the

of

compounds

translate

Middle

and

v:il

voluntarie.

Psalter
A

it

it

thurgh hap (Vol.

of

mongrel perhaps.

As

of my

p. 233

189)

mani,

in

would
We

Latin

ad

have

translated, not
p.

forsitan;

it is the forerunner

intil at

seen

79) ;

also usque

in, (Vol.

315.

page

Tyndale

Unto
is

is translated

und

by

halba

tlw

unto
at

for