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EPISODE1:EYETESTING

Hello.ImMargotPolitis.WelcometoStudyEnglish,IELTSpreparation,wherewe
lookattheskillsyoullneedtowrite,read,speakandlistentoformal,academic
English.
Intodaysepisode,weretalkingaboutpronouns.Wellalsohaveaquicklookat
homonymsandthentakesometimetopractiseusingsuffixes.
Butfirst,weregoingtowatchaclipaboutpeoplewhosufferfromeyeproblems.The
peopleinthiscommunitylivefarfromthecity,soitshardforthemtogetmedical
treatment.
Theyhavenoaccesstospecialistsatall,andthey
cannottravelbecausetheyarepoor,andmostof
themhavecataractandtheyareblindbecauseof
cataract,whichispreventable.
Theresourcesarentherereallytotakecareofthem.
Itwouldmeanamajorupheavaliftheygottothe
stagewheretheycouldntbetakencareofhere.
Theywouldhavetoleavetheirhome,theirfriends,
theirfamilyandgosomewherewheretheycouldbe
caredfor,whichismilesawayinremotecommunities.
TheprofessoristalkingabouttheaccessofresidentsintheMooracommunitytoeye
specialists.
Hetalksabouttheresidentsbyusingthepronounthey.
Pronounsarewordsthatcantaketheplaceofnouns.TheyrewordslikeI,you,
they,whoorwhat.
Wecanusepronounsinanumberofdifferentways,andtheytakeseveraldifferent
forms.
Theycanactassubjects,objectsorpossessives.
Ifwelookatthey,thesubjectformisthey,
theobject formisthem,thepossessiveformis
their.
Listentotheprofessortalkabouttheresidents.
Theyhavenoaccesstospecialistsatall,and
theycannottravelbecausetheyarepoor,and
mostofthemhavecataractandtheyareblindbecauseofcataract,whichis
preventable.
Here,theyisusedasthesubjectofthesentence.

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Didyounoticethatthesubjectandverbagreeinnumber?Theyrebothplural.
Theprofessoralwayssaystheyhave,ortheyare.
Letslistentothecliponcemore.
Mostofthemhavecataractandtheyareblind.
Theresourcesarentherereallytotakecareofthem.
Boththespeakersusethepronounthemaftertheprepositionofmostofthem,
takecareofthem.
Letsseehowwecanusethemwithotherprepositions.
Wecansay:
ofthem,
tothem,
bythem,
forthem,
inthem,
onthem,
withthem,
or,atthem.
Nowlistenforthepossessiveformoftheytheir.
Theywouldhavetoleavetheirhome,theirfriends,theirfamilyandgosomewhere
wheretheycouldbecaredfor,whichismilesawayinremotecommunities.
Here,theirfunctionsasapossessiveadjective.
Itdescribesownership.
Theirisusedtotalkaboutthingsthatbelongto
theeyepatients.
Thepatientshomestheirhomes.
Thepatientsfriendstheirfriends.
Thepatientsfamiliestheirfamilies.

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Sotherearethreeformspronounstake:
thesubject form,likethey,
theobject form,them,
andthepossessiveform,their.
Thewordtheirisahomonym.
Homonymscanbewordsthatsoundthesamebuthavedifferentmeanings,like
theirandthere,//.
Julieistalkingabout//home,//friends,
//family.
Isthattheirorthere?
Weknowfromthecontextthatsheistalking
aboutownershipwhothefriends,homeand
familybelongto.
Soweknowwhichspellingof//sheisusingtheirhome,theirfriends,their
family.
Anotherexampleofasetofhomonymsishereandhear.Theyreboth
pronouncedthesame/h/.
Listenfor/h/.
Theresourcesarentreallyheretotakecareofthem.
Shesaystheresourcesarentreally/h/.'
ThecontexttellsusthatwhenJuliesays/h/,shemeansintheirimmediate
location.Sheisusinghere.
Theresourcesarentreallyhere.
Therearetwodifferenttypesofhomonyms.
Theoneswevelookedatsofararecalled
homophones,becausetheysoundthesame
eventhoughtheyrespeltdifferently.

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Someotherexamplesofhomophonesare:
sightandsite,
/sat/
saleandsail,
/sel/
fairandfare,
/f/
andthroughandthrew
/ru/.
Sohomophonesarewordsthatarespeltdifferently,butsoundthesame.
Theothertypeofhomonymisahomograph.
Homographsarewordsthatarespeltthesamebut,indifferentcontexts,theword
willbepronounceddifferently.
Somecommonexamplesare:
readandread,
rid/

/rd/

windandwind,
/wand/ /wnd/
liveandlive.
/lav//lv/
Letstryanexerciseabouthomographs.
Howwouldyoupronouncethewordinbold?
Shereadtheinstructionscarefully.
She/rd/theinstructionscarefully.
Wevealreadyseenhowsomewordsarepronounceddifferentlydependingontheir
contextandfunction.
Andwhenwelookedatthey,themandtheir,wesawhowtheformofsomewords
willchangedependingonthecontextandfunction.

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Anotherwaythatwordscanchangeisbyaddingsuffixes.
Suffixescanbeusedtocreateanewwordwithanewfunctionandmeaning.
First,listenforthesuffixable.
Theyhavenoaccesstospecialistsatall,they
cannottravelbecausetheyarepoor,andmost
ofthemhavecataractandtheyareblind
becausetheyhavecataract,whichis
preventable.
Cataractsarepreventable.
Byaddingthesuffixabletotheverbpreventweformtheadjectivepreventable
meaningabletobeprevented.
Wecanaddthesuffixabletoanumberofotherwordstoformsimilaradjectives.
Forexample:
readbecomesreadable,
countbecomescountable,.
andrecognisebecomesrecognisable.
TherearemanyothercommonsuffixesinEnglish.
Learningsuffixesisaquickwaytoexpandyourvocabulary.
Letstakealookattwoothercommonsuffixes:istandism.
Wecanuseistwhenwetalkaboutthepeoplewhodocertainjobs.
Soyoucouldbe:
ajournalist,
achemist,
ageologist,
orapsychologist.

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Weusethesuffixismtotalkaboutbeliefs,ideologiesormovements.
Forexample:
Buddhism,
modernism,
realism,
orMarxism.
Andthepeoplewhobelievetheseideascansometimesbedescribedbyaddingthe
istsuffix.
Soweget:
Buddhist,
modernist,
realist,
orMarxist.
Soletstakealookbackoverwhatwevelearnedtoday.Wevelookedathowwords
changeaccordingtotheirfunctionandcontext.
First,wevelookedatpronounsand
thedifferent
formstheytakesubject,object,and
possessive.
Thenwetalkedabouthomonymsand
thetwodifferentsortshomophones
andhomographs.
Andwefinishedtodaywithafew
differentsuffixesableismand
ist.
Ifyoudliketospendsomemoretimeonanyofthesetopics,havealookatthe
StudyEnglishwebsite.
Itsatabcasiapacific.com/studyenglish.
Thatsallfortoday.IllseeyounexttimeformoreStudyEnglishIELTSpreparation.
Byebye.

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