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FrequentlyAskedQuestionsAboutNondestructiveTesting
Answerstoquestionswehearfromlotsoffolks!

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LevelIIIServices

LEARN...
GetSuperiorTraining!
Properlytrainedtechnicians
pavethewayforyour
company'ssuccess.Never
wastetimeorenergyworrying
ifyourtechnicianscandothe
rightjob...thefirsttime!
Accurate,timelyresultsmake
forcontentedclients...clients
thatcallyoubackwithmore
businessratherthan
complaints.

LEVERAGE...

MostEveryoneBenefitsfromtheApplicationof
NDT
YetHardlyAnyoneKnowsWhatItIs!
Nondestructivetestingisoneofthebestkeptsecretsaround.
Seemsalmostnooneknowswhatitis,yetalmosteveryoneis
impactedonewayoranotherbyNDT.
Allsortsofindustriesusethistypeofinspectiontohelpinsure
thatprocessesrunsmoothlyandsafelyandproductsare
manufacturedwithahighdegreeofintegrity.Someofthe
industriesthatprofitfromNDTaretheOilandGasIndustry,
PowerGeneration,AviationandAeronautics,theAutoIndustry
includingRacing,MaratimeConstruction,allbranchesofthe
MilitaryandConstructionofalltypes.
Belowarequestionswegetfromallsortsoffolks...eventhose
thathavebeenintheindustryforquitesometime.Takealook
atthelistandjustclickonittogototheasnwer.Ifotherthings
puzzleyouaboutNDTthatwehaven'taddressed,pleasegiveus
acallat7138494006.
1. WhatDoesNDT,NDEandNDIstandforandis
thereadifference?
2. WhatisNondestructiveTesting?
3. WhatisaLevelI,LevelIIorLevelIII
Technician?
4. What'sthedifferencebetween"Qualification"
and"Certification"inNondestructiveTesting?

GettheAdvantageof
Knowledge!Themoreyour
techniciansknow,thebetter
qualifiedthey(andyour
company)willbetomeeta
widerrangeofproject
requirements.Builda
reputationof"cando."

LEAD...
GetAheadwithExcellent
Service!StateoftheArt
trainingwillenableyouto
exceedyourclient's
expectations.Gaingreater
marketsharebydeploying
confident,competent
technicianswhoknowhowto
applythelatestandbest
practiceswithintheindustry.

WhatDoesNDT,NDEandNDIstandfor
andisthereadifference?
NDTstandsforNonDestructiveTestingandthereisnoreal
differencebetweenNDT,NDE(nondestructiveevaluation)orNDI
(nondestructiveinspection),thelattertwobeingachoiceof
preferenceamongmembersofdifferentindustries.Allreferto
thesamecategoryofqualitycontroltestproceduresthat
examinestheintegrity(orlack,thereof)ofmaterials,components
orsystemswithoutcausingdamagetothem.
AtNDTTrainingCenter,wepreferNDTovertheothersin
deferencetotheworldslargesttechnicalsocietyof
nondestructivetestingprofessionals,theAmericanSocietyof
NondestructiveTestingorASNT(notASNEorASNI)[backto
thequestions...]

WhatIsNondestructiveTesting?
Nondestructivetestingis,simplystated,exactlywhatitsname
impliestestingwithoutdestroyingtoinvestigatethematerial
integrityofthetestobject.Morespecifically,anondestructive
testisanexaminationofanobject,materialorsysteminany
manner,whichwillnotimpairitsfutureusefulness.
Thepurposeofthetestmaybetodetectinternalorexternal
flaws,tomeasuregeometriccharacteristics,todetermine
materialstructureorcompositionortomeasureordetectsome
ofthematerial'sproperties.Anumberofothertechnologiesfor
instance,radioastronomy,voltageandamperagemeasurement
andrheometry(flowmeasurement)arenondestructivebutare
notusedtoevaluatematerialpropertiesspecifically.
Nondestructivetestingisconcernedinapracticalwaywiththe
performanceofthetestpiecehowlongmaythepiecebeused
andwhendoesitneedtobecheckedagain?
Sincethe1920s,nondestructivetestinghasdevelopedfroma
laboratorycuriositytoanindispensabletoolofproduction.No
longerisvisualexaminationtheprincipalmeansofdetermining
quality.Nondestructivetestsingreatvarietyareinworldwideuse
todetectvariationsinstructure,minutechangesinsurfacefinish,
thepresenceofcracksorotherphysicaldiscontinuities,to
measurethethicknessofmaterialsandcoatingsandto
determineothercharacteristicsofindustrialproducts.
Manufacturersusemodernnondestructiveteststo:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Ensureproductintegrity,andinturn,reliability
Avoidfailures,preventaccidentsandsavehumanlife
Makeaprofitfortheuser
Ensurecustomersatisfactionandmaintainthe
manufacturer'sreputation
Aidinbetterproductdesign
Controlmanufacturingprocesses
Lowermanufacturingcosts
Maintainuniformqualitylevel
Ascertainoperationalreadiness

EnsuringtheIntegrityandReliabilityofaProductEnsuring
productreliabilityisnecessarybecauseofthegeneralincreasein

performanceexpectancyofthepublic.Ahomeownerexpectsthe
refrigeratortoremaininuninterruptedservice,indefinitely
protectingthefoodinvestment,orthepowerlawnmowertostart
withonepulloftheropeandtokeepcuttinggrassforyearson
end.Themanufacturerexpectsthelathe,punchpressorforklift
tostandupforyearsofcontinuousworkevenundersevere
loads.
PreventingAccidentsandSavingLivesButreliabilitymerely
forconvenienceandprofitisnotenough.Reliabilitytoprotect
humanlivesisavaluableendinitself.Therailroadaxlemustnot
failathighspeed.Thefrontspindleoftheintercitybusmustnot
breakonthecurve.Theaircraftlandinggearmustnotcollapse
ontouchdown.Theminehoistcablemustnotsnapwithpeople
inthecab.Suchcriticalfailuresarerareindeed.Andthisismost
certainlynottheresultofmeregoodluck.Inlargepartitisthe
directresultoftheextensiveuseofnondestructivetestingandof
thehighorderofnondestructivetestingabilitynowavailable.
[backtothequestions...]

WhatIsTheDifferenceBetweenaLevelI,
IIandIII?
ASNTNDTLevelIII
ASNTinaugurateditsNDTLevelIIIprogramin1976with
certificationofferingsinfiveNDTmethods.Overtheyears,
ASNThascertifiedover5,000individualsfrommorethan50
countriesasASNTNDTLevelIIIsandhasexpandedthe
certificationprogramtoincludeelevenNDTmethods.ASNTis
thesinglelargestcertifyingbodyofLevelIIIpersonneltodayand
theASNTNDTLevelIIIcertificateremainsthemostrespected
andwidelyacceptedNDTcertificationthroughouttheworld.
LevelIIIpersonnelareultimatelyresponsibleforthetraining,
qualificationandcertificationofacompanies'nondestructive
testingLevelIandLevelIItechnicians.
ACCPProfessionalLevelIII
ASNTexpandedthirdpartyLevelIIIcertificationtocover
PracticalandProcedurePreparation(PP)examinationsinfive
NDTmethods(MT,PT,RT,UT,andVT)whenitintroducedthe
ASNTCentralCertificationProgramTin1996.ACCP
ProfessionalLevelIIIcertificationmeetstherequirementsofISO
9712LevelIIIcertification.
ThepurposeofACCPistoimproveNDTreliabilityand
accuracyamongpracticingNDTpersonnelandtoprovide
customersandprospectiveemployerswithclearexpectationsof
NDTpersonnelcompetencyandproficiency.Inordertoestablish
aminimumstandardofcompetencyforNDTLevelIIandNDT
LevelIIIpersonnel,andtoprovideameansofassuringan
unbiasedassessmentofwhichindividualspossesssuch
competence,ASNTusedacombinationoftraditionalpractices,
nationalandinternationalconventions,andnewlyevolved
concepts.
ACCPLevelIICertification
ASNTwidenedthescopeofitscertificationofferingstoinclude
LevelIIcertificationin1996withASNTCentralCertification
ProgramTLevelIIcertification.TheACCPLevelII
examinationsincludeGeneral,Specific,Practical,andInstruction

PreparationexaminationsinfiveNDTmethods(MT,PT,RT,UT
andVT).ACCPLevelIIcertificationmeetstherequirementsof
ISO9712LevelIIcertification.
TheNDTTrainee,LevelI,andLevelII
Whenapersonstartsthetrainingandqualificationprocess,they
areclassifiedasatrainee.Theirgoalisusuallytobecomeafully
certifiedLevelI,LevelIIorLevelIIItechnician.Itisimportant
thatthetechnicianbequalifiedintheinspectionmethodbefore
thetechniqueisusedandtestresultsevaluated.
UsingSNTTC1Aasamodel,theexperienceddirectionofa
LevelIIIprovidestheemployerwiththenecessaryguidelinesand
documentationtoproperlyqualifyandcertifytheNDTtechnician.
Tocomplywithmostindustrystandards,theemployermust
establisha"WrittenPractice"thatdescribesindetailhowfuture
technicianswillbetrained,examinedandcertified.
TypicallyaLevelItechnicianisabletocarryoutcalibrations
andperformtestproceduresunderthesupervisionofacertified
LevelIIorLevelIII.
ALevelIITechniciancancalibrate,performtestswithout
supervisionandmaketestassessmentswhenrequired.[backto
thequestions...]

Whatdistinguishes"Qualification"and
"Certification"inNondestructiveTesting?
MakingSenseOutofCertificationforNDTPersonnel
perSNTTC1A
TheconfusionwithintheindustriesthatuseNDTservicesexists
overthetermscertificationandqualification.Thesewords
havebeenusedandabusedoverthedecadessincethe1960's
whentheAmericanSocietyofNondestructiveTesting(ASNT)
publisheditsfirstRecommendedPractice,SNTTC1A,
CertificationandQualificationofNDTPersonnel.Using
SNTTC1Aasamodelundertheexperienceddirectionofa
LevelIIIprovidestheemployerwiththenecessaryguidelinesand
documentationtoproperlyqualifyandcertifytheNDTtechnician.
Tocomplywithmostindustrystandards,theemployermust
establisha"WrittenPractice"thatdescribesindetailhowfuture
technicianswillbetrained,examinedandcertified.

TheQualificationandCertificationProcessCLICKHERE
TOWATCHASHORTVIDEO

SNTTC1Aisquitespecificandclearastowhatproper
qualificationandcertificationofNDTPersonnelinvolves.Here
aretwostraightforwarddefinitionstoclarifytheterms:
Qualificationiscomprisedofthreethings:the
organizededucation,therequired
examinationsprovinganindividualhasproper
training,andsufficientworkexperienceina
particularinspectionmethod.
Certificationisawrittentestimonybyan
employeraffirmingthatanindividualhasmet

therequirementsoftrainingandexperience
regardingaparticularinspectionmethodas
statedinthecompany'sWrittenPractice.

QualificationoftheTechnician
StepOneTraining
Trainingisanorganizedprogramdevelopedtoprovideinspection
personnelwiththeknowledgeandskillnecessaryforqualification
inaspecificmethod.Insuchaprogramtheprincipalsand
techniques(referredtoasthe"BodyofKnowledge")ofthe
particulartestmethodsaretaughttothedegreeprescribedby
theemployer.Thenecessaryamountoftraining(typicallystated
innumbersofhours)andexaminationrequirements(suchas
contentandnumberoftestquestions)isstatedintheemployer's
WrittenPractice.
RecommendedTrainingHoursperSNTTC1A
Method
LevelI LevelII Total
MagneticParticle 12
8
20
LiquidPenetrant
4
8
12
Radiography
40
40
80
UltrasonicTesting 40
40
80
EddyCurrent
40
40
80
StepTwoExaminations
WrittenGeneralandSpecificexaminations,aPractical
examinationandfinally,anannualVisualexaminationthat
provesNearVisionAcuityandColorDifferentiationSkillsbyuse
ofIsiharaColorPlatesareadministeredtoNDTpersonnel.
TheGeneralexaminationcoversthebasicprinciples
(BodyofKnowledge)oftheapplicablemethod.
TheSpecificexaminationcoverstheprocedures,
equipmentandtechniquesthattheemployeewillbe
requiredtoperformintheirjobassignment.
ThePractical(handson)examinationallowsthe
employeetodemonstratetheirabilitytooperatethe
pertinenttestequipmentandtoperformdefined
calibrationsandtestsaccordingtorelevantspecifications.
Individualsarerequiredtoscore70%orhigheroneachofthe
threeexamsandgenerateacompositescore(asimpleaverage
ofallthreeexams)ofatleast80%orhigher.
StepThreeExperience
Workactivitiesaccomplishedinaparticulartestmethodunder
thesupervisionofacertifiedindividualinthatparticularmethod
isreferredtoasTimeinMethodandincludestimespent
observing,settingupandexecutingspecifictestprocedures,
performingcalibrationsandcarryingoutotherrelatedactivities.
Timespentinorganizedtrainingprogramsdoesnotcountas
experience.
RecommendedHoursofTimeinMethodperSNTTC1A

Method
MagneticParticle
LiquidPenetrant
Radiography
UltrasonicTesting
EddyCurrent

LevelI LevelII Total


70
210 280
70
140 210
210
630 840
210
840 1050
210
630 840

ALevelIIorLevelIIItechniciansupervisestheprocessingso
thatifthetraineemakesanerror,thetestcanberepeatedand
thesupervisingtechniciancanevaluatethetestobjectand
acceptorreject,andthetraineewillobservetheevaluation.
Timespentinorganizedtrainingprogramsdoesnotcountas
experience.Thelengthofexperiencerequiredpriorto
certificationisstatedintheemployersWrittenPractice.

CertificationoftheTechnician
CertificationofNDTpersonnelistheresponsibilityofthe
employer.Personnelarecertifiedwhentheyhavecompletedthe
initialtraining,examinationandexperiencerequirementsstated
intheemployer'sWrittenPractice.Thelengthofcertificationand
methodofrecertificationisalsostatedintheemployersWritten
Practice.Documentationthatstateseachapplicants
qualificationsaccordingtotherequirementsoftheWritten
Practicearerequiredbeforecertificationcanoccur.Keypointsto
keepinmindare:
Certificationisadocumentoftestimonyonthepartofa
knowledgeablepersoninaparticularNDTmethod
typicallythecandidate'ssupervisor,departmentmanager
orcorporateofficerdependingonthesizeofthe
employer
CertificationinanyNDTmethodisproperlyearnedaftera
candidatehascompletedtheprocessspelledoutbythe
employersWrittenPractice
Atechnician'scertificationendsconcurrentwithhisorher
terminationofemployment.
Thebottomlineisthattheemployeradoptsfullresponsibilityfor
thetechnician'sactionsanddecisionsoncetheyarequalifiedand
certified,butassumesnofurtherresponsibilityforactionsbeyond
theemploymentperiod(nosuchthingasapersonclaimingLevel
IIstatusunlesstheyareemployedbythecompanythatputthem
throughthequalificationprocess).
Themostsignificantfacttounderstandaboutcertificationisthis:
ifcertificationhasbeenproperlyearnedthroughastepped
qualificationprocess,thetechnicianshouldbecapableof
providingconsistentandtrustworthyservice.

Integrity:AttheHeartoftheMatter
Thenondestructivetestingprofessionhassufferedovertheyears
becauseownersormanagershavesentpoorlyorincompletely
trainedpeopletoperformservicesforclientswhohavenot
alwaysbeensavvyenoughtorecognizethedifferencebetween
certifiedtechniciansandunqualifiedwarmbodies.

TheworkoftheNDTtechnicianismuchtooimportanttobe
treatedcarelessly.Theintegritywithwhichweaccomplishour
professionwillhaveanimpactonthehealthandsafetyofthose
whoworkin,onoraroundtheitemsweinspect.Theydeserve
ourverybest.Mistakescanandhavecostlives!
Technologyalonewillneversuffice.Onlytechnicianswhoare
qualifiedandabletoembraceintegrityofcharacterandthe
importanceoftheirprofessioncanproducetheobservation,
applicationandanalysisrequiredbytheindustrytheyserveand
thepublictheykeepsafe.

TheWrittenPracticeforQualificationand
CertificationofNDTPersonnel
TheWrittenPracticeisthecontrollingdocumentthatadaptsthe
recommendationsoftheASNTRecommendedPracticeSNT
TC1Atomeetthespecificrequirementsofthe
Company/Employer.TheWrittenPracticeshouldbedeveloped
orevaluatedandapprovedbytheemployer'sNDTLevelIII.It
shouldbemaintainedonfileforeasyaccess,referenceand
maintenancebytheLevelIIIadministrator,aswellasforready
reviewinsituationssuchascustomerandjurisdictionalaudits.
Issuescoveredwithinthisdynamicdocumentinclude:
ThecontrolandadministrationofNDTpersonneltraining,
examinationandcertification
Adescriptionoftheresponsibilitiesofeachlevelof
certification
Adescriptionofthetraining,experienceandexamination
requirementsforeachlevelofcertification
Determinationsoftheacceptabilityofmaterialsor
componentsinaccordancewithapplicablecodes,
standards,specificationsandprocedures.
Insummary,thefollowingCertificationTrianglemayhelp.All
threesidesofthetrianglemustbeinplacebeforeacandidateis
trulycertified.Assumingthis,andfurtherassumingthatthe
centralportionofthetriangleisbeingfullyadheredtobythe
employer,thechancesareverygoodthatthequalification
programwillproducecertifiedNDTtechnicianswhowillpositively
definetheirprofessionintothefuture.[backtothequestions...]

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