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International

Food
Hygiene
Volume 26 Number 2 (2015)

MYCOTOXINS
Food safety concerns
and successful screening.

HAIR
CONTAMINATION
Achieving the ultimate
goal zero complaints.

PACKAGING
Disinfection with
high intensity UV light.

CONTROLLING
CONTAMINANTS
We look at options
from around the world.

LABORATORY
TESTING
Safeguarding the
food supply chain.

FOOD PREMISES
The writing is on the
wall for hygienic surfaces.

Improving the global safety and quality of food and drink

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International Food Hygiene (ISSN 0961 2831) is published
six times a year (January, March, May, July, September, and
November) by Positive Action Publications Ltd and
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ews of the nut protein


contamination in spices has
opened a can of worms
that get fatter and fatter as time
goes by. Almonds in spice X, or
peanuts in spice Y and possibilities
of combinations continue to be
announced. Accident or fraud,
carelessness or intent, the questions
are being asked quicker than the
answers are delivered.
If it is a fraudulent act then it is
certainly more dangerous than the
switching of horse meat for beef.
However the media passions that
arose to protest at eating Black
Beauty are unlikely to be matched
to protest at the deadly
consequences of spices bulked with
nut protein.
Will we be regaled with regular
statistics of positive test numbers?
Will questions be asked in parliament? Will it become a plank in
some political platform?
Where does this leave the catering
industry as it tries to comply with its
legal obligation to inform the nut
allergic customer about the safety of
its dish of the day Roast Chicken

Cover Picture:

with cumin, paprika and allspice?


Meanwhile, the sufferers of any nut
allergy will believe they have to fill
their waste bins with every spice
they own and shun spicy food when
they eat out.
The food chain is looking for reliable tests and reliable sources as it
seeks someone, somewhere, to find
the answers.
The whole world is our pantry and
the safety challenges we face are
best met with answers from every
expert source. It is fortuitous that
many international food protection
experts, members of the IAFP, will
meet in Cardiff in April.
The program will focus on many
valuable food safety topics and,
although it was planned in advance
of this new challenge, an event like
this attracts people with a deep
interest and extensive expertise.
The greatest value for delegates
will be gained from the discussions
and the ideas they develop for
solutions to the hot topics of today.
With the finest Welsh lamb on the
menu the mint sauce is bound to be
pure and fresh!
n
Contamination control is in your hands!
(photo courtesy of Microbiologics)

This magazine is also available in a digital format. For details contact: sharon@positiveaction.co.uk

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

WorldFocus
An executive summary of key international issues

Epidemiology

Do we have the correct tools?

Following a conference of school principals in Brisbane, Australia, attended by over 1,000


delegates, some 250 claim to have been afflicted with gastro-intestinal symptoms. It has
now come to light that there was another outbreak of food poisoning among people who
attended a conference at the same location a week earlier. On this occasion at least 10
people became sick with salmonella food poisoning. This highlights how food poisoning
outbreaks involving people from diverse locations can be so difficult to identify and one has
to wonder if the first outbreak would ever have been confirmed if the second, larger one
had not occurred?

Improvements

You can not spend money you have not got!

A chef and his manager have recently been jailed in England for their involvement in a
Christmas Day turkey dinner that made over 30 people ill, perhaps killing one of them. They
were convicted of falsifying records and lying to police. The establishments owner was fined
1.5 million for placing unsafe food on the market. The food poisoning was caused by
Clostridium perfringens and arose because the turkey meat was not adequately cooked or
not correctly reheated. One can have no sympathy with the two individuals who were jailed,
but what good was served by the fine on the company would more good have come from
this case if they had been ordered to spend the money on food safety improvements?

Limits

Just what do they mean?


There are legally defined limits for a whole host of things, including mycotoxins, antibiotics
and pesticide residues, but what do they actually mean? In some instances they are purely a
reflection of the limit to the sensitivity of the test used at the time the limit was set! Should
we be talking about an absolute limit or should we be talking about the amount consumed
over a period of time? The former makes more sense to the scientific mind, but the latter
makes more sense to the legislative mind because it is easier to enforce! If we work to the
existing limits approach, do we run the risk of prosecuting when the limit has been
exceeded but none of the other foods consumed contained the substance in question?

4 X hair containment
of a Mob Cap

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International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

Walter Street Draycott


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Fax: +44 1332 875284

www.aburnet.co.uk

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

Mycotoxins
and food safety
concerns
by Lakshmikantha Channaiah, Director
of Microbiology, and Mirka Morales,
Microbiology Subject Matter Expert,
AIB International, USA.
ycotoxins are a significant food
safety concern in the grain supply
chain. Contaminated food and feed
products represent a major threat to human
and animal health. These toxic fungi are
present throughout distribution and have
adapted to a wide range of habitats,
including deserts, high salinity, and extreme
temperature environments. There are
hundreds of mycotoxins known to exist, but
nearly 30 of them have been well
characterised and are considered harmful to
humans and animals.
The most important mycotoxins that
cause severe economic and health damages
are aflatoxins, vomitoxin/deoxynivalenol

Moulds and mycotoxins: what you


need to know
Fungi are throughout distribution.
Most fungi do not produce mycotoxins.
More than 400 identified mycotoxins.
30 well characterised mycotoxins are
considered harmful to animals and
humans.

Mycotoxins

Fungal source

Target commodities

Vomitoxin/DON

F. graminearum
F. culmorum

Wheat, corn, barley

Aflatoxins
(B1, B2, G1, G2)

A. flavus
A. parasiticus

Corn, peanuts, oilseeds

Fumonisin

F. moniliforme
F. proliferatum

Corn

Ochratoxin A

A. ochraceus
P. verrucosum

Wheat, barley, coffee

Zearalenone

F. graminearum

Corn, sorghum, wheat

Patulin

P. expansum

Cereals, apple, olives, grapes, peach

Table 1. List of major mycotoxins, fungal sources and target commodities.


(DON), fumonisins, ochratoxin A,
zearalenone, patulin and T-2 toxin.
Table 1 gives additional details on
mycotoxins, fungal sources, and target
commodities. Aflatoxins are likely the most
widely occurring and studied mycotoxins in
the world implicated with various diseases.
To protect consumers from mycotoxins,
several countries have implemented
regulations to limit the exposure of
mycotoxins in food and feed products.

Economic impact

the US Food and Drug Administration limits


can have an adverse effect on the economy.
Grain producers and food manufacturers
would suffer the consequences of the
reduced marketability or recall of their
products both domestically and
internationally. The economic impact of
mycotoxins includes loss of human and
animal life, increased health care cost,
reduced livestock production, losses in
crops, product recalls, increased research
investment, and cost associated with
regulatory programs directed toward
mycotoxins.

Usually ingested in contaminated food.


Most are thermostable and cannot be
destroyed in normal cooking conditions.
Usually no treatment for mycotoxin
poisoning.
Drying will not detoxify mycotoxins.
Five important facts
Mycotoxins are not detectable by sight
or smell.
Not all mouldy grains/foods contain
mycotoxins.
Grain/food does not have to look
mouldy to be contaminated.
Not all grains/foods containing
mycotoxins are toxic.
Mycotoxins may not be uniformly
distributed.

Consumption of foods contaminated with


mycotoxins can lead to serious health
implications if the toxins are present at high
levels. A disease or disorder caused due to
mycotoxin contamination is called
mycotoxicoses. Some mycotoxins can be
acutely or chronically toxic, depending on
the type of toxin, dosage, age, and
susceptibility (immunocompromised
patient).
The long term exposure to mycotoxincontaminated foods can increase cancer risk
and suppress the immune system.
Diagnosing a patient for suspected
mycotoxicoses is challenging because the
symptoms are similar to those caused by
other pathogenic micro-organisms.
Worldwide, approximately 25% of food
crops are affected by mycotoxins, causing a
loss of billions of dollars every year. The
presence of mycotoxins at levels higher than

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

Field and storage fungi


Fungal infection and subsequent production
of mycotoxins can occur at the field during
crop growth or harvesting, and may
continue during storage. Although it is very
difficult to classify them based on origin,
fungal contamination can be divided into
two major groups: field fungi (Fusarium and
Alternaria spp.) and storage fungi
(Aspergillus and Penicillium spp.). Generally,
the original source of fungi is from the field.

Mycotoxin synthesis
Temperature, water, salinity, nutrient
stresses, and pest infestation are important
reasons for fungal infection of field crops. In
Continued on page 9

Continued from page 7


general cool and wet weather favours
Fusarium toxins, while hot and humid
weather favours Aspergillus toxins. High
moisture content (water activity (aw)),
temperature, and poor sanitary conditions
are associated with fungal infection and
subsequent mycotoxin synthesis in stored
grain.
Fungus grows in a temperature range of
50-105F, above 0.7aw, and a pH range of
4-8. It is possible to predict the type of
fungal growth and subsequent mycotoxin
production to some extent depending upon
the type of grain, moisture content, and
temperature of the stored grain.
However, the conditions for mycotoxin
synthesis are generally more critical and
complex than those for fungal growth. For
grain handlers and food producers, it is
important to monitor the temperature and
relative humidity during storage at regular
intervals.
Relative humidity influences the moisture
content of stored grain, resulting in more or
less water available for fungal growth and
subsequent mycotoxin synthesis.
Additionally, storage fungi are more
frequent in bins infested with stored
product insects. These stored product
insects act as potential routes for
distributing fungal spores.

Sampling and testing


Proper grain sampling and sample
preparation are important for accurate test
results. There are several testing tools
available to detect and quantify mycotoxins
in grain and grain-based products.
Various testing tools, such as thin layer
chromatography, high-performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography,
and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays
(ELISA) can be used depending on the
needs. Since fungi can still grow and
synthesise mycotoxins in a sample, samples
should be properly preserved (dried, frozen,
or treated with mould inhibitor) and
shipped quickly for analysis to avoid
variation of test results.

Management
Mycotoxin content increases with delayed
harvest, rain, and cool weather. Proper
cleaning of harvested grain is a must to
reduce mycotoxin content as mycotoxin
concentration is greatest in damaged kernels
and fine material. Drying harvested
commodities to a safe moisture level (aw of
about 0.7) and maintaining grain moisture
during storage is crucial for controlling or
minimising fungal growth and subsequent
mycotoxin synthesis.
Maintaining uniform grain temperatures
throughout the grain mass is important to
avoid moisture imbalance. This can be
achieved by passing large volumes of

Risk management:
Acceptable risks
Prevention
Options
Cost/benefits
Regulations

Risk assessment:
Hazard identification
Hazard characterisation
Exposure assessment
Risk characterisation

Risk communication:
Comparison
Interaction
Prioritisation
Education

Fig. 2. Mapping concepts of risk (FAO).


ambient air (aeration) through the grain
mass.
Detoxifying mycotoxins in grain and grainbased products is a complex and expensive
process. Several detoxification methods
have been developed (ammonification,
ClO2, ozone, etc) to treat mycotoxin
contaminated grain and feed products.
However, there are several limitations and
challenges that still remain. Most mycotoxincontaminated grain detoxification methods
are either too expensive, have safety
concerns, or leave residues in the
commodities that would affect the end use.
Therefore, preventing fungal infection,
rather than trying to treat infected grain or
products, is the best practice.
The CO2-sensing technology developed in
recent years is one of the most promising
technologies for early detection of spoilage
due to moulds during grain storage.

Assessing risk
Increasing awareness among grain handlers
and food producers and encouraging good
agricultural and manufacturing practices, as
well as HACCP, are the most common and
best strategies to lower health risks and the
economic losses.
Risk analysis platforms exist for both food
safety as well as for more technical risk
assessment purposes for the associated
food product.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations (FAO) and the World
Health Organization (WHO) have devised
chemical and microbiological benchmarks
that are used by national and worldwide
authorities for food safety risk assessments.
These benchmarks use three main principles
of risk: assessment, management, and
communication and serve as a guide to the
industry to minimise unforeseen negative
health and economic impacts.
It is key to include within these principles
the hazard identification, characterisation,
exposure assessment, and likelihood. Using
this information, such risks may be
prioritised and proactive prevention

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

protocols for risk management alternatives


can become part of existing food safety
programs at the agricultural site or plant
processing facility.
Also, using resources from the latest
legislative and regulatory safety margins,
guidance documents, emerging news, or
scientific studies relating to mycotoxins
should be considered to aid food businesses
in product monitoring, use of effective
sampling techniques to determine risk,
product trending history, regular risk
reevaluation, and business programs and
internal policies.
There have been several and varied
regulations pertaining to mycotoxins over
the years. Initially, many were not based on
sound scientific evaluations.
Currently, there is a lack of concurrence
among countries, but in recent years the
Codex Committee on Food Additives and
Contaminants (CCFAC) has inclined toward
harmonisation by inviting position papers on
proposed regulatory limits for several
mycotoxins. The ultimate goal is to achieve
optimal regulations for human safety which
do not become trade barriers for food
commodities that can be impacted by these
toxins.
n
Risk-based sampling:
How to prioritise and set a
sampling rate to verify food safety
measures are working:
Document risk assessments for
mycotoxin/product combinations.
Incorporate best practice guidelines
published by food regulators and
professional bodies.
Use appropriate sampling and
analytical methods to generate
sound results.
Review analytical results, food
surveys, food safety measures
effectiveness, food regulator
guidelines and other sources of
information to update risk
assessment and set new priorities
and sampling rates.

10

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

Zero complaints the


ultimate goal for hair
contamination is attainable
by Richard Burnet, ABurnet Ltd,
Walter Street, Draycott,
Derbyshire DE72 3NU, UK.
hen big food retailers discover hair contamination
they fine the food and
drink manufacturers who make the
stores own-label products. They
even de-list the very worst offenders. It is a big incentive to manufacturers to work harder to reduce the
numbers of complaints, but it is a
complicated challenge.
A food production worker can
boast of having between 100,000 to
145,000 scalp hair-shafts at any
given time. An average of 40-130
hair-shafts will be lost each day and
be a significant risk of food contamination. In a food factory of 100
workers between 4,000 and 13,000
hairs each day need to be contained
to protect the consumers and the
retailers reputation and the manufacturers business.

Trichorrhexis Nodosa photomicrograph (x50). The high spots


indicate the points of eventual
severance (B. J. Stevens).
When workers started to wear
head covers such as mob caps and
hairnets it helped to control the
released hair. Yet it has not been as
effective as food makers hoped and
reports and fines continued to happen.
ABurnet Ltd has been working
with respected scientists at the
University of Bolton on a 250,000
research project. The knowledge
and data has been gathered in a
White Paper entitled Target Zero
Hair Complaints and it is now available for readers to access online
(www.aburnet.co.uk/target-zerohair-complaints). It has been inde-

pendently reviewed by Professor


Barry Stevens MA FTTS, President
of the Trichological Society 2014-16.
The research discovered a wide
range of factors that influence the
rate of hair loss; natural and environmental factors that can reduce
the effectiveness of some head covering and causes of workers discomfort that can significantly boost the
numbers of hairs that they shed.
ABurnet developed products and
methods of covering as the research
progressed and trials with close
assessment of the test candidates
produced hundreds of pieces of data
that demonstrated the most effective hair control methods and
means.
Professors Subhash Anand,
Subbiyan Rajendran and Dr Karthick
Kanchi Govarthanam contributed
significantly to the research report
and the White Paper is rich in detail
and explanation that will help food
and drink producers to understand
the causes of hair shedding and the
ways and means of achieving zero or
near zero contamination.
The issue of hair contamination is
not just a natural phenomenon of
hair shedding but also a direct result
of modern hair styling.
According to Professor Barry
Stevens:
l Higher rates of hair shedding can
be attributed to poor diet, reduced
iron levels, post natal alopecia, fever
or numerous other medical conditions.
l Hair damage is common due to
use of high temperature thermal

KleenCap NeckGuard with


StayCool and antimicrobial
technology.
appliances employed in hairdressing
procedures.
l Chemical processes (colouring,
permanent waving, relaxing or
straightening) are potentially damaging by compromising the protein
structure of the hair-shaft.
l Levels of such damage will be
individually unique.
l Current conditioners do not
repair hair-shaft damage but are useful in providing temporary improvement to lustre, feel, and drag
reduction during routine grooming.
l The above processes compromise hair-shaft elasticity and tensile
strength leading to such conditions
as tricoptilosis (splits) or bubble hair
syndrome (blisters) and/or trichorrhexis nodosa (node formation)
with possible severance at some
point along their axes.
It is the daily on-going shedding/

Left (A) a 12gsm mob cap. Inherent gaps in material easily allow hair
to protrude. Right (B) KleenCap breathable hair barrier fabric restricts
hair penetration. StayCool technology transports moisture through
the fabric to evaporate into the atmosphere to help keep workers
cool. Antimicrobial inhibits the multiplication of bacteria and fungi
such as Gram positive staphylococcus.

500x magnification of human hair against fabric

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

severance of hair-shafts that will be


found to contaminate food and
therefore need to be effectively contained.
Professor Stevens adds: If we
accept that hair-shaft shedding is a
constant occurrence it is possible
that 13-43 hairs could be shed from
the scalp of each employee during
an eight hour period. This equates
with 1,300-4,300 hairs per 100 people.
These figures can be significantly
augmented by thermal injury and
severance (following exposure to
excessive heat from hairdryers, curling tongs etc) and chemical insult
(bleaching, colouring, permanent
waving, chemical relaxing or chemical straightening). The figures will be
further increased by the daily losses
of beard, nasal and ear hairs, eyebrows and eyelashes.

Why contain hairs?


Whilst daily grooming will remove
many of these shed and damaged
loose hairs, the fact that:
l Clearly not all shed and damaged
loose hairs are removed by personal grooming.
l Many hair styles are not brushed
or combed but distressed leaving
the shed and damaged loose hairs
on the head in addition to those
shed during the work activity itself.
l Drying wet hair with high temperature settings on hair dryers and
styling with curling tongs damages
hair causing it to break off.
l Chemical treatments such as
colouring, chemical straightening and
perming damage hair causing it to
weaken and frequently break off
prematurely.
l Individuals habits vary greatly
with some people showering before
sleeping rather than just before
work.
l Many people do not wash hair
daily.
l Hair shedding is occurring all the
time, including during the work shift
itself.
These shed and broken loose
hairs will be disturbed and potentially contaminate production during
Continued on page 12

11

University of
Bolton findings
Outer
head covering

Actual
av. quantity
protruding
hairs per use

Additional hair
containment technology

Optional antimicrobial technology

Factored
av. quantity
protruding
hairs per use

Hair
containment
improvement
factor

Short hair
protruding
over long
hair multiplier

HairTite

HairBarrier

StayCool

HairTite

KleenCap

Under covering = None


12gsm mob cap

74*

85

0.0

2.3

KleenCap Standard

35

35

2.4

2.0

Under covering = HairTite Standard


12gsm mob cap

21

21

4.0

1.6

KleenCap Standard

20

20

4.3

1.7

33

Under covering = HairTite HiCare


12gsm mob cap

15

15

5.7

1.8

KleenCap Standard

15

15

5.7

1.7

33

11

7.7

1.6

33

10.6

1.6

33

33

Under covering = HairTite Standard


KleenCap Max

11

Under covering = HairTite HiCare


KleenCap Max

* Where mob caps ballooned away from the head, protruding hairs could not be accurately counted.
The University therefore factored the figure to account for the percentage of the head zones where the mob cap ballooned away from the head.

Table 1. Research into different head coverings undertaken by the University of Bolton, England, found marked differences in performance.

Continued from page 11


a working shift due to the following
reasons:
l The wearer scratching his/her
head, the frequency of which can be
increased where workers are hot
due to either the ambient temperaKleenCap Max with StayCool
and antimicrobial technology.

ture, higher levels of work activity or


discomfort from inappropriate head
coverings themselves.
l General movement during the
work activity.
l Whether standing or seated the
head is usually tilted down towards
the work activity increasing the
exposure of shed or damaged hair
from the crown due to gravity.
l The abrasion of any head covering over hairs that are not lying flat.
It is therefore no surprise that hair
is potentially a significant contaminant of food.

A microbial threat?
Whilst it is known that the scalp can
be a haven for bacteria (especially
the relatively harmless Malassez
Furfur (Pityrosporum Ovale),
Professor Stevens is unable to eliminate hair-shafts as disease carriers

12

(Staphylococcus aureus). However,


hand contact with the scalp during
food production is probably more
likely to act as a carrier therefore
complete head hair covering is recommended.
I cannot ignore the potential for
contamination via beard hair as this
can be an involuntary target of touch
by infrequently washed hands.
Covering the beard with net is
therefore a wise precaution,
Professor Stevens added.
Food production personnel can
effectively prevent scalp hair contamination through the wearing of
HairTite HygieNets and KleenCapMax, with HairBarrier products such
as Neck Shield which can be worn
in multiple ways to cover beard, face
and nasal hair as desired, or Beard
Shield, or KleenCap-Max Neck
Guard (covering scalp and beard
hair) if new each day or cleansed
with HairGon after a single days

wear to remove any residual hairshafts caught in the material.


However eyebrow, eyelid, ear
and facial hair cannot be ignored
their prevention is more problematic.
ABurnets new KleenCap Max is
available with antimicrobial proprieties. The product has been tested
to inhibit the growth of both Gram
positive and Gram negative bacteria
MRSA and E. coli with 99.9% effectiveness after 15 washes in HairGon
the advanced formula wash additive that has been tested by the
University of Bolton, England, to
dissolve residual hairs during the
wash.
KleenCap-Max, with antimicrobial,
HairBarrier and StayCool technologies, has been independently tested
as being both effective at containing
shed and damaged hairs, keeping
staff cool and comfortable and being
cost effective in use.
n

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

Disinfection of packaging
with high intensity, cold and
dry UV light
by Juliane Henze, Heraeus
Noblelight GmbH, Germany.
he use of high energy UV light
reduces the germ load on
packaging surfaces by up to
99.9%. This clearly prolongs the
shelf life of foods such as yoghurt,
curd or milk. Just a few seconds of
the intensive, yet cold, light is
enough to dispose of micro-organisms such as bacteria, yeast and
fungi. Compared to chemical and
thermal methods, UV light radiation
treatment is a very reliable, economic and, above all, environmentally friendly method and hence
especially suitable for the processing
of organic products.

cell wall structure, the lethal dose


for different pathogens is distinctly
high. Consequently, bacteria such as
salmonella and coli bacteria, which
have a comparatively thin cell wall
and can thus only slightly block the
UV radiation, are extremely vulnerable and are very quickly destroyed.
By contrast, mould spores, such as
of Aspergillus niger, have a thicker
cell wall, which may even have pigments, to protect them against UV
radiation. Killing them requires 10 to
100 times the UV dose needed for
bacteria. As an alternative, it is
advisable to use a combination of
UV radiation following the action of
a diluted hydrogen peroxide solution (1-3%). This combined method
achieves an efficient and broad germicidal effect.

Disinfection with UV
In general, the method used to
remove bacteria from packaging
materials is disinfection, not sterilisation: Ultraviolet light at wavelengths
of 254 nanometer (nm) is more
energy rich than the terrestrial UV
light of the sun.
This especially short wave UV light
destroys the DNA of all microorganisms. When installed purposefully, viruses are disabled in seconds
and micro-organisms such as bacteria, yeasts and fungi are killed in an
environmentally friendly manner,
without the addition of chemicals.
For a whole series of micro-organisms, the lethal dose of UV radiation
is known and this is the dose after
which the cells can no longer maintain their metabolism and can also
no longer multiply. Because of the

The lethal UV dose


The necessary UV dose is calculated
by multiplying the irradiation power
(intensity) of the UV lamp by the
length of time that irradiation takes
place. The intensity of the radiation
is also dependent on the distance
between the UV module and the
packaging. The UV intensity of a
lamp decreases with the increase in
operating hours. At the end of the
lamp operating life there must still
be sufficient high UV intensity to
ensure a suitable disinfection power
and the necessary lethal dose in the
given radiation time.
Experience with yoghurt filling for
example has shown that pots of a
depth of 150 millimeters (mm) can
be effectively disinfected within four

To make yoghurt non-perishable: within seconds, packaging surfaces


(here: foils) are reliably disinfected with intensive UV light, without the
use of chemicals.

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

The new Premium UV system is now even more powerful and safer
with acquisition costs of less than 0.1 cent per disinfected yoghurt
cup.
seconds and sealing foils in two seconds at the same intensity.
UV disinfection is used primarily
for surfaces of package materials in
contact with fresh milk products
which are stored in the cold chain,
such as yoghurt or kefir, to extend
their shelf life. This means that the
dairy has significantly fewer returns
of spoiled product, saving time,
effort and cost of disposal.

Remove up to 99.9% germs


Even more intensively and reliably,
the Heraeus Premium UV systems
reduce the number of germs on the
surface. The latest powerful systems
have been developed especially for
UV disinfection in the food industry.
They remove up to 99.9% of germs.
This is proved by the report of the
Fraunhofer-Institute for Process
Engineering and Packaging, Freising,
Germany.
According to a method of the
association VDMA, Frauhofer has
tested the efficiency of the decontamination by using Premium UV systems against certain micro-organisms
(conidiospores of Aspergillus niger,
endospores of Bacillus subtilis).
During this count reduction test
three respectively five log levels have
been achieved within a distance of
20mm.
The use of a novel lamps technology enables high intensities and a
substantially longer service life. The
use of just one UV module reduces
the expenditure for servicing and
associated costs.
The short exposure times also

contribute to reducing operating


costs. Depending on the material,
between two and four seconds are
sufficient for the disinfection
process.
The UV lamp is virtually the only
consumable necessary. It has a service life of up to 12,000 operating
hours which is equal to two years of
actual use at 24 hours of operation
per day. During that time, the
Premium UV system can disinfect
about 173 million cups on a machine
with eight lanes. This means an
investment of just 0.03 cents per
cup, a lot less than 0.1 cent.

Easy handling high safety


In addition to the economic benefits,
the Premium UV systems feature
easy installation and operation. The
systems can simply be installed or
retrofitted to existing filling and sealing plants.
Due to the integration into the
respective HACCP concept, the
quartz glass plate, the temperature
and the emitter function can be
monitored automatically. The quartz
glass covers of the UV modules are
provided with a breakage detector
patented by Heraeus and thus part
of the HACCP concept.
If a quartz glass plate breaks, the
detector sends a signal to stop the
filling plant immediately. The type of
protection of the Premium UV system is IP67, so it can also be used
without restriction in wet environments of a Cleaning In Place (CIP)
machine.
Continued on page 14

13

system may be equipped with a


patented quick start solution. This
will reduce the warm-up time from
about five minutes to 30 seconds, so
the filling process can start more
rapidly.

High intensity, yet cold


Due to their slim shape, Premium
UV systems are used in particular to
disinfect packaging materials in inline filling machines with 4-12 rows
of cups. As a standard, the new
Premium UV systems are available in

With a combined method of UV light following the action of a weak


hydrogen peroxide solution, even mould germs resistant to radiation
can be inactivated on packaging surfaces.

three sizes but they may also be


adjusted especially to the machine
environment. Although the UV
modules generate a high irradiance,
the UV light is cold. Therefore, the
packaging material is not heated.
This makes the disinfection method
perfectly suited for the treatment of
heat sensitive materials such as plastic cups and sealing foils.
Taking account of various dimensioning criteria and with a sufficient
high irradiance, UV disinfection is
used as a simple, fast and reliable
method in continuous operation in
filling plants.
n

Fig. 1. The wavelength spectrum of a Premium UV lamp (blue) at


254nm and the spectrum of activity of the inactivation of microorganisms (black).

14

lation provided by one control module is sufficient to cool up to three


UV modules. The control module is
stainless steel design and EMC-protected (electromagnetic compatibility) and can be operated anywhere
in the world at supply voltage frequencies of 50/60 Hz.
The module has two 180-264 Volt
connection sockets. Premium UV
systems are equipped with an operating hours counter and an on/off
lamp signal to make the entire monitoring process easier.
As an option, the Premium UV

UV performance (%)

1.0

Continued from page 13


Translucent plastic doors, for
example made of Makrolon, are sufficient to provide protection against
the radiation.
Electronic control unit and ventilation are combined in a new control
module to make retrofitting even
more easy and reduce the space
requirement. Based on the modular
design principle, 1-3 UV modules
can be operated with one control
module. Expensive water cooling is
not used as the Premium UV systems are cooled with air. The venti-

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
200

220

240

260

280

300

320

Wavelength (nm)

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

controlling
contaminants
Metal detection:
a buyers guide top tips
Whether you are looking to invest
in a new metal detector or upgrade
an existing system, managing director of Fortress Technology, Sarah
Ketchin, suggests:
l Do not overlook testing procedures and record keeping. Run
detection and rejection of test samples on an hourly basis, at the beginning of a product run or at a
shift change, and
whenever any settings are
updated or
changed
(always check
the industry
standards
and auditing requirements for testing frequency and procedure).
l Ask about signal strength.
Detector sensitivity is dependent on
many factors: aperture size, operating frequency, product speed and
environment. Most limiting is in fact
conductive (wet) products which act
like metal. Fortress Technologys
new FM software effectively analyses
and processes the signal from the
product, resulting in a 40% sensitiv-

ity improvement when inspecting


challenging products.
l Consider installing metal detectors at specific checkpoints along the
manufacturing process. Leaving it
until the end of the production line
could result in high levels of false
rejects and unnecessary disposal of
good product and packaging.
l Auto-assessments are
especially useful when
system access and
positioning or environmental conditions hinder testing.
Automated Halo testing technology is designed
to swiftly alert machine operators
to a potential problem, without the
cost of additional personnel.
l Foil challenges. Generally speaking, metal detectors are capable of
phasing out and running products
packaged in laminate foils with a
good level of sensitivity. However,
pure aluminium foil, i.e. an oven
ready tray, may be too challenging
and a ferrous in foil detector would
be recommended.
b sales-uk@
fortresstechnology.com

Simultaneous analysis of
mycotoxins in spices
Since 2012, the EU has rejected a
total of 86 consignments of spices
which have been tested at border
inspection posts and found to contain levels of either aflatoxin or
ochratoxin, which have exceeded
regulatory limits.
In total, 15 different countries
were involved in these rejections for
paprika, nutmeg, black pepper, garlic
powder, ginger, curry powder,
turmeric and liquorice, all having
unacceptable levels of these two
mycotoxins.
Spices are high value commodities,
therefore rejections have severe
financial implications for the
exporters, who have to bear the
costs. However, these rejections
can be avoided if spices are sampled
and analysed strictly following EU
regulations before exporting.
Commission Regulation (EU) No.
165/2010 sets limits of 5g/kg for
aflatoxin B1 and 10g/kg for total
aflatoxins in spices. Commission
Regulation (EU) No. 105/2010 sets

Preventative solution to
biological contaminants
Contaminants are the substances
that have not been intentionally
added to the product. These substances may be present as a result of
the various stages of its production,
packaging, transport or holding.
They may also result from
environmental or biological
contamination. Since contamination generally has a
negative impact on the quality of the product and may
imply a risk to human
health, the EU has taken
measures to minimise contaminants in foodstuffs.
Bioquell offers a preventative solution to biological
contaminants. Routine bioquelling is designed to provide confidence that
facilities have been efficiently and effectively biodecontaminated.
Whether undertaken in an individ-

ual room (machinery/equipment


could be wheeled into a specifically
prepared area), an entire building or
even across the entire site, the service is carried out quickly.
Pre-agreed timescales can help
ensure that a rapid return
to service is achieved. The
process delivers a universally recognised standard of
6-log reduction in environmental bioburden including
bacteria, viruses and fungi.
The Hydrogen Peroxide
Vapour (HPV) decontamination process is a high
level way to disinfect all
surfaces within an enclosed
area.
Bioquelling is suitable for
GMP regulated, or non
regulated areas, including
food manufacturing/processing facilities and laboratories.
b marion.duguen@bioquell.com

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

a limit of 15g/kg for ochratoxin in


spices, and a limit of 20g/kg for
liquorice.
Methods of analysis for aflatoxins
and ochratoxin in spices have
received less attention than other
foodstuffs. Although methods have
been published and single laboratory
validation conducted, there are no
official methods in place for spices.

Spices are complex matrices and


good sample clean-up as provided
by an immunoaffinity column is
essential prior to HPLC or LCMS/MS determination.
Immunoaffinity columns such as
R-Biopharm Rhone Ltds Aflaochra
Prep have been successfully used for
simultaneous analysis of both aflatoxin and ochratoxin A, in a wide
variety of spices.
A strong EU focus will remain on
mycotoxins in spices and collaborative studies leading to new official
methods are planned.
b info@r-biopharmrhone.com

Intelligent pest
management system
Pest-intel, the intelligent pest management system from Mitie, gives
food manufacturers and the food
service industry total control over
pest risk. Pest-intel provides online
access to real-time data, enabling
managers to assess pest risk across
multiple sites. A performance dashboard shows historical trending of

pest activity and gives instant reporting of pest control activities.


Our intuitive system makes it
easy to keep track of inspections,
actions and recommendations, without needing to travel in person to
locations. Our technology is
designed for progressive customers
to gain control of their pest management systems, whilst saving time on
maintenance and reporting, said
managing director of Mities pest
control services, Peter Trotman.
Pest-intel works seamlessly with
real-time monitoring system eMitter,
a UK exclusive product, which sends
an instant alert with the precise
location of a trapped rodent to pestintel, enabling a rapid response.
b sales.pest@mitie.com

15

Testing solutions for


spice blend contamination

Worlds first
ovenable skin packs
Faerch Plast has launched the
worlds first ovenable CPET skin
pack. Offering significant hygiene
benefits, this latest innovation allows
the consumer to place the product
directly into the oven or microwave
without removing any of the immediate packaging or having to touch
the raw food. This lightweight pack
offers significant barrier and strength
properties delivering major benefits for processor, retailer and consumer.
As well as the meat being safely
and easily oven or microwave
cooked directly from the freezer or
refrigerator without being opened
and extending shelf life, the ovenable
skin packs are expected to help
reduce the risk of contamination,

such as from campylobacter, as


there is no need for the consumer
to handle the raw food.
The meat or poultry is held
securely in place for display which
greatly enhances on-shelf impact.
The ovenable skin packs can also be
shown side-on for increased appeal.
Consumers often complain about
off-odours when removing lids
from traditional MAP packs. With
these new ovenable skin packs, any
odours are transformed during the
cooking process into the aroma of
just cooked foods.
All moisture and juices are
retained during cooking ensuring a
tasty and succulent product straight
from the oven.
b uk@faerchplast.com

Laboratory testing to
ensure ingredient safety
Food contaminants come from two
sources material introduced during
the manufacturing process and
materials introduced from the raw
materials used in the manufacturing
process.
Contaminants in raw materials can
be introduced into the process
from:
l The way they are handled, stored
and transported to prevent cross
contamination or the introduction of
undesirable materials.
l From where they are sourced
such as heavy metals or organic
compounds absorbed from the environment where the food is grown.
Such substances can be classified
as to their toxicity persistence and
bioaccumulation as they become
more concentrated as they proceed
up the food chain.

16

During the manufacturing process


food can become contaminated due
to cross contamination from other
foods previously processed with the
same equipment, from the equipment itself due to poor maintenance, or from the substances used
to clean the equipment.
Manufacturers have a HACCP
(Hazard Analysis and Critical
Control Point) system that helps
food business operators look at
how they handle food and introduces procedures to make sure the
food produced is safe to eat.
This, along with policies to source
materials from reputable sources
and the support of testing laboratories, such as ILS Ltd, ensure that
only the purest ingredients are used
that are fit for purpose.
b rsavage@ilsmail.co.uk

With the recent UK recall for


ground cumin issued by the Food
Standards Agency (FSA) due to the
discovery of undeclared peanut protein, the issue of adulteration of the
supply chain is once again to the
fore.
The adulteration of cumin with
both peanut and almond has been
reported as widespread in the
USA and
Canada where
testing has
uncovered
high levels of
allergenic
protein. To protect the brands of
suppliers and processers, and to
crucially protect allergic consumers,
testing is a viable option.
Neogens AOAC-approved
Veratox ELISA test for Peanut
Allergen has been validated to
detect and fully quantify peanut
residues in cumin in around 30 minutes, perfect for both laboratories
and large food manufacturers.

Neogen also offers the Alert for


Peanut microwell test, which
screens samples at 5ppm and is
based on the same technology as
Veratox, but is simpler to run. Both
testing solutions are also available
for the detection of almonds.
For companies who do not use
on-site testing or are looking for further analysis,
Neogen also offers
a rapid external
testing service at its
accredited laboratory in Ayr,
Scotland. Neogen
offers a range of turnaround times ranging
from same day express
analysis through to three, five or 10
day turnarounds depending on your
time scales.
Neogens food allergen testing
products have been developed in
close cooperation with the
University of Nebraskas Food
Allergy Research and Resource
Program.
b j.sutherland@neogeneurope.com

Controlling plastic
contaminants
Polypropylene, polyethylene and
polyurethane are examples of food
grade plastics that are widely used in
food and drink manufacturing environments. These materials are safe,
cost effective, easy to clean, durable
and can be brightly coloured to contrast with food. So whats the problem with them you ask?
The problem is that every year
there are several high profile product recalls due to plastics contaminating food. Plastic will not get
picked up by a metal detector
and is not dense enough to be
spotted by x-ray.
Your factory could be one
unfortunate incident away
from a major recall, major
expense, and even worse
consumer danger.
BRC, SQF and supermarket
auditors are placing more
emphasis than ever before on
plastic items at high risk of
causing product contamination.
Metal detectable and x-ray visi-

ble plastics have been on the market


since they were first developed by
BST in the late 1980s, now they are
scientifically engineered to be even
more detectable, highly durable,
bright, colour coded and EU migration tested.
So if you are aware of high risk
items in your process not only
pens, but seals, gaskets and bespoke
machine parts you can source a
BST Detectable alternative.
b will@detectable-products.co.uk

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

controlling contaminants
Complete confidence Food process timer reduces
run after run
contamination risks
The Thermo Scientific SureTect
Real-Time PCR System can help you
to control contaminants confidently.
Built on proven PCR technology, it is
designed to quickly and accurately
detect micro-organisms in a broad
range of foods and environmental
samples.
Combining speed and performance in an easy to use, cost effective platform the system gives you
results you can be sure about.
l Fast results quick turnaround
times ensure cost efficient operations.
l Ready-to-use reagents convenient format, ease of use and consistent quality.
l Single enrichment step faster,
simpler testing.

l One PCR protocol test for multiple pathogen targets in one run for
maximum efficiency.
l Internal amplification control
confidence in each individual result.
l Powerful software intuitive,
automatic result interpretation;
operates up to five units.
l Experienced support one partner for all orders, technical service
and support.
Extensively tested on a wide range
of food matrices, the SureTect PCR
Assays continue to grow in range
and global accreditation.
Tests for Salmonella spp., Listeria
spp., Listeria monocytogenes and E.
coli O157:H7 have been granted
AOAC-RI Performance Tested
MethodsSM status and in addition, the
salmonella and listeria tests have NF
validation certificates granted by
AFNOR Certification.
b cheryl.mooney@
thermofisher.com

Identification and strain


typing of contaminants
Identification of an unknown species
that you may have encountered can
help to assess whether your contamination poses a safety or spoilage
concern.
The identification of micro-organisms causing spoilage is of major
importance, but sometimes you
need to know more, including
where a contaminant came from.
Many organisms occupy a diverse
range of habitats. The only way of
knowing the origins of a particular
contaminant is to characterise it to a
specific strain and then match that
with a strain elsewhere in the environment.
BaseClear is experienced and specialised in molecular microbiology.
Their microbiology department is a

well equipped facility with a complete range of reliable and validated


test systems for identification and
strain typing of bacteria and fungi.
The company can offer same day
identifications so that you can get
results as fast as possible. BaseClear
services and solutions can help you
prevent, for instance, long time factory shutdown or product recalls.
b info@baseclear.com

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

The new metal detectable digital


process timer from Detectamet is a
useful food safe tool for processing
and technical managers working in
busy food production companies.
The timer is powered by one
AAA battery and features
a large and easy to read
LCD display to show
the running time in
minutes and seconds. The user can
set the timer to count
down or count up over a
pre-set period up to 99
minutes. The timing period can be
set in minutes and seconds using

four easy to use buttons. The timer


announces the end of the set
period with a loud beeping noise.
The case is made from
Detectamets metal detectable polymer and features both a
strong magnet to attach
the timer to a suitable
metal surface and a
flip out stand so it can
sit on a suitable surface. It will fit into
most inside pockets.
Detectamets new
detectable process timer is
just 68mm x 79mm.
b s.smith@detectamet.com

Innovative range offers


higher detection rates
Mettler-Toledo Safeline X-ray has
continued to develop its innovative
range of next generation x-ray systems by designing the new X37
Series for reliable product inspection
in the food industry.
The x-ray inspection system is able
to detect contaminants such as glass,
metal, calcified bone and high density plastics in tall, rigid packaging
applications such as can, cartons and
plastic containers.
It can be configured with different
detector sensitivity options supported by a range of power generators. These smartly designed
engineering features enable manufacturers to reduce total cost of
ownership and comply with food
safety regulations, whilst preserving
the highest quality products.
The machine can be installed onto
existing customer lines, allowing
manufacturers to maintain high
volume production targets.
To ensure
product
integrity,
the system
is capable of
simultaneously performing a
range of additional quality
checks such
as fill level

inspection, measuring head space,


detecting missing caps on containers
and packaging defects.
To provide full flexibility to suit
manufacturers needs, the X37
Series comprises three systems
X3710 / X3720 / X3730 offering
a choice of detectors, x-ray generators and single or split-beam capability. This allows manufacturers to
select an x-ray system to meet their
specific product inspection needs.
In addition, the X37 Series helps
food manufacturers to monitor critical control points, in accordance
with the requirements of food safety
regulations, such as the newly introduced British Retail Consortium
Global Standards Version 7.
b daniela.verhaeg@mt.com

17

Sealing a weak link


to food safety
Sealing is a critical control point in
food security that is sometimes difficult to master, so full inspection via
vision systems, such as the innovative solutions offered by Luceo
Inspection Worldwide, tends to be
required on production lines.
Tray or bag packaging conditioned
in a modified atmosphere is becoming widespread in our daily life in
response to our requirements for
freshness, extended shelf life or simply practical considerations.

The sealing of this packaging guarantees that it is hermetically sealed


from the outside environment, irrespective of the technology used to
create it. This sealing is both an
essential safeguard against health
risks, but also a link exposed to particular stresses throughout the product's life cycle (crating, transport,
and shelving). The slightest sealing
defect is thus totally excluded as it
could impair the primary function of
the packaging, namely to protect the
food from the plant to the plate.
Unfortunately, industrial control of

this critical point is still relatively


complex. Sealing defects generated
in the sealing zone can actually have
several causes: the main ones being
contamination of the sealing surface
during filling and sealing tool drift,
which generates folds, bubbles or
partial lack of sealant. These defects
expose manufacturers to a dual risk:
economic risk concerning the scrapping of whole batches if the process
is not continuously controlled, but
also a brand image risk related to
the possible marketing of contaminated or badly preserved
products.
To eradicate these risks,
manufacturers must make their
control procedures more reliable but also save and store
their data to ensure perfect
traceability for the product.
These requirements are driving the development of full
control of the manufactured
products that only vision inspection
systems can perform at satisfactory
rates.
However, manufacturers will certainly not be happy with post-control of their products for very long
and will be looking for solutions to
improve control of their sealing
process. This is why the vision
inspection systems must go even
further in the future and interact
upstream with the machines to
enable real time self-checking of the
sealing tool.
b c.besnard@luceo-inspection.com

Controls for qualitative and


quantitative detection
Food process controls provide the
dependability and reliability food
testing laboratories need to meet
the requirements of their QC pro-

18

grams and ensure the health of consumers.


Microbiologics EZ-FPC lyophilised
QC micro-organism preparations
are used as daily process controls
for qualitative and quantitative
detection methods.
Qualitative EZ-FPC micro-organism preparations provide a guaranteed concentration of 102 CFU per
pellet for presence/absence testing.
Quantitative EZ-FPC micro-organism preparations provide a guaranteed concentration of 103 CFU per
pellet for quantitative test methods.
b lbebo@microbiologics.com

Latest benchtop autoclave


offers ideal sterilisation
For those laboratories looking to
implement higher levels of prevention of cross contamination and
spread of infection to Cat 3 standards, the latest C40 laboratory
benchtop autoclaves from Priorclave
are the ideal sterilisers.
Models include both standard and vacuum designs,
all available
with a host of
options to
match application criteria.
One of the
first models
developed for
such stringent laboratory
requirements is the C40 front-loading, vacuum laboratory autoclave
which features short legs that support a programme for improved
cleanliness and disinfection of the
bench top by allowing easy access
beneath the actual autoclave.
Another added benefit of investing

in Priorclave benchtop autoclaves is


the Biomaster antimicrobial surface
protection given to all products.
The Compact C40 vacuum autoclave is a versatile wide format
benchtop autoclave
equipped with a 40
litre front-loading
chamber and features pre-vacuum and
post-vacuum
cycles.
These vacuum
phases make the
C40 autoclave
ideal for sterilising laboratory
waste, glassware
and instruments as well as porous or
wrapped goods.
Manufactured in the UK by
Priorclave, they are available with an
extended range of optional features
normally found only on much larger
steam sterilisers.
b sales@priorclave.co.uk

Complete line of hand and


boot sanitising equipment
Meritech offers a complete line of
fully-automated handwashing and
boot scrubbing machines that provide the only technology-based
approach to employee hygiene in
the world.
Their line of CleanTech
fully automated handwashing systems perform a 12-second wash
and rinse cycle, removing 99.98% of dangerous pathogens,
exceeding SQF, BRC
and cGMP standards
and preventing cross
contamination.
Models range from
compact and industrial
wall-mount systems, to
free-standing and fully
self-cleaning models,
all of which guarantee a high quality
handwash.
Meritechs MBW line of boot
scrubbing and sanitising machines
address the need for more effective
footwear hygiene programs in food

production environments. Your


captive footwear program can be
improved with the MBW soles only
model; or ensure the soles and sides
of boots are scrubbed with the
MBW 3000 or 9000; or remove
pathogens and particles from the
entire surface of boots with the high
volume XBW 3.0 model.
b mcolbert@meritech.com

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

controlling contaminants
New rotary magnet catches
more ferrous material
GEA has recently launched its new
demountable rotary magnet for use
in powdered food and dairy applications such as milk powders, infant
formula, nutritional powders, sugar,
cocoa powder, beverage powders
and food ingredients. The magnets
are designed to remove fragments
of ferrous metals and work hardened stainless steel contaminants
that would otherwise contaminate
the product.
The new 12-bar design, featuring many improvements over the
previous 8-bar version, has been developed in close
cooperation with one
of the worlds leading
manufacturers of powdered infant formula and in
association with the Auckland
University of Technology.
It uses the highest quality rare
earth Neodymium magnets N52 to
provide a direct product strength in
excess of 10,500 gauss. This
removes ferrous material more
effectively without any increase in
cost. The units can be demounted
by hand and are much easier to
clean than previous models.
New features include: tool-free
disassembly for inspection; hand

demountable design for easy cleaning; low profile design; built-in ASU
(Air Service Unit); a magnetically
coded cut-out switch; and a high polished surface finish (0.76m Ra. Min.)
GEA rotary magnets are designed
and manufactured to meet the strict
dairy guidelines of USDA and
EHEDG standard (European
Hygienic & Design Group); and conform with ATEX Class 2 Category 3
Zone 22
Electrics
requirements.
Typical
applications
include
detection of
ferrous
material in
the early
stage of powder handling, (at the tipping phase) and also at the final stage
of powder handling, before finished
product packing (under gassing hopper). The rotating action of the magnets also breaks up lumps and
cohesive materials to ensure an even
flow through the system.
Installations currently using the
older 8-bar design can be upgraded
to the new 12-bar magnets easily and
economically.
b andrew.wade@gea.com

Monitoring pathogen
hazards from raw meat
Government agencies around the
world are focusing their attention on
reducing the incidence of campylobacter in raw meat, particularly
poultry. The Food Standards Agency
have issued public warnings and
advice on handling raw poultry.
Campylobacter is now the largest
cause of bacterial food poisoning in
the western world that can cause
severe illness, hospitalisation and
even death. Experts say that the
bacteria are not difficult to kill but
cross contamination is the much bigger problem. There is no magic bullet to resolve the problem at source,
so better cleaning and hygiene all
along the food chain is required to
minimise the hazards.
Detecting pathogens such as
campylobacter is a difficult, skilled

and expensive process giving results


after several days. However a new
simple rapid test CrossCheck
from Hygiena International Ltd
specifically measures the presence of
raw meat and fish residues giving
results in 2-5 minutes that can be
used by anyone and anywhere.
CrossCheck specifically measures
an enzyme that is present in raw
meat and fish. It is not a test for specific bacteria. CrossCheck is a simple
rapid method to measure the
hygienic status of surfaces to assess
the hazards associated with cross
contamination. The enzyme measured is destroyed by cooking so
that CrossCheck can also be used
on finished product to verify cooking
processes.
b martin.easter@hygiena.net

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

Sanitising solutions meet


food industry demands
Best Sanitizers Inc has introduced
food processors to the future of
footwear sanitation by adding the
HACCP SmartStep Footwear
Sanitizing System to their line of
footwear sanitisers.
The HACCP SmartStep joins the
HACCP Defender Walk Through
Automatic Boot Sanitizing Station to
stop cross-contamination throughout the entire facility.
Both units use an atomised mist of
Alpet D2 Surface Sanitizer to saturate employee's footwear soles
before entering critical control
areas. The walk-through design of
the HACCP Defender is ideal for
high traffic areas, while the compact
footprint of the HACCP SmartStep
allows placement in multiple locations.
Since 1995, Best Sanitizers has
provided food processors with the
highest quality products and support available. Their line of hand
soaps, hand sanitisers, surface
sanitisers, and dispensing systems
meet the demanding requirements
of the industry. Best Sanitizers was
the first company to achieve an E3
rating for an alcohol-based hand

sanitiser and the first to achieve a


D2 rating for an alcohol/quat-based
surface sanitiser.
Their Alpet D2 Surface Sanitizer/
Disinfectant, Alpet E3 Plus Hand
Sanitizer Spray, Alpet Q E2 and
Alpet E2 Sanitizing Foam Soaps are
found in over 8,000 food processing
plants in the USA and beyond.
b aromero@bestsanitizers.com

Keeping a handle on
effective hand hygiene
The Pure Hold Hygiene Handle is
one of the most effective products
in the food market for guaranteeing
hand hygiene. Its specialist concept
both actively sanitises hands and
ensures the doors on entrances to
sensitive areas and exits from toilet

facilities remain uncontaminated.


With a simple yet effective design,
the Hygiene Handle ensures full
hand hygiene compliance as sanitising gel is dispensed onto the users
hand upon grip through its intelligent, tailored delivery system.
The Hygiene Handle offsets the
risks associated with employees
neglecting to wash their hands by
preventing the spread of germs on
contaminated handle surfaces. It also
acts as an effective safety barrier for
entrances to sensitive food handling
areas.
In addition to the clear benefits of
ensuring a hygienic workplace for
food production or processing the
Hygiene Handle also has tangible
financial benefits for employers. The
Chartered Institute of Personnel and
Development (CIPD) estimate that
sickness absences cost 6.4 days per
employee per year.
b info@purehold.co.uk

19

Detecting contaminants
in tall, rigid containers

Economic alternative
for dairy pasteurisation
Hanovias PureLine PQ range of UV
disinfection systems is designed
specifically to provide validated and
chemical-free treatment of process
water used in the dairy, food and
beverage industries.
PureLine PQ provides a time and
cost effective alternative to standard
pasteurisation it also meets the US
Food and Drug Administrations
2011 Pasteurised Milk Ordinance
guidelines. PureLine PQ uses either
low pressure high output or medium
pressure lamps to safely disinfect
water passing through the system,
exposing it to UV light and deactivating any micro-organisms present.
All systems feature an automatic
wiper to automate optical path
maintenance, further reducing operating expenses.

The Dairy Plus Co Ltd. in Thailand


has recently replaced its chlorine
based disinfection system with five
PureLine PQ UV systems.
Two units disinfect clean-in-place
(CIP) water and two are used for
treating dairy mixing water, with
each system treating up to 130m3/
hour of water.
Dairy Plus decided to reduce high
levels of chlorine dosage throughout
the process because it was proving
ineffective at removing all microorganisms.
It was also producing an after-taste
in the product. Since installing UV
the frequency of CIP procedures has
been dramatically reduced, meaning
less down-time of the manufacturing
process.
b gunvinder.bhogal@hanovia.com

Quality control testing


to identify the Big 6
Under USDA regulation, E. coli
serogroups O26, O103, O45,
O111, O121 and O145, also commonly referred to as the Big 6 E.
coli, are prohibited from raw
ground beef, its components, and
tenderised steaks.
Testing laboratories need positive
controls to validate, verify and monitor their methods, materials and
equipment used to detect contamination of STEC strains.
Microbiologics is the first company
to offer the Big 6 E. coli strains in
ready-to-use, convenient formats
for quality control testing.
Their Epower and KWIK STIK for-

20

mats provide accurate results for


qualitative and quantitative testing.
b lbebo@microbiologics.com

Cans, jars and bottles of all shapes


and materials are common packaging in the food industry around the
world. Ensuring food safety for these
types of products can be challenging.
Eagle Product
Inspection, a world-class
manufacturer of product
inspection and quality
assurance solutions
has developed an x-ray
inspection system
designed specifically
to detect contaminants in these types of
tall, rigid containers.
The Tall PRO XSDV,
a dual view x-ray
inspection system ideal
for the inspection of cans,
glass jars, pouches, and
bottles, has a single x-ray
generator that produces two beams,
which analyses and processes two
images per container.
It is capable of detecting glass,
metal, stones, calcified bone, high
density plastics and rubber contaminants up to 50% smaller than tradi-

tional machines, ensuring product


safety. It is ideal for customers with
limited factory floor space due to its
slim-line profile and small footprint,
the system maximises efficiency by
being able to inspect for packaging
defects such as damaged
packs and seal integrity,
plus check fill levels, mass
measurement and component counts.
The benefits of x-ray
inspection technology are
plentiful: product and
brand protection,
increased top line benefits by adherence to food
safety principles such as
Hazard Analysis Critical
Control Point and compliance with regulations including British Retail
Consortium Standards V7
and International Featured
Standards V6 (IFS) which enables
manufacturers access to trade with
new suppliers; and bottom-line savings by reducing product giveaway
and being able to rework product.
b mciubotaru@abipr.com

Identifying whether
contamination or threat
Bio-Check (UK) are offering a specialist test kit capability (ISO9001
approved system) for meat species
identification and food allergen
detection based on a wide range of
technologies including:
FlowThrough, ELISA and PCR. The
food industry has a heightened interest in improving their testing since
publication of the Elliott Review Final
Report and the latest BRC Global
Standard for Food Safety, Issue 7.
The Elliott Report recommendations included a zero tolerance to
food crime by Government, for
example encouraging industry to
conduct sampling and testing at all
stages of the supply chain. The new
issue of BRC Standard includes the
need to perform a food fraud vulnerability assessment and have a
control plan in place. Bio-Checks
many years experience in related
areas of analysis enables it to advise
industry on the best choice of methods. Their FlowThrough onsite tests

for raw meat species and food allergen identification can be performed
within 12 minutes; whereas in the
laboratory their ELISA and PCR
methods will also detect at levels
that are appropriate for most control plans, depending upon the sample type. For example, its
Allergen-Check ELISAs include
those for detecting almond and
peanut in unlabelled foods at low
levels.
b info@biocheck.uk.com

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

controlling contaminants
Effective and long term
antimicrobial protection

Protect your customers,


business and reputation

process the active agent silver is


added to every external component
of the Stuart product, providing
effective and long term
antimicrobial protection
against a
wide range of
bacteria and fungi,
including Escherichia
coli and Salmonella enteritidis.
The Biocote finish inhibits the ability of the bacteria to reproduce
resulting in natural death after eight
hours; this reduces the levels of bacteria by over 99% during an eight
hour period.
This complete assurance of antimicrobial protection makes Stuart
equipment an ideal solution for food
safety testing and screening procedures.
Stuart offers a wide range of high
throughput equipment including
handheld or laboratory scale
homogenisers, vortex mixers and a
range of liquid handling products.
b info@bibby-scientific.com

Effective environmental hygiene


management helps to reduce levels
of contamination in finished products, leading to improved quality,
fewer batch rejections and lower
risk of product recall.
The 3M Clean-Trace Hygiene
Monitoring System helps to assess
standards of hygiene and cleaning
procedures by measuring the
amount of adenoside tri-phosphate
(ATP) in a sample.
The Clean-Trace System offers a
rapid, simple and reliable solution to
monitor biological contamination on
surfaces and in water in real time,
which, when combined with the
powerful 3M Clean-Trace Data
Trending Software, makes quantitative analysis of surface and water
hygiene possible, allowing changes
to be tracked and reported.
The sensitivity and repeatability of

Controlling indicator
bacteria in water

To ensure hand washing best practice is encouraged, Initial Washroom


Hygiene has created Signature NoTouch soap and No-Touch UltraProtect hand sanitiser dispensers as
well as an UltraProtect stand.
No-Touch provides a comfortable
user experience as the user does
not have to make contact with the
products in order to operate them,
thereby greatly reducing the risk of
cross-contamination. A sensor automatically senses the hands and a
palm LED then delivers accurate dispensing of the soap or hand sanitiser.
UltraProtect is a powerful hand
sanitiser killing 99.99% of bacteria
including swine flu (H1N1), MRSA,
E. coli and salmonella, but is also
alcohol-free, and so is gentle in that
it does not dry out skin. Dispensing

The potential for contamination or


infection from equipment in the
workplace has never been greater.
To help combat this risk the complete range of Stuart scientific bench
top laboratory equipment offers
antimicrobial protection
through the addition of
Biocote.
During the
manufacture

The Colifast ALARM is an automated on-line monitor for detection


of E. coli or coliform bacteria in
water. Waterworks use the monitor
as a labour reducing, rapid and reliable test for the hygienic quality of
drinking water both during production and in the distribution system.
This spring, the water works IVAR

IKS will acquire its second Colifast


ALARM that will be installed in
Stavanger, Norway at a critical node
in the distribution system that supplies water to some of the countrys
largest food and beverage companies.
The waterworks operates the
main distribution lines to this area,
and will now get daily results that
confirm the quality of the delivered
water.
Traditional methods do not capture smaller incidents or short-lived
changes in the quality due to low
sampling frequency and by the time
the water sample has been analysed,
large amounts of the water has
already been used by the industry.
The analysis is completed in
6-14/15 hours instead of the 18-72
hours used by the traditional
methods and it will detect one
bacterium/100 ml.
The Colifast ALARM is verified by
the US EPA ETV program.
b post@colifast.no

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

the Clean-Trace hygiene system give


you confidence that the results
provide a true picture of cleaning
performance allowing you to take
sound action that can help protect
your customers, business and
reputation.
b credfern@mmm.com

Automatic sensors offer


accurate dispensing
UltraProtect in building entrances,
queues and busy open spaces can
now be facilitated by free-standing
dispensers, mounted on a purpose
built backboard.
We understand the importance
of preventing cross-contamination
with good hand hygiene and this
should start in the washroom, Dr
Peter Barratt, technical manager,
Initial Washroom Hygiene, commented. Research has shown that
only 20% of those who do wash
their hands use soap, and we know
that manually-operated soap dispensers can be a barrier to washing
hands. No-Touch and antimicrobial
technology are a powerful combination against microbial cross-contamination.
b iws-pressenquiries-uk@
rentokil-initial.com

To feature your products

Contact: Claire Fussey or Emma Barton


on +44 1377 241724

21

The most successful food producers


understand the fundamental need for
accurate information and control to ensure
the safe production of food. It is important
to use the best instruments to measure
critical data upon which important
decisions will be made. This page is
designed to help you find the right
instruments from reliable sources.
This feature appears in the March and
September issues of International Food
Hygiene. Find out how to be listed and
enjoy the benefit of being seen by at least
15,000 food company managers.

Call Emma Barton


Tel: +44 1377 241724 or
Email: eb@positiveaction.co.uk

Rapid food safety tests

Temperature recording

Hygiena International Ltd

Remonsys Ltd
The Stables, Church Hanborough,
Witney, Oxford OX29 8AB, UK.
Tel: +44 1993 886996
Email: info@remonsys.com
Web: www.remonsys.com

Unit E, 3 Regal Way, Watford,


Hertfordshire WD24 4YJ, UK.
Tel: +44 1923 818821
Fax: +44 1923 818825
Email: enquiries@hygiena.net
Web: www.hygiena.net
Hygiena supplies a range of rapid tests to
measure microbial content and surface
cleanliness that provides simplicity,
convenience, high performance and cost
effective solutions.

Temperature monitoring

T&D Corporation
European Sales Office,
Gronauer Str. 1,
61194 Niddatal, Germany.
Tel: +49 6034 930970
Email: europe.office@tandd.de
Web: www.tandd.com
Wireless and network connected
solutions for monitoring all aspects of
food preparation, transportation, storage
and service. Data loggers safeguard goods
and processes and ensure error-free
documentation.

Hygiene monitoring
Neogen Europe Ltd
The Dairy School, Auchincruive,
Ayr KA6 5HU, Scotland.
Tel: +44 1292 525 600
Fax: +44 1292 525 601
Email: hygiene-uk@neogeneurope.com
Web: www.neogeneurope.com

AccuPoint is the clear leader in the science


of surface and water sanitation monitoring.
Neogens unique sampler design allows
greater sample precision and consistency
through use of a large surface area sample
pad.

22

Hygiene monitoring
3M Health Care Ltd
3M House, Morley Street, Loughborough,
Leicestershire LE11 1EP, UK
Tel: +44 1509 613859
Fax: +44 1509 613061
Web: www.3m.co.uk/food safety

ETI Ltd
Data logger systems

MULTiLOG2 temperature monitoring


directly connected to a PC with
automatic download of data to disc,
audible alarms and SMS messaging
out-of-hours.

Easting Close, Worthing,


West Sussex, BN14 8HQ, UK.
Tel: +44 1903 202151
Fax: +44 1903 202445
Email: sales@etiltd.com
Web: www.etiltd.com
Specialists in the design and manufacture
of temperature measuring equipment for
over 30 years.

Be confident that the ATP results you get


are accurate and repeatable. Use the tried
and tested 3M Clean-Trace Surface ATP
System.

Data loggers
Gemini Data Loggers (Tinytag)
Scientific House,
Terminus Road,
Chichester, West Sussex
PO19 8UJ, UK.
Tel: +44 1243 813000
Fax: +44 1243 531948
Email: info@tinytag.info
Web: www.tinytag.info
UK manufacturers of Tinytags, self
contained and battery operated data
loggers for monitoring temperature,
humidity and other parameters in
processing, storage and transport
applications for the food industry.

Please mention International Food Hygiene


when responding to any of the
companies listed in this feature

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

Successful screening
technology for the effective
control of mycotoxins
by Lisa Hughes, Randox Food
Diagnostics, 55 Diamond Road,
Crumlin, Co. Antrim, BT29 4QY, UK.
ood consumers globally are becoming
increasingly discerning in selecting
produce to fill their fridges, cupboards
and, indeed, stomachs. Factors of choice are
moving beyond taste, appearance and
nutritional content. Public awareness of
food safety is highly sensitised and
increasingly proliferated through online
news and social media headlines and few are
immune.
Familiarity in consumers of the issue of
antibiotic resistance linked to drug residues
in food is growing, and there is an
expectation for food producers to deal with
it appropriately. The issues of mycotoxins in
feed and feed components makes fewer
headlines but is no less a problem.
The occurrence of contamination in
various grain crops is of growing concern as
it has major implications for food and feed
safety, food security and international trade.
Worldwide, it is estimated that
mycotoxins are responsible for losses of up
to 5-10% of crop production, according to a
European Commission report.
Contaminations are due to a series of
events including weather conditions,
possible climate change effects, land use,
crop management as well as harvest,
storage and processing techniques. Greater
awareness of the issue, together with
improved screening is key to effectively
controlling the incidence of mycotoxins in
feed and food chains.

Why screen for mycotoxins?


So what are mycotoxins and why should
food producers screen for them?
Mycotoxins are a group of naturally
occurring metabolites produced by certain
moulds. They occur in a variety of different
crops that are colonised with filamentous
fungi and in food products contaminated
during processing and storage. They can
occur on a range of food products including
cereals and grains, nuts, spices, dried fruits,
apple juice and coffee and are most
prevalent in warm and humid conditions.

10 Residue biochip
Paxiline, Fumonisins, Ochratoxin A, Aflatoxin G1/G2, Aflatoxin B1/B2,
Diacetoxyscirpenol, Deoxynivalenol (DON), T2 toxin, Zearalenone, Ergot alkaloids.
7 Residue biochip
Fumonisins, Ochratoxin A, Aflatoxin G1/G2, Aflatoxin B1/B2, Deoxynivalenol (DON),
T2 toxin, Zearalenone
3 Residue biochip
Ochratoxin A, Aflatoxin G1/G2, Aflatoxin B1/B2
Table 1. BAT arrays allow fast, comprehensive and sensitive screening of all of the
worlds most prevalent mycotoxins in arrays of 10, 7 or 3 assays.
Consumption of mycotoxins can result in
significant adverse health effects in humans
and animals and as a result, international
food standards recommend that food
producers carry out screening for
mycotoxins. To protect consumers, a
tolerable daily intake (TDI) has been
established which estimates the quantity of
mycotoxin which someone can be exposed
to daily over a lifetime without it posing a
significant risk to health.
There are a range of mycotoxins which are
of most concern from a food safety
perspective. These include the aflatoxins
(B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1), Ochratoxin A and
toxins produced by Fusarium moulds,
including fumonisins (B1, B2 and B3),
trichothecenes (principally nivalenol,
deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxin) and
zearalenone.
Aflatoxins, including aflatoxin B1 are
considered the most toxic and can damage
DNA and cause cancer in animal species.
There is also evidence that they can cause
liver cancer in humans. Other mycotoxins
have a range of other health effects including
kidney damage, gastrointestinal
disturbances, reproductive disorders or
suppression of the immune system.
In order to protect consumer safety, rules
and strict legislative limits for aflatoxins,
Ochratoxin A and Fusarium toxins in certain
foodstuffs are set out in European
Commission legislation. The legislation
applies to the specified foods whether they
are imported into the UK or produced in
the UK.
Globally, the requirement for mycotoxin

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

screening is varied. There are a number of


special import conditions currently in place
for some foods from certain third world
countries (Africa in particular) where the
risk from aflatoxin contamination is
increased, which further improves
consumer protection.

Challenge for the food sector


Compliance with internationally acceptable
limits for mycotoxins (TDI) can be
challenging for the food industry, requiring
good plant protection, adequate storage
and good manufacturing practices in order
to keep levels below the limits.
Some crops are now being genetically
engineered to detoxify mycotoxins in the
field. Genetically engineered microorganisms producing purified enzymes can
detoxify mycotoxins during storage and
processing of raw materials in food
production.
Advocates of such enzymatic
detoxification of mycotoxins argue that this
approach uses generic technology to make
food healthier. However, there is a
considerable lobby against genetic
engineering of food therefore this may not
be an acceptable route for some food
producers to take.
How then can food producers tackle the
issue of mycotoxins to ensure international
food safety standards are being met?
A growing awareness of the issues
surrounding excessive mycotoxin
Continued on page 24

23

Continued from page 23


consumption has resulted in an increase in
available screening technologies on the
market.

Unique technology
Randox Food Diagnostics offers a range of
market leading screening tools for the
qualitative analysis of mycotoxins, using both
the unique patented Biochip Array
Technology (BAT) and high quality ELISAs.
These cutting edge BAT arrays allow fast,
comprehensive and sensitive screening of all
of the worlds most prevalent mycotoxins in
arrays of 10, 7 or 3 assays, as shown in
Table 1. With a single 50l sample of feed
the user will obtain highly accurate
quantitative results in under two hours.
Sample preparation is straightforward: add
solvent, vortex for 60 seconds and roll for
10 minutes, centrifuge for 10 minutes then
dilute, meaning the sample is ready for
testing within 20 minutes, with no need for
immunoaffinity columns.
Using Randox BAT eliminates the need for
costly single tests, and lowers the cost per
sample, saving food testing laboratories time
and money. It provides laboratories with the
flexibility to test only those mycotoxins of
concern. This means that test assays can be
specified to screen for particular mycotoxins
depending on factors such as storage or

24

harvest conditions. In external and internal


studies it is proven to deliver no false
negatives and less than 5% false positives,
with results showing close correlation to
confirmatory methods.
Importantly, Randox participates in
FAPAS, the largest and most comprehensive
analytical chemistry proficiency testing
scheme in the food sector; ensuring that
screening methods are providing accurate
test results.
The benefits of Randox BAT include:
l Straightforward screening for 10
mycotoxins from a single sample.
l Semi-quantitative results ready in under
two hours.
l No false negatives, less than 5% false
positives in studies.
l Confirms only the samples, saves money.
l Robust and easy to use with simple
sample preparation for a single feed sample.
For laboratories using ELISA screening,
Randox offers an extensive (and expanding)
range of ELISAs for 26 residues in three
assays: Ergot Alkaloids, Aflatoxin M1 and
Aflatoxin B1, as shown in Table 2. The
ELISAs are pre-coated with antibodies,
offering detection that meets regulatory
requirements, whilst saving time and
ensuring rapid analysis. They offer excellent
inter and intra assay precision, which
increases the reliability of results, ensuring
less false positives and guaranteeing the best
screening capability.

Ergot alkaloids
Ergotamine, Ergosine, Ergosinine,
Ergocristine, Ergocristinine,
Dihydroergochrisine, Ergocryptine,
Ergocryptinine, Ergocornine,
Ergocorninine, Ergotaminine, Ergovaline,
Ergometrine, Ergometrinine, Agroclavine,
Lysergic acid, LSD, iso-LSD, Lysergol
Aflatoxin M1
Aflatoxin B2
Aflatoxin B1
Aflatoxin B1, Aflatoxin B2, Aflatoxin G1,
Aflatoxin G2, Aflatoxin M1, Aflatoxin M2
Table 2. Extensive range of ELISAs for
26 residues in three assays.
With global controls on food safety and
contaminants becoming ever more
complex, having the right technology is key
to meeting those challenges now and in the
future.
Randox Food Diagnostics technology is
tried and tested by many of the worlds
leading food producers and is leading the
market in mycotoxin screening.
n
References are available from
the author on request

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

Fluoroquinolone resistance
This Serbian paper (Zoos. and Pub. Health 61 364-370) looks at the spread
of fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella infantis in Serbia from 2006-2011.
The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed that quinolone
resistant S. infantis isolates in Serbia from humans, food and poultry had similar or indistinguishable PFGE profiles, suggesting a clonal spread.
All showed a combined resistance to nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Only
two isolates both human revealed multiple drug resistance.
A single point gene mutation in the gyrA gene leading to a Ser83Tyr
exchange was detected in all isolates, and a second exchange (Ser80Arg) in
gene parC was only present in eight isolates which exhibited slightly higher
MICs to ciprofloxacin.

recoveries ranging from 71-90% in


normal phase clean up and 70-94%
in reverse phase.

Campylobacteriosis
In this New Zealand study (New
Zealand Med. J. 127 22-37) a cost
benefit analysis of the food safety
regulations of production of poultry
for the domestic market and the
reduction of foodborne illness was
undertaken.
In dollar terms a gain of at least
$57.4 million was demonstrated.

Chinese campylobacter
Arcobacter in chicken meat

Sulphonamides in meat and eggs

This Indian work (J. of Pure and


Appl. Microbiol. 8 3165-3169)
looked at the use of a PCR for the
detection of Arcobacter butzleri and
A. cryaerophilus in chicken meat
samples.
In a survey of 50 retail samples 28
(56%) were found to be positive.

In this American study (J. of AOAC


Int. 97 1481-1488) 12 sulphonamide
residues were determined in pork,
chicken and eggs by ultraperformance LC/LC/MS after SPE
clean up using multiwalled carbon
nanotubes.
Nine of the 12 compounds had

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

In this Chinese study (Food. Paths.


11 861-867) whole chicken carcases
were collected from retail outlets in
Beijing and their campylobacter
loads were enumerated.
In addition, representative campylobacter isolates were taken for
antimicrobial testing. Some 23.6% of
240 carcases were contaminated by
campylobacter and loads ranged

from 2.5-7,050cfus per g. The 50th


percentile value was 45cfus per g.
Multidrug resistance profiles were
found in 39.2% of Campylobacter
jejuni and 86.4% of C. coli isolates.

E. sakazakii detection
This Chinese report (Chin. Dairy
Ind. 42 41-43) looks at the repeatability, for Enterobacter sakazakii and
Enterobacteriaceae testing using
PCR and traditional culture methods. It was shown that the two
methods were fully consistent, but
real time PCR gave results sooner
and was an easier test to operate.

Costa Rican campylobacter


In this study (Agro. Mesoam. 25
357-363) 84 samples (24 retail
chicken meat, 20 carcase rinses and
40 caecal contents) were screened
for Campylobacter Spp.
Some 36 (42.8%) of samples were
found to be positive for C. jejuni and
one (1.25%) for C. coli.

25

Laboratory

Testing
Undeclared peanut and
almond protein in cumin

Enrichment media for 22 hour


listeria detection
The DuPont BAX System Real-Time
PCR Assay for L. monocytogenes
has been certified as a Performance
Tested Method (PTM) by the AOAC
Research Institute, a subsidiary of
AOAC International.
This next generation test, which
combines shorter, simpler sample
preparation and faster real time processing without sacrificing accuracy
or reliability, has been validated on a
variety of sample matrices, including
frankfurters, cooked shrimp,
spinach, queso fresco and environmental surfaces.
In addition to the 24LEB and reference method media based enrichment protocols published during the
commercialisation of the BAX
System assay in July 2014, this

AOAC certification includes a new


combined testing method from environmental samples developed by
DuPont Nutrition & Health and
FoodChek Systems Inc of Calgary,
Alberta, Canada.
This new combined testing
method includes a 20 hour, singlestage enrichment in FoodCheks
proprietary Actero Listeria
Enrichment Media followed by rapid
real-time processing with the
DuPont BAX System.
The method allows for the detection of L. monocytogenes from
environmental samples in about 22
hours, one of the fastest time-toresults available for the pathogen in
the food safety industry today.
b nicolette.blubaugh@dupont.com

New meat reference


materials safeguard
the food chain

possible species cross-contamination. The limit of detection is below


1% of one meat species in the presence of another.
These reference materials were
produced in direct response to the
horse meat incident and subsequent
reports of substitutions of cheaper
meat in the food chain.
In the UK, it is an offence under
sections 14 and 15 of the Food
Safety Act 1990 to sell food that is
not of the nature, substance or
quality demanded by the purchaser
or to falsely or misleadingly
describe or present food.
An investigation by the Food
Standards Agency (FSA), published
in April 2014, revealed that some
lamb dishes from takeaway restaurants across the UK contained
cheaper meats such as chicken and

Six new meat mixture reference


materials have been developed by
LGC scientists to help protect consumers from food fraud.
The meat mixtures will enable
food testing laboratories to assess
the quality of their measurements
and ensure they are able to detect
substitutions in meat products at
specified low levels.
The materials were analysed using
three different approaches DNA
sequencing, a PCR based method
and an immunoassay method to
confirm the expected meat species
in the samples and the absence of

26

Reports have emerged from the US


Food and Drug Administration about
undeclared peanut protein in cumin
which presents a possible health risk
to consumers with peanut allergy.
The problem was first highlighted
when Adams Flavours issued a voluntary recall for several of its spiced
products after the cumin they purchased was found to contain undeclared peanut proteins. This has
since resulted in a large number of
cumin-related recalls.
Prompted by USA and Canadian
issues, the Food Standards Agency
commissioned a sampling programme which involved testing
batches of ground cumin and cumin
seeds sold in the UK for the presence of peanut and almond. This has
resulted in one recall to date.
Allergen issues are a major concern, both to allergic consumers and

industry, Barbara Hirst, RSSL consultant, food safety and quality, told
International Food Hygiene.
When issues like these arise, testing validation is critical to understand
the scale of the problem and ensure
all results have been verified.
The key is for suppliers and manufacturers to work with testing laboratories to ensure that robust sampling
plans and the most appropriate testing are undertaken.
Spices can be a difficult matrix to
test, so being able to use the most
appropriate validated method is
critical for the detection of peanut
and almond in these types of samples.
RSSL can currently detect almond
protein using ELISA techniques or
can detect peanut or almond using a
DNA based method.
b inderjeet.bhamra@rssl.com

beef. Of 145 samples tested, 43


contained meat other than lamb and
25 of these samples were found to
contain only beef. Other meat
species identified included chicken
and turkey.
No samples were found to contain
horse meat.
LGC has also produced single
meat species reference materials,
prepared under LGCs ISO Guide 34
accreditation, for turkey meat,
chicken meat, sheep meat, horse
meat, beef meat and pork meat.
b Julian.Quigley@lgcgroup.com

The Stomacher paddle blender


was used to process both chicken
skin and sponge swabs in order to
maximise bacterial recovery at the
pre-enrichment phase, ensured by
the Stomachers patented paddle
design.
Furthermore, the protocol
adopted stressed the need for preventing cross contamination
between samples which the
Stomacher methodology also safeguards through use of irradiated
sterile Stomacher bags. The sponge
swab technique followed by extraction in the Stomacher has also been
shown to be a superior method to
swab sticks, generating a more representative result.
The traditional techniques of horizontal isolation of campylobacter
are reliable but slow. New real-time
PCR techniques require shorter preenrichment following Stomaching
which could reduce time to result to
just 24 hours, to potentially enable
processors to clear products before
shipping, Stuart Ray, Technical
Director, Seward Ltd, told
International Food Hygiene.
The quality of the sample produced by the Stomacher is essential
for the reliability of this new
approach.
b info@seward.co.uk

Campylobacter
contamination risk
in chilled chicken
Seward Ltds Stomacher technology
has been used for the preparation of
samples in a UK wide campylobacter
study.
The project was undertaken by
the UK Food Standards Agency
(FSA) using both public and private
microbiology laboratories to produce the data. The samples
processed were chicken skin and
sponge swabs taken from chicken
carcases.

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

breakthroughs & advancements

High performance water


purification systems
Merck Millipore has introduced their
AFS 40E, 80E, 120E and 150E water
purification systems, which have
been developed to provide clinical
laboratories with an economical and
reliable water purification solution
for daily water volumes of up to
3000 litres.
The systems rely on two powerful
technologies to produce water quality meeting Clinical and
Laboratory Standards
Institute (CLSI) Clinical
Laboratory Reagent
Water standards.
State-of-the-art,
proven Elix electrodeionization (EDI)
technology ensures
constant water quality
with low and predictable running costs,
while unique ERA
(Evolutive Reject
Adjustment) technology takes
feed water quality into account in
order to automatically optimise
water recovery and reduce water
usage costs.
The systems also offer users powerful 24/7 real-time monitoring and
remote control over their water
purification systems, as well as a
new generation of enhanced services. These advanced monitoring
features, along with an unprecedented level of service, also help
maximise water purification system
and analyser uptime.
The systems have been designed
to provide quick and precise remote

diagnostics and offer proactive service in order to avoid downtime.


Service starts with feed water
analysis by a certified Merck
Millipore field service engineer prior
to system installation. Then, over
time, users can ensure the best
upkeep of their AFS E water purification system with a customised
Watercare Pact service plan.
With its large new touch
screen, the system is
designed for intuitive operation and for supporting the
user with easy step-by-step
instructions during routine
maintenance. Interacting
with the water purification
system has never been easier. For increased flexibility,
the system interface can also
be accessed from another
location, using a PC, tablet,
or smart phone through a
web browser.
Mobile and customisable, the new
range of systems is designed to
make the best use of laboratory
space. The quiet, compact systems
are mounted on wheels, and can be
moved around the laboratory or
to another location depending on
requirements.
AFS E system users can choose
from a number of options and
accessories to match their specific
requirements, including an online
Total Organic Carbon (TOC) monitor, degassing option, and sanitary
sampling valve, among others.
b jill.decoste@emdmillipore.com

Exclusive worldwide
distributor deal

to ensure analytical testing is accurate, reliable and traceable, Liam


Gormley, Food and Environment
Product Manager, LGC, told
International Food Hygiene.
The broad range of marine
biotoxin standards LGC can now
offer through CIFGA means that
more laboratories will have confidence in their results. As well as
reinforcing LGCs vision of science
for a safer world, this partnership
will improve the availability of these
products to the scientific community
and increase the safety of seafood
for consumers.
b Julian.Quigley@lgcgroup.com

LGC has become the exclusive


worldwide distributor of CIFGAs
specialist marine biotoxin standards
and reference materials.
CIFGA is a leading producer of
marine biotoxin standards and reference materials and this agreement
enables current CIFGA customers
to take advantage of LGCs extensive logistics, supply and distribution
capabilities.
Using reference materials is vital

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

Visual colour change verifies


salmonella sampling
The latest addition to the Hygiena
line of rapid micro-organism tests is
InSite Salmonella, which is a rapid
and convenient colorimetric salmonella species test for environmental
surfaces.
Its all-in-one test format contains
both the pre-enrichment and selec-

tive enrichment procedures, maintains security and minimises the risk


of cross contamination. It also
retains the active culture for any
subsequent verification and identification tests.
InSite Salmonella is a self-contained, ready-to-use swab test which
contains a specialised liquid medium
which changes colour when salmonella species are present in the sample.
A colour change from purple to
bright yellow indicates presence,
with positive results in as early as 24
hours from sample collection. A
short pre-enrichment period of 6
hours gives the optimum and earliest detection of presumptive positive samples in the 24 hour period.
Optional overnight or 24 hour
pre-enrichment enables detection of
such samples in 48 hours.
The all-in-one test device eliminates the need for sample prepara-

tion materials, saving material and


labour costs. Other environmental
salmonella species test kits require
several complicated steps including
measurement and mixing of media,
sample enrichment, and transfer of
enriched sample to the test device.
InSite Salmonellas convenient
design eliminates the need
for any special preparation, measurement, or
enrichment outside the
test device,
simplifying the
assay so any
level of user
can successfully run the
test, thus virtually eliminating the possibility of
operator error.
The incorporation of
a large foam swab bud
improves sample collection, while enabling the
coverage of a large surface area for environmental surface testing.
The neutralising nonselective pre-enrichment
broth utilised enables
detection for even low
numbers of salmonella.
It also minimises the
effect of residual sanitisers while also facilitating
the recovery of stressed
cells. InSite provides a
proven performance for
the detection of salmonella, but with little interference
from non-salmonella bacteria.
b enquiries@hygiena.net

27

Beefing up training
The British Retail
Consortium launched
their revised Global
Standard for Food Safety Version 7
which is used by over 22,000
certified suppliers in 123 countries,
at the beginning of this year.
The new version has been
developed to address food safety,
quality and operational criteria
within food manufacturing to ensure
greater transparency in the supply
chain and improvement of food
safety in small facilities where
processes are still in development.
RSSL has launched a new training
course for manufacturers and
retailers to address areas of the new
standard specifically around
challenges with risk assessment,
traceability and authenticity.
This training is paramount as an
essential part of compliance with the
new BRC standard which highlights
both the issue of supply chain

New research into


hair contamination
New research into hair contamination reveals that it is caused not
only by natural hair shedding from
the scalp, but also from the damage
made to hair by modern hair styling
and treatment.
Help is at hand with new products
from ABurnet Ltd featuring HairBarrier and StayCool properties
with complimentary training, posters

28

integrity and the challenges of cross


contamination in light of the horse
meat contamination issues in 2013.
Where risks have been identified,
manufacturers must put in place
processes, control measures and,
where appropriate, sampling and
analysis to ensure product integrity.
In line with the impeccable
reputation of all of RSSL's training
courses, Cross Contamination A
journey from risk assessment to
management involves a high degree
of practical delegate interaction and
knowledge based learning.
Having been heavily involved in
the horse meat issue and advising
the industry, this course has been
specifically developed to give
delegates both the confidence and
ability to help meet the new BRC
requirements, Barbara Hirst, RSSL
Consultant, Food Safety and Quality,
told International Food Hygiene.
b inderjeet.bhamra@rssl.com

and videos and on-line auditing to


best practice.
I am of the opinion that the
KleenCap-Max hairnets, if carefully
fitted to freshly washed hair and left
untouched, should be effective in
containing shed and severed hair
shafts, Professor Barry Stevens,
President of the Trichology Society
2014-16, told International Food
Hygiene.
There has been similar, positive
feedback from industry.
We have trialled KleenCap and
the feedback from the operatives is
that it is very comfortable, added
Michaela Watson, QA/compliance
manager, Freshtime UK.
This is a really innovative
approach to hair containment and
complaint reduction. There is a
choice of hair coverings which are
well supported with clear visual aids
and a KPI management system to
track improvements by area,
commented Ann Marie Helm,
technical manager for Foxs Biscuits.
Independent advice and practical
tips from both Professor Stevens
and the University of Bolton can be
obtained from the new White
Paper, Target Zero Hair
Complaints which is available online
at www.aburnet.co.uk/target-zerohair-complaints.
b info@aburnet.co.uk

Clip boards are synonymous with organisation and tidiness.


Yet where do you keep them so they are out of the way and
immediately to hand? The new Detectamet wall mounted
stainless steel clip board or file holder can be easily installed on a handy wall
or partition. There are two ready to use sizes designed to take A4 or A3
sized clipboards or files. The high quality 304 grade stainless steel is of a
high hygiene standard. Produced in Britain, the A4 and A3 units can be
tailor made using 316 grade stainless steel and special dimension units can
also be made to order. The clean resilience of these products ensures that
customers can enjoy an extended product life cycle cost. Each unit is predrilled with two keyhole screw points for easy fitting. The Detectamet
Laser engraving service is available for placing company name, logo or usage
instructions on the front panel.
b s.smith@detectamet.com

Rapid detection software


Adulterant Screen
software from
PerkinElmer Inc is an
automated solution that can help
food industry professionals evaluate
the integrity of food ingredients to
guard against existing and potential
food adulteration threats.
When paired with PerkinElmers
Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR)
and Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy instruments, it creates a
unique, combined hardware and
software system that can confirm
authenticity and perform nutritional
analysis in a single step.

Food quality professionals face an


increasing number of risks related to
their ingredients which need to be
continually screened for known
contaminants as well as unknown
contaminants that may be unsafe
substitutions, Jon DiVincenzo,
President, Environmental Health,
PerkinElmer, told International Food
Hygiene.
We are committed to delivering
advanced detection solutions to help
our global customers address
increasingly complex industry
regulations related to food quality
control and safety in the supply
chain.
Adulterant Screen software
performs rapid, targeted and nontargeted screening for several types
of adulterants.
Its customised set-up enables fast,
effective implementation without
lengthy calibrations. Its simple and
intuitive green light/red light,
pass/fail results system enables
easy implementation, regardless of
the knowledge level of its users.
b zgayner@apcoworldwide.com

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

The writing is on the wall


Food and beverage
manufacturers need
to specify wall coating
solutions that will maintain a sanitary
surface over extended periods of
time despite challenging working
conditions that can include wear
from staff, chemical attacks, spilled
food and drink, frequent cleaning
with hot water and impacts from
equipment.
The Food Safety & Hygiene
(England) Regulations 2013 outlines
the properties that wall coatings
need to meet to provide a hygienic
surface within the food and
beverage industry.
These regulations state that walls
must be easy to clean and, where
necessary, to disinfect. It adds that
wall surfaces must be made of
materials that are impervious (do

NSF acquires
Erdmann Analytics
NSF International, an independent
global public health and safety
organisation that develops
standards, and tests and certifies
products for the food, water and
dietary supplement industries, has
acquired Erdmann Analytics.
The acquisition expands NSF
Internationals scientific and
technical capabilities in Europe and
strengthens its global laboratory
network.
Located in Rheda-Wiedenbrck,
Germany, Erdmann Analytics is a
laboratory specialising in analytical
testing for a wide range of food
products such as meat, produce,

not allow fluid to pass through),


non-absorbent, washable and nontoxic as well as being smooth, up
to a height appropriate for the work
carried on.
To provide developers and
facilities managers with a wall
coating that meets these criteria,
Flowcrete UK has developed Peran
WW, a water based hygienic sealer
that can be applied within clean
room environments to provide a
coloured gloss finish.
This two component, solvent free
and vapour permeable wall coating
has been embraced by the food
industry and has been utilised by
producers, distributors, retailers and
restaurants including Linzers
Bakery, Gate Gourmet, ASDA and
Denmarks Blue Planet Aquarium.
Flowcrete UKs expertise in
providing high performance floor
and wall coatings makes them well
placed to deliver integrated systems
that combine coving to create a
seamless and gap free transition
between the two surfaces.
Peran WW is easy to install, which
means that developers do not have
to invest as much time and energy
into coating the sites walls as they
would with alternative materials. Its
roller applied installation method
can even be carried out on damp
substrates and its low odour
formulation minimises on-site
disruption, allowing for earlier
follow-on trades and a swifter
construction timetable.
b dan.ash@flowcrete.com

packaged foods, fruit juices, seafood


and dairy.
The laboratory employs more
than 170 scientific experts including
food chemists, biochemists, food
technologists, nutritional scientists
and biologists.
The acquisition strengthens NSF
Internationals ability to provide its
clients the most advanced testing
services in every market they serve
or source products.
Erdmann Analytics clients will gain
access to NSF Internationals global
laboratory network and wide range
of technical resources that address
evolving requirements in global food
safety in the US and other key
markets.
b foodsafetysolutions@nsf.org

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

Hygiene monitoring
Good hygiene is the control of
undesirable materials within the
production process and its
environment. Hygiene monitoring is
the process of regular measurements
to assess that the controls are
operating within acceptable limits.

Many process controls are considered


critical to food safety and the
maintenance of high standards of
quality. Cleaning is an essential
component of good manufacturing
practice and is often a pre-requisite of
HACCP because history has shown
that inadequate cleaning results in
down-grades, spoilage, product
recalls and food poisoning. Hygiene
monitoring is frequently understood
to mean the measurement of
cleaning processes of production
equipment or food contact surfaces
and its immediate environment (nonfood contact surfaces).

Cleaning and sanitation are often


used interchangeably to describe
cleaning processes but can mean
different things and can have different
requirements. The generally accepted
order of events is rinse, clean, rinse
and sanitise however dry cleaning
can only be used for certain
foodstuffs although these processes
do not involve sanitation.
Cleaning is defined as the complete
removal of food soil using appropriate
detergent chemicals under
recommended conditions. Different
types of food soil require different
chemistry of its removal. For example,
alkaline detergents more efficiently
remove fat- and protein-based soils,
while mineral-based soils require acid
cleaners. Accordingly the ideal test of
cleaning efficiency is a direct
objective test for food residue.

It is important to differentiate and


define certain terminology:
Sterilise refers to the statistical
destruction and removal of all living
organisms.
Disinfect refers to inanimate objects
and the destruction of all vegetative
cells (not spores).
Sanitise refers to the reduction of
micro-organisms to levels considered
safe from a public health viewpoint.

Chemical sanitisation involves the use


of an approved chemical sanitiser at a
specified concentration and contact
time which for product contact
surfaces are designed to reduce the
contamination level by 99.999% (5

logs) in 30 seconds. Thermal


sanitisation involves the use of hot
water or steam for a specified
temperature and contact time.

Accordingly the monitoring of these


hygienic processes would require the
measurement of time, temperature,
chemical concentration and residual
microbes.

Clearly sanitising an unclean surface


would compromise the anti-microbial
effect of the active agent and would
be a waste of time and money, so a
combination of appropriate tests need
to be implemented to monitor the
efficacy of each stage of the process.

Validation is intended to demonstrate


that the process meets the
operational needs and design
specification. It measures the efficacy
of the cleaning process and
demonstrates its fitness for purpose
and such studies are conducted when
establishing cleaning for the first time,
or when there is a change of chemical
product/supplier or changes in food
type or formulation. It establishes that
the critical limits can be achieved.

Verification is intended to check that


the process meets a set of design
specifications. It is the regular
measurement for compliance against
the standards determined by the
validation study and/or against an
agreed standard. Tests are applied to
critical control points which are
influenced by the nature of the
product and its manufacturing
process. Clean-in-place systems are
easier to control and deliver a higher
standard compared to manual
cleaning methods. Greater care and
assessment is required for equipment
that is complex and/or hard to clean.

The results of routine hygiene


monitoring are assessed by trend
analysis to aid interpretation and give
an early warning of a drift out of
control. Hygiene monitoring methods
are also applied to identify and locate
hotspots during trouble shooting or as
part of a continuous improvement
program.

For certain products and target


consumers, cross contamination from
the wider production environment
may also require the monitoring of
specific pathogens such as
salmonella, listeria and cronobacter.
But what methods and standards are
applied to hygiene monitoring?

www.hygiena.com

29

Diary
2015
Year
Anuga Food Tec
24-27th March
Cologne, Germany
www.anugafoodtec.com

Colour coded cooking

Ericson Manufacturin g provides a


revolutionary step
in the fight again st bacterial
contamination and growth with
the introduction of Perma-Kleen
anti-microbial plugs, connectors,
cable, cord drops, and cord sets.
This advantage brings a practical
approach to controlling microbial
growth by embedding antimicrobial additives directly into
the polymer providing continual,
long lasting protection.
b NicoleM@ericson.com

New temperature
probe
With the TF43, WIKA now offers a
new temperature probe designed
specifically for use in refrigeration,
cooling and air-conditioning systems.
In the new insertion thermometer
the measuring element and junctions
to the connection cable are
completely moulded with plastic.
This protection prevents the
formation of condensation due to
frequent temperature changes in the
dew point range. The TF43 is
available in several versions. It is
designed for a measuring range from
-50C to +105C.
b monika.adrian@wika.com

New range of
ecodetergents
As impact on the environment is at
the core of product development,
LCB food safety has developed a
range of enzyme ecodetergents
tailored to applications in food
processing (foam application with
cold water, foam with hot water and
application in ducts and tunnels).
The Clearzym Pack includes the
services of an expert on the site to
assist industrials with the choice and
adaptation of an enzyme cleaning
product in order to optimise their
cleaning plans with a tailor-made
offering.
This service also means that the

30

The ChefAlarm
professional cooking
thermometer and
timer, is now available from
Electronic Temperature Instruments
Ltd in five food safe colours blue,
green, red, white and yellow.
The unit incorporates a fully
programmable count up/down
timer and includes a multi-functional
LCD display which simultaneously
indicates the elapsed time, the
current and the min/max
temperatures during a cooking cycle.
Its loud audible alarm sounds
when the food reaches the predetermined temperature or
programmed time.
The ChefAlarm measures
temperature over the range -50300C, with an accuracy of better
than 1C, utilising the units CAL
feature it is possible for the user to
fine-tune the thermometers
accuracy to better than 0.5C;
ideal for critical food safety
areas. The loud audible
alarm with its adjustable
volume (92dB) can be heard in the
noisiest kitchen or production
area.
The main temperature
digits are big and easy-tosee from a distance, plus the

one-touch backlight button allows


the user to read the display in poor
light conditions. Each ChefAlarm is
supplied with a robust stainless steel
food penetration probe, designed
for commercial use.
The probe can be used for spot
checking the temperature of food
during storage or it can be used
inside an oven to monitor the whole
cooking cycle.
An optional miniature needle
probe is also available for thin or
tiny food portions, as well as Sous
Vide cooking, where the probe and
its cable can be immersed in the
water bath. The probe can measure
temperatures up to 300C, albeit
the stainless steel braided lead can
only withstand short-term exposure
to 250C.
b sales@etiltd.com

constraints of the site can be met


according to the type of soiling
(personalisation of contact time,
extent and concentration as well as
the product application method).
b nathalie.duhamel@
lcbfoodsafety.com

food research and authenticity for


decades and their staff have worked
for the UK government during the
horse gate and many other recent
food issues.
The company have reconfigured
their research capacities to ensure
that they can be ready for the next
issue, and have better systems and
procedures in place to speed the
whole operation.
There has been an investment of
approximately 1.5m in the
rehousing and structuring of the
equipment.
b andrew.coker@
fera.gsi.gov.uk

Investment in
food authenticity
Fera are opening one of the largest
Mass Spec suites in the UK, in
readiness for the next food
authenticity issue.
Fera has been at the forefront of

IAFP Europe
20-22nd April
Cardiff, UK
www.foodprotection.org

BTA
21-24th April
Barcelona, Spain
www.bta-bcn.com

Food Safety Summit 2015


28-30th April
Baltimore, USA
www.foodsafetysummit.com

XXI European Symposium on


the Quality of Poultry Meat
10-13th May
Nantes, France
www.eggmeat2015.com

XVI European Symposium on


the Quality of Eggs and End
products
10-13th May
Nantes, France
www.eggmeat2015.com

Secure your regular copy of


International Food Hygiene
by taking out a subscription

Meat Up - Food Science and


Technology Show
30th June - 1st July
Warwickshire, UK
www.food-shows.com/meatup

IFT
11-14th July
Chicago, IL, USA
www.am-fe.ift.org

IAFP USA
25-28th July
Portland, USA
www.foodprotection.org

Process Expo
see page 3 or email sw@positiveaction.co.uk

International Food Hygiene Volume 26 Number 2

15-18th September
Chicago, IL, USA
www.myprocessexpo.com