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Music

335
University of Kentucky

SOUTHEAST ASIA

SOUTHEAST ASIA
Southeast Asia:
A Land of Bamboo and Bronze

Bamboo Angklung
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CNhLIH3Nlc

Mainland Nations?
Myanmar (Burma), Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia,

Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam

Island Nations?
Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Timor-

Leste

Thailand
Only nation not to be colonized by a

European power

Constitutional Monarchy with revered royal family

Examples of Bamboo and Bronze:


Classical Thai Piphat Music music of the Thai

court (xylophones, circle of gongs, drums and a


double-reed), layering of simultaneous variants of
same melody
Thai Lam Klawn Repartee Singing with Khaen
mouth organ

Thai Piphat Ensemble

Listening to Sathukan
000 Daphon drum
001 Ranat Ek (high xylophone) and khawng wong
yai (gong circle) come in.
003 Pi (reed aerophone) come is, moves freely
between metered performance and free rhythm
passages
005 Ranat thum (low xylophone) enters. Listen for
syncopations, broken octaves, 3 note ornaments,
contrary motion
010 to 018 Listen for cadence of the khawng wong
yai
032 Listen for pi transitioning from free to steady
melody
050 Faster tempo, slows dramatically at close of
performance

Indonesia: Overview
Largest Archipelago in the World, more than

13,000 islands
Sumatra and Java densely populated, 223 million
people
Several religions: Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism,
Christianity and a variety of animistic religions
Islamic sultans were historically patrons of the arts,
created stately forms of music, dance and theater
for the court
Bali also known for its rich traditions or music,
dance and theater, Hindu-inuenced

Javanese Gamelan
Has become one of the most studied and

well-known of world music ensembles


Reasons?

Heavy Metal Orchestra: soft and strong

style

Flutes, zithers, drums, ddle called the rebab, also

vocalists (prominent in soft style)


Bronze or Iron Idiophones (prominent in strong
style)
Hanging Gongs
Rack Gongs
Metal keyed instruments

Listening
Introduction 1 1 1 5 6 1 2 2 1 6 5 6 1 6 5
O
A //: 6 5 3 2 6 5 3 2 2 3 5 3 6 5 3 2 ://
* * * +
B//: 1 5 6 1 5 6 1 2 2 1 6 5 6 1 6 5 ://
* * * + O

Organizing Time in Gamelan


Colotomic structure - where one or more

instruments are consistently assigned the musical


role of articulating the larger metric structure
Javanese Gamelan
16 / 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
G G

What do you notice about the organization or feeling of
time? How is this dierent from Western art music?
What do you imagine it would take to stay together?
Cultural Values?

Bali Overview
Relatively small island in Indonesian Archipelago
Predominantly Hindu, gamelan ensembles played at temples

dedicated to dierent deities. Why?


Music intended to attract and entertain deities and
participants, high degree of participation
Balinese music tends to be much more dynamic, fast, bright
and angular
Gold Theme 1: Music is primarily an ensemble tradition
Gold Theme 2: Music, Dance, Theater and ritual completely
integrated
Gold Theme 3: Contemporary performing arts linked to
Balinese identity and sense of history. Through performance,
the past is played in the present.

Importance of Temple Life in


Bali
Each village contains at least three temples: village

temple, temple of origins, and a death temple


Name Bali means oering: making, giving and
performing oerings to the gods.
Importance of cyclical time, reincarnation
Most religious practices require music of some kind
Spatial orientation reects cosmological beliefs of the
island
Bronze ensemble instruments considered sacred,
symbol of power
Paired tuning gives breath of life (inhale and exhale)

Odalan: Desa, Kala, Patra


Desa, Kala, Patra: Appropriate place, time and

circumstance. For every activity there is a proper time


and place.
This is the case especially for Odalan (temple
ceremonies)
Kaja: toward the mountain (sacred, closer to deities)
Kelod: toward the sea (less sacred, demonic forces)
Courtyards: Wali (sacred), Bebali (ceremonial) and Balih-
Balihan (secular, entertainment).
Activity 1.2, 1.3 (Break into 6 groups, in 1.2 split
according to inner, middle and outer courtyard)

Temple Sounds
Inner Courtyard: Sacred (Wali) activities
Lalambatan (slow music)

Middle Courtyard: Ceremonial (Bebali)

activities

Gambuh Dance Drama


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K8Ig7UUGD9g
Processional gamelan (balaganjur), people on their

way to a sacred spring

Outer Courtyard: Secular (Balih-Balihan)

activities

Gamelan Gong Kebyar (20thc virtuosic style)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=28-5r9-BdwQ

Instrument Presentations on
Thursday 3/12
Briey present completed instruments,

synopsis of imaginary culture created around


the instruments
Peer feedback on 4 elements:
Creativity of concept
Construction and execution
Sound quality
Aesthetic Design

Creative Instrument Project


Phase 4 (Due Friday 3/13)
Create Web Page for your Instrument: Should
include:

Creative Name for Instrument


Photo(s)
Video of it being played
Narrative

Description of Imaginary culture with its own name,


region, time period, and possibly history (past, present,
future)
Description of the social context for the instrument.
When is it played?
Origin Myth or Story for the instrument, extra-musical
associations

Getting it up on the Web


Divide Roles:
Assign Web master
Visual and Audio
Divide up narrative text
Go to: https://2015mus335.wordpress.com/
Sign in at wordpress.com
Username: mus335uk
Password: crazyInstrument20!5
Click on left link View Site then make sure to view Site above

(2015mus335.wordpress.com)
Click page assigned for your group and then you should be able
to add content by clicking on the Edit link.

Balinese Angklung
Many dierent types of gamelan ensembles

small to large
Gamelan Angklung

4 Keys metallophones instead of 5

1 2 3 5
Somewhat simpler instrumental ensemble
More portable
Play at temple festivals

Musical accompaniment to temple anniversaries


Rituals related to death, connected to invisible
spiritual realm and transitions from life to death and
beyond, funeral processions

Balinese Gong Kebyar


Kebyar (explosive) Most popular style in

Bali, very dynamic, fast and shimmery


sounding
Developed around 1915, 20th century
Tuned now to pentatonic scale (roughly 1 2 3
5 6), pelog-derived called selisir scale

Gamelan Gong Kebyar p. 38


Large Gongs
Gong, Kempur, Klentong, Kempli (less sustain)

Keyed instruments (metallophones) de-tuned pairs


Gangsa (ten keys, hard mallet dierent registers)
Ugal (fteen keys, hard mallet)
Jublag (low, ve keys, soft mallet)
Panyacah (low, ve keys, rubber mallet)
Jegogan (lowest, ve keys, soft mallet)

Rack Gongs: Trompong and reyong


Melody instruments: suling ute and rebab ddle
Drums: Kendang
Cymbals: Ceng-ceng, and ceng-ceng kopyak

Interlocking Musical Roles


Balinese gamelan heterophony or

polyphony?
Gold calls it a combination of stratied
polyphony and heterophony
Which instruments stratied and polyphonic?

Which heterophonic?

Many musical layers that must interlock as

one.
Important to create a strong sense of
community and oneness with the group of
musicians

Layers
I. Gongs articulate the Colotomic meter with

the lowest gong articulating beginning of the


cycle and the other gongs referencing
important points in the cycle and Kempli
keeping the tuk tuk tuk pulse
II. Pokok Basic Melody and its variants
Jublag plays the pokok basic melody
Jegogan plays every 2, 4 or 8 of the pokok tones
Panyacah lls in the pokok melody

Layers
III. Elaborations
Gangsa Kotekan: interlocking complementary

parts called the polos and sangsih (4 to 8 times


faster than pokok), ll in the melodic space,
Activity 3.3, second type more leaping style
Reyong Figuration: Melodic interlocking and
percussive accentuation, two techniques
embellish melody and third adds percussive
accents (reyong ocak-ocakan)
IV. Drums Give Cues, lead the ensemble, other
leaders such as lead gangsa player, dancers, etc.
PUT IT ALL TOGETHER! 3.10

Traditional Balinese Theater


Wayang Kulit (Shadow Puppet Theater),

accompanied by Gamelan Gender Wayang quartet or


gamelan batel
Portrays stories from the Hindu epics: Mahabarata
and the Ramayana, but can include native characters
Endless permutations, tree metaphor: tree trunk is
the precomposed epic, while individuals are free to
compose their own branches of the tale
Oral transmission, tailored to the performance
Necessary component of religious ceremonies as
well as entertainment

Dalang
Master Puppeteer
What does he do?
How does he do it?
Often uses many languages and language levels

depending on the audience


Gives cues to musicians
What is Taksu?
Must master three powers of movement, verbal and
vocal artistry and the conceptualization of the story (Dibia
1992)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z9KoBRGc3_s

Legong Dance
Emerged from trance rituals called Sang Hyang Dedari
Most frequent story relates to the Panji tale where the Princess

Langkesari rejects the King Lasem and many ill omens appear such
as the garuda bird.

Integral with gamelan with storytelling narrator


Fixed choreography
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bldo2s9vgyk
Movements either pure or interpretive:

Interpretive:
Shaking the Curtain, Opening the curtain
Sudden movement or articulation that signals a rhythmic accent or
break called angsel.
Looking, Anger
Pure:
Sudden eye movement from side to side, coordinated with music
Fast stepping from side to side, quick walking, sideways motion
Agem main stance of dancer, indicating character type

Kecak, p. 121
Bali also known for Kecak Monkey Chant
Also emerged from trance rituals of the Sang Hyang Dedari
Kind of a human gamelan
Arose as a dance drama enacting the Ramayana. Comes

from a ritual where trance was accompanied by a male cak


chorus.
Interlocking cak sounds as they imitate armies of
monkey soldiers in a mythological battle of good versus evil
Other performers sound out the colotomic meter by
imitating gongs.
Intended as oering to Rama