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# Control Systems

## Introduction to Control Systems

Unit 1: Mathematical Models of Different Types of Systems

Content:
S.No.
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Title:

Concept
Learning Objectives
Mathematical Models of Different Types of Systems
Introduction
Mechanical Elements
Mechanical Systems
Electrical Systems
Analogous Between Electrical and Mechanical Systems
Solved Examples
Exercises
Review Questions
Match The Following
True or False
Drag and Drop
Model Questions

Learning Objectives

Page No.

Content

## Know about different types of Mechanical Systems

Translational Systems
Rotational Systems

Systems

Instruction to
animator
Display the
points one by
one

Graphics

Concept
Title:

Introduction
Content

## Mathematical model of a system is nothing but the mathematical

representation of the physical model through the use of appropriate
physical laws.

## Two classes of equations with broad application in the description of

systems are differential equations and difference equations
A differential equation is any algebraic equality which involves either
differentials or derivatives.

## Differential equations are useful for relating rates of change of

variables and other parameters.

## A difference equation is an algebraic equality which involves more than

one value of the dependent variable (s) corresponding to more than one
value of at least one of the independent variable (s).

Difference equations are useful for relating the evolution of variables (or
parameters) from one discrete instant of time (or other independent
variable) to another.

Instruction
to animator
Display point
by point

Graphics

Concept
Title:

## Mathematical Models of Different Types of Systems

Mechanical Elements
Content

Instruction
to
animator

Graphics

Mechanical Elements

## Mechanical systems and devices can be modeled by means of three ideal

translator and three ideal rotary elements.

Translational Elements:
Newtons second law states that the sum of applied forces is equal to the
sum of opposing forces on a body.
1) The mass element
The force (F) applied to the mass (M) is proportional to the rate of change of
its velocity v(t).

Fig. 1

dv
d x
or F
dt
dt2
By Newtons second law,
F

F M

dv
d2x
M
dt
dt2

Fig. 2

## Spring with one end fixed

The force (F) applied to the spring is proportional to its displacement x(t).
F x(t )
By Newtons second law,

Fig. 3

F Kx(t )

## Spring with two ends open

F ( x1 x2 )
By Newtons second law,
t

F K ( x1 x2 ) Kx K

v1

v2 dt K

v dt

Insert
figures 1 ,
2,3, beside
the
statements
1. The
mass
element,
2,
3, resp

Fig. 4

Fig. 5

## 3) The damping element

Damper with one end fixed
The force (F) applied to the spring is proportional to the rate of change of its
displacement x(t).

dx
v(t )
dt
By Newtons second law,
F

F f v (t ) fx (t )

## Damper with two ends open

F (v1 v2 )
By Newtons second law,

F f v1 v2 fv f (x 1 x 2 ) f x
where f is viscous friction coefficient ( Newton per m/sec )

where x is in m, v is in m/sec, M is in kg

Insert
figures 4 , 5,
6, beside the
statements
1. The
inertiaelem
ent, 2,
3, resp

Fig. 6

Rotational Elements:
1) The inertia element
The torque (T) applied to the rotational mass is proportional to the rate of
change of its angular velocity (t ) .
d
T
dt
By Newtons second law,
T J

d
d 2
J
dt
dt 2

## 2) The torsional spring with one end fixed

The torque (T) applied to the torsional spring is proportional to its angular
displacement (t ) .
T (t )

T K (t )

T 1 2
t

T K (1 2 ) K K

1 2 dt

dt

## 3) The damping element with one end fixed

The torque (T) applied to the torsional spring is proportional to its angular
velocity (t ) .
T (t ) (t )

T f(t ) f(t )

## The damping element with two ends open

T 1 2
By Newtons second law,

T f 1 2 f f 1 2 f
where f is viscous friction coefficient ( Newton per m/sec )

## where, is in rad, is in rad/sec, J is in kg m2 , T is in newton m

Mass/Inertia and the two kinds of springs are the energy storage
elements where in energy can be stored without loss and so these are
called conservative elements.
Energy stored in these elements is expressed as:

1
Mv 2 kinetic energy (J)
2
1
Inertia: E Mv 2 kinetic energy (J)
2
1
Spring (translatory): E Kx 2 potential energy (J)
2
1
Spring (torsional): E K 2 potential energy (J)
2
Mass: E

## Damper is a dissipative element and power it consumes (lost in form of

heat) is given as
P fv 2 watt ( W)

P f

(Translational)

Concept
Title:

## Mathematical Models of Different Types of Systems

Mechanical Systems
Content

Instruction to
animator

Graphics

Translational Systems
Consider the mechanical system shown in figure.
The way of analyzing such a system is to draw a free - body
diagram as shown in below figure.
By applying Newtons law of motion to the free - body
diagram, the force equation can be written as
F f

Fig. 1

dx
d2 x
d2 x
dx
Kx M
F M
f
Kx . (1)
2
2
dt
dt
dt
dt

Rotational Systems
Consider now, the rotational mechanical system as shown in
figure.

Fig. 2

## Let T be the applied torque which tends to rotate the disc.

The free - body diagram is shown in below figure.
The torque equation obtained from the free - body diagram is
T f

d
d 2
K J
dt
dt 2

T J

d 2
dt

d
K (2)
dt

Fig. 3

Fig. 4

Concept
Title:

## Mathematical Models of Different Types of Systems

Electrical Systems
Content

## The resistor, inductor and capacitor are the three basic

elements of electrical circuits.

## These circuits are analyzed by the application of Kirchhoffs

voltage and current laws.

Instruction to
aniamtor

Insert fig. 1
above the
sentence By
applying KVL

Graphics

Fig. 1

By applying KVL
L

di
1
Ri
dt
C

i dt

L

d 2q
dt

dq 1

qe
dt
C

i dt
(3)

By applying KCL
C

de
1

dt
L

e dt R

We know, e

d
dt

Insert fig. 2
above the
sentence By
applying KCL

Fig. 2

d 2
dt

1 d 1
i
R dt
L

(4)

Concept
Title:

## Mathematical Models of Different Types of Systems

Analogous Between Electrical and Mechanical Systems
Content
Instruction to
animator
The force balance equations from the mechanical system are
F M

d2x
dt

d 2

dx
Kx (1)
dt

d
K (2)
dt
dt
The voltage, current equations from the series and parallel RLC circuits are
T J

eL
i C

d 2q
dt

d 2
dt 2

dq 1
q (3)
dt C

1 d 1
(4)
R dt
L

## Force (Torque) Voltage analogy

By comparing eqn. (1) and eqn. (2) with eqn. (3), it is seen that they are of
identical form. Such systems whose differential equations are of identical
form are called analogous systems.
The force F (torque T) and voltage e are analogous variables here. This is
called Force (Torque) - Voltage analogy.
A list of analogous variables in this analogy is given in below table.

Note: while
drawing tables
1st take
electrical
systems.
Reminder:
In the table
write viscous.f
(or B)

Graphics

## Force (Torque) Current analogy

Similarly, by comparing eqn. (1) and eqn. (2) with eqn. (4), it is seen that
they are of identical form.
In this case force F (torque T) and current are analogous variables. This is
called the Force (Torque) - Current analogy.
A list of analogous variables in this analogy is given in below table.

## Steps to obtain Electrical analogous of Mechanical Systems

1. Identify all the displacements due to the applied force. The elements
spring and friction between two moving surfaces cause change in
displacement.
2. Draw the equivalent mechanical system based on node basis. The
elements under same displacement will get connected in parallel under
that node.
3. Each displacement is represented by separate node. Elements causing
change in displacement is always between the two nodes.
4. Write the algebraic equations. At any node algebraic sum of all the
forces acting is equal to zero.
5. In F - V analogy, use following replacements and rewrite equations,
F V,

M L, B R,

K 1 C,

x q,

x i

## 6. Simulate the equations using loop method. Number of displacements

equal to number of loop currents.
7. In F - I analogy, use following replacements and rewrite equations,
F I,

M C,

B 1 R,

K 1 L,

x ,

x e

Fig. 1
Insert fig. 1
below Question

## 8. Simulate the equations using node basis. Number of displacements

equal to the number of node voltages.
Note: The system will be exactly same as equivalent mechanical system
obtained in step2 with appropriate replacements.
Example:
1) Draw the equivalent mechanical system of the given system. Hence
write the set of equilibrium equations for it and obtain electrical analogous
circuits using,

Fig. 2

Insert fig. 2
above the
sentence At
node 1

i)

F - V Analogy

and

(ii) F - I Analogy.

Solution:
There are two displacements in the given figure.
There is no element at node 1; hence the force is directly applied to spring
K1. So it will store energy and cause to change the force applied to M2 .
Hence displacement of M2 is x2 and as B2 and K2 are connected to fixed
supports both are under x2 (t ) only as shown in the equivalent system.
At node 1,

## F (t ) K1( x1(t ) x2(t ))

At node 2,

0 K1(x2(t ) x1(t )) M2

d 2 x2
dt

K2 x2(t ) B2

dx2
dt

## F (s) K1( X1(s) X2(s))

0 K1( X2(s) X1(s)) M2s2 X2(s) K2 X2 (s) B2sX2(s)

i)

F - V analogy:

M L;

B R;

## From equations (1) and (2)

(1)
(2)

V (s)
0

1
(q1(s) q2(s))
C1

1
1
(q2(s) q1(s)) L2s2q2(s)
q2(s) R2 sq2 (s)
C1
C2

By putting i

V (s)
0

. (3)
(4)

dq
I(s) sq(s) in the equations (3) & (4), we get
dt

1
(I1(s) I2(s))
sC1

1
1
(I2(s) I1(s)) L2sI2 (s)
I2(s) R2 I2(s)
sC1
sC2

Fig. 3

## By applying inverse Laplace transform, we get

v(t )

1
C1

(i1(t ) i2(t ))

(5)

1
di (s) 1
(i2(t ) i1(t )) L2 2

C1
dt
C2

i2(t ) R2i2(t )

(6)

ii)

F I analogy:

M C;

1
;
R

1
;
L

## From equations (1) & (2)

I(s)

Insert fig. 3 at
the end of F-V
analogy

1
(1(s) 2 (s))
L1

(7)

1
1
1
(2 (s) 1(s)) C2s22(s)
2(s)
s2 (s)
L1
L2
R2

(8)

d
V (s) s(s) in the equations (7) & (8), we get
By putting V
dt

I(s)

1
(V1(s) V2 (s))
sL1

Fig. 4

1
1
1
(V2 (s) V1(s)) C2sV2(s)
V2(s)
V1(s)
sL1
sL2
R2

L1

di(t )
v1(t ) v2 (t )
dt

1
L1

v2(t ) v1(t ) C2

Insert fig. 4 at
the end of F-I
analogy

(9)

dv2(t ) 1
1

v2(t )
v1(t ) (10)
dt
L2
R2

Concept
Title:
Content

Solved Examples
Instruction to
animator

## 1) Consider Rotational system shown in the following figure,

where J = Moment of inertia of disk,
B = Friction constant,
K = Torsional spring constant
and disk is subjected to the torque T (t) as shown.

Graphics

below Q1

## Draw its analogous network based on (i) T - V analogy

(ii) T - I analogy.

Fig. 1.1

Solution:
As K and B are with respect to fixed support, all J, K and B are
under (t ) only.
Hence equivalent system is,

d 2 (t )

d (t )
dt
dt
By applying Laplace transform,
T (t ) J

K (t ) B

below the
sentence Hence
equivalent
system is,

Fig. 1.2

i)

Fig. 1.3

J L;

B R;

## V (s) q(s) Ls2 Rs

C

By substituting q(s)

I(s)
, we get
s
Fig. 1.4

1
I(s)
sC
By applying inverse Laplace transform,
V (s) LsI(s) RI (s)

v(t ) L

di(t )
1
Ri(t )
dt
C

i(t )dt

given below.
ii)

M C;

1
;
R

1
;
L

1
1

R
L

By replacing (s)

V (s)
s

V (s)
1

V (s)
R
sL

## Insert fig. 1.3

Above TorqueCurrent
Analogy:

i(t ) C

dv(t ) 1
1
v(t )
v(t )dt
dt
R
L

above Q2.

below.

## 2) Draw the equivalent mechanical system of the given

system. Hence write the set of equilibrium equations for it and
obtain electrical analogous circuits using,
i)

F - V Analogy

and

## Insert fig. 2.1

below Q2

(ii) F - I Analogy.
Fig. 2.1

Solution:
The displacement of M1 is x1(t ) and as B1 is between M1 and
fixed support hence it is also under the influence of x1(t ) .
B2 changes the displacement from x1(t ) to x2(t ) as it is
between two moving points. M2 and K are under the
displacement x2 (t ) .
At node1,
F M1s2 X1 B1sX1 B2 s( X1 X2 )

(1)

At node2,
0 M2s2 X2 KX2 B2s( X2 X1)

i)

F - V analogy:

(2)

above the
sentence At
node 1

Fig. 2.2

M L;

B R;

## From equations (1) & (2)

V (s) L1s2q1(s) R1sq1(s) R2 s(q1(s) q2 (s))

0 L2 s2q2 (s)

1
q2(s) R2s(q2(s) q1(s))
C

By replacing q(s)

I(s)
in the above equations
s

## V (s) L1sI1(s) R1I1(s) R2 (I1(s) I2(s))

1
I2 (s) R2(I2 (s) I1(s))
C
By applying inverse Laplace transform, we get
0 L2sI2 (s)

v(t ) L1

di1(t )
R1i1(t ) R2(i1(t ) i2(t ))
dt

di (t ) 1
0 L2 2
i2 (t ) R2(i2 (t ) i1(t ))
dt
C

below.
ii)

F - I analogy:

M C;

1
;
R

1
;
L

## F (s) I(s); X (s) (s)

Fig. 2.3
Insert fig. 2.3 at
the end of F-V
analogy

1
1
s1(s)
s(1(s) 2(s))
R1
R2

I(s) C1s21(s)

0 C2s22 (s)

1
1
2 (s)
s(2(s) 1(s))
L
R2

By replacing (s)

I(s) C1sV1(s)

V (s)
in the above equations
s

1
1
V1(s)
(V1(s) V2(s))
R1
R2

1
1
V2(s)
(V2(s) V1(s))
sL
R2
By applying inverse Laplace transform, we get
0 C2sV2(s)

i(t ) C1
0 C2

dv1(t ) 1
1

v1(t )
(v1(t ) v2(t ))
dt
R1
R2

dv2(t ) 1
1

v2(t )
(v2(t ) v1(t ))
dt
L
R2

## The electrical network representing above equation is given

below.

Fig. 2.4
Insert fig. 2.4 at
the end of F-I
analogy

Concept
Title:
Content

Exercises
Instruction to
animator

## 1) Draw the equivalent mechanical system of the given system

and obtain electrical analogous circuit using, Force - Current
Analogy.
The equivalent mechanical system is,

Graphics

below Q1
Insert fig. 1.2
below the
sentence The
equivalent
mechanical
system is,

Fig. 1.1

## Electrical analogous circuit is,

Insert fig. 1.3
below the
sentence
Electrical
analogous
circuit is,
2) Draw the equivalent mechanical system of the given system.
And obtain electrical analogous circuits using,

i)

F - V Analogy

and

(ii) F - I Analogy.

The equivalent mechanical system is,

below Q2

Fig. 1.2

Fig. 1.3

below the
sentence The
equivalent
mechanical
system is,
Fig. 2.1

## 3) Draw the equivalent mechanical system of the given system.

And obtain electrical analogous circuits using,

i)

T - V Analogy

and

below the
sentence
Electrical
analogous
circuit using FV analogy is,
Insert fig. 2.4
below the
sentence
Electrical
analogous
circuit using FI analogy is,

Fig. 2.2

Fig. 2.3

(ii) T - I Analogy.
Fig. 2.4

below Q3

## The equivalent mechanical system is,

Electrical analogous circuit is using T - I analogy is,

## Insert fig. 3.2

below the
sentence The
equivalent
mechanical
system is,
Insert fig. 3.3
below the
sentence
Electrical
analogous
circuit using TV analogy is,

Fig. 3.1

Fig. 3.2

Fig. 3.3

## Insert fig. 3.4

below the
sentence
Electrical
analogous
circuit using TI analogy is,

Fig. 3.4

Concept
Title:
Content

Review Questions
Review Questions

## 1. Which of the following forces resist motion?

a) Inertia force
b) Spring force
c) Damping force
d) All of the above
2. In linear systems damping force is considered to be proportional to
a) Displacement
b) Velocity
c) Acceleration
d) Any of the above
3. The restoring force of a spring is considered proportional to
a)
b)
c)
d)

Displacement
Velocity
Acceleration
Coulomb friction

a)
b)
c)
d)

Voltage
Resistance
Inductance
Charge

Instruction to
animator

Graphics

## 5. The mechanical system is shown in the given figure.

The system is described as
a) M

d 2y1(t )

b) M

d 2y2(t )

c) M

d 2y1(t )

d) M

dt 2
dt

dt

d y2(t )
dt 2

dy1(t )
k[y2 (t ) y1(t )]
dt

dy2(t )
k[y2(t ) y1(t )]
dt

dy1(t )
k[y1(t ) y2(t )]
dt

dy2(t )
k[y1(t ) y2(t )]
dt

6. Which one of the following represents the linear mathematical model of the
physical system shown in the figure?
a) m
b) m
c) m
d) m

d 2 x(t )
2

dt
2

d x(t )
dt

d x(t )
dt

d 2 x(t )
dt

dx(t )
kx(t ) f (t )
dt

dx(t )
kx(t ) 0
dt

dx(t )
kx(t ) f (t ) 0
dt

dx(t )
kx(t ) f (t ) 0
dt

## 7. Under torque- voltage analogy, angular velocity is analogous to

a)
b)
c)
d)

Charge
Current
Resistance
Reciprocal of capacitance

Insert fig. q5
below q5

Insert fig. q6
below q6

a)
b)
c)
d)

## Viscous friction co- efficient

Coulombs friction co- efficient
angular velocity
angular displacement

## 9. Under torque- voltage analogy, viscous friction co- efficient is analogous to

a)
b)
c)
d)

resistance
reciprocal of resistance
capacitance
reciprocal of capacitance

## 10. Under torque- voltage analogy, torsional spring stiffness is analogous to

a)
b)
c)
d)

capacitance
reciprocal of capacitance
inductance
reciprocal of inductance

Concept
Title:

## Mathematical Models of Different Types of Systems

Match The Following
Content

Instruction to
animator

## Match the following:

1) Match the correct list of analogous quantities in Force - Voltage Analogy given below
Mechanical Translational System

Electrical Systems

1. Force F

a) Inductance L

2. Spring stiffness K

b) Resistance R

3. Displacement

c) Voltage e

d) Charge q

5. Mass

e) 1/C

6. Velocity

f) Current i

Graphics

Concept
Title:
Content

True or False
True or False

displacement
False
2.

## Under force- voltage analogy, mass is analogous to inductance

True
3. Under force- voltage analogy, resistance is analogous to
displacement
False
4. Under force- current analogy, magnetic flux linkage is analogous
to displacement
True
5.

## Under force- voltage analogy, velocity is analogous to current

True
6. Under force- voltage analogy, velocity is analogous to
reciprocal of inductance
True

Instruction to
aniamtor

Graphics

Concept
Title:
Content

## Drag and Drop

Drag and Drop
Instruction
to aniamtor

For the mechanical translational system elements shown below find the equivalent
analogous electrical elements for Force Current analogy.
1. Force F

a) Current i

2. Spring stiffness K

b) 1/L

3. Displacement

d) 1/R

5. Mass

e) Capacitance C

6. Velocity

f) Voltage e

Graphics

Concept
Title:

## Mathematical Models of Different Types of Systems

Model Questions
Content

1) For the mechanical system shown below obtain the electrical analogous
systems.

Instruction to
animator

Graphics

## Insert fig. 1.1 below Q1

Solution:
There are two displacements are there in the given system. The mechanical
equivalent circuit for the given system is shown below.

Fig. 1.1
Insert fig. 1.2 below 1st
line of solution

At node 1,
Ms2 X (s) K2[X (s) X2 (s)] F (s) (1)

Fig. 1.2

At node 2,

i)

(2)

F - V analogy:

M L;

B R;

## From equations (1) & (2)

V (s) L1s2q1(s)

1
s(q(s) q1(s))
C2

1
1
q1(s)
(q1(s) q(s))
C1
C2

By replacing q(s)

V (s) L1sI1(s)

I(s)
in the above equations
s

1
(I(s) I1(s))
C2

1
1
I1(s)
(I1(s) I(s))
sC1
sC2
By applying inverse Laplace transform, we get
0

v(t ) L1

1
C1

di1(t ) 1
i(t ) i1(t )

dt
C2
1

ii)

F - I analogy:

M C;

1
;
R

1
;
L

I(s) C1s21(s)

## Insert fig. 1.3 at the end

of F-V analogy

1
s( (s) 1(s))
L2

1
1
1(s)
(1(s) (s))
L1
L2

By replacing (s)

V (s)
in the above equations
s

Fig. 1.3

I(s) C1sV1(s)

1
(V (s) V1(s))
sL2

1
1
V1(s)
(V1(s) V (s))
sL1
sL2
By applying inverse Laplace transform, we get
0

i(t ) C1
0

1
L1

of F-I analogy

dv1(t ) 1

dt
L2

## The electrical network representing above equation is given below.

2) For the mechanical system shown below obtain the torque - voltage and
torque current electrical analogous system.

Fig. 1.4
Insert fig. 2.1 below Q2
Insert fig. 2.2 below the
1st line of solution

Solution:
The mechanical equivalent to the given system is shown below.

Fig. 2.1

At node1,

T (t ) J1

d 21(t )
dt

B1

d1(t )
K1(1(t ) 2 (t ))
dt

At node 2,

0 J2

d 22(t )
dt

B1

d2(t )
K1(2(t ) 1(t )) K22(t )
dt

Fig. 2.2

## By applying Laplace transform,

T (s) J1s21(s) B1s1(s) K1(1(s) 2(s))

. (1)

i)

.. (2)

J L;

B R;

## V (s) L1s2q1(s) R1sq1(s)

0 L2s2q2(s) R1sq2 (s)

1
(q1(s) q2(s))
C1

1
1
(q2(s) q1(s))
q2 (s)
C1
C2

## Insert fig. 2.3 at the end

of T-V analogy

I(s)
, we get
s
1
V (s) L1sI1(s) R1I1(s)
(I1(s) I2 (s))
sC1

By substituting q(s)

1
1
(I2(s) I1(s))
I2(s)
sC1
sC2
By applying inverse Laplace transform,
0 L2sI2(s) R1I2(s)

v(t ) L
0 L2

ii)

di1(t )
1
R1i1(t )
(i1(t ) i2(t ))dt
dt
C1

di2(t )
1
1
R1i2(t )
(i2(t ) i1(t ))dt
dt
C1
C2

i2(t )dt

## The electrical network representing above equations is given below.

Torque - Current Analogy:

Fig. 2.3

M C;

1
;
R

1
;
L

## From equations (1) and (2)

I(s) C1s21(s)
0 C2s22(s)

1
1
s1(s)
(1(s) 2(s))
R1
L1

1
1
1
s2(s)
(2(s) 1(s))
2(s)
R1
L1
L2

V (s)
, we get
s
1
1
I(s) C1sV1(s)
V1(s)
(V1(s) V2 (s))
R1
sL1

By substituting (s)

## Insert fig. 2.4 at the end

of T-I analogy

1
1
1
V2 (s)
(V2 (s) V1(s))
V2(s)
R1
sL1
sL2
By applying inverse Laplace transform,
0 C2 sV2(s)

i(t ) C1
0 C2

dv1(t ) 1
1

v1(t )
(v1(t ) v2(t ))dt
dt
R1
L1

dv2(t ) 1
1
1

v2(t )
(v2(t ) v1(t ))dt
v2(t )dt
dt
R1
L1
L2

Fig. 2.4

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