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THEJATROPHAHANDBOOK

FromCultivationtoApplication

FACTFoundationandindividualauthorsmentionedperchapter.

Horsten1
5612AXEindhoven
TheNetherlands
www.factfoundation.com
info@factfoundation.com

Allrightsreserved.
FirstprintingApril2010.

ISBN9789081521918

Thematerialinthispublicationiscopyrighted.Requestsforpermissiontoreproduceportions
of it should be sent to FACT Foundation. FACT Foundation encourages dissemination of its
workandwillnormallygivepermissiontoreproducepromptly,and,whenthereproductionis
for noncommercial purposes, without asking a fee. Permission to photocopy portions for
classroomuseisnotrequired,thoughnotificationofsuchusewillbeappreciated.

ThiscompletehandbookhasbeenplacedinmodularformontheFACTFoundationwebsite,in
English,SpanishandPortuguese.

FACTFoundationandtheauthorsarenotliableforanydamageorinjuriesresultingfromthe
use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained within this
Handbook.

ii

FOREWORD
In our fight for a global cleaner environment, the Dutch Ministry of Environment invests in
various ways to achieve GHG emission reductions within the framework of sustainable
development. Local production and utilization of biofuel such as derived from the Jatropha
plantcanbecontributingtoachievingthesegoalsthroughenhancingincomeinagriculture,the
provisionofenergy,andpositiveenvironmentalimpact.Jatrophaseedscanbeconvertedinto
energycarrierssuchasoilorbiodiesel,electricityandbiogas.Itcanassistinruralproduction,
transformingrawagriculturalproductstoaddedvaluemarketableproducts,energygeneration
forirrigationandconservinglandfromerosion.Assuch,Jatrophadisplaysawidepotentialof
applications.Inthishandbookhowever,thefocusisontheenergyusesofJatropha.

DriversforincreaseduseofbiofuelssuchasJatropha,arelocalemployment,energysecurity
and climate change mitigation. The Jatropha plant increases above ground and underground
biomass and hence fixes CO2 as carbon. At the same time the Jatropha nuts can be used for
biofuel production, thereby reducing the need for fossil fuels. An additional positive effect is
thatJatrophacanbeusedinalocalrenewableenergysystemthatallowslocalsmallholdersto
generate income on energy, rather than having no other option than to pay for fossil fuels.
Although Jatropha cannot solve all problems related to energy in developing countries, it is
likelytobeoneofthemostpromisingbiofuelcrops,thatwouldalsocontributetosustainable
agricultureandimprovedlivelihoods.

Althoughagriculturalproductioninmostdevelopingcountriescanbeintensified(moreoutput
perha)byafactor2to4usingproventechnology,thishasnothappenedduetoinadequate
agriculturalpoliciesinmanycountriesaswellasdisappointinginvestmentlevelsinagriculture.
For local use Jatropha can be well combined with agricultural production, where improved
food production combined with Jatropha can generate more output on a hectare basis, as a
badly managed food crop alone. Jatropha emerged as a highly interesting biofuel some 15
years ago and expectations were high. Over the last years, many studies from Jatropha
plantationsgiveusabetterideaonwhattheplantcanyieldunderwhichconditions.

ThisbookaimstoprovidethereaderwithusefulinformationtoappraiseJatrophaasabiofuel
intherealmofbiofuels.Itcoversallaspects(technical,organizational,financial)fromJatropha
plantingtoconversiontoelectricityorbiodiesel.

This book is dedicated to the late professor Kees Daey Ouwens, who established the FACT
Foundation, and in whos honor I have created the Daey Ouwens Fund. He was a pioneer in
thisfield,hasexploredwaystopracticallymakeadifferencebyusinglocallyproducedbiofuels
basedoncarefulresearchwithrespecttolocalcircumstances.Itiswiththisapproachinmind
thatIwishyouwellwithmakingadifference.

Dr.JacquelineCramer,

MinisterfortheEnvironment

oftheNetherlands

iii

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
TheapplicationofJatrophaoilforenergypurposesisarelativelynewphenomenon.Although
theplantanditsfeatureshavebeenknownforgenerations,onlyin2005therealinterestin
Jatrophaoilasbiofuelstartedtotakeoff.Sinceitsestablishmentin2005,FACTFoundationhas
obtainedalotofexperienceinallaspectsofJatropha,fromcultivationtoenduse,mainlyby
theexecutionofitsfirstthreepilotprojectsinHonduras,MaliandMozambique.

ThisHandbookistheresultoftheknowledgegatheredbyFACTFoundationfromitsprojects
andseminars,andfromprojectsofothersthatFACTwasinvolvedwith.Itwasfirstpublishedin
an electronic form on FACTs website in march 2006 and has been regularly updated ever
since.Thecurrentversionisthefirstthathasbeentakenintoprint.Theauthors,listedbelow,
havedonetheirutmostinwritingtheassignedchaptersandwewouldliketothankthemfor
theircontributions:

Ir.EricvanderPutten,
Ir.YweJanFranken
Dr.Ir.FlemmingNielsen
Ir.JandeJongh
Ir.WinfriedRijsenbeek
Ir.PeterBeerens
Ir.JanskevanEijck
Ir.TitusGalema
Ir.GerGroeneveld
Ir.NielsAns
Ir.MaraWijnker
Ir.ThijsAdriaans
Drs.PeterMoers

InadditionwewouldliketothankBillDickinsonforreviewingthetextoncorrectEnglish.The
layouthasbeendesignedbystudentsoftheEindhovenseSchool.Forthegeneralcoordination
wethankMaraWijnkerandElsValkenburg.

We are much obliged to Stichting Het Groene Woudt, who has funded FACTs work since its
establishment.

ForFACT,

JandeJongh,editor

vi

TABLEOFCONTENTS

1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2

GENERALDATAONJATROPHA

INTRODUCTION
BOTANICALDESCRIPTION
ECOLOGY
GEOGRAPHICALDISTRIBUTION
JATROPHAHISTORICALANDCURRENTUSES
FACTSHEET
JATROPHAANDLOCALDEVELOPMENT
JATROPHAHANDBOOKOUTLINE
REFERENCES

1
1
3
4
4
6
6
6
7

PLANTATIONESTABLISHMENTANDMANAGEMENT

2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 SOILSANDFIELDPREPARATION
2.2.1
Soilrequirements
2.2.2
Soilsampling
2.2.3
Soilpreparation

9
9
9
10
11

2.2.3.1

Plantingholes

2.2.3.2

Plantspacing

11

2.2.3.3

Plantingseason

12

2.3 JATROPHAPLANTDEVELOPMENT
2.3.1
Jatrophadevelopmentstages
2.3.2
Rootdevelopment
2.3.3
Floweringandfruiting
2.4 PLANTINGMATERIALANDPLANTINGMETHODS
2.4.1
Geneticandphenotypicalvariation
2.4.2
Seedselection
2.4.3
Germination
2.4.4
Directseeding
2.4.5
Nurseryplanting
2.4.6
Cuttings
2.4.7
Micropropagatedclones
2.5 PLANTATIONMANAGEMENT(AGRONOMY)
2.5.1
Weeding
2.5.2
Nutrientmanagement

11

12
12
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
15
16
16
17
17
17

2.5.2.1

Nutrientrequirements

17

2.5.2.2

Organicmatter

19

2.5.2.3

Fertilisation

19

2.5.2.4

Mycorrhiza

2.5.3
Pruning
2.5.4
Irrigation
2.5.5
Intercropping
2.6 JATROPHAHEDGES
2.7 SEEDYIELDS

19

19
20
21
21
22

vii


2.8 PESTANDDISEASES
2.8.1
Controlmeasures
2.8.2
Preventivemeasures
2.9 REFERENCES
3

HARVESTING
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 HARVESTINGTECHNOLOGIES
3.2.1
Manualpickingofjatrophaseeds
3.2.2
Mechanicalharvestingsolutions
3.3 SEEDEXTRACTIONFROMFRUITS
3.3.1
Dehulling
UniversalNutSheller(UNS)

32

Largesizeindustrialdehuller

33

Separationofseedsandfruitshells
Smallscale(byhand)

34

3.3.2.2

Largescale(mechanical)

34

35
35
35
36
36

3.4.3.1

Seedstorageforplanting

36

3.4.3.2

Seedstorageforoilextraction

37

REFERENCES

37

OILPRESSINGANDPURIFICATION

39

4.2.3.1

Oilrecovery

4.2.3.2

Oilquality

4.3 PRESSTECHNOLOGIESANDEXPELLERTYPES
4.3.1
Rampresses
4.3.2
Expellers

39
40
40
40
40
41
41

42
42
43

4.3.2.1

Cylinderhole

44

4.3.2.2

Strainer

44

4.3.3
Powerrequired
4.3.4
Suggestedmodels
4.3.5
Concludingremarksexpellers
4.4 CLEANINGOFVEGETABLEOIL
4.4.1
Impuritiesintheoil
4.4.2
Sedimentation

viii

34

3.3.2.1

4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 MECHANICALOILEXTRACTION
4.2.1
Cleaningandcheckingtheseeds
4.2.2
Thepressingprocess
4.2.3
Importantparameterswhenpressing

29
29
29
30
32
32

3.3.1.2

3.3.3
Dryingfruit
3.4 DRYINGANDSTORAGEOFSEEDS
3.4.1
Dryingofseeds
3.4.2
Storageareaofsacks
3.4.3
Storageconditions

29

3.3.1.1

3.3.2

3.5

23
24
24
25

45
45
46
46
47
47


4.4.3

Filtration

4.4.3.1

Gravityfilters

48

4.4.3.2

Bandfilter

49

4.4.3.3

Filterpress

50

4.4.3.4

Pressureleaffilter

51

4.4.3.5

Bagfilters

52

4.4.3.6

Candlefilters

53

4.4.4
Centrifuging
4.4.5
Concludingremarksoilcleaning
4.5 QUALITYSTANDARDSFORSVO
4.5.1
Oildegumming
4.5.2
Oilneutralization
4.6 HANDLINGANDSTORAGEOFOIL
4.6.1
Handlingcriteria
4.6.2
Storagecriteria

4.7
5

48

53
54
54
56
56
56
56
57

4.6.2.1

Coolstoragetemperature

57

4.6.2.2

Avoidingtemperaturevariations(andhencewatercondensation)

57

4.6.2.3

Darkness

57

4.6.2.4

Contactwithfreshair

57

REFERENCES

57

APPLICATIONSOFJATROPHAPRODUCTS

59

5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 APPLICATIONSOFOIL
5.2.1
Lampsandcookingstoves
5.2.1.1
5.2.1.2

5.2.2

Lamps
Cookingstoves

Directfuelforcarsanddrivingenginesforshaftpowerorelectricitygeneration

59
59
59
59
60

61

5.2.2.1

Introduction

61

5.2.2.2

PPOfuelproperties

61

5.2.2.3

Otherproperties

62

5.2.2.4

Engineconversion/Enginetypes

64

5.2.2.5

Engineconversion

66

5.2.2.6

Importanttechnicalissues

69

5.2.2.7

Serviceandmaintenance

74

5.2.2.8

Externalcomponentsattachedtotheengine

75

5.2.2.9

Emissions

75

5.2.2.10

Examplesofconvertedengines

76

Feedstockforsoapproduction
Feedstockforbiodieselproduction

76
77

5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.4.1

Somechemistry

77

5.2.4.2

Typeofalcohol

78

5.2.4.3

PreparationofPPOfeedstock

78

5.2.4.4

Biodieselproductionrecipe

79

5.2.4.5

Biodieselrefining

79

5.2.4.6

Biodieselbyproducts

80

5.2.4.7

Concludingremarks

81

ix


5.3 APPLICATIONSOFOTHERJATROPHAPRODUCTS
5.3.1
Woodenstemsandleaves
5.3.2
Presscake
5.3.2.1

Handling

82

5.3.2.2

Presscakeasabiogasgenerationfeedstock

82

5.3.2.3

Presscakeasbriquettesforfuel

83

5.3.2.4

Presscakeasafertilizer

84

5.3.2.5

Insecticidefromoiland/orpresscake

5.3.3
Whatisnotrecommended
5.4 REFERENCES
6

PROJECTIMPLEMENTATION
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 OWNERSHIP,PRODUCTIONANDFINANCEMODELS
6.2.1
Ownership
6.2.1.1
6.2.1.2

6.2.2

Ownershipmodels
Appropriateownershipmodels

87
87
87
87
89

6.2.2.1

Thebasicjatrophabiofuelproductionchain

91

6.2.2.2

Mainfactorsdeterminingfeasibilityofthebasicbiofuelchain

92

Theextendedproductionchain

Financingmodels

93

101

6.2.3.1

Howtofinancefarmersplantations

101

6.2.3.2

Howtofinancetheprocessingenterprise

106

6.2.3.3

Howtofinanceengineadaptations

107

6.2.3.4

ProjectFundingSources

108

6.2.3.5

Alternativefinancingschemes

6.3 SUSTAINABILITYOFJATROPHACURCASACTIVITIES
6.3.1
Introduction
6.3.2
Sustainabilitycriteriaandinitiatives
6.3.3
Tentativecriteriaforsustainabledevelopmentoflargescalejatrophaproduction
6.3.4.
Conclusion
6.4 REFERENCES

ANNEXA:
ANNEXB:
ANNEXC:
ANNEXD:
ANNEXE:

87

91

6.2.2.3

85

85
85

Productionmodels:thejatrophavaluechain

6.2.3

81
81
82

PLANTATIONESTABLISHMENTANDMANAGEMENT
HARVESTING
OILPRESSINGANDPURIFICATION
APPLICATIONSOFJATROPHAPRODUCTS
PROJECTIMPLEMENTATION

110

112
112
113
114
115
116

GENERALDATAONJATROPHA

Mainauthor:EricvanderPutten,withcontributionsofYweJanFrankenandJandeJongh

1.1

Introduction

Jatropha curcas L. (Latin name) is often referred to as jatropha. It is a plant that produces
seedswithhighoilcontent.Theseedsaretoxicandinprinciplenonedible.

Jatrophagrowsunder(sub)tropicalconditionsandcanwithstandconditionsofseveredrought
andlowsoilfertility.Becausejatrophaiscapableofgrowinginmarginalsoil,itcanalsohelpto
reclaimproblematiclandsandrestoreerodedareas.Asitisnotafoodorforagecrop,itplays
animportantroleindeterringcattle,andtherebyprotectsothervaluablefoodorcashcrops.

Currentinterestbyinvestors,farmersandNGOsinjatrophaismainlyduetoitspotentialasan
energycrop.Jatrophaseedscanbepressedintobiooilthathasgoodcharacteristicsfordirect
combustionincompressedignitionenginesorfortheproductionofbiodiesel.Thebiooilcan
also be the basis for soapmaking. The pressed residue of the seeds (presscake) is a good
fertilizerandcanalsobeusedforbiogasproduction.

Jatrophaisapromisingcropwithmanyapplications.Thetechnologyisinitsinfancyandonthe
vergeofcommercialisation.Expectationsarehigh.Thefirstdevelopmentsareunderway,but
notmuchhasbeenrealisedsofar.FACT(FuelsfromAgricultureinCommunalTechnology)is
gaining experience in several pilot projects and has encountered many initial obstacles and
problems. In several projects it has tried to tackle these problems. The objective of this
handbookistosharethemostrecentknowledgeonallaspectsofjatrophawithpractitioners
and other people involved in making use of jatropha for local development, with biofuel as
themostinterestingoption.

Withinthiscontext,theprimaryfocusofthisbookwillbeonthestartupofplantations,the
processingoffruit,seeds,oilandtheuseofoilforlocaldevelopment.Eachtopicisdiscussedin
moredetailintheappropriatechapters.

Thisintroductorychapterdescribesthebasicandglobalcharacteristicsofjatropha.Itincludes
the botanical description, ecology, geographical distribution, applications of jatropha and its
oil,sustainabilityissuesandreportoutline.

1.2

Botanicaldescription

Jatropha curcas L. has many local names, including bagani/ (Ivory CoastMali), pourghre
(French), physic nut (English), tabanani (Senegal), makaen/ mmbono (Tanzania), pion (Latin
America),purgeernoot(Dutch),sketnoto(Surinamese).

InallcasesJatrophacurcasL.isatallbush/shruborsmalltreethatcangrowupto6meters
tall,belongingtotheEuphorbiaceaefamily.Itslifespanisintherangeof50years.Thetreeisa
deciduouswoodtypewithleavesfallingoffunderconditionsofstress.


The plant has green leaves with a length and width of 6 to 15 centimetres. Jatropha plants
showdifferentplantarchitecture,rangingfromamainstemwithnoorfewbranchestoaplant
thatisbranchedfrombelow.Thebranchesofthejatrophaplantcontainawhite,stickylatex
thatleavesbrownstains,whicharehardtowashout.Therootsystemfromnaturaljatropha
plantsiswelldeveloped,withrootsgrowingbothlaterallyandverticallyintodeepersoillayers.

Figure11TheJatrophaplant(photosMauricioMoller)

Theplantismonoecious,withmaleandfemaleflowersonthesameplant.Fruitformsatthe
endofbranchesinbunchesof520,haveashaperesemblinganAmericanfootballandare
about 40 mm. long. Each fruit contains 3 seeds, though occasionally one may have 4 or 5
seeds.

Figure12Jatrophafruits(photosArthurRiedacker)

Jatrophaseedslooklikeblackbeansandareonaverage18mmlongand12mmwideand10
mmthick.Thesedimensionvarywithinseedsfromthesameplantorprovenanceandbetween
seedsfromdifferentprovenances.Seedweighbetween0.5and0.8gram,withanaverageof
1333 seeds per kilogram. Seeds contain various toxic components (phorbol esters, curcin,
trypsininhibitors,lectinsandphytates)andarenonedible.Seedsconsistofahardshellthat
makes up around 37% by weight on average and soft white kernel that makes up 63% by
weight.Thedryseedshaveamoisturecontentofaround7%andcontainbetween32and40%
ofoil,withanaverageof34%.Virtuallyalltheoilispresentinthekernel.

Figure13Nomenclaturefrom[1]:afloweringbranch,bbark,cleafveinature,dpistillateflower,e
staminateflower,fcrosscutofimmaturefruit,gfruits,hlongitudinalcutoffruits;acandfh
(AponteHernandez1978);dandefromDehgan1984(inPhysicnut,JoachimHeller,IPGRI1996)

1.3

Ecology

Someconsiderjatrophatobeaweed.However,itisdefinitelynotaninvasivespeciessinceit
hardly propagates by itself. Seeds from fruits that are left on the ground surrounding the
motherplantseldomgerminateanddevelop.Thefruitandseedsarepoisonousandnoteaten
orcollectedbyanimals,Jatropha,therefore,isnotnaturallydispersed.


Jatropha is a resilient plant that can adapt to many ecological conditions. Its survival
mechanism enables it to withstand periods of stress (cold weather/ severe drought/ low
radiation).Itisabletoretrievethenutrientsfromitsleavesandstorethemintheplantstem
and root system. The leaves then turn yellow and are subsequently shed by the plant. The
stemremainsgreenandphotosyntheticallyactive.Inthisdormantstatetheplantcansurvive
periodsofmorethanayearwithoutrain.

In some cases jatropha naturally forms a symbiosis with soil mycorrhiza (a specific kind of
fungus)thatincreasestheplantsuptakeofnutrientsandwaterfromthesoil.Thepresenceof
mycorrhiza increases the plants tolerance to drought and low levels of nutrients. This
symbiosisoccurssometimesunder naturalconditionsbutneveroccursinplantations,unless
artificiallyintroduced.

1.4

Geographicaldistribution

JatrophahistoricallyoriginatesfromCentralAmericaandthenorthernpartsofSouthAmerica.
Jatropha has been distributed to other tropical regions by European seafarers and explorers
from the 16th century onwards. Presently it grows in tropical areas worldwide (SubSaharan
Africancountries,SoutheastAsia,India).

Figure14indicationofthemostsuitableclimateconditionsforthegrowthofJatrophacurcasL
(30N,35S)andOilpalm(ElaeisguinensisJacq.)(4N,8S).[3]

1.5

Jatrophahistoricalandcurrentuses

Historical records show that jatropha was used by native Indians of Central America and
perhaps South America, where it was traditionally used in herbal medicine. Jatropha seeds
were commercially produced on the Cabo Verde Islands already in 1836. The seeds were
exportedtoPortugalandFranceandtheoilwasusedforstreetlightingandsoapproduction
[1].Duetothetoxicityoftheleavesanditsfastgrowthandresilience,jatrophaisoftenusedas
ahedgeorlivingfencesinceitisnotbrowsedbycattle.Therearemanyothercurrentusesfor
jatropha.Figure15givesanoverviewoftheseveralapplicationsofjatrophaanditsproducts.


Jatropha Curcas

Fruits

Fruit hulls

Whole plant

- Combustibles,
- Fertiliser

- Erosion control
- Hedge plant
- Medicinal use
- Plant protectant
- Fire wood
- Fertiliser

Seeds

Oil
- Fuel
- Resource

Seed cake
* Lamps
* Cooking stoves
* Direct engine fuel
* Soap production
* Bio diesel

- Fertiliser
- Input for biogas production
- Input for combustion
- Charcoal production

Figure15Usesofthejatrophaplantandproducts

Figure16Left:Pongamiaseeds(anotheroil
containingtreeseed);Middle:jatrophaseeds
fromTanzania;righttop:soapfromKakuteTanz;
rightbelow:JatrophaoilfromDiligent

Figure17Piecesofpresscake,pressedbya
strainerpress(photoRuralBiodieselBrazil)


1.6

Factsheet

Table11belowlistsanumberofminimum,maximumandaveragevaluesofseveralJatropha
attributes.

Table11JatrophaFactsheet
Parameter
Seedyield

Unit
drytonne/
hectare

Minimum Average
0.3
1.5

Maximum
6

Rainfall
requirementsfor
seedproduction
Oilcontentof
seeds

mm/year

600

1,000

1,500

%ofmass

34%

40%

%ofmassof
seedinput
MJ/kg

20%

25%

Source
PositionPaperonJatropha
LargeScaleProject
Development,FACT2007
PositionPaperonJatropha
LargeScaleProject
Development,FACT2007
Jatrophabiodiesel
productionanduse,W.
Achtenetal,2008
varioussources

37

Oilyieldafter
pressing
Energycontent

1.7

Jatrophaandlocaldevelopment

Jatrophacanbeintegratedintotraditionalfarmingsystemsindevelopingcountries.Itcanbe
planted as a living fence around agricultural fields or on marginal soils to control erosion.
Whenthepresscakeisreturnedtothefieldsthereisasustainablerecyclingofnutrientsand
thesoilremainsproductive.Theproductionofseedsandprocessingintobiofuelprovideextra
jobopportunities.Jatrophabiofuelcanbeusedforbothtransportandelectricityproduction,
andcangivelocalcommunitiesenergyindependence.Anyexcessbiofuelthatisproducedcan
besold.Theoilcanalsobeusedforsoapproduction,providingaprofitableruralactivity.

Jatropha production should only take place when there is sufficient land for local food
production. Intercropping jatropha with food crops is also a good option; the extra
investmentsinagriculturewillincreasefoodproductionaswell.

1.8

Jatrophahandbookoutline

This handbook describes the jatropha oil production process step by step, as indicated in
Figure18.

Introduction
(CH 1)

Plantation
establishment
(CH 2)

Harvesting
(CH 3)

Oil pressing and


purification
(CH 4)

Use of jatropha
products
(CH 5)

Project
implementation
(CH 6)

Figure18Jatrophahandbookoutline

Plantation establishment (Chapter 2) discusses the aspects of the establishment and


management of a jatropha plantation on a small scale (0.5 to 5 ha.). It elaborates on soil
sampling,fieldpreparationandplanting.Furthermorethechapterhighlightsthedangersand
hazards on a plantation, including pests and diseases. At the end, there is a discussion of
variousdryseedyieldsoftheplantation.


Harvesting (Chapter 3) discusses the harvesting and drying of fruit, and the dehulling and
storage of seeds. It provides insight into the major issues of the harvesting process of the
jatrophaseeds.

Oilpressingandpurification(Chapter4)discussesthemechanicaloilextractionmethodsand
oil quality aspects for jatropha oil production. Multiple technologies are available for oil
extraction. The selection is mainly a tradeoff between the acceptable complexity, costs of
technologyandtherequiredoilquality.Productionscaleisanimportantlimitingfactorinthe
choiceoftechnology.Oilextractionisoneaspectofoilproduction.Afterpressing,thejatropha
oilneedsfurtherpurificationbeforeitcanbeused.Cleaningmethods,handlingguidelinesand
storageconditionsarethereforediscussed.

Useofjatrophaproducts(Chapter5)discussesthepotentialapplicationsofjatrophaandits
products.Jatrophaisfirstofallcultivatedfortheoilanditsseveralapplicationsarediscussed.
During the process manybyproducts are created which can be used as well. However, until
nowonlyafewapplicationshavebeenrealizedonareasonableandlargescale.Thischapter
elaboratesfurtheronthetechnicaldetailsandconceptsneededtomodifyandadaptexisting
technologiesfortheuseofjatrophaoilandbyproducts.

Project implementation (Chapter 6) focuses on the implementation phase, which requires


several strategic decisions about who will own the production facilities, what products to
include in the chain and how to finance the different components of the enterprise. These
decisions determine to a large degree the social impact and sustainability of the production
chain. This chapter also aims to describe the most important options, with its respective
advantagesanddisadvantages.

Sustainabilityisanotherimportanttopicoftheimplementationphase.Conformationwiththe
CramerCriteria,forexample,isobligatoryifonewantstosellitsproductsintheNetherlands.
Other sustainability issues, namely environmental, social and economic subjects (people,
profit,planet)arealsoimportantforthelongtermacceptanceandsuccessofanyproject.

1.9
1.

2.

References
JoachimHeller,IPGRI1996Physicnutunderutilizedspecies
Jongschaapetal.,2007

PLANTATIONESTABLISHMENTANDMANAGEMENT

Mainauthor:YweJanFrankenwithcontributionsofFlemmingNielsen

2.1

Introduction

This chapter discusses the aspects of establishing and managing a jatropha plantation on a
smallscale(0.5to5ha.).Itelaboratesonsoilsampling,fieldpreparationandplanting.There
aremanyoptionsforstartingaplantation,fromseedstocuttingsanddifferentplantspacing
arrangements. The growth process of the jatropha plant is described here. Subsequently,
plantation managementisdescribed.Issuesoffertilizationandweedingbelongtothistopic.
Furthermore,thischapterhighlightsthedangersandhazardsonaplantation,includingpests
anddiseases.Attheend,thereisadiscussionofthevariousdryseedyieldsofaplantation.

2.2
2.2.1

Soilsandfieldpreparation
Soilrequirements

Jatropha prefers welldrained soils with an open wellaerated structure. The soil types
mentionedinthetextbelowrefertoFigure21withtheUSDAsoilclassificationbasedongrain
size.

Mostsuitablesoilsareloam,sandyclayloamandsiltloam.Heavysoils(clay,sandyclay,clay
loam,siltyclayloam,andsilt)areonlysuitableunderrelativelydryconditionswhenfrequent
periods of heavy rainfall are absent. In that case jatropha can be quite productive because
thesesoilsusuallyhaveagoodnutrientsupply.Jatrophacannottoleratepermanentwetness
(it becomes waterlogged). Heavy soils, therefore, are only suitable when they are not
saturated with moisture for long periods (maximum one week, which will already have a
negative impact on production). These conditions occur when there are no periods of high
rainfallthatleadtowaterloggingandwhenthegroundwatertableisoutofreach.Heavysoils
are not suitable under conditions where very dry and wet periods quickly follow each other
becausetheyshrinkandswellandrootformationisimpaired.

Sandysoils(sand,loamysand,andsandyloam)aresoilsthatarepronetodryingoutquickly
(unless they are very high in organic matter). On these soils jatropha has a comparative
advantageoverothercrops,becauseitisdroughttolerant.Thesesoilsusuallyarenothighin
nutrients, so jatropha will need fertilization or high organic matter application to the soil in
ordertobeproductive.

Regardlessofthesoil,agoodpHforjatrophaliesbetween5.5and8.5.Undermoreacidicor
alkalineconditionsjatrophagrowthislimited.Soildepthshouldbeatleast45centimetersand
soil slope should not exceed 30. Jatropha can survive low soil nutrient contents, but in that
case growth and production are limited. Higher nutrient levels in the soil translate into
increased production. Soil organic matter is also favorable to jatropha growth, especially in
coarsesoils.


Figure21belowclassifiessoilsaccordingtosand,siltandclaycontent.Thefigureconsistsof
threeaxesgivingthesandcontent(leftaxis),siltcontent(rightaxis)andsandcontent(bottom
axis).Thevariousblocksinthefigureindicatedifferentsoiltypes.

Figure21USDAsoilclassification

2.2.2

Soilsampling

Itisimportanttohaveagoodindicationofthesoiltypeandfertilityattheplantingsite.Before
startingaplantation,soilsamplesshouldbetakenandanalyzed.

Soil samples should be taken at around 30 cm depth and per spot (100 m2) around 10 15
samples should be taken of 100 cm3 each. The location of each spot should be exactly
described preferably by GPS coordinates. The samples should be pulverized and mixed well
togethertoget1sampleforanalysis.Onecupofsoilshouldbeputinaplasticbag,labelled
andusedforanalysis.Theremainderofthemixedsampleshouldbelabelledandstoredasa
backup.Perhectare,atleast5mixedsamplesshouldbeanalyzed.

Theclay,siltandsandcontentneedtobemeasuredtodeterminethesoiltype.Soilnutrient
levels need to be measured for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and, preferably, also
magnesium, zinc, copper, sulphur and calcium. Other aspects that should be included in the
analysis are organic matter (OM), soil pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and saturation
percentageoftheCECforpotassium,magnesiumandcalcium.

The data should be professionally analyzed to get a good indication of soil fertility (low,
medium, high) and the Jatropha production potential at the site (see also annex A on seed
yields).Thiscanbedonebyasoillaboratoryorbyanexternalsoilscientist.Incasethisisnot
possibleacommercialsoiltestingkitcanbeused.

10


2.2.3

Soilpreparation

Thesoilneedstobeclearedfromvegetationbeforeplanting,andweedsneedtoberemoved.
2.2.3.1

Plantingholes

Whenplantingjatrophaonly,plantingholesshouldbeprepared.Theseholescanbedugwith
an axe or by drilling. On hard or compacted soils, ploughing or deep ripping of the soils is
advisable,especiallywhenconsideringintercropping,inwhichcasetheentiresoilneedtobe
prepared.

Incaseofhardcompactedsoils,itisalsopossibletopreparelinesforplantingorseedingwith
adeepripperwhichisachiselploughwithjustonehook.Adeeprippershouldripfrom3050
cm. deep. This will allow the root system of the jatropha seedlings to develop well. A ripper
cannotbemanuallyoperatedbutmustbeusedwithanimaltractionorfixedtoatractor.

Holes for planting should ideally have the following minimum dimensions: diameter of 30
centimetresandminimaldepthof45centimetres.Theholesshouldberefilledwithamixture
ofsoilandorganicmatter(compost)inaratio1:1.

Artificialfertilizerormanureshouldbeadded.Theamountoffertilizeraddedshouldbeabout
1020gramsofcommonN:P:K(nitrogen,phosphorusandpotassium)fertilizer(from6:6:6to
15:15:15 or variations between these limits). The fertilizer should be mixed evenly. In case
animalmanureisused,about0.5kgwouldbesufficientperplanthole.Theamountoforganic
matter can vary between 20% and 50%. The formula of the mixture then changes into soil:
compost:manureinaratio2:1:1.Incaseofheavier(moreclay)soilsjatrophacultivationisnot
advised. However, in that case sand should be added to the mixture in a ratio of soil: sand:
organicmatterof1:1:2.

Themixtureshouldbefreefromstonesandlargerobjects.Makingtheholesneedstobedone
justbeforetherainyseason.Plantingshouldstartwhenthesoilshavereceivedthefirstrains.

Morefertilizercandamagetherootsoftheyoungseedlingsandcanbestbeaddedafterone
or two months. About 50 to 100 grams of the same NPK (see before) needs to be evenly
distributedandmixedwiththetopsoilinadiameterofabout50centimetresaroundtheplant.
2.2.3.2

Plantspacing

Spacinginplantationscanvary.Acommonlyappliedplantspacingisinarectangularpattern
of3x2,5meterswith1333plants/ha.Whenplantsgrowtheyneedtohaveenoughspacefor
growthandbranching.Inthispatternthereisenoughspaceforintercroppinginthefirstyear
andeventhesecondyearwhenjatrophadevelopsslowly.Widerspacingleadstolargertrees
thatgrowtallerandhigher,whichhindersharvestingandpruning.Inamorenarrowspacing
2.5 m x 2.5 m or 2 m x 2 m more intensive pruning is necessary to keep the plants from
growingintoeachother.Thisrequiresalotofextralabour.Amorenarrowspacingleadstoa
moreintensiveagricultureandrequiressoilswithgoodnutrientandwatersupply.

Incaseofpermanentintercropping,theplantsshouldbeplantedinrowswithalargerdistance
inbetweenforothercrops.Thedistancebetweentherowsdependsonthespaceneededfor
intercropping, usually about 4 meters. The distance between Jatropha plants within a row is
2.5or3meters.

11


In case mechanized agriculture is considered, e.g. a tractor, there should be at least 4 m
spacinginbetweentherows,assuming2metersforthetractorand1meterofbrancheson
each side. The spacing between plants within a row can be reduced to 1.5 m in this case
resulting in an overall spacing of 4 m x 1.5 m [31]. In living fences, plants should be spaced
about 25 centimetres apart from each other in a single or in double rows. For quick
establishmentitisadvisabletostartfromcuttingsintherainyseason.

Monoculturejatrophaitselfislargelyfireresistant,buttheburningofweedsandgrasseswill
kill the plant. [31]. In fire hazard areas it is advised to split plantations into separate
compartments by making fire lanes of at least 2 metres wide. This will prevent fire from
damaging the entire plantation. These fire lanes should be kept free from weeds, crops and
overgrownvegetation.
2.2.3.3

Plantingseason

Thebesttimeforplantingisattheonsetoftherainyseasonwhenthesoilhastakenupthe
firstsoilmoisture.Whenwaterisavailableatlowcosts,itispossibletostartplantingseveral
weeksuptoamonthbeforetherainyseason.
Afterplanting,extrawateringoftheplantsisnecessaryonlywhentherainsarenotsufficient,
anditcanceaseafter3monthsofgrowthwhentheplantshavedevelopedtheirrootsystem.

2.3

Jatrophaplantdevelopment

Toapplyanoptimalmanagementofajatrophaplantation,itisimportantto understandthe
developmentstagesofthejatrophaplant.
2.3.1

Jatrophadevelopmentstages

Startingfromseed,jatrophagoesthroughvariousstagesofdevelopment.
The first is the juvenile stage. It starts with the seed that soaks up water when planted
(imbibition)andisfollowedbygermination.Thesmallseedlingthencomesabovetheground
(emergence)andstartstodevelopshootsandroots(establishment).Thisjuvenilestagetakes
abouttwoandahalfmonthsunderoptimalconditions.

Thesecondstageistheflowerinductionsensitivephase.Atthisstagetherightenvironmental
conditions (high radiation/ high average temperatures/ high minimum temperatures(>18C)
and sufficient rainfall can trigger flower induction. Flowering is the third stage. After
pollinationthefruitstartfillingandripening,whichisthefourthstage.Thetimefromflower
inductiontoharvesttakesapproximately3months.Afterharvesttheplantmayenterastage
of dormancy where it is insensitive to flowering or it may enter another flower induction
sensitivephase.Thisdependsonstressconditions,buttheexactmechanismisnotyetknown.

Figure22Jatrophadevelopmentstages[28]

12


2.3.2

Rootdevelopment

Aftergerminationfromseedsjatrophaseedlingsdevelop
onetaprootandfourlateralroots.Therootsystemthus
grows both into the upper and deeper soil layers,
provided the soil is deep enough. Figure 23 shows a
jatropharootsystemwheretheleftplanthasdeveloped
athicktaprootgrowingdownvertically.

Incasecuttingsareused,onlylateralrootsdevelopand
notaproot.

2.3.3

Floweringandfruiting

Jatrophafloweringisacomplexmatter.Itisknownthat
flowering is induced by stress factors, like temperature
fluctuations and drought, but how exactly and at what
thresholds this occurs is still unknown. For flower
Figure23Jatropharootsystem.
induction Jatropha plants need to be exposed to high
Picture:JoachimHeller
solar radiation. Plants that grow shaded under trees or
in clouded conditions do not flower or flower markedly less than plants in the full sun. In a
climate with distinct seasons Jatropha starts flowering after these periods of stress have
ended,whichcanbeseveraltimesperyear.Inclimateswithanevenlydistributedrainfalland
no large seasonal variation in
temperatures Jatropha may flower
continuously when there are no other
formsofinducedstress.

Under optimal conditions, jatropha


usually flowers about 36 months after
the seeds have been sown. The time
from flower induction to fruit
maturation is 90 days. The female
flowers produce fruits that are first
green, and turn yellow when ripening.
Figure24Thevariousstagesoffruitdevelopment.
Later the yellow fruit hull turns brown
Theopenfruitsshowstheblackseedsinside
andblackwhentheydry.

2.4

Plantingmaterialandplantingmethods

One of the first actions to take when starting a Jatropha plantation is to obtain enough
Jatropha plant material and decide how to produce Jatropha plants. Jatropha plants can be
produced by seeds, cuttings, or by micro propagation. These methods and the suitability of
thesemethodsfordifferentconditionsaredescribedbelow.
2.4.1

Geneticandphenotypicalvariation

ProvenancetrialsandresearchintothegeneticsofJatrophacurcasL.hasshownthatthereis
some genetic variation between plants from different provenances (or accessions) that are
growingworldwide.Naturalgeneticvariationbetweenprovenancesislargestinthecentreof
origin(CentralAmericaandtheNorthernpartsofSouthAmerica).

13


Plantsgrownfromthesameseedsourcecandifferconsiderablyinmorphologicalaspectslike
plant height and seed production. It is not yet known to what extent this morphological
variation can be attributed to genetic or environmental factors. When seeds from a certain
location are collected, variation can be minimized by selecting seeds (see next part on seed
selection).
2.4.2

Seedselection

First of all, it is important to obtain high quality seed material. When ordering seeds one
shouldmakesuretheymatchthefollowingcriteria:
Seeds come from highyielding provenances that grow under similar agroecological
conditionsaswheretheplantationisplanned.
Seedsareaselectionoftheheaviestandlargestseedsfromtheseselectedprovenances.
Seedshaveamoisturecontentofaround7%.
Seedsareyoung(preferablynotolderthan6months).
Seedshavebeenstoredundercool,darkanddryconditions.
2.4.3

Germination

Jatrophaseedsgerminateeasilywhenplantedinsoilatabout2cmdepthandwiththewhite
tipoftheseedfacingslightlydownwardsandtheroundedsideoftheseedfacingupwards.

Jatrophagerminatesinanysoilwithacontinuouslyhighhumidityandsufficientairsupply(in
waterloggedsoilsjatrophaseedswillrot).Pretreatmentofseedsdidnotshowbetterresults
in germination compared to dry seeds directly planted in Mozambique [20]. Seeds with the
above mentioned characteristics will germinate within 78 days under hot (average
temperature>25C)andhumidconditions.Undercoolerconditionsgerminationtakeslonger.
Seedsthatgerminatewithin10daysaremorevigorousandshouldbeused.

Jatrophacanbedirectlyseededinthefieldsorcanbegerminatedinanursery,dependingon
thefactorsthatwillbediscussedhereunder.

Figure25Jatrophaseedgerminating(left)andsmallseedlingsthathavejustemerged(right)(photo:
PeterMoers)

2.4.4

Directseeding

Theadvantagesofdirectseedingaretheoptimalrootdevelopmentofthejatrophaplantsand
lower costs for labour and materials as compared to setting up a nursery. A disadvantage is
thatthecontentoftoxinsinseedlingsislowinthefirstmonthsandrabbitsandotheranimals

14


can eat the emerging plants. Direct seeding is recommended in case sufficient water supply
duringgerminationanddevelopmentoftheseedlingscanbeguaranteed,e.g.whensoilshave
taken up enough moisture naturally or by irrigation. When direct seeding, competition from
weedsinthefirst3monthsmustbeavoided.

For optimal jatropha establishment, the seedlings should have access to easy penetrable,
nutrientrich andorganic matterrichsoiltoadepthofatleast 45cm.In caseofcompacted
soils,plantingholesshouldbemadeofabout45cmdeepandabout30cmwideandshouldbe
filledwithloosesoilmixedwithorganicmatterandpreferablyabasicmixoffertilizer/manure.

Seeds should be planted as described under germination in the planting spots in the chosen
plantingpattern(commonis2.5mx3m(seeearlierpartonplantspacing).Oneshouldplant
twoseedsinsteadofoneforeverythirdplantingspotatabout25cmapart(sotherootsystem
ofthetwoseedlingsdoesnotgrowintoeachother).Thiswillresultinsomespareseedlings
that can be easily transferred. In case seeds in some planting holes do not germinate or are
lost, the extra seedlings can be planted there. The extra plants can also be used to replace
plants that develop slowly compared to the other plants or show abnormal growth (e.g.
strangelyshapedleafs).Thisselectionstepisimportantbecauseslowlydevelopingplantswill
producelessfruitsandseedsandwillhaveloweraverageyields.

The amount of seeds needed depends on the planting density. At a spacing of 2.5 m x 3 m,
1333 plants are needed, which requires 2000 seeds (including the extra plants for non
germinatingseedsandtocompensateforlostplantsorreplacementoflowqualityseedlings).
Thisequalsaround1.2kgseeds/hawithanaverageseedweightof0.6grams.
2.4.5 Nurseryplanting
Theadvantagesofgrowingjatrophainnurseriesaretwofold:first,seedlingscangrowunder
controlled, optimal circumstances and slow or abnormally performing plants can easily be
removed.Anotheradvantageisthatnurseryplantsarestrongerwhenplantedinthefieldsand
can more easily survive when the conditions for establishment are suboptimal (drought,
weeds, presence of browsing cattle and insects). There are, however, drawbacks of nursery
plants. The root development of seedlings is hampered because of growing in the smaller
containers.Thisisespeciallydisadvantageouswhentheseedlingsarenotplantedtimelyinthe
fields (< 1 month). There are also extra labor and capital requirements, and there is the
possibilityofspreadingpestsanddiseasestoallseedlingsandthefieldduringplanting.

Anurseryisagoodoptionincaseyouhaveverylowqualityseedmaterialbecausethebest
performingplants/seedscanbeeasilyselected.Itisalsopossibletogerminateseedsinlarger
germinationbedsordirectlyintopolybags(lesswork).Themostvigorousseedsthatgerminate
within10days(ataveragetemperaturesof23Corhigher)shouldbeused,theothersshould
be discarded. The selected germinated seedlings should be transferred into polybags (see
Figure26below).Inthepolybagsthejatrophaplantscangrowforamonth(infullsun)or2
months (when shaded) and should then be transferred to the fields. The plants should be
providedenoughsoilmoistureandinfullsuntheywillneedmorewater.Allplantsthatshow
growth visibly slower than others or show abnormal growth (e.g. strangely shaped leafs)
shouldberemovedinordertoincreasetheaverageplantproductionintheconsecutiveyears
ofseedproductioninthefield.

15


InMozambiqueanurseryhasgrownseedlingsinaseedbednurseryonarelativelylargescale
andnopolybagswereused.Despitethecuttingoftherootswhentheseedlingsareremoved
fromtheseedbed,theseedlingsareperformingwell[31].

Itiswisetoinvestinchemicalpestanddiseasecontrolinordertokeeptheseedlingsfreefrom
pestanddiseasesthatcouldotherwisebespreadtothefields.

Figure26Jatrophanurserywithseedlings(forapprox.2ha)inpolybagspartlyshadedartificially(left)
orbytrees(right)(photos:PeterMoers)

Aftertheseedlingshaveestablished(11.5months),theyshouldbetransferredtothefieldas
quickly as possible. The soil requirements for planting are similar to those for direct seeding
(seedirectseeding).
2.4.6

Cuttings

CuttingsareafastandcheapwayofpropagatingJatropha.Oneadvantageisthatcuttingsare
cloneswith thesamegenetic characteristicsasthe motherplant,andincaseahighyielding
motherplantisselectedthecuttingshavethesameproperties[31].Thedisadvantageisthat
cuttingsdeveloponlylateralrootsandcannotaccessnutrientsandwaterindeepersoillayers.
Cuttingsthereforehavelimiteddroughttolerance.Werecommendthisonlyforlivingfences.
UsingcuttingsforaJatrophaplantationonlyworksonfertileandsoilswithagoodpermanent
watersupplyandabsenceoflongdryperiods.

Cuttingsarebestmadefromthethickestbranchesatthebaseofthejatrophaplant.Bestisto
make cuttings of at least 30 cm (but 50 cm gives a higher success rate). Cuttings should be
placeddirectlyinwetsoilleaving15cmormoreofbranchabovethesoil.Cuttingscanalsobe
produced in a nursery in polypropylene bags. Soil should be kept wet (therefore the rainy
seasonisthebesttimeforcuttings).Normallythefirstshootsappearafter3to4weeks.
2.4.7

Micropropagatedclones

A technologically advanced method of obtaining larger amounts of jatropha plants is by


micropropagation.Theadvantageisthatyoucancreatelargenumbersofgeneticallyidentical
plantsofonemotherplantwiththedesiredcharacteristics.Similartocuttings,therootsystem
development is not natural and it requires hormonal stimulation to induce roots to grow
vertically instead of laterally. This method requires sophisticated technologies and chemicals
and is costly and as such is not recommended for smaller scale plantations. However when

16


goodqualitymicropropagatedplantsbecomeavailableonthemarketataffordablepricesthis
willbeinterestingforsmallerplantationsaswell.

2.5

2.5.1

Plantationmanagement(agronomy)
Weeding

Jatropha usually survives when overgrown by weeds, but growth and production will be
minimal [31]. It is very important to keep the jatropha fields free from weeds. At regular
intervalsweedsshouldberemovedandleftonthegroundtoprovideorganicmaterialtothe
topsoil.Thefrequencyofweedingdependsonthegrowthoftheweeds.Whenweedsstartto
shadethejatrophaorgrowastallasthejatrophaplantstheyshouldberemoved,aswellas
whentheylimitaccesstothespaceinbetweenrows.Afteronetothreeseasonsdependingon
the agroclimatic conditions the canopies of Jatropha will be so dense that weed growth is
severelysuppressedandlabourforweedingconsequentlydrops[31].

In most cases the amount of labour determines the area that can be kept weedfree. In the
case of largescale plantations with partly mechanized cultivation, around 2 ha/person could
besufficientlyfreedfromweeds.Incaseofsmallscalecultivationthisiscloserto1ha/person.
2.5.2
2.5.2.1

Nutrientmanagement
Nutrientrequirements

Jatropha needs sufficient amounts of nutrients in order to grow into a full size plant and to
produceseeds.Inthefirst4yearsnutrientsareneededtobuildupagoodplantarchitecture
(roots, stems, leaves). Also in this period an increasing amount of nutrients is needed to
produceflowersandfruits.After4years,whentheplantshavedevelopedtotheirfinalshape
andsizenutrientsareprimarilyneededformaintenanceoftheplantandforfruitproduction.

Thenutrientsremovedbyharvestingjatrophafruitshouldbereturnedtothefieldsafterthe
energy (mostly lipids consisting of the elements C, H and O and no nutrients) is extracted.
Jatropha fruit shells and presscake (or residue from biogas production) are best returned to
thefieldsasorganicfertilizer,whichclosesthenutrientcycle.Inthatcase,jatrophaplantscan
continuouslyproduceandnoorlittlefertilizationisnecessary.

When fruitshells and presscake (or biogas residue) are not returned to the fields regular
fertilization with NPK (nitrogen/ phosphorus and potassium) and micronutrients will be
necessary. In case of highly fertile soils, jatropha fertilization is not necessary. There are
enoughnutrientsforplantdevelopmentandfruitproduction.

1.Nutrientsrequirementsduringjatrophaestablishment
In the first years, nutrients are needed for maturation and development of highyielding
jatropha plants. Under conditions of poor soil fertility extra nutrients are required for
plantationestablishmentandseedproductioninthefirst4years.

17


Table21Annualmacronutrientrequirementstobuildupjatrophastandingstockandfruitsinyears
14[29].Productioninyear4,with50%ofrequirednutrientsfromexistingsoilfertility
Year
1
2
3
4
Total
Annualneed
kg/ha/yr
kg/ha/yr
kg/ha/yr
kg/ha/yr

N
23
34
69
103
229
P2O5
7
11
21
32
71
K2O
34
50
101
151
336

The yearly amounts of different types of fertilizer needed in the first 4 years have been
calculated. This is based on the nutrient requirements given in Table 21 and the nutrient
contentofdifferenttypesoffertilizer.TherequirementsarecalculatedbasedonsufficientN
supplyandingeneraltherequirementsforothernutrientsarealsometwhentheamountsin
thetablebelowaregiven.Thesevaluescountforpoorsoils,whereonly50%ofthenutrients
neededarederivedfromthesoil.Incaseofextremelypoorsoils,morefertilizerisneeded.The
composition of chemical fertilizer in Table 21 and Table 22 is given as the amounts of
Nitrogen:Phosphorus:Potassium(N:P:K)inpercentages.

Table22Annualfertilizerrequirementstobuildupjatrophastandingstockandfruitsinyear14[5]
Typeoffertilizer
Year1
Year2
Year3
Year4
Total
Drycowmanure(t/ha)
5
6
12
18
41
Drychickenmanure(t/ha)
1
1.2
2.4
3.6
8.2
Vermicompost(t/ha)
1.2
1.7
3.4
5.2
11.5
Chemicalfertilizer(16416)(kg/ha)
140
210
430
640
1420
Urea(46%Nitrogen)(kg/ha)
44
74
150
224
492

2.Nutrientsrequirementsforseedproduction
Aharvestof1MTofseedsisequivalenttotheremovalofthefollowingamountofnutrients
(infruitsincludingseeds)[3]:
14.3to34.3kg/haN
0.7to7.0kg/haP
and14.3to31.6kg/haK

SeeannexAforthewithdrawalofnutrientsofonetonofdryseedofjatrophacomparedwith
otheroilseedcrops.

Incasefruitshellsandpresscake(orresiduefrombiogasproduction)arenotreturnedtothe
field,thesenutrientsneedtobereplaced. Theyearlyamountsofdifferent typesoffertilizer
necessary per hectare to replace the nutrients removed by harvesting 1 MT of seeds are
shown below. The requirements are calculated based on sufficient Nsupply and, in general,
therequirementsforothernutrientsarealsometwhen theamountsinthe tablebeloware
given.

Table23Nutrientsneededtoreplacethelossbyharvesting1MTofseeds
Type
Dry(solid)cowmanure
Dry(solid)chickenmanure
Vermicompost
Chemicalfertilizer(15510)
Chemicalfertilizer(12210)
Urea(46%Nitrogen)

18

Amountneeded
7MT
1.3MT
1.65MT
0.22MT(220kg)
0.27MT(270kg)
0.072MT(72kg)


2.5.2.2

Organicmatter

OrganicMatter(OM)levelinthesoilleadstoanenhancedcationexchangecapacity(resulting
inalosebindingofnutrientsintheorganicmatter)andalsoabettersoilstructure.Ithasbeen
demonstrated in a number of trials that jatropha responds positively to a high OM level.
Organicfertilizersarethereforerecommended.
2.5.2.3

Fertilisation

The best time to fertilize is just before or at the start of the rainy season. It is best to apply
fertilizer evenly in a circle around the jatropha plant with a maximum of 1 meter from the
plant. In case anorganic (artificial) fertilizer is used, it is best mixed with organic matter or
compost. Applying artificial fertilizer in smaller quantities and with a higher frequency
throughout the year decreases losses due to runoff and deep percolation and increases its
efficiency.

Heavy nitrogen fertilization may lead to strong emissions of the greenhouse gas NO2 with a
strong global warming potential. This will reduce the number of carbon credits that can be
earnedinaJatrophaproject.
2.5.2.4

Mycorrhiza

A simple and cheap way of increasing jatropha yields is by the use of mycorrhiza, which are
fungi that live in symbiosis with plant roots. Mycorrhiza taps organic substances from the
plant, especially sugars and Bvitamins. In return mycorrhiza make nutrients in the soil
available for the plant and help in water uptake. Mycorrhiza, combined with moderate
fertilization,guaranteesahighnutrientuptakebytheplantandminimizesnutrientslossesby
percolation. The use of mycorrhiza is cheap (about 510 /ha). Mycorrhiza are especially
effectiveinpooranddrysoilswheretheycanincreaseyieldsbyabout30%.

Mycorrhizaarebestapplieddissolvedinwaterandappliedintheplantholebeforeorduring
planting.Mycorrhizacanalsobeappliedtoexistingjatrophaplantsbydiggingacircularpitof
around 1020 cm deep at around 40 cm around the stem and applying the water with
mycorrhiza. Afterwards the pit should be covered with soil. It is also possible to coat seeds
withmycorrhizabeforeseeding.Inaddition,theyareeasytoapplyinanurserywhenmixed
withthewater.
2.5.3

Pruning

Jatropha flowers form only at the end of branches, pruning leads to more branches and as
suchtomorepotentialforfruitproduction.Anotherimportantreasontopruneistokeepthe
plantsinamanageablesize.Undernaturalconditionsjatrophacangrowintoatreeofabout6
meterstallwithacrownwidthof6meters,whichmakesitveryhardtoharvest.Inaplantation
with a high density (around 1100 plants/ha), it is important to sufficient keep distance
between the plants to avoid competition for light and space. Plants should be kept low to
facilitatemanualpicking.

Withgoodpruningthejatrophaplantsshouldhavestronglateralbranchesthatcanbearthe
weight of the fruits. In the fourth or fifth year after planting and after several rounds of
pruningtheplantsshouldultimatelyhavesome200250terminalbranches.

Itisimportanttoprune onlyunderdryconditionsandbestwhentheplantshaveshedtheir
leaves. When pruning make slightly vertical cuts (see pictures) so water runs off and avoid

19


making horizontal cuts where water can stack. Pruning in the rainy season and with high
relativeairhumidityincreasestherisksforbacterialorviralplantinfectionandfungalattacks.
Allcutplantmaterialcanbeleftasgroundcoverormulch.

Thefirstpruningisneededafter36monthsandwhenplantshavedevelopedwell(atleast70
centimetrestall).Whenbranchingfromthegroundhasstartednaturallycuttingbackthemain
stem is not necessary. Cutting the main stem is done at a height of 3045 cm aboveground.
Largerplantscanbecutbackat45cmandsmallerplantsat30cm.

Figure27Branchingafterpruning(photo:
ArthurRiedacker)

Figure28Plantcutback(photo:Arthur
Riedacker)

Afteroneyear,asecondroundofpruningisneededwhenplantshavegrownextensivelyafter
the first pruning. Secondary and tertiary branches should be cut leaving about one third of
branch (as seen from the last branching) on the plant. After two years, a same round of
pruning(asafteroneyear)shouldberepeated.

On the longer term, after about 8 to 10 years andwhen plants are growing very dense, it is
advised to cut back the entire plant to about 45 cm aboveground an allow it to regrow.
Becauseofthewelldevelopedrootsystemtheplantwillgrowbackveryrapidly.
2.5.4

Irrigation

Irrigationcanincreaseyields.Thecostsforirrigationarehighandinmostcases,withcurrent
jatropha seed prices, it is not economically viable. Installation and material costs for the
irrigationof1hectareareatminimum400.Operationalcostspermmofirrigationareinthe
rangeof0.300.40/mm/ha.

Insomecasesafteroneyieldtherainyseasonisjustnotlongenoughtosustainasecondyield.
Withirrigationthegrowthseasoncanbeextendedlongenoughforasecondyield.Thereturns
from an extra yield are maximally around 1500 kg/ha. At a price of e.g. 0.06/kg the extra
returnis90.Whenanextra200mmneedstobeappliedthecostsperhectareareatleast
60,notyetincludingthecostsforinstallationoftheirrigationsystem.Consideringtheextra

20


manpowerneededforharvesting,andthecostsforextrafertilizationonecaneasilyconclude
thatthebenefitsdonotoutweighthecosts.

Therefore, under normal conditions, irrigation only makes sense in show gardens and in the
production of jatropha plants for special purposes, e.g. highquality seed production for
propagation,plantbreeding,clonalgardens,andscientificexperiments.
2.5.5

Intercropping

The greatest advantage of intercropping jatropha with annual crops is that the farmers will
applygoodmanagementoftheannualcropsandalsoforjatropha.Jatrophaplantsareoften
neglected in the first year(s) because the production is not interesting from an economic
perspective.

Growing jatropha in combination with other plants is only possible when sufficient nutrients
andwaterareavailable.Indrylocationswithoutirrigation,intercroppingisnotpossibledueto
competition for water. In soils poor in nutrients, intercropping is only possible with extra
fertilization.ItisalsopossibletogrowfoddercropsinbetweentheJatrophaplantsandallow
grazing. In this case the jatropha plants
should be well established and tall to avoid
damage caused by animals. Jatropha should
notbeintercroppedwithcassava,sinceitisa
possiblehostforseveralcassavadiseases.

It is advisable to start intercropping at the


sametimeasplantingthejatropha.Jatropha
initially might grow slower than the
intercroppedspecies.Inthatcase,andwhen
intercroppedspeciesareplantedclosetothe
jatropha plants, it is recommended to plant
the intercrops a month later so jatropha is
given a head start. Intercropping with

species that provide yield in the first and Figure29JatrophaintercroppedwithArachis


second year ensures good management, PintoiandCapsicumchinensisinBelize(photo:
especiallyclearingthecropsfromweeds.
SylviaBaumgart)

Cropsthatcanbeconsideredshouldbeannualor biannual cropsthatremainrelativelylow


andwillnotshadethejatrophaplants.Examplesarecorn,peanuts,beansandpeppers.After1
or 2 years, the jatropha plant canopy closes and there is no more room for intercropped
speciesanditbecomesdifficultforweedstoestablish.Nitrogenfixingspeciessuchasbeans
areatanadvantageinintercroppingsystemssincejatrophaitselfdoesnotfixnitrogen[31].

ThemodelsinChapter6describetheeconomicfeasibilityofintercropping.

2.6

Jatrophahedges

Jatrophaisalsocultivatedinhedges.Thehedgesareusedaslivingfence,forerosioncontrol,
demarcationofboundariesandfortheprotectionofhomesteads,gardensandfieldsagainst
browsinganimals[12].Inhedgesjatrophaisoftenplanted25to50cmapartinasinglerowor
adoublerowwith50cmbetweentherows[5].Itisrecommendedtoplantabout1jatropha
plant from seed for every meter of hedge. This will ensure that water and nutrients from

21


deepersoillayersareused[31].Onfertilesoilswithagoodmoisturesupplyyieldsareabout
0.8kgpermeterofhedge[12].Onpoorsoilsthiswillbemuchless.

2.7

Seedyields

Jatrophaseedyieldsdependonanumberoffactors(seeFigure210below):

Figure210Overviewoftheproductionsituationswithindicativedrymatteryieldlevels[24]

Whenallgrowthconditionsareoptimalandonlywaterandnutrientlevelsdeterminejatropha
yield,FACThasestimatedjatrophayieldsandpotentialseedyieldsfordifferentlevelsofwater
andnutrientsupply(seetablebelow).Thesedataaremeanttogiveanindicationonyieldsand
bynomeansguaranteetheseyieldswillbeobtainedinreality.Thetableisbasedonfielddata
FACT has collected since 2005. The yield under optimal conditions is based on data from N.
Foidl from the welldocumented proyecto tempate (1992) in Nicaragua, with maximum
yields of 4.5 MT of dry seeds/ha/year (FACT seminar on Jatropha agronomy and genetics,
2007). The 6 MT maximum yield given is based on the assumption that the breeding and
selectioneffortsofthelastyearshaveledtohigheryieldingplantsandtheagriculturalpractice
hasbeenoptimized.

Thefollowingconsiderationsandrestrictionsapplytotheaforementionedinformation:

Jatropha genetic material. Abovementioned yields only apply to plants from selected seeds
from the highest yielding provenances available that are adapted to local soil and climatic
conditions.

Agroecological conditions. These figures only hold for areas with the optimal temperatures
andradiationforJatropha.

22


Watersupply.OptimalwatersupplymeansthatwaterisavailabletotheJatrophaplantatall
timesanddroughtandwaterloggingdonotoccur.Incaseofrainfall,growthiseither:
water limited (drought), gradually reducing the number of harvest from three to one
harvestperyearandreducingthewateravailabilityforgrowthandfruitproduction.
limitedduetonegativeimpactsfromwaterloggingleadingtorootdamage.Thishappens
incaseofexcessiverainfallincombinationwithwaterholdingsoils.

Soilfertility.Highsoilfertilityismentionedandalsoimpliesgoodsoilstructureandaeration.

Table24ExpectedJatrophaseedyieldsfordifferentwatersupplyandsoilfertility[5]
Watersupply
Optimal

Normal

Suboptimal

SoilFertility
high
medium
low
high
medium
low
high
medium
low

DrySeeds(kg/ha/yr)
6,000
2,500
750
3,500
1,500
500
1,500
750
250

2.8

Pestanddiseases

Author:FlemmingNielsen

When Jatropha curcas grows as solitary plant in the landscape or in small stands it rarely
showssignsofpestsanddiseases.However,whencultivatedinhigherdensitiesinplantations
or hedges this situation changes. Reports of pests and diseases come from all parts of the
worldinincreasingnumbers.Inmostcasesthesepestsanddiseasesarenotdetrimentaland
sofarfewareofeconomicimportance.

Whenanewcropisintroducedandcultivatedonalargescaleitcantakeyearsbeforethepest
anddisease pressureisfelt. Thiseffect,forexample,isdemonstrated withseveralnewagro
forestryspecies.Thelowincidencerateofpestsanddiseasescurrentlyobservedinmostareas
canthereforenotbeassumedtolast[3].Pestsanddiseasesthathavebeenreportedtoaffect
jatrophaarelistedinannexA.

Mostofthepestsareofminorimportance.Theimportantpestsvarywithregions:

Africa: Flea beetle (Aphthona spp.) eats the leaves and their larvae penetrate the roots
(Nielsen 2007, Gagnaux 2008). The yellow flea beetle (Aphthona dilutipes) appears to cause
moreseveredamagethanthegoldenfleabeetle,sometimesresultingin100%mortality.The
authorhasonlyobservedtheyellowfleabeetleinManicaProvinceinMozambiqueandknows
only of one other observation namely from Malawi where it also causes severe damage.
(TimothyMahoney,Pers.comm.).

Central and South America: fruit feeding true bugs, Pachycoris klugii Burmeister
(Scutelleridae)andLeptoglossuszonatus(Coreidae)(GrimmandMaes1997).

23


Asia:The scutellarid bug Scutellera nobilis Fabr. which causes flower fall, fruit abortion and
malformation of seeds, and the inflorescence and capsuleborer, Pempelia morosalis that
causesdamagebywebbingandfeedingoninflorescencesandinlaterstagesboringintothe
capsule(ShankerandDhyani2006).

Virus damage is of major concern and appears to be spreading fast in India. In Africa virus
presenceisstillrare.

There is concern that, for instance, African Cassava Mosaic Virus may be transferred by
Jatropha curcas, although cases have only been reported in Jatropha multifida. L. Mnch
(1986) states that cassava superelongation disease (Sphaceloma manihoticola/Elsinoe
brasiliensis)canbetransmittedtoJatrophacurcas.Forthesereasonsitisadvisednottoplant
cassavaandJatrophacurcasinthesamefield(Heller1996).

Commonbean(Phaseolusvulgaris)issusceptibletoJatrophaMosaicVirus(Hughesetal2003).
Itistransmittedbywhitefly(Bemisiatabaci)(Rajetal2008).
2.8.1

Controlmeasures

Researchonbiologicalcontrolmeasuresisongoing,butcurrentlythereisnoknowledgeabout
theefficiencyofvariousmethods,sospecificrecommendationscannotyetbemade(Grimm
1999, Raj et al 2008). However, methods that work with other crops may be efficient in
jatropha too. It is also likely that local methods can be developed in many cases so
experimentationisencouraged.

ChemicalpesticidesareusedsuccessfullyagainstmajorpestsinJatrophacurcas,including:
Pesticides containing Chlorpyrifos or Cyphenothrin are efficient against Aphthona spp.
(fleabeetle)(FNielsenpers.obs.)
Captafol at 3000 ppm is recommended as a dip for the eradication of super elongation
disease(Lozanoetal1981)incassavacuttings.ItislikelytobeefficientforJatrophatoo.
Collar rot can be controlled with 0.2% Copper Oxy Chloride (COC) or 1% Bordeaux
drenching(FACTSeminar2007)
Bark eater (Indrabela sp.) and capsule borer can be controlled with a mixture of vitex,
neem,aloe,CalatropisorRogor@2ml/litofwater.Alternatively,sprayingEndosulfan@
3 ml/lit of water can be used (Paramathma et al 2004, FACT Seminar 2007). Many
countrieshavebannedendosulfan.
2.8.2

1.

2.

24

Preventivemeasures

Use resistant jatropha varieties. Presently there is no systematic knowledge about


resistant varieties. However, nondiseased plants should be selected as "mother plants"
forseedsandcuttings.
Don'tplantJatrophacurcaswhenthepestpressureishigh.Highpestpressureisnormally
foundtowardstheendoftherainyseasonwhentemperaturesandtherelativehumidity
ishigh.Arecentstudy(Gagnaux2007)foundthatJatrophacurcasplantedwhenthepest
pressurewashighshowedincreasedinfestationratesyearsafterplanting.


3.

4.

5.

Sanitarymeasures:
i)
Disinfect tools used for cutting and pruning. Alcohol, chlorine and household
cleaners like Lysol are quite efficient but may not be feasible for small farmers.
Cleaning with water, grass or sand is not very efficient for removing latex but is
betterthannothing.Ifafireisavailableflamingmaybethemostefficientlowcost
method.
ii)
Ifpossibleavoidusingthesamecutting&pruningtoolsforcassavaandjatropha.
iii)
Uproot diseased plants. Inspection should preferably be done at least weekly
duringthefirstfewmonths.Ifnurseriesareused,inspectionand"rogueing"should
be part of the routine. Whiteflies, which are responsible for spreading important
viruses,donotfeedonwiltedleaves,sotheywillusuallynottouchuprootedplants.
However,thereareotherfactors,soitisadvisabletodrytheuprootedplantsata
distancefromthefieldortoburyorburnthem.
iv)
Minimise damage to the Jatropha plants to reduce the risk of microorganisms
entering. Prune with sharp tools only and always cut at an angle. Avoid creating
horizontalcutswherewaterwilldrainslowly.
Largedensestandsofanycropincreasetheincidenceofpestanddiseases.Trytouse:
i)
Widerspacinge.g.3by3orrowplantingwithatleast4mapart
ii)
Manysmallfieldsseparatedandisolatedfromeachotherinthelandscape
iii)
Boundaryplantinginsteadofplots
iv)
Mixedcropping
Jatropha presscake has pesticidal properties and can be useful as a pesticide to protect
recentlyestablishedjatrophabecauseyoungjatrophaplantshavelowlevelsoftoxins.

2.9

References

1. Dataonvermicompost.http://assamagribusiness.nic.in/NEDFi/map30.pdf

2. Dataondrycowmanure.
www.umaine.edu/animalsci/Issues/Nutrient/Nutrients%20from%20Manure.ppt

3. Achten,W.M.J.,Verschot,L.,Franken,Y.J.,Mathijs,E.,Singh,V.P.,Aerts,R.,Muys,B.,2008.
Jatrophabiodieselproductionanduse.BiomassandBioenergy32:10631084.

4. DaeyOuwens,K.,Francis,G.,Franken,Y.J.,Rijssenbeek,W.,RiedackerR.,Foidl,N.,
Jongschaap,R.,Bindraban,P.,2007.PositionPaperonJatrophacurcas,StateoftheArt,
SmallandLargeScaleProjectDevelopment.FACTFoundation,Eindhoven,Netherlands.

5. Y.J.Franken,FACTFoundation

6. GagnauxP.C.A.(2008)IncidnciadaentomofaunaassociadaculturadeJatrofa
(JatrophacurcalL)emMoambique,Thesis,UniversidadesEduardoMondlane,
Mozambique

7. GrimmC,MaesJM.ArthropodfaunaassociatedwithJatrophacurcasL.inNicaragua:a
synopsisofspecies,theirbiologyandpeststatus.In:GubitzGM,MittelbachM,TrabiM,
editors.BiofuelsandindustrialproductsfromJatrophacurcasProceedingsfromthe
symposiumJatropha97,Managua,Nicaragua,February2327.Graz,Austria:Dbv
Verlag;1997.p.319.

25

8. Gbitz,G.M.,Mittelbach,M.,Trabi,M.,1999.Exploitationofthetropicaloilseedplant
JatrophacurcasL.BioresourceTechnology67:7382.

9. Grimm,C.(1999).Evaluationofdamagetophysicnut(Jatrophacurcas)bytruebugs.
EntomologiaExperimentalisetApplicata.Aug.92(2):127136.{a}InstituteofForest
Entomology,ForestPathologyandForestProtection,UniversityofAgriculturalSciences,
Vienna,Austria

10. Heller,J.1992.UntersuchungenbergenotypischeEigenschaftenundVermehrungsund
AnbauverfahrenbeiderPurgiernu(JatrophacurcasL.)[Studiesongenotypic
characteristicsandpropagationandcultivationmethodsforphysicnuts(Jatrophacurcas
L.)].Dr.Kovac,Hamburg.

11. Heller,J.,1996.Physicnut.JatrophacurcasL.Promotingtheconservationanduseof
underutilizedandneglectedcrops.InstituteofPlantGeneticsandCropPlantResearch,
Gatersleben/InternationalPlantGeneticResourcesInstitute,Rome.

12. Henning,R.K.,JatrophacurcasL.2007.In:vanderVossen,H.A.M.&Mkamilo,G.S.
(Editors).PlantresourcesofTropicalAfrica14.Vegetableoils.PROTAFoundation,
Wageningen,Netherlands/BackhuysPublishers,Leiden,Netherlands/CTAWageningen,
Netherlands.pp.103108.

13. HughesJDA,ShoyinkaSA(2003).Overviewofvirusesoflegumesotherthangroundnutin
AfricainPlantvirologyinsubSaharanAfrican,ProceedingofPlantVirology,IITA,Ibadan,
Nigeria.EdsHughesJDA,Odu.B.pp553568.

14. Janssen,B.H.,1991.Nutrientsinsoilplantrelations(inDutch:Nutrinteninbodemplant
relaties).Collegereader.WageningenUniversity.

15. Jongschaap,R.E.E.,Corr,W.J.,Bindraban,P.S.,Brandenburg,W.A.,2007.ClaimsandFacts
onJatrophacurcasL.PlantResearchInternationalB.V.,Wageningen/StichtingHet
GroeneWoudt,Laren.

16. Kar,A.K.andAshokDas.1988.NewrecordsoffungifromIndia.IndianPhytopathol.
41(3):505.

17. Lozano,J.D.,Bellotti,A.,Reyes,J.A.Howeler,R.,Leihner,D.andDoll,J.(1981)Field
ProblemsinCassava.CIAT,CaliColombia.

18. Meshram,P.B.andK.C.Joshi.1994.AnewreportofSpodopteralitura(Fab.)Boursin
(Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)asapestofJatrophacurcasLinn.IndianForester120(3):273274.

19. Mnch,E.1986.DiePurgiernu(JatrophacurcasL.)Botanik,kologie,Anbau.Diploma
thesis.UniversityHohenheim,Stuttgart.

20. NielsenF(2007)FNResearchProgressReportNo.1,2007,Project:Jatrophaoilforlocal
developmentinMozambiqueSubtitle:BiofuelfordevelopmentandCommunalEnergy
SelfSupplyReportingperiod:January2007July2007

21. Paramathma,M.,Parthiban,K.T.andNeelakantan,K.S.2004.Jatrophacurcas.Forest
College&ResearchInstitute,TamilNaduAgriculturalUniversity,Coimbatore.48p.

26

22. Phillips,S.1975.AnewrecordofPestalotiopsisversicolorontheleavesofJatrophacurcas.
IndianPhytopathol28(4):546.

23. RajS.K.,SnehiS.K.,KumarS.,HandM.S.andPathreU.(2008)Firstmolecular
identificationofabegomovirusinIndiathatiscloselyrelatedtoCassavamosaicvirusand
causesmosaicandstuntingofJatrophacurcasL.AustralasianPlantDiseaseNotepp.6972

24. Source:RudyRabbinge,presentedduringFACTseminarMay2008.

25. ShankerC.,DhyaniS.K.(2006)InsectpestsofJatrophacurcasL.andthepotentialfortheir
management.CurrentScience(Bangalore)91,1623.Contact:Shanker,Chitra;NatlRes
CtrAgroforestry,GwaliorRd,Jhansi284003,UttarPradesh,India

26. Singh,I.D.1983.Newleafspotdiseasesoftwomedicinalplants.MadrasAgric.J.70(7):490.

27. U.S.Dept.Agr.HandbookNo.165.1960.HardinesszonesoftheUnitedStatesandCanada,
p.ii.InIndexofPlantDiseasesintheUnitedStates,U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice,
Washington,D.C.

28. FACTFoundation,Y.J.Franken

29. W.Rijssenbeek,FACTFoundation

30. Agriculturalvalueofsoiltypes:http://www.recreationalland.co.uk/soilclassification.htm

31. FlemmingNielsen,FACTAdvisor/BananaHill

27

28

HARVESTING

Mainauthor:WinfriedRijssenbeek,withcontributionsofTitusGalema

3.1

Introduction

Theharvestingofthejatrophaseedsisadifficultprocessduetotheripeningcharacteristicsof
thejatrophafruit.Duetotheseripeningissues,theharvestingofjatrophaismainlydoneby
hand.Theharvestingprocessbecomesaverylabourintensiveprocess,andhasahighimpact
on the production costs of jatropha oil. Harvesting, therefore, is an important aspect to
consider in the entire production process. There have been many attempts to improve this
process by mechanisation. These mechanical improvements are still under development,
however,andhavebeenappliedonlyinpilotprojects.

To provide insight into the major issues of the harvesting process of jatropha, this chapter
discussesthefollowingaspects:theharvestinganddryingoffruit,thedehullingandstorageof
seeds,andthebasicplanningissuesofaplantation1.AnnexBprovidespracticaltipsandrules
ofthumbregardingtheharvestingpractice.

3.2

Harvestingtechnologies

One of the main impediments to producing biooil from the jatropha plant, is the relatively
high cost of harvesting. These high costs, compared to other oilproducing crops, have a
numberofcauses:
The jatropha fruit ripens over a long period, requiring weekly picking for weeks up to
manymonthsayear.
Theunevenripeningofthefruitmeansonlysomeofthefruitofabunchcanbeharvested
atonetime:(i.e.yellow,brownandblackfruitsareripeandcanbepicked).
Thejatrophafruitcansofaronlybehandpicked.Thisrequiresalotoftime,aseachfruit
issmall(e.g.threeseedsinafruitweighabout2grams).
Theproductionofjatrophafruitonahectarebasisismoderate:i.e.thedensityoffruitsin
thefieldislow,requiringmoretransportdistancesinthefield.

Allinall,thereisarelativelylowyieldperhectare,alongharvestingseason,asmallfruitsize
that requires a lot of hand picking and transport of the pickers, and thus is very labour
intensive.

This section first elaborate on the actual picking rates and a labour cost threshold. Next the
possible mechanical harvesting solutions are discussed, followed by the ongoing technology
developments.
3.2.1

Manualpickingofjatrophaseeds

Itisgoodtofirstknowthatthedefinitionofpickingisnotalwayswelldefined.Forexample,is
itthepickingproper?Ordoesitalsoincludebaggingtothedryingarea?Andtransporttothe
pressingplant?Italsoisnotalwaysclearifitconcernsdryseedorfreshseed.Dataofgeneral

Thetermplantationisusedforfieldwithjatropha,notintheconnotationofEstateplantation.We
refertothepreviouschaptersonhowjatrophacanbegrownassinglecropashedgeorintercropped.

29


pickingratesarefoundinanumberofstudies.Theindividualdatashowalargevariation,but
anaverageofallthesefigureshowever,providesusefulindications,asshownbelow:
Nicaragua50kg/dayto80kg.ThebestpickersinNicaraguaharvestupto30kgoffruit/
hour,whichwouldmeanapproximately18kgofseeds/hr,or144kg/day.
Tanzania assumption: Picking seeds. Between 2 and 10 kg of seeds can be picked per
hour,(itdependsonthedensityoftheplants).
Tanzania:collectionofseeds:2kgofdryseedsin1hour.
Tanzania52kg/dryseedperday.
Indiaassumption:Hoursnecessarytoharvesttheseeds125/MT.Thiscomesto64kgdry
seed/day
India:8kgofdryseeds/Ihrwork
Sudan:12kgofdryseeds/4hrwork
Indonesia:60kgofdryseeds/8hrday(modelbased)
Congo:4050kgofdryseeds/day
Brazil:ca48kgdryseed/day
Nicaragua:64kgdryseed/day
Honduras:40kgdryseed/day

Theexamplesshowthatthepickingratesvaryconsiderablybycountryandwithinacountry.
Lowfiguresmightbemeasuredinareasoffieldhedgesorlowyieldplantations,whereseed
density might be low and picking difficult because of height. If all the data are analyzed it
becomesclearthat1)thereisalargevariationinpickingefficiency,2)thatpickingefficiency
variesbetweenwildstands(lowyieldingharvestsof2030kgperpersonperday)andwell
managedplantations(highyieldingfrom4070kgperpersonperday).

How does this affect costs? In a number of case studies where relatively high picking rates
wereused(60kgdryseed/day),theoperatingcostsofajatrophaplantationofapproxUS$600
perhaperyear,includeroughlyUS$200inharvesting,morethan30%oftheoperatingcost.
Currently, under the presumption that only manual harvesting is possible, it appears that
jatropha is not a good choice for planting for a country where the labour costs exceed
approximately US$4/day. This rule of thumb is based on experience in several projects over
theperiod19962009.Thealternativeismechanicalpicking,andalthoughnotfullydeveloped,
thismightbringdowncostsinthefuture.
3.2.2

Mechanicalharvestingsolutions

At the inception of most crop developments, picking was done by hand. But with increasing
labour costs, mechanical systems were developed and allowed for substantial expansion of
areas.Forjatropha,thisdevelopmentisalsotakingplace.Theobviouswayoflookingatthe
problemiscomparingplantswithsimilarsizeoffruitandripeningpatternsandhowtheyare
mechanicallyharvested.Thenextstepistotrytoadaptthetechnologytojatropha.Plantswith
similarsizedfruitareanumberofnuttrees,likewalnut,andfruittreeslikeapricotandcherry.
Alsooliveandgrapescanbecompared,buttoalesserextent.

Jatrophafruitarebestharvestedwhenyellow.Seedsfromdriedfruitshaveslightlyloweroil
content,whilegreenfruit arelowinoil.Jatrophaseedsbuild up FreeFattyAcids(FFA)once
theyhaveripenedandlieontheground.Severalmechanicalharvestingtechniquesforplants
with a similar fruit size and shape as jatropha exist. These techniques are discussed below,
togetherwiththesuitabilityforharvestingofthejatrophafruits:

30

TreeorstemshakersAmechanicalgripsystemisputtothestemandthenitisshaken
sothatallripefruitsfalldown.Forjatrophathismightworkifthegrip/toolhastheability
to open the fruit when drying, or when the yellow fruit will fall down when shaken.
Experiencetellsthatshakingdoesnotalwaysprovidetheexpectedresult.
NetstopreventfruitsfallingonthegroundThesenetspreventthefruitfrombruising
androttingontheground.Forjatropha,suchnetscanbeinterestingiftheyellowingor
ripefruitwouldeasilybeshakenoffwhilethegreenoneswouldnot.Jatrophafruit,once
ontheground,willlosetheirseeds.Seedsdonoteasilydecayontheground.Netsneed
to be relatively small gauge as the fruit/seeds are of small diameter of less than 6 to 8
mm.Thedisadvantageofnetsisthecollectionofleavesandotherdebristhatconcentrate
especiallywhentheseasonoffruitingislong.
StrippersInthiscasethebranchesarerakedandallfruitarestrippedoffthebranches.
ThisposesaproblemintheripeningoftheJatrophafruit.Ifthefruitripenoveralonger
period,thestrippingofthebranchesisnotadequate.Thestrippingalsowouldrequirethe
branches to be strong and flexible enough not to break. Unless jatropha plants can be
designedsuchthattheripeningisconcentratedinoneperiod,thismethodisnotfeasible.
RobotswithpickingarmsR&Dinrobotsismovingfastandinhighyieldingfruittheycan
befeasibleastheproductpriceallows.Forjatropha,robotswithpickingarmsareunlikely
tobesuccessfuldueto1)lowdensityofyieldoverthesurfaceandintime2)lowcostsof
theendproduct.
Vacuum cleaners One can also choose to forego the best oil content. In this case, its
possible to vacuum clean the soil of the seeds on a regular basis. In this method one
shoulddesignthemachinesuchthatthesuctionforceallowsonlytheseedstobelifted
andtaken,leavingthesoilaggregatebehind.Next,usingaseparatorlikeacyclonemight
separatetheseedsfromotherdebris.Thismethodmightworkforjatropha,ifthevariety
reallydropsthefruit.
OtheroptionsTherearechemicalsthatmightallowfruittobelessfixedontheterminal.
Thesemightbesprayed,butagainthecostsmightbeprohibitive.
Combinations of these systems Of the above methods, combinations can be made.
These options might also include the use of handpicking, in which the pickers would be
movingonachariotalongthejatrophabushlines.

It is too early to say what the best methods are and what combinations might work best. If
plantsarenotselectedormodifiedtoconcentrateripeninginashortperiod,itislikelythata
manualpickingwithtractorchariotsmightbeastep,vacuumcleaningmightalsodevelop,or
carefullystripping.

Research&developmentintomechanicalharvestinghasadvancedwithcompaniesrushingto
developmechanicalharvesters.AtJatrophaWorldMiami2008,apresentationwasgivenbya
group of companies like Viridas PLC and DreamFuels Ltd. DreamFuels Ltd has developed a
prototypeofamechanicalharvestingmachineforJatrophaplantations,whichtheyplantouse
intheirnewlyestablishedplantationinLaBelle,Florida.

Viridas PLC, a Brazilian company, has developed a prototype mechanical harvesting for
jatrophaplantationsbasedonthe"shakers"usedintheoliveindustry.Basedonstatisticsfor
the olive industry, one worker can hand pick just over 4 kilos per hour .With a mechanized
shakerpicker,oneworkercanpick635kilosperhour.Oncemechanicalharvestinghasbeen
developed,itholdsatremendouspromisetoreducelabourintensityandcost.

31


Recently,attheHamburgJatrophaseminar,Nov2008,neithercompanyannouncedanynews,
sothestatusoftheirmechanicalharvestingdevelopmentsisunknown.

3.3

Seedextractionfromfruits

Author:TitusGalema

The next activity after harvesting is dehulling of the jatropha fruit, which is the process of
removing the fruit shell from the seeds. Considering the shape, texture and size of jatropha
fruititcanbeconcludedthatnocomplicatedtechnologyisneededtoseparatethefruitshells
from the seeds inside. The description given hopefully provides some ideas to handle the
dehullingissuewithlocalsolutions.Dehullingcanbedonemanually,semimechanizedorfully
mechanized. Manually dehulling is a timeconsuming activity that can be mechanized easily.
Theprocessexistsoutoftwosteps:crushingandseparation.

Dehullingcanbedonewithfresh(yellow)fruitsorwithdry(brown)fruits.Theshellofafresh
jatrophafruitisapproximately5mmthick,whiletheshellofthedriedfruitisapproximately1
mmthick.Dehullingthelargersizedfreshfruithastheadvantageofprovokingmorefriction,
whichresultsinahigherdehullingefficiencythandehullingofdryfruit.Thefruitshellscome
outofthedehullermixedwiththeseedsandtheyneedtobeseparated.

A few methods are known and discussed below. At this time there is a scope for further
developmentoftechnologiesinrelationtologistics.
3.3.1

Dehulling

Thedehullingprincipleisbasedonprovokingslightpressureandfrictiononthefruitswithin
thedehullerthatresultsintheopeningandcominglooseofthefruitshells.Therearedifferent
kinds of dehullers; from manual driven to motor driven. Most of the existing dehullers are
designed for industrial uses and large volumes. Similar dehullers are used for coffee and
peanuts. There are also small, locally made types in use, which are made of local available
materials,usingmanpower.
3.3.1.1

UniversalNutSheller(UNS)

Thefirstinterestingexampleofasemimechanizeddehullerisahanddrivenbellshapedevice
madeofconcreteandsteeldesignedbyJoostBrandisoftheFullBellyProject.Thefrictionis
provokedbytheverticalturningmillandtheouterbellshapedhollowconcreteshell.Withthe
adjustable lock nut on the top of the vertical axe, the UNS can be adjusted to every desired
fruit size. The UNS is made with glass fibre malls, which are to be filled with concrete and
upright metal rods. The metal parts are made in standard sizes and can be found in most
developingcountries.Thissimplebuteffectivedevicehasacapacityof250kgoffreshfruitper
hour, which is equivalent to 125 kg ofdry seeds. It is about 60 centimetres high and 35 cm.
wideandweighsabout40kilograms.

Thisdehullercanbeconnectedtoapedalforcedormotorizedtransmissionof1HP.

32

Figure31TheUniversalNutSheller

ThecostofthematerialsofthisdehullerisaboutUS$30intheFullBellyProject.
Twodaysoflabourareneeded topreparethemetalpieces,poorthecementinthemoulds
and assemble the dehuller. If assembled correctly, no maintenance is required for this
UniversalNutSheller.OnedisadvantageoftheUNSisthatitcanbreakeasilyifitfalls

ThesupplierofthisdecentralizednutshellerisBYSA,Yoro,Yoro(Honduras).Amoredetailed
descriptionontheUniversalNutShellerassemblingcanbefoundontheGotaVerdewebsite:
www.gotaverde.org.
InMali,thesesimplehanddehullerswerealsobuiltandusedforjatrophafruitdehulling.Itis
claimedthatthisimprovesthemanualhandlabourby5times.Theyaresimpletomakelocally
ascanbeseeninFigure31.MaliBiocarburant,activeinMaliwithsmallfarmers,hasobtained
thetechnologyfromtheFullBellyProjectgroup(USA),whichdesignsappropriatetechnology.
3.3.1.2

Largesizeindustrialdehuller

Anexistingexampleofalargesizeindustrialtypedehullerforjatrophaistheonedesignedby
the projector tempate in Leon Nicaragua. It works with a horizontal rotating cylinder (100
rotationsperminute)ofmesh,whichprovokesthefrictioninthefruitagainstthefixedmesh
on the upper side. This mesh can be adjusted to the fruit size to optimize the dehulling
process.An8HPdieselenginedrivesthedehullerandtheseparatorsimultaneously.Ithasa
capacity of 1000 kg of fresh fruit per hour (yielding up to 500 kg of seeds per hour) and
consumes0.75litresoffuelperhour.

ThemachinecostsaboutUS$2000.Itsoveralldimensionsare70x100x150cmandweighs
about120kg.

33

Figure32Dehullerproyectotempate

For dehulling, mechanized versions are available in most countries. See example from
Indonesia(EkaBukit,www.kreatifgroup.com)

3.3.2

Separationofseedsandfruitshells

Inpracticetherearetwomethodstoseparateseedsandfruitshells.
1. Asimplewaybyhand
2. Byusingamechanicalseparator

In both cases the principle of separation is based on the size difference between the seeds
(small)andthefruitshells(yellowandlarge).Thedifferenceoffreshfruitshellsandseedsis
greater than of dried fruits (brown and shrunken) and seeds, making fresh fruit easier to
separate.
3.3.2.1

Smallscale(byhand)

When a manualoperated small dehuller is used, the mix of seeds and fruit shells can be
separated by using a sieve, which is shaken by hand, to let the seeds pass trough the mesh
whilethefruitshellsareretained.Thisallowsthejatrophagrowertodehullthefruitdirectlyin
the field where the shells can be used as a fertilizer without the need of drying areas and
transport.
3.3.2.2

Largescale(mechanical)

With a mechanical separator, the seeds are separated from the shell by a rotating hollow
cylinderofmeshthatisininclined position.The meshsizecanbeadjustedtotheseedsize.
Theshellsfalloutatthebottomendoftherotationcylinderandthefruitshellscomeoutthe
lowerendofthecylinder,whichisinclined.Overallsizeoftheseparatoris100x200x300cm
andcostsaboutUS$700.

34

Figure33Sketchandphotographofaseparator(usedintheGotaVerdeproject,Honduras)

Whenshellsandseedsofdryfruitscannotbeseparatedeasily,theyshouldbeseparatedwith
ablowerorwhennopowerisavailableinthefield,bywind.
3.3.3

Dryingfruit

Fordehullingdryfruit,ofcoursethefruitneedsfirsttodry.Inaddition,transportingwetfruit,
addstotheweightandcosts,makingdryingevenmorebeneficial.Ithasbeenreportedthat
directsunhasanegativeeffectonsowingseedviability,andthatkindofseedsshouldbedried
intheshade.

Themanualdehullingandfirstdryingcanbedoneonthefieldorinacentralarea.Whenfruit
arepackedwithoutaerationtheymightrotanditmightmaketheseedsdirty.Forthepurpose
of designing a system of solar drying and posterior storing some important parameters are
discussed here. The area for drying should ideally consist of a concrete floor or a simple
agriculturalplastic.Aconcretefloorhasmoresolidityandcanbeworkedonmoreefficiently.
Thefloorshouldbeslightlyinclinedsothatrainwilleasilyrunoffandnotstagnate.Ifdehulling
machinesareusedonthefloor,itmightrequireasteelmattingandminimumdepthtohold
theweightofsmallfrontloaders.Localcontractorscanprovidetherightdesigndependingon
theuseofmachinery.

3.4

Dryingandstorageofseeds

Whentheseedsareseparatedfromthefruitshellstheyhavetobestoredforuse.Itisbestis
totransporttheseedsfromthefieldtotheprocessingarea.Transportmodesaretractorcarts,
donkey carts, bikes or manual. The seeds require drying to a 6% moisture content (ideally)
before pressing. The drying process takes place for the individual seeds, while storage takes
placeinsacks.Thissectionelaboratesmoreonhowtodryandstoreseeds.Italsodiscusses
thestorageconditionsfordifferentendapplications.
3.4.1

Dryingofseeds

The yield per ha, period of harvesting and the duration of drying determine the size of the
drying area needed. If one looks at the area needed, it is estimated that one seed requires
about2cm,so1000seeds,whichcanweigh550to800grams,require0.2m(averagewould
be1400seeds/kg).Perkgofseed,thiswouldbearound0.25m.Afterdryingtheseedscanbe
storedinwovensacks(aeration)forfurtherstorage.

35


3.4.2

Storageareaofsacks

Thestorageareaneededdependsonthevolumetobestored,whichisafunctionofboththe
production seasonality and the press operation period during the year. It is well understood
thattoreducepresscapacityinstallationcostsandoperationalcostsforrunningthepress,one
can best have presses operating throughout the year. However with a need of a continuous
supply,thisrequiresnormallysomestorage,especiallyifthejatrophaharvestisseasonal.

Intheexamplebelow,afirstestimateisgivenonthemaxstoragecapacityforanareaof100
ha,withanannualproductioncapacityof500MTandcontinuousdemandof42MT/monthfor
theoilpress.

TheharvestseasonisfromDecembertoJune.Theyieldvariesovertime.Theminimumyieldin
MT/monthisinDecember(30MT)andtheoptimumisinMarch(120MT).Thedemandis42
MT/month. The required storage capacity is therefore the production per month minus the
demand. The maximum required storage capacity is 220 MT (sum storage need January
June).Inthisexampleanoilpresscanoperateapproxcontinuouslyoverthewholeyear.

Table31Storageapproximationsfor100haareaofcultivation
Parameter

Unit

Jan

Production

MT/month

50

80

120

100

70

50

30

Demand

MT/month

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

Storageneed

MT/month

38

78

58

28

42

42

42

42

42

12

Maxstorage

MT/month

78

Maxstorage

MT(DecJun)

220

42

42

42

42

42

Maxdepletion MT/month

Feb

Mar Apr

May Jun

Jul

Aug Sep

Oct

Nov Dec

Thebulkdensityofjatrophaseedisestimatedatca400kg/m3.Thisisforairdryseedof0.8
gramsperseed.

The design of a storage shed needs to have a large roof and an open or semiopen wall
structure. It can be similar as one used to store maize. It should be well aerated and the
containers should be open bins, just like those for maize. Yet jatropha seed is not eaten, so
fumigationisnotneeded.Becausesome400kgpercubicmetercanbestored,thenetvolume
for this storage shed would be 220/0.4= 550 m. If one converts that to a gross area (for
pathways,etc.)byafactorof2thiswouldneed1100m.Withanaverageheightof3mthis
wouldbeabout366mor19mx19m.
3.4.3

Storageconditions

Storage conditions certainly will affect the oil quality. Seeds for oil production require more
dedicatedstorageconditionsthanseedsusedasplantingmaterial.Thestorageconditionsfor
bothapplicationsareexplainedbelow.
3.4.3.1

Seedstorageforplanting

Seedsareoilyanddonotstoreforlong.Undertropicalconditionsseedsolderthan15months
show viability below 50%. High levels of viability and low levels of germination shortly after
harvestindicateinnate(primary)dormancy.

Seedsforplantingshouldbedriedtolowmoisturecontent(5%7%)andstoredunderdarkand
coolconditionsincontainers.Asseedsbreatheslightlytheyshouldnotbepackedairtight.Ata

36


temperatureof20Ctheseedscanretainhighviabilityforatleastoneyear.However,because
ofthehighoilcontenttheseedscannotbeexpectedtobestoredforaslongasmostcommon
species. The seed stored in ambient conditions maintains viability for 78 months. Seed
viability begins to deteriorate after eight months. Therefore, seed being used for plantation
shouldbekeptatlowtemperaturetoretainitsviabilityandabilitytoeffectivelyemerge.
3.4.3.2

Seedstorageforoilextraction

Theoilindustryrequirescontinuoussupplyofrawmaterialforoilextractionandesterification.
Theseedscontainingtheoilmustbeproperlystoredandpreparedforextraction,tomaintain
highqualityinthefinalproduct.Thelongstorageofseeds(morethan8months)isreportedto
affectoilqualityandquantityhencelongstorageshouldbeavoided.Longexposuretosunwill
alsodegradeoilquality.Fornormalstorage5%7%ofmoistairorsundryingisadequate,the
periodofwhichdependsonanumberoffactorssuchsunshinehours,humidity,temperature,
andwind.

Theseedstorageshould beproperly aerated.Thiscanbedoneinsilossimilartomaize. The


dryingofseedsupto4%moistureenhancesstorability.However,thedryertheseedthelower
theefficiencyofthepress.Thereforeitisrecommendedtopresstheseedathighermoisture
content,e.g.between7%10%,andpreventlongstorageoftheseed.

3.5
1.

References
www.malibiocarburant.com

37

38

OILPRESSINGANDPURIFICATION

Mainauthor:PeterBeerenswithcontributionsfromJanskevanEijck

Glossary:
Oil recovery rate: the percentage of the oil that is removed. A recovery rate of 100%
meansalltheoilisremovedfromtheseed.Forjatrophathiswouldbe0.41literperkg
seed.
SVO(StraightVegetableOil):thisisoilafterpressingandcleaningthatisreadytobeused
variouspurposes.AlsoreferredtoasPPO(pureplantoil).
Crudeoil:Jatrophaoildirectlyafterpressing
Bleaching: an adsorptive process that removes all gross impurities such as meals, metal
components, peroxides, products of oxidation, soap residue from alkali refining.
Hydratablegumscanalsoberemovedinthisstepifthelevelisbelow55ppm[9].
Deodorizing: the only good way to remove Sulphur. In addition it removes some fatty
acids[9].
Freefattyacids(FFA):existincrudeplantoilsasadeteriorationbyproductofhydrolysis.
In their free form, they are soluble in oil and insoluble in water and can therefore not
easilybeseparatedfromtheoil[9].
Hydrolysis:theconversionofglyceridesintofattyacidsandglycerol.
4.1

Introduction

Basically, the process of gaining oil from oilseeds is as old as mankind. Although the means
thatareusedforthispurposehaveevolved,itstillentailsthecrushingoftheseedstoextract
theoil.Thereisnotmuchpracticalexperiencewithpressingofjatrophaseedstodrawupon.
GTZ(GermanAgencyforTechnologicalCooperation)wasoneofthefirstorganisationstobe
involved in jatropha pressing in the late 80s and early 90s. New studies on expelling and
cleaningofjatrophastartedatotherinstitutions,includingtheWUR (Wageningen University
andResearchCentre)andRUG(UniversityGroningen)intheNetherlands.Inadditiontothese
big research institutes, smaller, practically oriented initiatives by jatropha enthusiasts have
yieldedinterestingresults.

Thetotalproductionprocessfromjatrophaseedstooilisdisplayedbelow.Foreachprocess
steptheparagraphthattreatsthisspecifictopicisindicated.

Figure 41 Production steps for jatropha SVO production. Degumming and neutralization are only
required if high amounts of FFA (free fatty acids) and phosphor are present. The values in the DIN
V51605standards(Table42)areagoodreference.

Thischapterdiscussesmechanicaloilextractionmethodsandoilqualityaspectsforjatropha
oilproduction.Mechanicaloilextractionmeansusingsomesortofpressingmachinetoforce

39


oiloutoftheoilseeds.Multipletechnologiesareavailableforoilextraction.Theselectionis
mainlyatradeoffbetweentheacceptablecomplexity,costsoftechnologyandtherequiredoil
quality. Production scale is an important limiting factor in the choice of technology. Oil
extraction is one aspect of oil production. After pressing, the jatropha oil needs further
purification before it can be used. Different ways of solidliquid separation are therefore
discussed. Section 4.2 treats the subject of mechanical oil extraction. Press technologies are
discussedandsuggestionsforjatrophaaremadeinsection4.3.Section4.4elaboratesonoil
cleaningmethods.Generalqualityaspectsforvegetableoiltobeusedasfuelarediscussedin
section4.5.Section4.6treatsqualityrelatedstorageissues.

4.2

Mechanicaloilextraction

Therearedifferentwaystoextractoilfromoilseeds.Onewayismechanicalexpressionusinga
machinetoexertpressureontheoilseedsinordertoremovetheoil.Asecondmethodforoil
removalissolventextraction,whereasolventisaddedtoprecrushedseedsinwhichtheoil
dissolves. The oil can later be recovered from the solvent. In industrial oil mills, theses two
processesmechanicalexpressionandsolventextractionareoftencombinedtoobtainthe
highest yields. The oil recovery from mechanical extraction is limited to 9095% of the oil
presentintheseeds,whereassolventextractioncanyieldupto99%.Solventextractionisa
complex,largescalesolutioninvolvingdangerouschemicals.

Since this handbook focuses on smallscale applications, solvent extraction should not be
considered a possibility. Mechanical extraction using an expeller is the most popular oil
extractionmethodforconsumableoilsasitissimple,continuous,flexibleandsafe.
4.2.1

Cleaningandcheckingtheseeds

Cleaning and checking the seeds can reduce machine wear. Most contamination consists of
sand,woodymaterialandstones,thelastofwhicharemostdestructivetotheexpeller.The
mostcommonwaytoremovestonesandsandisbythresherora(vibrating)sieve.Thechoice
betweenmanualandmechanizedsievingdependsonproductioncapacity.
4.2.2

Thepressingprocess

Duringthepressingprocesstheseedsarefedintotheseedhopperandthensimultaneously
crushedandtransportedinthedirectionofarestriction(alsoreferredtoasdieornozzle)by
a rotating screw (often called worm). As the feeding section of the expeller is loosely filled
withseedmaterial,thefirststepoftheprocessconsistsofrolling,breaking,displacementand
theremovalofairfromintermaterialvoids.Assoonasthevoidsdiminishtheseedsstartto
resisttheappliedforcethroughmutualcontactanddeformation.Thecontinuoustransportof
newmaterialfromthehoppercausespressuretoincreasetoalevelneededtoovercomethe
nozzle. At this point the press is in operation. The builtup pressure causes the oil to be
removedfromthesolidmaterialinsidetheexpeller.Formoredetailsee[2].
4.2.3

Importantparameterswhenpressing

When designing or installing a facility to press jatropha seeds it is useful to know the main
variablesaffectingtheoilrecoveryandoilquality.Theinformationgivenbelowappliestothe
expellingprocessingeneralandmightnotapplytospecificcases[2].Figure42subsequently
summarizestheinfluenceandimpactofthevariables.

40


Oil recovery Pressure Temperature Throughput Energy/liter
Press parameters
RPM
restriction size
Seed treatments
heating
flaking
moisture content
hull fraction
boiling

Figure 42 The effect of press parameters on output and process parameters. The upward arrows
indicateanincreaseofavariableandadownwardarrowsadecrease[2].RPMindicatestherotational
speed of the screw in rounds per minute, restriction size is the opening where presscake leaves the
expeller.Flakingisgrindingintosmallpieces.

4.2.3.1

Oilrecovery

Theamountofoilthatcanberecoveredfromtheseedsisaffectedby:
Throughput: the amount of material that is processed per unit of time (kg/hr). Higher
throughputgivesloweroilrecoveryperkgofseeds,duetoshorterresidencetimeinthe
press.Throughputcanbeaffectedbychangingtherotationalspeedofthescrew.
Oil point pressure: the pressure at which the oil starts to flow from the seeds. If seeds
can, for example, be manipulated so that the oil point pressure is reduced, it becomes
easiertoextracttheoil.
Pressure: at higher pressure more oil is recovered from the seeds. However, the higher
pressure forces more solid particles through the oil outlet of the press. This makes
cleaning more difficult. Typical operating pressures for enginedriven presses are in a
rangeof50150bar.
Nozzlesize:smallernozzlesizeleadstohigherpressureandthereforehigheroilyield.An
optimumshouldbefoundforeachindividualpress.
Moisturecontentoftheseeds:thisisrelatedtostorage.Anoptimalmoisturecontentof
26%wasidentified.Moisturecontentof>8%shouldbeconsideredtoohumidandneeds
moredrying.
Hull content of the seeds: This is a difficult variable. Ideally one would like to press
jatrophawithoutitshull.However,thehullappearsvitaltopressurebuildupinsidethe
press. Removal of the hull would require less energy for pressing and result in zero
presence of hull fibers in the crude oil. Unfortunately seeds without a hull turn into a
pasteinsidestandardexpellers,whichstickstothewormandkeepsrotatingalongwithit.
Adaptationofthepressisrequiredtoincreasethefrictionwiththepresschamber.
4.2.3.2

Oilquality

Theoilqualityisaffectedby:
Moisturecontentofseeds:accordingtofuelnormsthewatercontentinSVOshouldbe
below0.08%(Table42).HighmoisturecontentmightalsoincreasetheformationofFFA
duringstorage.
Processtemperature:thefrictioninsidetheexpellergeneratesheat,whichispassedon
totheoilandpresscake.Abovecertaintemperaturesphosphorisformed,whichleadsto
carbon deposits on fuel injectors and combustion chambers. For rapeseed oil, for
example,themaximumtemperatureoftheoilduringtheprocessis5560C.Forjatropha
the exact temperature at which phosphor starts to dissolve in the oil has not yet been
determined.Avaluecomparabletorapeseedisexpected.

41

Hullcontent oftheseeds:lowerhullfractionintheseedsleadstolowerpressuresand
thus less hull fraction in the crude oil. Partial dehulling is a direction for further
investigation.
Pressure: higher pressure leads to higher temperature and more solid particles in the
crudeoil.

4.3

Presstechnologiesandexpellertypes

A distinction can be made between handoperated oil presses (e.g. ram press) and
mechanicallydrivenones(e.g.expeller).Forsmallpressingcapacities,intherangeof110kg
seed/hr,rampressesandexpellersarebothsuitableoptions.Forpressingmorethan10kg/hr,
handoperatedpressesarenolongerpossibleandexpellersshouldbeused.

Differentcategorizationscanbemadebetweentheseveraltypesofpresses:
1. Continuousoperationvs.batchoperation
2. Manually driven vs. enginedriven, where for the latter a distinction can be made
betweenelectricalenginesanddieselengines
3. Coldpressedvs.hotpressed.

Intheoilprocessingindustry,adistinctionismadebetweendifferentprocesstypes.Thefirst
distinctionisbetweenbatchandcontinuous.Mosthandoperatedpressesoperateinbatches.
Rampressesusethecombinationofpistonandcylindertocrushtheseedsandsqueezeout
theoil.Operationofthepressiseasyandcanbedonemanually.Expellerscanbeoperatedin
acontinuousway.Asnotedearlier,foroilproductionofmorethan5liters/hour,continuous
expellingisanecessity.

Forruralapplicationsindevelopingcountries,bothmanualandsmallenginepoweredpresses
areviable,dependingonthelocationandtheapplication.Soapormedicinaloilcanbemadein
small quantities with a hand press. In case of fuel production processes, enginepowered
pressesaremoresensible.

The third distinction is between cold pressing and hot pressing. Coldpressed means the
temperatureoftheoildoesnotexceed5560Cduringtheprocess.Forhotpressingexternal
heatisoftenappliedtoseedsorpressandthetemperaturecanincreasetoover100C.Hand
operatedpressesfallinthecategoryofcoldpressing.Duetothehigherpressuresandfriction
in an engine driven expeller, coldpressing temperatures will be exceeded. Cold pressing is
most desirable for jatropha, although it is not always possible due to high friction in the
expeller.
4.3.1

Rampresses

ThemostwellknownrepresentativeofthiscategoryistheBielenbergrampress.Basedonan
existing design of a ram press that was expensive, inconvenient and inefficient, Bielenberg
madethedesignofhispressthatwouldbecheap,durable,locallymaintainableandeasyto
use. Several hundreds of these presses have been manufactured by local workshops in
Tanzania,leadingtogoodqualityatanattractiveprice,whichhasleadgogoodadoption.The
Bielenbergpresswasoriginallydesignedtopresssunflowerseeds.Itisapplicableforjatropha
seeds as well, although with reduced efficiency. The capacity is limited to 23 kg/hr. At a
recoveryrateof7080%andanoildensityof0.918kg/literthismeans<1liter/hr.

42

Figure43TheBielenbergrampressoperatedat
KakuteLtd.,Tanzania[12]

Figure44CloseupoftheBielenbergpressing
mechanism.Noticetheautomaticdischargeof
thepressingchamberandthestopperintheseed
funnel[12]

4.3.2

Expellers

Expellersarealsoreferredtoasscrewpresses.However,inthisreportonlythewordexpeller
will be used as it describes what the process does is expels oil from solids. Nearly all the
mechanized presses that can be found on the market use a continuous pressing process.
Usually this involves an endless screw that rotates in a cage and continuously kneads and
transportstheseedmaterialfromtheentryfunneltoanozzlewherepressureisbuiltup.Over
thelengthofthescrewtheoilisexpelledfromtheseedsandflowsfromthesideofthescrew
to a reservoir. At the nozzle the seed material is maximum compressed to a press cake. All
expellerscanbecategorizedaseithercylinderholetypeorstrainertype(seeFigure45and
Figure46).

Figure45Schematicdrawingofcylinderholetype
press.Noticethenozzlethatcanbechanged[4]

Figure46Schematicdrawingofthestrainertype
press.Noticethechokeadjustmentthatisonthe
oppositesideofthechokeitself[4]

43


4.3.2.1

Cylinderhole

In the cylinderhole type, the oil outlet is in the form of holes at the end of the cylindrical
presscage(Figure47).Theseedgetsarisingcompressioninthedirectionofthepresshead.
The oil is pressed out of the seeds near the outlet holes and drained from them. Special
cavities near the nozzle prevent the cake/seedmix from sticking to the screw. Otherwise,
therewouldbenoforwardmovement.Thepresscakeispressedthroughchangeablenozzles
andformedtopellets.Inmosttypesofpressesthenozzleisheatedtoavoidblockingofthe
presscake.Cylinderholetypepressesexistforsmallcapacities(uptoapproximately200kg/h
seed). For different types of oilseeds the press can be adjusted by changing the nozzle
diametersandscrewrotationspeed.
4.3.2.2

Strainer

Thestrainertypepresshasanoiloutletoverthefulllengthofthepresscagethatservesasa
strainer. The strainer is actually a cylindrical cage builtup of separate horizontal bars or
verticalringsarrangedat asmallinterspacing.Thespacing betweenthestrainerbarscanbe
either fixed or adjustable. Strainer presses come with various screw design although the
principle of all screws is similar. The screw diameter increases towards the nozzle thereby
increasingthecompressionofthesolidmaterial.Screwsforcontinuouscompressionaremade
fromonepiece.Forsomeseeds,theoilrecoveryishigheraftermultiplecompressionsteps.A
screwwithmultiplecompressionsectioncanbeusedtocreatemultiplecompressionstagesto
increase oil outlet. For flexibility, subsections of different size and shape are often available.
Otherpressesareequippedwithdifferentscrews.

During the flow of the seed through the press, the oil is drained via the strainer, which
surroundsthepressingspace.Thechokesizecanbeadjustedtochangethepressureleveland
distribution.Forseveraltypesofoilseeds,itisnecessarytochangethegapsizeofthestrainer
bars (interspacing) where the oil comes out, to get an optimal yield and cleanness of the
vegetable oil. In addition the choke size and the rotation speed should be adjusted when
pressing different kinds of seed. Strainer presses exist in a wide capacity range from
approximately15kgofseed/hrto10tonnesofseed/hr.

Figure47TheDanishBTpressisanexampleofa
cylinderholetypepress.Noticethenozzle,leftin
front[10]

44

Figure48TheSundharaoilexpellerisa
representativeofthestrainertypepress.Onthe
rightthechokeadjustment[12]


Doesitmatterwhichofthesetwopresstypesyouuse?ExperiencefromFACTindicatesthat
forjatrophaitdoesmatter.Itwasconcludedthatstrainerpressesarepreferredovercylinder
hole presses. In Table 41 the two expeller types are qualitatively compared in suitability to
pressjatrophaseeds.

Table41ComparisonbetweenstrainerandcylinderholepressbasedonFACTexperience
Attribute
Throughput
Easeofmaintenance
Price
Oilyield
Robustness
Easeofoperation
Wearresistance

4.3.3

Cylinderholepress

+/
+/
++
+/

Strainerpress
++
+/
+
+
+
+
+

Powerrequired

To press oilseeds, as in all production processes, power is needed. Small presses like the
Bielenbergrampresscanbepoweredbyhand,byoneorseveraloperators.Capacityisthen
typically 35 kg seed/h. One hour of press operation costs 3000 kilojoules if operated by 2
persons2 and roughly produces 1 liter of oil. This comes down to an energy consumption of
0.85kWh/liter.

Larger capacity presses, especially the expellers, are engine driven. In general, electrical
enginesarechosenbecauseoftheireaseofinstallation,coupling&operationandlowcost.As
aruleofthumb12.5%oftheenergycontentoftheproducedoilisusedasinputpower[2].It
is, however, perfectly possible to couple the press directly to a diesel engine to be
independentofgridthedieselenginecanevenrunonthejatrophaoilthatitispressing.In
caseanexpellerispoweredbyadieselengine,theenergyinputwillbe510%oftheenergy
contentoftheproducedoil[8].Becauseofthesuperioroilrecoveryrateoftheexpellerthis
comesdownto100200kjoules/kgor0.30kWh/liter.Fromanenergyefficiencypointofview
the expeller is preferable, although one should keep in mind that the electricity or fuel
requiredarenotavailableinmanyruralareas.
4.3.4

Suggestedmodels

Itisimpossibletosuggestanoptimal expellermodelforjatrophaforallcases.Theselection
depends on many factors, including the production capacity, final purpose for the oil,
rural/urban location, distance to supplier, reliability and ease of supply chain, the level of
technologyinthecountryandlastbutcertainlynotleastthebudget.Acompleteoverviewof
manufacturersandmodelsisgiveninannexC.2.FortheruralprojectsintendedbyFACT,only
capacitiesrangingfrom10kg/hr(handpress)to500kg/hr(enginedrivenexpeller)shouldbe
consideredviableoptions[8].

Whattokeepinmind:
Whatequipmentisavailableinthecountrywherethejatrophaprojectislocated?
Productioncapacitybeloworover100kg/hr(typicallythesmallestexpellercapacity)?
Ifproductionisover100kg/hrdoyouwantonepressorseveral?
Isefficiencymoreimportantthaninvestmentcosts?

Basedontheenergyusedforsawingwoodhttp://mensengezondheid.infonu.nl/dieet/6131
energiebehoefteenenergieverbruik.html

45

Whataretheease,speedandreliabilityofthesupplychain?
Consider the drive train of the press, either with diesel engines (on SVO/diesel) or
electricaldriven.
Willthepowertakeoffbewithpulleysandbeltsorwithgears?
Whatistherequiredmaintenance?Whataboutandspareparts?
Considerthetrainingofoperators.
What is the operational temperature of the expeller? (Too high temperature causes
amountofphosphorintheoiltoincrease)

Ingeneral,oneshouldchooseasinglepressoflargecapacityinsteadmultiplesmallerpresses.
However, the advantage of using more than one press is that parts can be exchanged and
productioncanstillcontinueatalowerlevelifoneofthemachinesfails.Furthermore,smaller
machines are easier to operate and maintain for local artisans. Smaller machines also allow
production capacity to modularly increase over time with project size by just increasing the
numberofexpellers.
4.3.5

Concludingremarksexpellers

Expellingcanbedefinedastheprocessstepthatdeterminesproductionefficiency.Thehigher
the oil recovery and the lower the amount of solid particles in the crude oil, the higher the
efficiency. Lower amounts of solid particles reduce the need for subsequent cleaning.
Industrialpresssuppliershavealreadyconductedjatrophatestswithsedimentlevelsaslowas
5%. All fuelrelated production should use mechanically driven expellers. Activities like soap
making or cosmetic oil production could use manually operated presses like the Bielenberg.
Thechoiceoftechnologydependsonthespecificproject.Ifpressesarelocallymanufactured
to an acceptable quality standard compared to costs of replacing spare parts, this can be a
good solution as the technology is known and parts are available. In other cases European
pressesaresuperiorregardingrobustnessandwearresistance,butmoreexpensivethantheir
IndianandChinesecounterparts.Selectionisalwaysatradeoff.

4.4

Cleaningofvegetableoil

This section provides an overview of the available cleaning technologies for solid/liquid
separation of crude jatropha oil. The oil that leaves the expeller directly after pressing is
further referred to as crude jatropha oil. The crude oil contains significant amounts of solid
material that need to be removed. The solids can be mechanically separated from the oil,
basedonparticlesize(filtration)oronspecificgravity(sedimentation,centrifuging).Thetwo
separationprinciplescanalsobeusedinseries.Sections4.4.1through4.4.4willsuccessively
treatsedimentation,filtrationandcentrifuging.

Thecrudejatrophaoilleavingtheexpellercontains515%solidsbyweight.Thiscomesdown
to 1030% by volume, depending on what the sediments are. In addition, the circumstances
duringpressingandtheintendedapplicationfortheoilmayrequirefurtherprocessingofthe
crude oil. For soapmaking and lamp fuel, the quality requirements are less stringent than
whenapplyingthejatrophaoilinadieselengine.Inmostcases,vegetableoilproducedbycold
pressingdoesnotrequiredegummingandneutralization.However,pressesappeartooperate
at much higher temperatures when processing jatropha compared to rapeseed. A typical
processing temperature for rapeseed is 4550C. Measurements in a Danish BT50 (80100C,
thermocouples in press head) and a Keller P0100 (75C, infrared measurement) show values
above 70C. If rapeseed reaches temperatures above 6070C the oil requires an additional
neutralizing step to remove the phosphor that dissolved into the oil under the influence of

46


heat.Whetherornotthiscanbeextrapolatedtojatrophaoilisunclearatthemoment,butitis
at least something to keep in mind. Pressing at higher temperatures yields more oil but in
exchangerequirestheseadditionalcleaningsteps.

As cleaning is most important for fuel production, the section below applies mainly to fuel
production. Prior to use in a diesel engine the oil should be free of all particles > 5 m to
prevent clogging of fuel filters. Normal diesel fuel filters have a pore size of 510 m. The
cleaningprocessshouldfollowshortlyafterthepressingprocesstoavoidfiltrationproblems
whentheoilwasstoredunderunfavourablestorageconditions(seesection4.6).

ToassuregoodSVOqualitytheGermanDINV51605wasintroducedinEuropein2007.This
norm is based on the earlier Quality standard for rapeseed oil as fuel 5 / 2000 from the
German Bavarian State Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Wiehenstephan. In order to
minimize the negative effects on engines, SVO from jatropha should comply with this DIN V
51605normforplantoil.Thestandardisdescribedinsection4.5andshowninTable42.
4.4.1

Impuritiesintheoil

Thecrudejatrophaoilcontainsmanyimpurities.Thissectiongivesafirstideaofthetypesof
impuritiesandunderlinesthenecessityofcleaningsteps.Theimpuritiespresentinjatrophaoil
consistofbothdissolvedandsuspendedparticlesthatarenotpartofthestructureoftheoil.
Solid particles, FFAs and phosphor need to be removed before the oil is ready to use in
engines.Removaloftheseimpuritiesisalsorequiredtopreventdeteriorationoftheoilduring
storage.Water(bothfreeorintermolecular)will,forexample,hydrolyzetheoilandstimulate
theformationsofFFAs.Prooxidantmetalslikecopperandironwillspeedupoxidation.Dust
orsolidparticlesthatmighthavenotbeenfilteredfromoilwillnotaffecttheoilitselfbutthe
usageoftheoilwillbemoredifficult.Itisthereforeimportanttomonitorfeedstock(moisture
level&freshness)andoilqualityaftercleaning.
4.4.2

Sedimentation

Sedimentation is the simplest and cheapest way ofcleaning by using the earths gravity: the
solids settle at the bottom of the tank. Sedimentation is only recommended for small
processes.Forproductionratesof<50liters/hrsedimentationisapreferredlowcostsolution.
It requires little technology and efficiency losses are less important when producing small
volumes.Itisacheapcleaningmethodbecauselittlehardwareneedstobepurchasedonlya
storagetanklargeenoughtokeeptheoilforaboutaweekwithlittleornoflow.Ifnecessary,
theprocesscanbecompletedinmultiplestagesasshowninFigure49.

crude oil

Safety filter

sediment
storage tank

clean oil
storage tank

Figure49Exampleflowdiagramofa
sedimentationsystem[4].

Figure410Oildrumsforsedimentation(photo:
DiligentTanzaniaLtd.)

47


One disadvantage of a sedimentation system is that it depends on optimal conditions to
removeparticleswithsizesof8mandless[2].Thereforeasecurityfilter(bagfilterorcandle
filter)isrequired.Sedimentationaloneisnotenoughtoproducegoodfuelquality.Additionally
the relatively high amount of oil that remains in the sediment (5055%) is lost if no further
steps are included. Both available alternatives, filtration and centrifugation, have higher oil
yield,assumingtheinputproductmeetsthefiltersrequirements.
4.4.3

Filtration

The basic principle of filtration is blocking any particles bigger than the pore size in a
membrane.Theeasiestwayoffilteringisbyusingacloth.However,beawarethatnotevery
textile has a suitable pore size! The capacity to absorb particles, referred to as the nominal
capacity, differs between materials. A nominal capacity of 85% for a cloth with pores of, for
example, 5m means that 85% of the particles bigger than 5m are stopped by the cloth.
Special filtering cloth or bag filters can be bought at various suppliers, like Monopoel,
amafiltergrouporlocalsuppliers.Theclothisavailableinsheets(seeFigure411)orasbags,
for example. Filtering is easier at lower viscosity of the oil. A temperature between 4055C
wouldbeoptimal.Makesurethefilterclothisresistanttothesetemperatures.Ifnotthemesh
maywidenanda5mfiltermayonlyfilterupto20m[5].

Fivemethodsforfilteringwillbedescribedhere.Themostsimplifiedcustommadesolutionis
gravityfilters(bagsandbandfilter)usingclothorfilterbags.Theserequirelittlemachineryor
electricity(Figure411andFigure412).Thesesimplesolutionsarebestsuitedforsmallrural
activities.Inadditiontocustommadesystems,suppliersofferprofessionalsystems.Theseare
often too expensive for processes <50 liter/hr. The following will be explained here: gravity
filters,bandfilters,filterpress,pressureleaffilters,bagfiltersandcandlefilters.
4.4.3.1

Gravityfilters

Asexplainedabovethequalityandporesizeofthefilterclothareimportantdeterminantsfor
thefinalresultoffiltration.Usinga1mfilterclothinsimplecustommadedevicesyieldsoil
withqualitycomparabletoindustrialfiltersystemswiththesameporesize.Cottonbagsare
availablewithdifferentporesizes,rangingfrom200mto1m.Itisadvisabletofinishwitha
1mporesizeforfuelproduction.Thedisadvantageofsimpledevicesisaverylowcapacityif
thefilterisnotpressurized.Forhomeusersandsmallfactories(uptoafewlitersperhour),
nonpressurized filters can be an attractive lowcost option as the process can run without
purchasingspecialhardware.

Handling will in that case consist of frequent cleaning of the filter cloth or bag filter. It is
recommended to leave the oil to settle for 47 days before filtering to avoid even shorter
changing intervals of the filter cloth. Depending on how clean the oil is after sedimentation,
filteringoilthroughgravitytakesbetween5minutesto1hourper20liters[11].Thesediment
in the oil should be considered a process loss or can be used as input material for the
productionofbiogasinadigester.

FilterbagscanbeobtainedthroughforexampleamafiltergrouporAllfilfiltertechniekinthe
Netherlands. Suppliers can be found worldwide. One bag is sold for around 3.75
(amafiltergroup, 2008). Locally available cotton material might also prove suitable after
testing.

48

Figure411Lefttop:SVOfiltrationofcookingoilonthesiteofGermansupplierMonopoel.Righttop:
simplefiltrationsetupusingbagfilters(photo:DiligentTanzanialtd.).Leftbottom:improvedsetupfor
bagfilters(photo:DiligentTanzanialtd.).Rightbottom:employeecollectinganoilsampleforanalysis
afterfiltration(photo:DiligentTanzanialtd.)

4.4.3.2

Bandfilter

The use of bag filters under gravity has very low processing capacity and requires frequent
cleaningofthebags.ThereforeFACTengineeredasolutionataprojectinHonduras.Theband
filter prototype in Figure 412 was engineered by Ger Groeneveld. It consists of K&C
workmansclothX70onarollconstructiontocreateamovingfiltercloth.Thekeyfactorsto
performance of the device are: the entire filter area is used, there is constant removal of
sedimentwithoutinterruptingthefiltrationprocess,andthereisconstantqualityduetouseof
gravitationalforceforseparation.Themovingclothonthebandfilterhelpstoreduceclogging

49


problemsandenableseasiercleaning.Thecapacityofthismodelis2060liters/hourforafilter
clothwith5mporesize[5].

Figure412Bandfilterwherethecrudeoilflowsontothefiltercloth.Thetransportrollersare
equippedwithsandpaperforbetterfriction.Theclothiscontinuouslymoving[5].

4.4.3.3

Filterpress

If using pressurized bag filters, a different type of filtration is needed in advance. Otherwise
thefilterwillclogafterseveralminutes.Forthatreasonthefilterpressandpressureleaffilter
arediscussedherefirst.

Filterpressesarewidelyappliedinthefoodindustryandareoftenlocallyavailableindifferent
sizes. Use of local machinery stimulates employment and enables local engineers to provide
bothrepairandmaintenance.Localtrainingprogramscouldbeastimulusandmightincrease
qualitystandards.

Afilterpressisbuildupofmultiplefilterplatesthataresheathedwithfiltercloth(Figure413).
The filter cloth material can be used several times before cleaning. When the plates are
pushedtogethercavitiesareformedbetweenthem.Beforefiltrationthecrudeoilflowsinto
thecavities.Byapplyinghydraulicpressureontheplatesandpumpingpressureontheoil,the
oil is forced through the cloth and the filter cake remains in the cavities. Oil keeps running
through the filter until there is too much cake in the cavities. The plates are then separated
(either manually or automatically) and the presscake falls off. Manual cake discharge takes
abouthalfanhourperdayforrapeseedanddependsonthelevelofimpuritiesintheoil[11].

Howdoesthiscomparetojatrophaoil?Thefollowingkeynumbersapplytorapeseedoil:oil
contentinthefiltercakeofabout3550%and24kgoffiltercakeafterprocessing100kgof
rapeseed. For jatropha, the amount of filter cake after processing 100 liters of crude oil is
expected to be 1525 kg with an oil content similar to rapeseed. This means that cake
discharge will be 510 times as frequent, which comes down to 2.55 hours per day. This is
clearlynotpractical.Thereforesedimentationisstillrequiredbeforemostfiltrationmethods
duetothehighamountofsedimentsinjatrophaoil.

After discharge, the process cycle restarts. The membrane pore diameter is intentionally
chosenlargerthanthesizeoftheparticlesthathavetoberemoved.Afilterpresshastobe
usedforsometimeinaclosedloopsituationtobuildupalayerofparticles(cake)againstthe
membrane.Thiswaythesedimentsintheoilformtheactualfiltermedium.Whetherornot

50


thesedimentlayerisaproperfiltrationmediumdependsontheparticlesizedistribution.In
caseallparticlesareofthesamesizethelayerwilleasilyclog.

The capacity of a filter press is directly proportional to the filter cloth area in m2 and can
thereforebeeasilyadapted.Smallermeshsizesresultinlowerthroughputanditistherefore
uncertain what the processing speed will be at the desired purity of the output product.
Althoughthefilterpressiscapableofremovingparticles<0.01mitisadvisedtoinstallabag
filtercandlefilterbehindthefilterpressforsafetycleaning.Dependingonthesizeoftheplate
filtertheoilcontentinthefiltercakewillnormallybearound10%[11].

Figure413Platefilters.Left:Smallsystem(150l/h)producedbyTEMDOTanzania,installedat
DiligentTanzanialtd.Right:platefilterforfoodindustry,capacityaround1000l/h.

4.4.3.4

Pressureleaffilter

Thepressureleaffilterconsistsofacylindricalfiltervesselfilledwithfilterplates.Similartothe
filterpress,thisfilterfirstbuildsupalayerofparticlesinclosedloopoperation.

Crudeoilentersthevesselandcanonlyleavethroughthehollowframesurroundingthefilter
plates.Toenterthehollowframetheoilfirstneedstopassthroughthefilterplatewherethe
solid particles are then stopped. When the filter vessel is full the system is pressurized by
pumpsto1015bar,afterwhichtheoilstartsflowingandthesolidmaterialintheoilformsa
layeronthefilterplate.Thisplateservesastheactualfiltermedium.

A pressure leaf filter is capable of filtering particles > 1020m, depending on the selected
meshsize.Iftheamountofsedimentsinthecrudeoilis>10%asedimentationstepisrequired
upstreamofthepressureleaffilter.Asaguidelineforthepressingprocess,beforefiltrationan
oilcontentinthepresscakeof>12%isconsideredoptimal.Reductionoftheoilcontentinthe
press cake to for example 8% by second pressing results in fines in the oil and lower filter
capacity (amafiltergroup). After the pressure leaf filter almost all particles >1020 will be
removedfromtheoil.Additionalfilteringstepswillberequiredbeforetheoilcanbeusedas
fuel.

51

Figure414Pressureleaffilter.Left:drawing.Right:Closeupofoneofthefilterplates.The
frameworkaroundthemeshismadeofhollowtubesthatserveasadischargeforthecleanoil
(picturesamafiltergroup)

4.4.3.5

Bagfilters

Bagfiltersusethesameprincipleascustommadefiltersbutarepressurizedbyanelectrical
fluid pump to enable higher throughput. The bag filter consists of a filter housing with a
removablebasketfittedwithafilterbag,similartotheonesusedforgravityfiltration.Figure
415(secondfromleft)showsanimpressionofthebagfilter.Typicaloperatingpressuresare
35bar.

Abagfilterof1m,meansthatparticles>1mareremovedatanominalefficiencyof6598%.
Thismeansthatthequalityoftheoutputproductfluctuates.Tocoverforthesefluctuationsa
candlefilterisnormallyaddedtotheprocess.Bagfiltersgenerallyhavetobecleanedevery14
days. Some examples of Dutch suppliers are amafiltergroup, EFC filtration and Allfil
filtertechniek.Thepriceofabagfilter rangesfrom 5001000withoutelectricalpumps and
10001500withpumpsincluded.Othermodulesliketheelectricalpump,hosesandstorage
tanks can be bought locally, if desired. A bag filter is suitable for >50 liter/hr process flows.
Attention: sedimentation or prefiltration are necessary prior to running the oil through the
bagfilter.Whentryingtofiltercrudeoildirectlyafterpressing,thebagfilterwillclogwithin
minutes.

52

Figure415Bagandcandlefilters.Fromlefttoright:1)Filterhousingwithfilterbasket.Thefilterbag
isinsertedinthebasketandneedcleaningevery14days.2)Bagfilterhousingunitforabagfilter
(withoutpumporstorage),atDiligentTanzanialtd.3)Candlefilterhousingwithfiltercandles.The
candlesneedtobereplacedbynewonesevery68weeks.4)Combinedsetupofabagandcandle
filter(photos:1&3www.amafilter.nl,2&4DiligentTanzanialtd.)

4.4.3.6

Candlefilters

Candle filters are often referred to as polishing filters as they perform the final touch in the
cleaningprocess.Thismeanstheoilalreadyneedstobequitecleanbeforeenteringthefilter.
Acandlefilterof1mmeansthatparticles>1mareremovedatanominalefficiencyof92%.
The candle filter is stable, which guarantees product quality. A single candle can support
approximately 60g of solid material before it needs changing. When fed with prefiltered
rapeseedoilcandlesneedtobereplacedevery68weeks.Ifabagfilterisinstalledinfrontof
thecandlefiltersimilarmaintenanceintervalsaretobeexpectedforjatrophaoil.

Thecostsforacandlefilterhousingarecomparabletothebagfilter.Candlescostapprox.75
persetforathroughputof200litre/hr,whichis500650peryearwhenchangedaccording
to the maintenance interval of 68 weeks. Note that the candles cannot be cleaned like the
filterbags.Anincreaseinoperatingpressureindicatesthatthecandlesneedreplacing.
4.4.4

Centrifuging

Inadditiontosedimentationthisisthesecondmethodofseparationthatisbasedonspecific
gravity.Thereasonformentioningitonlyattheendofthischapteristhatitisnotsuitedfor
smallprojects.However,itisworthmentioningtheworkingprinciplesofthistechnologymight
provideideasonhowtodeveloplowcostalternatives.

Using centrifugal force for particle separation is a fast alternative to sedimentation. Both
decanters and separators are industrial devices that work according to this principle.
Decantersandseparatorsusethedifferenceinspecificgravitybetweenmedia.

Forsolidliquidseparationtheliquidviscosityanddensitydifferencebetweensolidsandliquids
determine if the residence time in the centrifuge is enough to enable separation [11]. Solid
contentandparticlesizeareofsubordinateimportanceasdecantersettingscanbeadjusted.
Decanters and separators are successfully used in almost all industrial separation processes
involving food and beverage. Due to their high prices and capacities they have not yet been
appliedinjatropharelatedprojects.Althoughtheyareperhapsthebestseparationtechnology

53


for jatropha oil, decanters/centrifuges are generally not an option for capacities below 500
1000l/h.Forsuchcapacitythepricewillbearound50,000.

Figure416Decanterandcentrifugesystems.Fromlefttoright:1)Z23decanterwithcapacityof500
1000l/h;2)AC100Disccentrifuge;3)Centrifugationsystemwithabagfilterasasecurity[12]
(pictures:1&2FlottwegNederlandBV;3[12])

4.4.5

Concludingremarksoilcleaning

Oilcleaningistheprocessstepthatdeterminesproductquality.Althoughmanytechnological
solutionsareavailableoneshouldalwaysapplytheKISS(KeepItSimpleStupid)principlewhen
selectingoneinadevelopmentproject.

Sedimentationisstillthemostfavorablesolutionforsmallproductionvolumes(<50liters/hr).
Filtrationandcentrifugingtechnologiesaregenerallytooexpensiveformostprojectsinvolving
farmer groups. Development of simplified versions of such technologies could provide a
welcomesolutionintheseprojects.Simplefiltrationconstructionsarethebestcandidatesfor
a final cleaning step for the oil that is skimmed off after sedimentation. Proper pore size of
1mensuresaSVOfreeofparticlecontamination.

4.5

QualitystandardsforSVO

Differentapplicationsofjatrophaoilrequiredifferentlevelsofquality.Inmostcasesjatropha
oilwillbeusedforoneofthesethreeapplications:
Soapmaking:properfilteringoftheoilissufficientforthisprocess.
Lamps and stoves: proper filtering of the oil is sufficient for this process. Reduction in
viscositywouldbedesirabletoimprovefuelflowinwicksandnozzles.
Dieselengines:oilshouldcomplywithDIN51605normtominimizethechanceofengine
damage. In general the amounts of FFA and phosphor will be most problematic and
require chemical cleaning. Phosphor and FFA can subsequently be removed by
degummingandneutralizing.

Itcanbeconcludedthatqualityismainlyanissuewhentheoilisusedinengines.Fortheuse
of rapeseed oil as a fuel in Europe a quality standard has been developed that contains the
characteristics of the oil that are important and their limit values. As can be seen in the
diagram below, DIN standards document the exact procedure of determination of the
properties.Adistinctionismadebetweentwokindsofproperties,thecharacteristiconesthat
depend on the oilseed used, and the variable ones that depend on the processing used
(pressing, filtering, after treatment, etc.) Although this standard has been developed for
rapeseedoil,thelimitingvaluesalsoapplytootheroilslikejatrophabecausetheyaremostly
relatedtotheuseoftheoilinengines.

54


Table 42 DIN V 51605 norm for rapeseed, based on the earlier Weihenstephan or RK2000. This
standard summarizes the criteria that determine the quality of SVO as an engine fuel [7]. FACT
recommendsusingthisnormforjatrophaoilindieselenginesaswell
Properties/constituents
units
Standards
Densityat15C:
900930km/m3
AccordingtoDINENISO3675/12185
220C
AccordingtoDINENISO2719
Flashpoint:min.
2
Kinematicviscosityat40C:max.
AccordingtoDINENISO3104
36.0mm /s
Calorificvalue:min.
36,000MJ/kg
AccordingtoDIN519001,2,3
Ignite:min.
39

Carbon:max.
0.40%
AccordingtoDINENISO10370
Iodinevalue
95125g/100g AccordingtoDINEN14111
Sulphurcontent
10mg/kg
AccordingtoDINENISO20846/20884
Variableproperties

Totalcontamination
24mg/kg
AccordingtoDINEN12662
Acidnumber
2.0mgKOH/g
AccordingtoDINEN14104
Oxidationstabilityat110C:min.
6.0h
AccordingtoDINEN14112
Phosphoruscontent:max.
12mg/kg
AccordingtoDINEN14107
Totalmagnesiumandcalcium:max.
20mg/kg
AccordingtoDINEN14538
Ashcontent(Oxidasche):max
0.01%
AccordingtoDINENISO6245
Water:max.
0.08%
AccordingtoDINENISO12937

Tomakesurethepropertiesoftheoilarewithinthedesirablerange,severalthingshavetobe
keptinmind.Thevariablepropertiesarebrieflydiscussed,togetherwiththeirconsequences
fortheproductionprocess.

Contamination:thisdescribeshowmuchforeignmaterial(particles)maybepresentin
theoil.Ofcoursethisparameterisdirectlyinfluencedbythepurificationprocess.The
contaminationvaluedeterminesthelifetimeoftheenginesfuelfilter.
Acidvalue:thisisameasurementofthecontentoffreefattyacidsintheoil.Freefatty
acidsgiverisetodegradationoftheoil(itgetsrancid)andthecomponentsincontact
withit(oxidation).Theirformationismostlycausedbybadstorageconditions,i.e.contact
withair,exposuretosunlight,heatetc.
Oxidationstability:theoilqualityshouldnotdegradeinahotenvironment.Thisis
becausethefuelisexposedtohightemperatureswhenitisinuse.Themechanismsare
thesameasexplainedunderAcidvalue.
Phosphoruscontent:incoldpressingmostofthephosphorusthatispresentintheseed
goesintothepresscakeandnotintotheoil.Thatisdesiredbecausephosphorus
(especiallyphospholipids)givesrisetoblockingoftheenginesfuelfilterandtooxidation
ofthecombustionchamberbecausephosphorusisastrongoxidatorathigh
temperatures.
Ashcontent:theashcontentreflectstheamountofmaterialthatremainsunburnedafter
combustionoftheoilintheengine.Mostofthismaterialissaltpresentintheoil.Itcan
bekeptlowbygentlepressingandgoodfiltering.
Watercontent:theplantmaterialcontainsapercentageofwater.Intheoilthewater
contentshouldbelimited,becausewatercausesthefuelfiltermaterialtoswelland
henceblockandwatercausesoxidationinsidetheinjectionequipment.

Some components cannot be removed from the oil by the cleaning methods treated in
section4.4. Examples are free fatty acids, phosphor, and different molecular contaminations
(Fe, Mg, Ca etc). By restricting the operation temperature during pressing to ~60C (specific

55


temp for jatropha has not yet been determined) the formation of FFA and phosphor can be
limited. At excessively high levels, further refining might be required to assure smooth
operationindieselengines.Standardrefiningstepsinindustrialproductionofbothconsumer
andfueloilsaredegummingandneutralizing.
4.5.1

Oildegumming

The DIN 51605 norm states that phosphor content should be below 12mg/kg. Phosphatides,
gums and other complex colloidal compounds can promote hydrolysis (increase in FFA) of
vegetable oil during storage. In further refining steps such as transesterification these
compounds can also interfere. They are therefore removed by a process called degumming.
The process starts by heating the oil to 7080C. Then water is added and stirred. The gums
andphosphatideswilldissolveinwaterandremovedtogetherwiththewaterinaseparation
step.Dependingon thetypeofoilandphosphatidecontentacid(citric/phosphoric),base or
saltscanbeaddedinsteadofwater[16].
4.5.2

Oilneutralization

AccordingtoDIN51605,theacidnumbershouldbebelow2mgKOH/g.Thiscorrespondswith
anFFAcontentof1%.Whenthefreefattyacidsareremovedassoapsbytreatmentwithlye,
otherundesirableconstituentssuchasoxidationproductsoffattyacids,residualphosphatides
andgums,phenols(e.g.,gossypol)arealsowashedout.Duringneutralizationtheoilisagain
heated to 4080C. NaOH or KOH are added and stirred, causing the formation of soap. The
soap,containingmostFFAs,settlesatthebottomofthetankandcanberemoved[16].

4.6

Handlingandstorageofoil

Mainauthor:JanskevanEijck

Thereareseveralissuestotakeintoaccount,whichaffecttheoilqualityandeaseofhandling.
Theseareespeciallyimportantiftheoilisstoredathightemperaturesinruralareas.
4.6.1

Handlingcriteria

Therearetoxicingredientsinjatrophaoil(phorbolesters),whichmakeitnecessarytohandle
theoilwithcare.

Eye contact causes irritation, whereas ingestion can result into vomiting and diarrhea. Skin
contact is essentially nonhazardous, but wearing safety gear (overalls, goggles and closed
shoes)isadvisable.

Prevent the oil from entering drains, surface and ground water. Although vegetable oils are
biodegradable, when entering water they cover the surface. This results in a layer that
preventsairexchangewiththewater,aswellaswiththecreatureslivinginthewater.Whenin
contactwithwaterthehydrolysisresultsintheformationofcarbondioxide,whichresultsto
carbonimbalanceinwater.

Alsoavoidtheinhalationoffumes.PleaseconsultaMaterialSafetyDataSheet(MSDS)onhow
to minimize the hazards. A MSDS is a form containing data regarding the properties of a
particularsubstance.Itincludesinstructionsforthesafeuseandpotentialhazardsassociated
withaparticularmaterialorproduct.

56


4.6.2

Storagecriteria

Storeinacool,dryroom,avoidingexposuretolightandpotentialvolatilegaseoussubstances
(likepetrol).Thecontainerordruminwhichtheoiliskeptshouldpreferablybeairtightand
filled up to the maximum. This prevents condensation and thereby water in the oil. Storage
containersordrumscanbereusedandshouldthereforebeeasytoclean.Steelorhardplastic,
thenormalmaterialsforthesedrums,canbeusedtostoreortransportthejatrophaSVO.
4.6.2.1

Coolstoragetemperature

Vegetable oils contain enzymes that originated from metabolic activities during the plants
growth.Theactivitycoefficientofenzymesdoubleswitheach10degreecentigradeincrease.
This shortens the life of oil during storage as it promotes auto oxidation of the oil. This will
resultinfastcolourchangeandanincreaseinfreefattyacidsintheoil.

Itisthereforeimportanttokeepthestorageareacool,inordertopreventinstabilityandan
increaseinFFA.Mostoftheenzymesintheoilbecomemoreactiveatatemperatureabove30
degreescentigrade.Thereforeitisadvisedtostoreoilatatemperaturelowerthanthat.
4.6.2.2

Avoidingtemperaturevariations(andhencewatercondensation)

If the jatropha oil is kept in a drum, IBC (International Bulk Container, 1000 liters) or other
storage containers, temperature variations can cause condensation of water. This means
waterwillbedissolvedintheoil,whichisnotgoodforthequalityoftheoil.Thetemperature
should therefore be kept, as much as possible, at the same level. Another way of avoiding
condensationistokeepthecontainerairtightandfilledtothemaximum.
4.6.2.3

Darkness

Vegetable oils are from plants and contain photosensitive compounds like chlorophylls and
carotenoids.Amongthesecompounds,chlorophylliswhatcausestheoiltoappearyellowor
red. In the abundance of light these compounds activities fastens and results in strong color
changeintheoil.Toavoidthisitisrecommendedtostoreoilindarkareasorinareaswhere
thelightintensityislow.Ingeneralthismeansselectinganontransparentstorageunit.
4.6.2.4

Contactwithfreshair

Under unstable oil storage conditions like elevated temperatures, it is easy for the oxygen
presentinairtooxidizethemultiplebondedcarbonatomsandreplacethefattyacidinthat
area.Thiswillthenformperoxidecompounds.Theincreaseinthesecompoundsresultsinto
moreunstableoil.

It is difficult to prevent contact of air with oil using the normal container seal cap. In recent
timesnitrogenhasbeenusedtofillcontainersholdingoiltopreventcontactwithatmospheric
oxygen, as it is not as reactive to oil. Vacuum systems can also be used, but they are quite
expensive.

4.7
1.

2.

References

Adriaans, T and Jongh, de, J., Jatropha oil quality related to use in diesel engines and
refiningmethods,FACTfoundation,September2007.(www.factfoundation.com)
Beerens, P., Screwpressing of Jatropha seeds for fuelling purposes in less developed
countries,EindhovenUniversityofTechnologyaugust2007.(www.factfoundation.com)

57

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

Beerens, P., Jatropha under pressure, Bachelors degree research report, Eindhoven
UniversityofTechnology,December2005
Ferchau, E. and Ans, N., Equipment for decentralised cold pressing of oil seeds,
Folkecenter for renewable energy, 2000Archive Kakute/Diligent Tanzania Ltd., 2004
(Availableat:www.factfoundation.com)
Groeneveld,G.J.,DevelopmentofamodificationkitfordieselenginessuitableforSVO,
FACTfoundation,December2008.
Hui, Y.H., Baileys industrial oil & fat products, volume 4 Edible Oil & Fat Products:
ProcessingTechnology,JohnWiley&Sons,inc.1996
Hynd, A. and Smith, A., Meeting a Pressing Need, Project Appraisal of the Oilseed Ram
PressandApproachestoImplementation,DesignforDevelopingCountries,2004
Jongh, de, J. and Beerens, P., Note on Jatropha pressing for FACT pilot plants, FACT
foundation,April2008.(Availableat:www.factfoundation.com)
Wan, P.J., Introduction to Fast and Oils Technology, American Oil Chemists Society,
ChampaignIllinois,1988
ArchiveDiligentEnergySystemsBV,2005
ArchiveDiligentTanazaniaLtd.,2008
ArchiveDajolka,NielsAns,2005
ArchiveKakute/DiligentTanzaniaLtd.,2004
Visit at Flottweg Netherlands, with director P. van Donselaar supplier/manufacturer of
separationtechnologies

15. MSDS,Bioshapeltd.2008

16. Thomas, A., Fats and Fatty oils, Unimills International, Hamburg, Federal Republic of
Germany,WileyVCHVerlagGmbH&Co.KGaA,2005

58

APPLICATIONSOFJATROPHAPRODUCTS

Authors:PeterBeerens,NielsAns,TitusGalema,ThijsAdriaans,JanskevanEijck

5.1

Introduction

Jatrophahasmanypotentialapplications.However,untilnowonlyafewhavebeenrealised
onareasonableandlargescale.Jatrophaisprimarilycultivatedforitsoil.However,thisoilis
not the only usable product from the plant. During the process of extracting the oil, many
usefulbyproductsarecreated,aswell.Here,firsttheoilapplicationsarediscussed,followed
bytheapplicationsforthebyproducts.

5.2

Applicationsofoil

Jathropa oil can be used in several ways. The pure (untreated) oil can be used as fuel or for
soapproduction.Jathropaoilcanalsoserveasaresourcefortheproductionofbiodiesel.
Firsttheapplicationsoftherawoilarediscussed,followedbytheoilrefiningtobiodiesel.
5.2.1

Lampsandcookingstoves

Author:PeterBeerens

Forlampsandstoves,theconventionalfuelsinmostruralareasarefuelwood,charcoaland
petroleum. By introducing alternatives like plant oils such as jatropha oil for cooking and
lighting, the use of conventional fuels could be strongly reduced. Potential users of the
jatrophaoilarethosepeoplewhocurrentlybuytheirfuel(charcoal,kerosene)inareaswhere
thereisnofreealternative(fuelwood)available.
5.2.1.1

Lamps

Thedifficultywhenusingjatrophaoilforlightingisitshighviscosity.Mostkerosenelampsuse
wicks. The suction of the Jatropha oil is sufficient in the beginning, but as the oil level
diminishesandtheoilhastotravellongerdistancesthroughthewick,thelampsdim.Asecond
problemistheformationofcokesonthewickssurface,whichisasecondcauseforthelamp
to dim. Lastly the ignition temperature of jatropha oil (240C) is much higher than for
petroleum(84C).Thismakesitmoredifficulttoignitethefuel.

Toovercometheproblemwithafixedwickafloatingwickcanbeused.Anexampleofalamp
usingthisprincipleistheBingalampdevelopedbythebingatreesprojectinZimbabwe.As
theoilleveldrops,thewicksinkstogetherwithitkeepingthedistancebetweentheflameand
theoilconstant.Animpressionofthebingalampisgivenbelow.

Cokingofthewickiscausedbythehigherevaporationtemperatureofjatrophaoil.Petroleum
normallyevaporatesfromthewickwhiletheflameburns.Theflameburnsatasmalldistance
fromthewickssurfacetherebyleavingthewickintact.Asthejatrophaoildoesnotevaporate
asquickly,itburnsonthewickssurfacecausingtheformationofcarbondepositsonthewick.
After8hoursthevisiblepartofthewickiscompletelycarbonizedandhastobereplaced[1].

59

Figure51Ordinarypetroleumlamp(r),modifiedto
runonjatrophaoil(l)[2]

5.2.1.2

Figure52Bingalampdevelopedinthe'Binga
Trees'projectZimbabwe[3]

Cookingstoves

Designsofstovesusingthejatrophaseedarebasedonthreedifferentmethods.Thefirstuses
thesolidjatrophaseedkernelsasfuelaswiththeUB16,seeFigure53.Thesecondmethod
uses the jatropha oil in modified kerosene stoves with a wick. The third method utilizes the
jatropha oil, vaporized and sprayed under pressure into a specially designed stove, like the
Protos.Themaindrawbackofjatrophaoilincookingstovesisitshighviscosity,whichoften
leads to clogging of the fuel pipe or burners. Several stoves that have been adapted to or
specificallydesignedforjatrophaoilareshownbelow.Althoughitisdocumentedthatjatropha
stoves have very low emission levels compared to wood stoves, it is not known yet if the
smokeofjatrophafuelisharmfulbecauseofitstoxicingredients.Thisisanimportantaspect
andfurtherresearchishighlyrecommended.

Figure53Cookingstoves.Fromtheleft:1)UB16stovethatisclaimedtobedirectlyfiredwith(de
hulled)jatrophaseeds[4];2)TheWheelbrandstove,atypicalexampleofanadaptedkerosenestove;
3)ProtosplantoilstovedevelopedbyBSHBoschandSiemensHausgerteGmbH

The PROTOS plant oil stove was developed in 2004. This unusual stove can be fuelled by
unrefinedandrefinedvegetableoilssuchascoconutoil,sunfloweroil,rapeseedoil,jatropha
oil,castoroil,cottonseedoilandpeanutoil.Exceptfortheburner,thisstovecanbeproduced
locally thereby creating employment. Over 500 Protos stoves have been tested in the
Philippines,India,Indonesia,SouthAfricaandTanzania.

60


5.2.2

Directfuelforcarsanddrivingenginesforshaftpowerorelectricitygeneration

Author:NielsAns
5.2.2.1

Introduction

By nature, PPO generally has excellent properties as fuel in diesel engines, socalled
compression ignition engines. Generally any warm diesel engine will run on heated PPO.
Nevertheless,forgenerationsdieselengineshavebeendesignedandoptimizedfordieselfuel.
Since some fuel properties of PPO differ from diesel fuel, different conditions must be
followed,andchanges(conversionsandmodifications)mustbemadetotheenginesinorder
tohandlesomeofthesedifferentproperties.Thenecessarychangestotheenginearetypically
namedconversionormodification.

TherearetwoequallyimportantcriteriatofollowinordertosuccessfullyusePPOasfuelin
dieselengines:
The PPO fuel quality should meet criteria specified in PPO fuel quality standards. Such
standards already exist in Germany for rapeseed PPO, DIN V 51 605. Similar standards
shouldbemadeforotherkindsofPPO.
ThedieselengineshouldbeselectedassuitableforPPOconversion,anditshouldbewell
maintainedandinawelladjustedcondition.Inaddition,whenitsconverted,careshould
be taken regarding the special challenges for that exact type of engine. And the engine
shouldbeusedinasuitableway(loadpattern)

BothconditionswillsecureefficientcombustionofthePPO,minimizingtheemissionsandfuel
consumption,andguaranteeanormal,longlifetimeoftheengine.Undertheseconditions,the
performanceandfuelconsumptionwhenrunningonPPOwillbecomparabletothatofdiesel.
Ontheotherhand,ifthePPOiscombustedinefficiently,problemscanbeexpectedsooneror
later.Typically,thisisbecauseofdepositsorotherwaysofaccumulatingunburnedfuelinthe
engine.OritcouldbethePPOdamagestheinjectionsystembecauseofaggressiveproperties
leadingtocorrosion.

Allmeasures,bothontheenginesideandonthefuelside,aresimpleandeasytounderstand.
Agood,practicalapproachisimportant,andmostimportantisnottounderestimatethevalue
ofeachmeasureforfulfillingthecriteria.

Inthefollowingchapterwetrytocoverthekeytopicsrelevantforrunningdieselengineson
PPO in developing countries. This includes requirements pf the PPO fuel, selecting engines
suitable for operation on PPO, and what has to be changed on these engines in order to
operatesafelywithPPO.However,thisisonlyaguideline.Themainsourceforthischapteris
basedonNielsAnssownpracticalexperienceswithDajolka[6](andatFolkecenter),made
duringmorethan10years,drivingallowncarson100%PPO,andconductingmanypractical
activitiesincludingconversionofseveralhundredsofengines,mainlypassengercarsandvans,
but also diesel engines in other applications. Any attempt to follow the advice given in this
chapterishoweveratonesownrisk.
5.2.2.2

PPOfuelproperties

OnthefuelsideitisessentialtocareaboutthequalityofthePPO.Thisstartsbyselectingthe
right kind of crop/oilseed, cultivating and harvesting, transport, handling and storing the
oilseedsandpressing,filtering,handlingandstoringthePPO(Seechapter4).

61


ThePPOfuelqualitystandardspecifiestwogroupsofparameters(seealsoTable51)
Characteristicproperties:occurringnaturallyandaregenerallyunchangedbyproduction,
handlingandstoringtheoilseedsandPPO.Thesearelessimportantaslongasthekindof
crop/oilseedisknown.
Variable properties: influenced by harvest, transport, handling and storing seeds, and
production,handlingandstoringthePPO.Theseareveryimportantforthestabilityofthe
PPO during storing, for prevention of damage to injection systems, and for efficient
combustionofthePPO.

All parameters are important, but some are more critical than others. In Table 51 the
variables in italics (which are invisible) can damage an engine fast if limits are exceeded
considerably.ItmakessensetoanalysethePPOforthefourvariableparametersonaregular
basis.

Table 51 DIN V 51605 norm for rapeseed, based on the earlier Weihenstephan or RK2000. This
standard summarizes the criteria that determine the quality of SVO as an engine fuel [7]. FACT
recommendsusingthisnormforjatrophaoilindieselenginesaswell.NBthepropertiesinitalicsare
criticalfordieselenginesandshouldbemonitoredregularly(seealsosection5.2.2.2)
Properties/constituents
units
Standards
3
Densityat15C:
900930km/m
AccordingtoDINENISO3675/12185
220C
Flashpoint:min.
AccordingtoDINENISO2719
Kinematicviscosityat40C:max.
AccordingtoDINENISO3104
36.0mm2/s
Calorificvalue:min.
36,000MJ/kg
AccordingtoDIN519001,2,3
Ignite:min.
39

Carbon:max.
0.40%
AccordingtoDINENISO10370
Iodinevalue
95125g/100g AccordingtoDINEN14111
Sulphurcontent
10mg/kg
AccordingtoDINENISO20846/20884
Variableproperties

Totalcontamination
24mg/kg
AccordingtoDINEN12662
Acidnumber
2.0mgKOH/g
AccordingtoDINEN14104
Oxidationstabilityat110C:min.
6.0h
AccordingtoDINEN14112
Phosphoruscontent:max.
12mg/kg
AccordingtoDINEN14107
Totalmagnesiumandcalcium:max.
20mg/kg
AccordingtoDINEN14538
Ashcontent(Oxidasche):max
0.01%
AccordingtoDINENISO6245
Water:max.
0.08%
AccordingtoDINENISO12937

5.2.2.3

Otherproperties

Another difference is the energy content, which is about 4%5% less per volume for PPO,
comparedtofossildiesel.Thelowerenergycontentispartlycompensatedbymoreefficient
combustioncausedbythenaturalcontentofoxygeninthemoleculestructureofPPO.

Table52DifferenceinconstantcharacteristicpropertiesofPPO(fromrapeseed)anddiesel

62

Property
Density
Energycontentperweight

Unit
kg/m3
MJ/kg

Energycontentpervolume
Oxygencontent
Flamepoint

MJ/l
%
C

PPO
920
min36,0
(typically37,0)
33,1
1112
220

Diesel
830
42,3
35,1
0
6070


Considering the hydraulic and mechanical systems in a diesel engine, the main difference in
propertiesbetweenPPOanddieselis,thattheviscosityofPPOismanytimeshigherthanfor
dieselatambienttemperature.ThismakesitmoredifficultforthePPOtoflowfromthefuel
tank to the engine and to atomize the cold PPO in the injectors. The high viscosity together
withamuchhigherflashpointmakesitmorechallengingtostartacoldengineonPPOandget
satisfactoryefficientcombustionuntiltheengineishot.

Figure54Viscosity

Figure 54 shows the kinematic viscosity of rapeseed oil and diesel as a function of the
temperature.Thebluelineshowviscosityofdiesel,andtheredlineactually3linesontopof
each other, shows the viscosity of rapeseed oil, respectively cold pressed, super degummed
andfullyrefined.At0CthePPOis2030timesmoreviscousthandiesel,butat6070Cthe
viscosityisneartodiesel,thecurvebecomesflatandthedifferencedisappears.

Figure55Solid/liquidphaseshift

63


PPO can solidify at low temperatures. Its a reversible process and is both a function of
temperatureandthetime.Thefigureshowsthesolid/liquidphasepropertiesofrapeseedoil.

It must be emphasized that for jatropha PPO, these numbers will be different since,
compared to rapeseed oil, it has a different fatty acid composition with a higher share of
saturatedfattyacids.Henceitsviscositycurve(Figure54)willbedifferentandsolidification
pointwillbeathighertemperature.
5.2.2.4

Engineconversion/Enginetypes

To enable the engine to run safely on PPO the engine must be converted to handle the
differentfuelpropertiesofPPOcomparedwithdiesel.Forexample,itsnecessarytoheatthe
PPOinordertodecreasetheviscosity,andtomodifyinjectorsandglowplugstoenablethe
enginetostartonPPO.

Because of the large variety of engines combined with different manufactories and
configuration of injection system, this chapter can only serve as a guide to the most basic
thingsrelevantforconversion.Onlyengineswithmechanicalcontrolledinjectionsystemswill
be discussed, since engines with electronically controlled injections are still not common in
developingcountries,andbecausetheconversionrequiresmorespecializedtechnology,tools
andmechanicstrainedinthesesystems.

Asmentionedbefore,generallyanywarmdieselenginewillrunfineonheatedPPO.Themain
challenge is to get the engine started and run it with satisfactory clean combustion until it
reachesnormaloperatingtemperaturetypicallyabout8090Cforawatercooledengine.

1.Identificationoftheengine
Dieselenginesexistinmanydifferenttypesandsizes.MostofthemcanbeconvertedtoPPO
inoneortheotherway.Itsimportanttofirstidentifyandchooseasuitableengine,andthen
decide how it should be converted. The main question is whether the engine has direct or
indirect injection, and how the engine cooling system is designed. The cooling system is
importantbecauseitcontrolstheengineoperatingtemperature,andtheexpendedheatfrom
theengineisusedtoheatthePPO.

GenerallyalldieselengineswithInDirectInjection(IDI)areverysuitableforconversiontoPPO.
Engines with Direct Injection (DI) can also be converted, but they are more sensitive to the
loadpatternandfuelquality,sotheyrequiremoreattentionandaretypicallyconvertedwitha
dueltank(2tank)system.

Itisnormallynotrecommendedtoconvertenginesequippedwithdistributorinjectionpumps
manufacturedbyLucas/CAV/Delphi,StanadyneorRotoDiesel.Thisisbecausethereisahigh
riskofdamagingthepump,typicallywhenthepumpandPPOarecold.Otherenginescanhave
otherproblems,makingthemlesssuitableforconversion,e.g.DIengineswithabore/stroke
ratio>1.

Therefore,beforedecidingtoconvertanengine,itisimportanttoidentifytheengine,thetype
andmanufactureroftheinjectionsystem,andthetypicalloadpatternfortheengine.Based
onthesefactors,itspossibletodetermineifconversionofthatengineisfeasible.

Initiallyitisimportanttodetermineiftheenginehasdirectorindirectinjection,identifywhich
typeofpreheatingsystemisavailable(ifany),thekindofinjectionpumpandliftpump,andto

64


identify the kind of cooling system. It can often be helpful to make a drawing of the fuel
system,showingallcomponentsandfuellines.

For exact identification of the engine it is important to get the following information:
Manufacturer, engine code, year of manufacture, number of cylinders, displacement (cm3),
andpower(hp/kW).Fromtheenginecodeitisusuallypossibletogetalltechnicaldataforthe
engine,butforsomeenginesitsalsonecessarytophysicallyidentifythemanufacturerofthe
fuelinjectionpump,becausesomemodelscanbeequippedwithdifferentbrands.

2.Statusoftheengine
Itsessentialthattheengineisadjustedcorrectlyandisinawellmaintainedcondition.Ifthe
engineissmokingorinotherwaysisnotperformingwellondiesel,theproblemsshouldbe
identified and corrected before the conversion. If the injectors are worn or the glow plugs
burned out, these could be changed in connection with the conversion. The cooling system,
including the thermostat, should work well so the engine will reach normal operating
temperatureasfastaspossibleotherwise,ifthethermostatisdefect,theenginemightwork
atatoolowtemperatureforefficientPPOcombustion.Ifnothermostatisinstalled,e.g.onair
cooled engines, the engine might cool too much because the cooling system is designed for
the worst case. The engine, therefore, may have problems to reach an acceptable
temperature, especially at low loads. It might disqualify the engine as suitable for PPO
operation. At the very least, the engine should be measured to increase the operating
temperatureinasafeway.

3.DifferencesbetweenDIandIDIengines

A)

B)

A)

B)
D)

F)

C)

C)

E)

End

D)

Figure56CrosssectionofanIDIcombustion
chamber.A)singleholeInjector,B)glowplug,C)
prechamber,D)cylinderhead,E)piston,F)
cylinderwall(photo:RobertBoschGmbH)

Figure57CrosssectionofaDIcombustion
chamber.A)multiholeInjector,B)glowplug,C)
cylinderhead,D)piston,E)cylinderwall(photo:
RobertBoschGmbH)

Figure56andFigure57showthecrosssectionareaofenIDIandDIengine,respectively.The
IDIengineisbetterforPPOcombustionbecausethefuelisinjectedintoarelativelysmalland
hotprechamber,wherethecombustionstarts,beforeitcontinuesintothecylinder.OnaDI
enginethefuelisinjecteddirectlyintothecylinder,whichisrelativelylargeandcoldcompared
totheprechamber.Onbothfiguresanactivehotglowplugisshown,whichisimportantfor

65


thecoldstartandtoimprovethecombustionofthecoldengine.Theglowplugwillswitchoff
afterstarting,butremainsactivatedforafewminutes.

InDIengines,especially,theresahigherriskthatunburnedPPOwillreachthecoldercylinder
wall, which can lead to deposits on the piston and piston rings, and cause increased flow of
PPO along the cylinder wall down to the crankcase, which will dilute the lube oil. Due to its
highboilingpoint,PPOinthelubeoilwillnotevaporateagainaswithdieselandgasoline,so
theconcentrationwillalwaysincrease.Initiallydilutionofthelubeoilisnotaproblem.After
time,withconcentrationsmorethan10%PPOinthelubeoil,thethermalloadofthemixture
can cause polymerization, which leads to a sudden and dramatic increase of the viscosity of
the lube oil, causing damages or total destruction of the engine. The phenomenon is
connectedbothtothetypeandqualityofthelubeoilandthePPO[8].

Thephotoshowsalubeoilsamplefrom
a DI engine where polymerization had
happened.Toillustratehowviscousthe
oilis,asmallamountwaspouredouton
a piece of A4 paper, which was then
lifted to vertical position. The photo
shows the situation after 26 seconds
the oil flowing very slowly. With such
viscous oil there is naturally a high risk
for damaging the engine due to
insufficient lubrication and cooling. The
operator might get a warning from the
oilpressurewarninglampwhenstarting
the engine, because oil pressure builds
up slower than normal, but the best is
to avoid this situation by frequently

checking the level and consistency of


Figure58Sampleofpolymerisedlubricationoil
the lube oil and taking appropriate
action.
5.2.2.5

Engineconversion

Theconversionshouldalwaysbedonebyskilledtechnicians,andtheresultoftheconversion
shouldbeevaluatedbyapersonexperiencedindieselengines.Asmentionedbefore,generally
anywarmdieselenginewillrunfineonheatedPPO.Themainchallengeistogettheengine
started and run it with satisfactory clean combustion until it reaches normal operating
temperature,typicallyabout8090Cforawatercooledengine.

There are two ways to overcome the most challenging part, which is the cold start and
operationoftheenginefrombeingstarteduntilithasreachednormaloperatingtemperature.
Witha1tanksystem,theenginestartsdirectlyonPPO.Theoriginalfueltankcanbefilled
withPPO,dieseloranymixtureofPPOanddiesel.
Witha2tanksystem,theenginestartsondieselsuppliedfromaseparatefueltank,and
operates on diesel until the engine reaches normal operating temperature. Then it is
switchedtoheatedPPOsuppliedfromtheotherfueltank.Beforestoppingtheenginefor
coolingdown,itshouldbeswitchedagaintodieselinordertopurgetheinjectionsystem.
The diesel tank should always be filled with diesel, but the PPO tank can be filled with
PPO,dieselandanymixturebetweenPPOanddiesel.

66


1.Realizingandoperating1tanksystems
IDIenginescaneasilybeconvertedwithasingletank(1tank)system,enablingthemtostart
promptlydirectlyonPPO.Thefirstconditionforrealizinga1tanksystemisthataglowplug
must be present in the combustion chamber (see Figure 512), and it is necessary to install
specialglowplugsandinjectors,andtoadjusttheinjectiontimingandinjectionpressure.

Realizing a 1tank system requires special focus on the injectors, glow plugs and the
adjustment of the engine. Using an engine converted with a 1tank system is very similar as
usingtheoriginalenginewithdiesel.Theonlydifferenceisthecoldstart,wheretheoperator
mustlearntostarttheengineonPPOusuallyitjustrequireslettingthepreheatingwork5
10secondslongerthanwhenstartingondiesel,eventuallycombinedwithadjustingthegasa
littlewiththeaccelerator.Thebestistostarttheengineandletitheatupmoderately,rather
thanlettingitheatupbyidlingorrunningtheengineatfullloadand/orathighRPMs.Most
usersprefera1tanksystembecauseitiseasytouseanddoesnotrequirechangesinhabitsor
giveanyinconveniences.Forthesereasonsitisoftenrecommended.

Figure59Typicalconfigurationof1tanksystem,includinglargerfuelpipes,heatexchanger,
electricalfuelheater,injectors,glowplugsrelaysetc.

2.Realizingandoperating2tanksystems
SomeDIenginescanalsobeconvertedwitha1tanksystem,butitismuchmorechallenging
to get prompt start and clean combustion of a cold engine, so DI engines are typically
converted by a 2tank system, which can relatively simple. A typical conversion for a car is
demonstrated in Figure 510. For more basic engines, as used in Africa for example (Figure
516, left), with no battery for electric starting, preheating and electrical controlled fuel
switching,theconversionsystemtypicallyconsistofthefollowing:anextrafuelfilter,fueltank
andfuelheatingsystemforPPO,twoballvalves(oneforeachfueltank),andsomehosesand
fittingstoconnectthetwofuellinesattheinjectionpump,andeventuallytorealizealoopof
thereturnfuelfromtheinjectionsystem.

Challengesaretodesignthesystemsothatpurgingtimeisminimized,andtoensurethatPPO
is not mixed with diesel in the diesel tank during purging process. The purging time is
minimized by decreasing the volume in the fuel system from the valve controlling the fuel
flowingtotheengineandtheothervalvecontrollingthereturnflow.Thereforeitisbesttouse
separatefuelfiltersfordieselandPPO.Itwillrequireanextracontrolvalveonengineswith
externalliftpump,becauseitisusuallyplacedbeforethefuelfilter.

67


Realizingandoperatinga2tanksystemisusuallyrelativelysimple.Theenginestartsondiesel
asusual,andisswitchedtoheatPPOwhentheenginehasreachedoperatingtemperature
eithermanuallybytheoperatororautomaticallyviaacontrolsystem,e.g.usingathermostatic
switchincombinationwith3waysolenoidvalves.Beforestoppingtheengineforcooling,the
operatormustremembertoswitchbacktodieselinduetime,sotheinjectionsystemwillbe
purgedwithdieselandbereadyforthenextstart.Thepurgingtimedependsonthespecific
engineandthedesignofthe2tanksystem.ForDIenginesitisbesttoswitchtodieselifidling
orrunningonverylowloadforlongtime.Iftheenginehasmanystarts/stops,idling/lowload
oronlyrunningforashorttime,the2tanksystemisnotsuitablebecausetheenginewillrun
most of the time on diesel. The 2tank system is a little more inconvenient for the user
becauseitsnecessarytoswitchbacktodieselinduetimebeforestopping,andtokeepaneye
onthefuellevelin2differenttanks.Theextratankfordieseltakesupspace,typicallyinside
the cabin if its a passenger car or a van, where increases the risk of spilling when filling up
(exceptifinstalledwithexternfillingsystem).

Figure510Typicalconfigurationof2tanksystemonengineswithliftpumpintegratedinthe
injectionpump.Itincludeslargerfuelpipes,heatexchanger,extrafueltankandfuelfilterfordiesel,
3wayvalvesforswitchingbetweenPPOanddiesel,etc.

MixingPPOtothedieseltankcanbeavoidedbydelayingthereturnvalve,sothatthereturn
fuelwillcontinuerunningtothePPOtankduringthepurgingprocess,butthiswillincreasethe
dieselconsumption.Anotherwayistoloopthereturnfuelbacktotheinjectionpumpinstead
ofthedieseltank,whenrunningondiesel.Thiswillminimizethedieselconsumptionbutwill
increase the purging time considerably because the fuel in the injection system is replaced
only as fast as the engine consumes fuel. With return flow to the fuel tank, the fuel in the
injectionsystemischangedmuchfaster,becausethetotalamountoffueldisplacedbythelift
pump over the supply and return lines can be up to 5 times as much as the actual
consumption.

68

Figure511Simple2tanksystemforengineswithout
electricsystemandfuelliftpump.Theswitching
betweendieselandPPOisdonemanuallyby2valves.
Theheatsourcefortheheatexchangerdependsonthe
optionsavailableforthespecificengine,e.g.coolant,
lubeoil,hotairorexhaust.

Figure512Anothervariantofasimple2
tanksystemforengineswithoutelectric
system,butwithoriginalfuelliftpump(1).
Thissystemwasinstalledontheirrigation
pumpshownonfigure5.11.Theoriginal
fuelfilter(2)andaheatexchanger(3)was
installedwithinaloopofthereturnfuel
fromtheinjectionpump.Byloopingthe
fuelthefuelheatingcouldberealisedbya
fuelhoseturned1timeroundthecylinder
oftheaircooledengine.Withonly1fuel
filterintheloop,thepurgingtimebetween
dieselandPPOislonger,butitisnot
importantforanenginerunning
permanentlyformanyhours.

3.RunningonPPODieselmixtures
PPO and diesel mix very easily, and the diesel reduces the viscosity and flash point of the
mixture.Ifamixtureisleftinatankforalongtimewithoutmovement,theconcentrationof
PPOcanincreaseinthelowerlayersduetothehigherdensity,butinafrequentlyusedvehicle
andwithcirculationofthefuel(returnflowtofueltank),itisnormallynotaproblem.Incold
seasons,mixing1015%dieselintothePPOcanimprovethecoldstartoftheengine,butitis
normallynotnecessarywithagood1tankconversion.

Itmayseemattractivetorundieselenginesonmixtureswithoutconversion,andforsomeIDI
enginesitseemstoworkforalongtimewithconcentrationsupto50%PPO.ButforDIengines
itsmuchmorerisky,andtheconcentrationwhichwillworkismuchlower,e.g.max2030%.
The main risk is that the engine over time will be contaminated with deposits of unburned
PPO.Initiallyitmightseemtheengineworksfine,butwhendepositsincrease,itcansuddenly
lead to more serious, irreversible problems. Therefore we can generally not recommend
runningonmixtureswithoutarealconversion.
5.2.2.6

Importanttechnicalissues

1.Glowsystem
A glow plug in the combustion chamber is used to preheat the combustion (pre) chamber
beforethecoldstartoftheengine.Thisisanimportantdeviceforrealizinga1tanksystem.
Typically glow plugs are a few mm longer than the original glow plugs that are installed, in
ordertoaddmoreheattothecombustion(pre)chamberbeforethestart,andsothatthefuel
spray from the injectors reaches the hot tip of the glow plug. It is also an advantage to
combine longer glow plugs with a post glow system, which means that the glow plugs are
activatedalsoafewminutesafterthecoldstart,andtherebyimprovethecombustionofthe

69


cold engine. It requires a special kind of glow plugs designed for post glow applications
otherwisetheglowplugswillburnoutrapidly.

There are other kinds ofglow systems, such as a glow coil placed in the air intake manifold,
whichwilligniteasmallamountofdieselfuel.SuchasystemwillnotworkwithPPOasfuel,
andcannotworkwithpostglow.Sothebestistoconvertsuchanenginewitha2tanksystem.
Ifthereisnoglowsystem,theengineshouldalwaysbeconvertedwitha2tanksystem.Ifthe
engine is equipped with a fuelbased pre heating system, typically placed in the air intake
manifold,careshouldbetakenthatthissystemwillbesuppliedwithdiesel.

2.Injectors
Thereexistmanydifferentinjectors,andtheremightbeseveralsuitablesolutionsforthesame
engine.1tanksystemsrequirespecialinjectorsandincreasedinjectionpressure,butfora2
tanksystem,usuallytheoriginalinjectorsareused,andthereforenotreplacedunlesstheyare
worn. Eventually the injection pressure is increased on 2tank system depending on the
originalconfiguration.Changeofinjectorsmightseemcomplicatedandexpensive,butoftenit
will improve the performance of a used engine, and even extend its lifetime due to cleaner
combustion.

A general rule is that higher injection pressure gives a better atomizing of the fuel and
therefore a better cold start and a cleaner combustion. Therefore, the injection pressure
should be increased, at least to the maximum within the range specified by the engine
manufacturer, or slightly higher. If the injection pressure is increased much higher than the
originalpressure,itcanresultinadelayoftheinjectionstartandadecreaseintheinjected
fuel amount. So it might be necessary to compensate for this by advancing the timing and
increasethefuelquantityrespectively.

Anothergeneraladvantageistouseinjectorsthatinjectasmallpilotinjectionbeforethemain
injection. That makes the combustion of the main injection faster and more complete. Pilot
injection can be realized by the shape of the injector needle, or by a 2spring injector
configuration.ThisrelationwasalsofoundbytheACREVOstudy[7].

3.Timing
Correctinjectiontimingiscriticaltotheperformanceoftheengine,especiallythecoldstart.In
general,earlyinjectionincreasesthecombustiontemperatureandmakestheenginesound
harder, and gives a better cold start, higher torque and more efficient combustion. Late
injection can lead to bad cold start, high exhaust temperature and inefficient combustion,
whichalsocanbenoticedbygreysmokewithanirritatingbadsmellofunburnedPPO.

Whenadjustingthetimingitsgoodtoaimfortheearliestvalueintherangespecifiedbythe
manufacturer,oreventoadvancethetimingabitmore,e.g.2crankshaftcomparedtothe
originalsetting.

Manyenginesareequippedwithanautomaticoramanuallyactivatedcoldstartadjustment,
whichadvancesthetimingandincreasestheidlespeed,therebyimprovingthecoldstart.Its
importantthatthisfunctionisworkingandadjustedcorrectly.

4.Fuelsystem
Due to the higher viscosity and density of PPO compared to diesel, there will be higher
resistance for the fuel flowing from the fuel tank to the engine. Therefore it is important to

70


minimizethepressuredrop,typicallybyincreasingthediameterofthefuellines,toeliminate
critical restrictions in the fuel system, and/or to install an electrical lift pump. Usually
increasing the diameter of the fuel lines and eliminating restrictions is enough. Critical
restrictionscanbeprefilterinthefueltankoronthefuelline,ordifferentkindofjunctionsor
connectionsofthefuelline,withreducedcrosssectionarea.Suctionofairintothefuelsystem
isalsoacommontroublemaker,soitsessentialtobecarefulwiththeassemblyofalljunctions
and connections of the whole fuel system, especially on the suction side of the injection
pump/lift pump. For troubleshooting its a good idea to install a short piece of transparent
fuelpipejustbeforetheinjection/liftpump,toseeifthereareanyairbubblesinthefuel.

5.Materials
Thematerialsusedinthefuelsystemshouldbeselectedtopreventanyinteractionbetween
thematerialandthePPO.CoppershouldbeavoidedduetoitscatalyticeffectonPPO,leading
to decreased oxidation stability of the PPO. Zinccoated steel surfaces (except if electro
coated)alsoreactswithPPO,whichformssolidfatwithahighmeltingpoint.Thefatformsa
coatingwhichcanreleaseinsmallerpiecesandflowwiththePPOandblockfuelfilters.Use
stainlessorcarbonsteelinstead.

Figure513Inlineprefilterwhichwaspartlyblockedbysmallparticlesofsolidfat,releasedfroma
smallpieceofzinccoatedsteelinthePPOtank

Many modern fuel hoses are resistant to PPO. Typically PA12 hoses are used for hard hose
connections,andfatresistantrubberhosesforthesoftflexibleconnections,e.g.NBRorVITON
rubber.Specialhoseshavebeendevelopedtoresistbiodiesel,whicharealsosuitableforPPO.

6.Liftpump
On most diesel engines a lift pump is used to suck the fuel from the tank and supply the
correctfuelpressuretotheinjectionpump.Itstypicallymechanicalpumps,eitherintegrated
in the injection pump or an external device attached to the engine or the injection pump.
Some engines have no lift pump, so the fuel pressure is generated by gravity due to a lifted
fuel tank. On several newer vehicles, an electrical lift pump integrated in the fuel tank
generates the fuel pressure. When converting the engine to PPO, the system should ensure
that both suction and fuel pressure are kept within the limits originally designed for that
engine.

71

Avanetypeliftpumpintegratedintheinjectionpumpusuallyworkswithinarangeof0.20.3
barssuction.Ifthesuctionincreases,e.g.to0.40.5barormore,theinjectionpumpcanhave
insufficientfuelpressureandfuelquantity,leadingtomalfunctionoftheinjectionandlossof
power.Thereisalsoanincreasedriskofdamagingtheinjectionpump.Fortheconversionand
for troubleshooting later on, it is useful to measure the vacuum in the fuel line before the
injection/liftpump,usingavacuummeterwithscale01bars.

External/mechanicalmembranetypeliftpumpsareusuallyinstalledbeforethefuelfilter,and
shouldovercomethepressurelossthroughthefuelfilter,andstillmaintainapositivepressure
attheinjectionpumptypically0.10.5baroverpressure.Themembranematerialmaynotbe
suitableforPPO,andthereforerequiresbeingchangedmorefrequently.Somepumpscannot
supply enough positive pressure with cold and high viscous PPO. This situation could be
avoidedbya2tanksolution,ormodificationscouldbemadetotheliftpump,oranexternal
electricalliftpumpcouldbeinstalledeithertoassistorreplacetheoriginalliftpump.Keepin
mindthatthesupplypressureattheinjectionpumpshouldbewithintheoriginallyspecified
limits.

7.Fuelheating
HeatingthePPOiscommonlyusedtoreducetheviscosityandeventuallymeltsolidorsemi
solidfatsflowingintheliquidpartofthecoldPPO.Theheatistypicallyintroducedbeforethe
fuelfilterinordertoreducethepressuredropthroughthefuelfilter,andtopreventthefilter
frombeingblockedwithsolidfatsinthePPO.Thereducedviscosityalsoenablestheinjection
pump to handle the PPO, and it improves the performance of the injectors (atomizing). The
PPO is typically heated with excess heat from the engine, which always is available from an
internal combustion engine (6070% of the energy content of the fuel). Fuel temperatures
around 6070C are typically reached by water cooled engines, using the coolant as a heat
source,andisselflimitingduetothethermostatcontrolledcoolanttemperature.Iftheengine
aftertheconversionismeanttorunondieselfromtimetotime,itswisenottoheatthefuel
above70Cduetothelubricitypropertiesandlowerboilingpointofdiesel,whichcanleadto
decreasedlubricityandfuelsteambubblesinthefuel,causingwearandmechanicalstressin
theinjectionsystem,andmalfunctionofthefuelinjection.Ifthefueltemperaturecanexceed
about 70C, e.g. using the lube oil or exhaust gas as heat source, the fuel heating system
shouldbedisabledwhenrunningondiesel.AslongasthePPOisliquid,heatingthefueltank
andthefuellinesisnotnecessaryanditisbetterforthestabilityofthePPOinthetank.

Watercooledenginesusuallyreachoperatingtemperaturearound8090Crelativelyfast,and
thecoolantisagoodheatcarrier.AneasyandgoodwaytoheatthePPOisbyacoolantPPO
heat exchanger. It can be homemade, but there are many suitable plateheat exchangers
already used in automobile industry that are designed for fuel cooling in modern diesel
engines. These are made from aluminium, and typically have a heat transfer area of 300
600cm2 for passenger car engines. If a homemade heat exchanger is considered, it must be
realizedthatitneedsquitesomecontactareaandhencemaynotbetoosmalltobeeffective.

On aircooled engines the heat source can be the lube oil, the hot air stream and radiation
from the engine or the exhaust gas. The lube oil heats slower than the coolant in a water
cooledengine,andoilisalessefficientheatcarrierthanwater,butstillisitagoodsolutionto
heat the PPO by a lube oilPPO heat exchanger. Due to lower flow and heat capacity of the
lubeoilcomparedtoacoolantsystem,theheatexchangershouldhavealargerheattransfer
areathaninacoolantbasedsystem.

72

Figure514LubeoilcircuitonanaircooledDeutz910L03engine(Source:DeutzAG)

Iftheenginehasanexternaloilcooler,e.g.likeaDeutz910(seeFigure514),itispossibleto
connecttheheatexchangertothehotlubricationoilflowingtotheoilcooler.Ortheengine
might have plugs for connecting external devices to the lubrication system, e.g. external oil
filter or cabin heater. It is necessary to get detailed technical documentation for the engine,
showingthelubeoilcircuit,includingdataforoilpressureinordertostudyhowthelubeoil
system is designed, and to figure out which maximum pressure can occur where the heat
exchanger is connected to the lube system, to avoid blasting the heat exchanger. It is also
importanttofittheheatexchangersothatitcannotdisturbthefunctionoftheoriginallube
system.

Engine

Engine

Engine

C)

C)

A)

A)

A)

Lubeoil

Lubeoil

Lubeoil

B)

Fuel

Figure515Threevariantsofasimplifiedlubeoilcircuitofanaircooledengine.Left:theengineis
preparedforconnectionofexternaloilcooler,oilfilterorcabinheater(C).Centre:Externaloilcooler
isinstalled.Right:aheatexchanger(B)hasbeenconnectedtothelubeoilpipebetweenthelubeoil
pump(A)andtheexternaloilcooler(C)

Usingtheexhaustasheatsourceisalsoanoption,whichmightseemattractive,butitalsohas
disadvantages. There exists a technical risk that the PPO is overheated because of the high

73


temperature of the flue gas (up to 500C) leading to cracking of the fuel, and a fire risk,
especiallyifdieselfuelisleakinginsideorneartheexhaustsystem.Duetoveryhighdifference
between fuel and exhaust gas temperature, the system cannot be selflimiting. The fuel
temperature should be controlled by precise design and control of the fuel flow. If the
injectionsystemincludesareturnlinetothefueltank,thefuelflowwillbemuchhigherthan
thefuelconsumption,andvaryalotdependingontheenginespeed,load,fueltemperature,
conditionoffuelfilteretc.

Fuelheatingcanalsoberealizedelectrically,orcombinedwithoneofthesolutionsdescribed
above.Somecarbrandshaveelectricalfuelheaterfordiesel,andretrofitsolutionsexist,but
many of these will switch off before the fuel has reached a temperature suitable for PPO.
Therefore an electrical fuel heater should be well selected and eventually modified for PPO.
HeatingPPOwithaglowplugmayseemattractive,butthereisahighriskthatthePPOwill
crack/burn due to the concentrated heat transfer of high power and a very small area.
GenerallyitisadvisednottouseelectricalPPOheatingalone(oratall)buttousecoolantor
lubeoilasthemainsourceofheat.
5.2.2.7

Serviceandmaintenance

Aftertheconversion,theengineshouldgenerallybeservicedandmaintainedasifitwasstill
runningondiesel.

1.Fuelfilter
Justaftertheconversionofausedengine,thefuelfiltercanquicklybecomeblockedbecause
thePPOcanreleasedirtanddepositsinthefueltank,andduetothehigherdensity,PPOcan
liftandmovemoredirtthandieselfuel.IfthePPOfuelisclean,thefuelfilterscanlastaslong
as with diesel. Nevertheless, a blocked fuel filter makes more problems with PPO than with
diesel, so it is a good idea to change the fuel filter at least once a year, e.g. before a cold
season.

2.Lubeoilandfilter
Regardingchangeoflubeoilandfilter,itcanbekeptonthesameserviceintervalasfordiesel
for IDI engines. For DI engines it is usually recommended to halve the change interval
compared to operation on diesel (change the oil twice as often). That is because DI engines
haveastrongertendencytogetPPOdilutedinthelubeoil,whichcanleadtopolymerization
(seeFigure58).Topreventthisfromhappening,itsimportanttoregularlychecktheleveland
consistency of the oil in the engine. If the level has increased its a clear indication that the
lubeoilhasbeendilutedwithPPO.Theoilshouldbechangedandthereasonfortheincreased
level should be found. Reasons could be the many starts on PPO or a lot of idling/low load
operation, or it could be caused by inefficient combustion due to low temperature of the
engine,wrongadjustment,badqualityPPOoradefectinjector.Onsomeenginestheinjection
pumpisattachedtotheengineinawaythatenablesfuelfromadefectgaskettoleakintothe
lubeoil.

Iftheengineconsumessomelubeoil,itspossibletogetincreasedPPOconcentrationwithout
an increase in oil level, so it is important also to view the consistency of the lube oil when
checkingtheoillevelofthecoldengine.Iftheoilsuddenlyseemsmoreviscousandsticky,its
asignofbeginningpolymerization,andtheoilandfiltershouldbechangedimmediatelyafter
runningtheenginewarm.

74


3.Injectors
Withagoodquality,cleanPPOtheInjectorswilllastatleastaslongaswithdiesele.g.150
200,000km,oracorrespondingamountofoperatinghours,e.g.35005000h.

4.Glowplugs
Glow plugs in a 1tank application will typically last shorter because they are used more.
Typicallyforapassengercar,goodglowplugslast24years.For2tanksystem,thewearon
theglowplugsareunchanged.
5.2.2.8

Externalcomponentsattachedtotheengine

The engine can be equipped with different external components, which are relevant for the
operationonPPO.Typicalequipmentliketurbochargersandcatalyticconvertersisattached
to the exhaust gas system. The relevance to PPO operation is both for the function of the
components,andforthehealthandlifetimeoftheengine.

1.ExhaustGasRecirculation
Many modern engines are equipped with an EGR system (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), which
leads a part of the exhaust gas back to the intake manifold under medium load, in order to
reduce the emission of NOX. During idling and full load the valve should remain closed. The
EGRcontrolvalvehasatendencytogetstuckbydepositsafteryearsofoperation.Sometimes
thevalvewillhangpermanentlyinopenposition,andallowexhaustgastopassevenatidling,
whichwillmaketheproblemwithdepositworse,andatfullload,willmaketheenginesmoke
due to lack of oxygen. Therefore, it is important to observe if the EGR valve is working
properly,andifnot,getitfixedandcleanthevalveandintakemanifoldfromdeposits.

2.Turbo
ThereisusuallynospecialproblemtorunaturboengineonPPO.Neverthelessaturbocharger
canbeaweakpointiftheengineisrunningwithbadandincompletecombustion,especiallyif
thelubeoilgetsthickduetopolymerization.

3.Catalyticconverter
Afluegascatalyst(catalyticconverter)worksfinewithPPOexhaust,andhelpstoreducethe
smellofunburnedPPO.Highamountsofashbuildingcomponentsinthefuel(P,S,Ca,Mg)may
inhibit the function of the catalyst. Generally the application of PPO in engines with particle
filters is still not recommended because of this last reason, that particle filters are very
sensitivetowardsash,andbecauseofspecialchallengesfortheregenerationprocess.
5.2.2.9

Emissions

WithgoodconversionofahealthyengineandgoodqualityPPOmeetingthefuelqualitylimits,
theemissionsfromtheenginewillbeonthesamelevelaswithgoodqualitydiesel,orbetter.
Ofcourse,theCO2reductionbyusingbiofuelsassubstituteforfossilfuelisthemostimportant
advantage, but the emission of CO, HC and PM can also be reduced. Sulphur (S) related
emissions (SO2 and PM) are reduced due to the naturally very low content of S in PPO. NOX
emissionisnotconnecteddirectlytothenatureofthefuel,butisgeneratedbecauseofthe
naturalexcessofcombustionair(withO2)inahotdieselengine,sofinallytheNOXemission
canincreaseordecreasealittle.Iftheengineisadjustedforearlierinjection,thecombustion
temperatureandtheNOXemissioncanincrease,butontheotherhandPMemissionandfuel
consumptionwilldecrease,duetomoreefficientcombustion.Thenaturalcontentofoxygen
(O2) in PPO improves the combustion efficiency and reduces the amount of black smoke, so
typicallyaPPOengineemitsnoblacksmoke.ItisnormalthataDIenginesmokesafteridling

75


andaftercoldstart,butotherwiseaPPOengineshouldnotemitvisiblesmoke.Ifitdoes,itcan
be a sign of incomplete combustion, and the probable causes of the problem should be
investigated.Untilsolved,itsbettertoruntheengineondiesel.
5.2.2.10 Examplesofconvertedengines

1.Irrigationpump(Figure516,left)
Materialsused:2m8mmrubberhose,2ballvalves,fittingsandhoseclamps.Totalcosts
ofmaterialsabout20.Thefuelheatingwasrealizedbyloopingthereturnfuelandleadingit
onetimearoundthehotcylinderandbacktotheliftpump.Aftereachsinglepassintheloop,
the fuel heats a little, and after few minutes operating the engine, the fuel temperature
reachedabout60C.

Figure516Twoexamplesofconvertedengines.Left:IrrigationpumpwithLombardini15LD440
(1cylinder442ccm,10.5hp)aircooledDIenginewithmanualstart.Convertedwithasimple2tank
system,HondurasOctober2008(GotaVerdeProject).Right:ToyotaHilux2,8D(3L).IDIengine.
ConvertedbyanELSBETT1tanksystem,HondurasOctober2008(GotaVerdeProject)

2.Carengine(Figure516,right)
Materialused:ELSBETT1tankkitforthisspecificengine,includingwarrantyandallmaterials
neededfortheconversion.Price790.Itisestimatedthatthepriceforasimilarconversionkit
madelocallywouldcostabout300,excludingprofitandallocationsfordevelopment,testing,
documentation,warrantyetc.

A remark on prices: prices vary a lot depending on the exact engines to be converted, the
quality of the conversion system, user wishes, and how and where the components for the
conversionarepurchased.
5.2.3

Feedstockforsoapproduction

Author:TitusGalema

In various countries in Africa, soap is made in villages and sometimes on a small industrial
scale, as in Tanzania (Reinhard Henning, Jatropha curcas L. in Africa, Bagani). The process of
soapmakingisrelativelyeasy,andrequiresonlysomecausticsodaandwaterasingredients.If
desired,colorantandperfumescouldbeaddedtomakethesoapmoreattractivefordomestic
use.Thesoapisoftenmadeinsimplemoulds(e.gfromplasticbottles)andafterhardening,it
is cut into handsome pieces. The soap can then be sold at a good price, which makes soap
makingaprofitablesmallscalebusiness.Thesoapismainlyusedforwashinghandsandsince

76


medicinalpropertiesareattributedtothejatrophasoap,thesoapcanbesoldatagoodprice
inTanzania(R.Henning).

Ingeneral,soapmakinginvolvesdissolvingcausticsodainwater(ca150gofcausticsodain
0.35 liter of water) and then mixing the oil (1 liter) with the solvent and letting it harden
overnight.Addinglesswatergivesahardersoap,addingmorewaterrequiresadditionofflour
orstarchtogetaconsistencythatissolidenough.Twomethodstoproducesoaparegivenin
annexD.2.

Care should be taken when handling caustic soda; Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium
hydroxide(KOH),sincebothareaggressivesubstances3.
5.2.4

Feedstockforbiodieselproduction

Author:ThijsAdriaans

InsteadofadaptingtheenginetorunonPPO,theoilcanalsobechemicallytreatedtoproduce
biodiesel.Propertiesofbiodieselareverysimilartothoseoffossildiesel,andhenceitcanbe
usedinanydieselenginewithoutadaptations.Clean,wellproducedandrefinedbiodieselisat
leastasgoodanenginefuelasregularfossildiesel.Itgivesbetterignitionandcombustionand
emits fewer harmful components like smoke and sulphur. The disadvantages are its slightly
lowerenergycontent,leadingtoanincreaseinfuelconsumptionofabout210%,andthefact
thatitmayworkasasolvent.Biodieseltendstocleanthefuelsystem,takingthedirtthathas
beengatheredduringpreviousdieseluse,whichmaycauseblockingofthefuelfiltershortly
after switching. Furthermore its solvent nature may affect the integrity of the fuel lines and
gasketsinthefuelsystem,dependingontheirmaterial.
5.2.4.1

Somechemistry

The production of biodiesel is essentially a simple chemical process. The vegetable oil
molecules (triglycerides) are cut to pieces and connected to alcohol (methanol or ethanol)
moleculestoformmethylorethylesters.Asabyproductglycerinisformed.Schematicallythe
reactionlookslikethis:

fatty acid
n
ir
ec
yl
g

fatty acid

fatty acid

fatty acid

fatty acid

fatty acid

n
ir
ec
yl
g

Figure517Schematicrepresentationofthebiodieselproductionprocess

OntheleftisaPPOmolecule(triglyceride).Threemoleculesofmethanol(M)areadded.The
triglyceridemoleculeisbrokenintoitsthreefattyacidsandthesefattyacidscombinewiththe
methanol to form methyl esters. Glycerin combined with the lye or potassium FFA (soap)

Annex:safetysheetSodiumhydroxide(NaOH)andpotassiumhydroxide(KOH)

77


remainsasasideproduct.Thebiodieselmoleculesareeachalotsmallerthanthetriglyceride
attheleft,themaincauseforitsmorefavorablepropertiesasafuel.Therequiredcatalystis
not shown in the picture, as it appears unchanged on both sides. An excellent and more
extensivedescriptioncanbefoundonhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiesel.
5.2.4.2

Typeofalcohol

The type of alcohol used for the reaction is usually methanol, made from natural gas.
Theoreticallyanyalcoholcouldbeused.Theadvantageofusingethanolisthatitcaneasilybe
producedinabiologically,forexamplebyfermentation.However,theuseofethanolhasfour
disadvantages:
1. Cost.Buyingethanolofsufficientqualityismoreexpensivethanbuyingmethanol.
2. Processing. The esterification process with ethanol is more complicated and less
straightforwardthanwithmethanol.Oneoftheproblemsisthattheethanolmustbefree
of water (anhydrous), which is not easily accomplished in a nonindustrial setting. The
JourneytoForeverwebsitedocumentswhyethylesterproductionissuchahassle.
3. Properties. The properties of methyl esters are more favourable than those of ethyl
esters.EspeciallythecoldrelatedpropertieslikeCFPPandviscositylagbehind.Although
thesearenotofsuchimportanceintropicalclimates,itisadvisabletoconverttheengine
to SVO instead of going through the hassle of producing ethyl ester since its gain in
propertiesismarginal.
4. Energy.Forthereactiontoproceed,themixtureshouldbeheatedtoatemperaturenear
the boiling point of the alcohol. The heavier the alcohol molecule (due to more carbon
atoms)thehighertherequiredenergyinputduetoahigherboilingpoint.

Forthesereasonsonlytheuseofmethanolisconsideredinthiscase.
5.2.4.3

PreparationofPPOfeedstock

PPO can be produced from other resources, but clean, fresh vegetable oil is the easiest and
most straightforward feedstock. However, there are three kinds of properties can cause
trouble:composition,chemicalimpuritiesandphysicalimpurities.

Physical impurities (particles, sediment) are most easily removed first. These can be
sludge/presscakefromtheoilseedsinfreshoil,andsand/dirt.Thoughtheoilcanbefiltered
overcloth,thepreferredoptionistoleaveitaloneforsomeweekstosediment.Thentheoilis
decantedfromthesludge.Boththesludgeandthewaterareremovedinthisway.Thewater
iscleanenoughtostartmakingbiodieselifitremainsclearuponshaking.

Chemicalimpuritiesneednotposeproblems.Iftheoilhasbeenpressedfreshfromoilseeds
likejatrophaorrapeseedaccordingtotheguidelinesinchapter4ofthisbook,theoilshould
be readily applicable as a feedstock. Unrefined sunflower oil should be dewaxed. If fresh oil
hasbeenstandinglongerunderunfavourableconditions,itiswisetocheckthewatercontent
andeventuallyacidity(FFA,freefattyacids).

Finally the composition of the oil/fat is important (For more information about the contents
seetablesinannexD.4).Thisprimarilyconcernsthetemperaturebelowwhichtheoilstartsto
gethazyoreventogel/solidify.Freshoilfromjatropha,soy,sunflowerorrapeseedwillstay
clearandliquiddownuntiltemperaturesaroundthefreezingpoint(0C)ormuchlower.Palm
oil, coconut oil and animal fats usually solidify at about room temperature. This poses
problems for their straight use in engines but also has consequences for the biodiesel
produced. The biodiesel will exhibit the same behavior as the oil/fat but at lower

78


temperatures.Biodieselfromthelatterfeedstocksusuallyonlymakesasuitablesummerfuel,
asthefuelmaygelinwinterconditions.Sincethispropertycannotbechangedwithoutlarge
efforts, care must be taken to choose a suitable feedstock. The same may hold for used
cookingoil,dependingontheoilthatwasusedoriginally.Storingsamplesoftheusedoilinthe
fridgeorfreezerforatleastseveraldaysmaygivesomeinformationaboutthetemperature
behavior. If the used oil is a mixture, it may solidify partly. If so, let this happen for about a
weekandthendecanttheliquidportionontop.Thiscanbeusedaftertestingitsbehaviourin
cold.
5.2.4.4

Biodieselproductionrecipe

GenerallythisrecipecanbefollowedtoproducebiodieselfromfreshPPOandmethanolina
basecatalyzedenvironment.Therecipebelowisaverymuchsummarizedgeneralguideline.
Many tips and tricks and safety recommendations have been left out for the sake of
compactness.Itisgoodtoreadmoreaboutthisbeforestarting.Ifyouwouldliketoworkwith
usedcookingoil,ethanoloranothercatalystinstead,manyInternetsitescanhelpyouadapt
therecipe.Pleasenotethatthemethanolandlyeinvolvedarequitedangerouschemicals.Be
suretoknowwhatyouaredoing,workinawellventilatedareaandwearprotectiveclothes
andglasses!

1.Requiredmaterials
Thefollowingresourcesarerequired(allquantitiesareexpressedperliterofPPO):1literof
PPO,theyoungerthebetter;atleast3.5gramsoflye(causticsoda;NaOH(>95%));atleast
220mlofmethanol(>99%).EventuallyyoucoulduseKOH(>85%)insteadofNaOH;thenuse
atleast5grams.

2.Requiredactions
Firstdissolvethelyeintothemethanol.Shakeorswirluntilallthelyehasdissolved.Thismay
take10minutes.Itisnormalthattemperaturerises.Thismixtureiscalledsodiummethoxide.
NowmakesurethePPOisinavessellargeenough(atleast150%ofitsvolume),preferably
with a valve at the bottom, and heat it to about 60C, then stop heating. Then add the
methoxidemixtureandmakesureitismixedwellforatleast10minutes.Leavethevesseland
let the different constituents separate by sedimentation. The glycerin will settle out at the
bottom.After8to24hoursthesedimentationiscompleteandtheglycerinecanbedrained
off.Itiswidelyadvisednottotrytospeeduptheprocessbyshortingthesettlingtimes!What
remains is raw biodiesel. If water washing is considered difficult the biodiesel may be used
straight, although its quality may be inferior because of impurities. In this case additional
settlingforatleastaweekisadvisedtogetridofthemajorityofsoaps.

3.Magnesiumsilicate(bleachingearth)
Magnesium silicate is used for the purification process of the biodiesel. It provokes the
impuritiestosettleanditpermitsthemtobefilteredout.Settledmagnesiumsilicateshould
behandledaschemicalwaste.
5.2.4.5

Biodieselrefining

Ifthebiodieselproducedisnotclear,waterwashingand/orbubblewashingwillremovemost
of these impurities. Bubblewashing requires less water but needs compressed air and more
time.

Waterwashing can be applied one or more times. The first time its best to add a small
amountofaceticacid(vinegar)beforeaddingthewater.TheaceticacidbringsthepHofthe

79


solution closer to neutral because it neutralizes and drops out any lye suspended in the
biodiesel.Addthebiodieselontopofalayerofwaterandstirgently.Letsettleforatleasta
day and separate the layers by either draining the water from the bottom or pouring the
biodieseloutgently.

Bubblewashing works with air bubbles formed by compressed air passing through an air
stone,forinstancefromanaquariumshop.Addabout30millilitersofvinegar(aceticacid)per
100litersofbiodieselandthenabout50%water.Thendropintheairstoneandswitchonthe
airpump.Theairbubblesrisethroughthebiodiesel,carryingafilmofwaterwhichwashesthe
biodieselasitpassesthrough.Atthesurface,thebubblebursts,leavingasmalldropofwater
whichsinksbackdownthroughthebiodiesel,washingagain.Ifthemixtureisstillcloudyafter
a couple of hours, add a little more vinegar. Bubblewash for 12 hours or longer (up to 24),
thendrainoffthewashingwater,skimoffanywaxfloatingon top.Repeatthebubblewash
twomoretimes;keepthewaterfromthe2ndand3rdwashforwashingthenextbatch.For
severesoapformations,firstheatthebiodiesel/soapmixtureto50C.Addenoughvinegarto
bringthepHtoslightlybelow7.Stirforhalfanhour,coolandcontinuewithbubbledryingas
usual.
5.2.4.6

Biodieselbyproducts

Themainbyproductofthebiodieselprocessisglycerine.Otherbyproductsofthebiodiesel
reactionandpurificationprocessarewaterwithsoapresidues,magnesiumsilicatewithsoap
residues, recuperated methanol or ethanol and free fatty acids (FFA). In the following
paragraphsashortdescriptionfortheapplicabilityofthesebyproductsisgiven.

1.Glycerine
Glycerine is the simplest 3fold alcohol and comes into existence when the vegetable oil
moleculesaresplitintofattyacidsandglycerineduringthebiodieselprocess.Thefattyacids
react with the methanol to biodiesel. Glycerine is a high viscosity liquid with a high density
(1,26kg/l)[11].ThenamecomesfromtheGreekwordglykysmeaningsweet.Theamountof
glycerinethatisformedinthereactiondependsontheFFAleveloftheoilused,butcanvary
between10%and30%oftheamountofoilused.Biodieselfloatsonglycerinesinceitsdensity
is lower. Separating the glycerine from the biodiesel can be easily done by draining off the
bottomlayerofagravitydraineddecantationtankafterasedimentationtimeofeighthours
afterthebiodieselreaction.Inacontinuousprocess,separationisdonebyacentrifugebased
onthedensitydifference.

Glycerinecanbeusedasresourceforotherproducts,includingsoap,organicmanure,biogas,
fuel,andrecycledalcoholforthebiodieselprocess(Fordetails,seeannexD.5.3).

2.Waterwithsoapresidues
Ifthebiodieseliswashedwithwater,itdissolvestheformedsoapsandresidualmethanol.If
therewouldbenomethanolresiduepresentinthecrudebiodiesel,thewashwatercouldbe
used directly as degreasant water for internal industrial purposes. In practice there will be
methanolpresent,sothismustberemovedfirst.Awaytodothisisbyheatinganopendrum
withthewashingwaterinawellventilatedarea(preferablyoutdoors)toabout50C.Dont
inhalethevapors!Abetterwayistorecoverthemethanolforreusebydistillingorflashingit
off.

80


3.Therecuperatedalcohol(methanol)
Therecuperatedalcoholcanbeuseddirectlyinthetransesterificationprocessagain.Besure
no water is present in the recuperated alcohol. It is recommended to mix small volumes of
recuperatedmethanolwithfreshalcoholtoensurethequality.

4.FreeFattyAcids(FFA)
TheresidualFFAnormallyaremixedwiththeglycerinewheretheycanbeconvertedintosoap
(see paragraph on soap). They can also be neutralized and separated to be converted into
biodiesel through an acid/base transesterification process. Large boilers can often handle
biofuel with several percents of acid content, so the FFA could be mixed with (neutral)
vegetableoilandfiredforenergygeneration,thoughthisisnotaverycommonapplicationin
developingcountries.
5.2.4.7

Concludingremarks

Making biodiesel is something that needs to be practiced. with different feedstock and
circumstances. The observations and procedures may show large variations. With more
experience,onewillbeabletojudgetheeffectsandstreamlinetheprocesses.Usethissection
asaguidelineandtrytouseliterature,forinstancetheexcellentJourneytoForeverwebsite,
togathermoredetailinformation.

5.3

Applicationsofotherjatrophaproducts

Author:JanskevanEijck

When the seeds are pressed to oil, about 20%30% of oil is gained. The rest remains as
presscake. Not only are all the minerals still inside this cake (PPO contains virtually no
minerals) but due to the oil content the presscake still contains a considerable amount of
energy.Withits2025MJ/kgitsabouthalfasenergyrichastheoilthatcontains40MJ/kg
but the fact that there is two to four times more presscake, compensates for this.
Theoretically,thebestuseofthepresscakeisforenergypurposesfirst,andthenasafertilizer.
Digestiontobiogasforenergyleavesthenutritionalvalueintact,anduseasafertilizerimplies
thatthecalorificvalueislost.Directcombustionofthepresscake,bycontrast,willleavethe
majority of the nutrients in the ashes, but the nitrogen will be lost with the flue gases. The
processschemebelowwillclarifytheprocess.

Thefollowingbyproductscanbedistinguished:presscake,woodenstemsandleaves.
5.3.1

Woodenstemsandleaves

Jatrophaleavescontains4.7%nitrogen,0.15%phosphorus,3.77%potassium,0.61%calcium,
0.49% magnesium and 0.25% sulphur. It also contains elements like zinc, boron, copper,
manganese,boronandsodium.Theseelements,thoughfoundinsmallamounts,aregoodfor
growth,productionanddroughttolerancelikepotassium.Whentheplantshedsoffitsleaves,
thesemineralsgobacktothesoilwhentheleavesdecompose.Thewoodfromjatrophahasan
energy content of 15.5 MJ per kilogram and nitrogen content of 3.3%, phosphorus 0.1%,
potassium2.9%andcalcium0.3%andothertraceamountofnutrientswhichsuggeststhatit
canbeusedforfiringinstovesbutalsousefulinincreasingsoilnutrientsafterdecomposition
orasashfromcombustion[9].Thestemscontainamilkysubstance,whichmakesdirectfiring
difficult,theyhavetobedriedfirst

81


5.3.2

Presscake

5.3.2.1

Handling

Thepresscakestoringconditionstoavoidarethefollowing:
Donotstoreathighhumidtemperature.Thepresscakeispronetofungalattack.
Storeatorbelow6Cforoptimalconditions,howeverthisimpliesacoolingsystemwhich
formostprojectswillbetooexpensive.
Thecakeshouldbedriedtoobtainalowmoisturecontent(57%)andstoredinanairtight
containerorotherwisestoredinadryandcoolplace.
Keepthepresscakeawayfromoxidizingagentsandflammablematerials[15].
5.3.2.2

Presscakeasabiogasgenerationfeedstock

Biogasproductionfromorganicmatter,likeanimalmanureandagriculturalwaste,isproduced
by small units on large scale for households in countries like China, Nepal and Vietnam. The
usual size for households is a 6 to 12 m3 holder for which 4 to 10 cows would produce
sufficientmanure.Biogasisusedforcookingandlighting.Withalargerproductionitcanalso
beusedforrunninggasengines.Biogas,isamixofmethane(CH4)andcarbondioxide(CO2)in
aratioof6040,withanetcaloricvalueofapprox20MJ/m3

Jatropha presscake can be mixed with manure from animals as cow dung or from people.
Results from lab test on behalf of FACT proved that jatropha presscake alone, when started
with fermentation bacteria to start the process, showed a fairly good production of biogas.
Basedonthesetestsapredictionforreallifeproductionswasmadeasfollows:CH4contentof
ca50%60%andCH4yieldca0.50.6m3/kg.LHVbetween1822MJ/kg.[16]

OnecasewhereitisproducedonalargerscaleiswithDiligentTanzania,seetheCasebelow.
Water is the other input ingredient and after anaerobic fermentation in the digester two
products are created, which are biogas and sludge. As with any biogas installation there is
quiteabigamountofwaterneededforthefermentationprocess.If,forexample,toiletscan
beconnected,therewillbeasteadywaterflowavailable.Oncethebiogasdigesterrunsoutof
water,allbacteriadieandstartingupthesystemagaincantakeuptoamonth.Thismeansthe
biogas system has to be monitored. The bigger the system, the easier it will become to
maintain. For a 60 m3 size digester, for example, there is no problem if there would be no
waterforadayortwo.Forsmallersystemsthewaterflowshouldbemoreconstant.

IN

OUT

Presscake
Biogas

(60kg/day)
Humanwaste
(150people/day)
Water

DIGESTER

(12m3/day)
Slurry
(60kg/day)

(1.5m3/day)

Figure518Processschemebiogasdigester60m3withcombinedfeedstockbasedonthebiogas
digesterofDiligent(Tanzania).

82


The sludge which is left after the presscake is fermented can be used as a fertilizer. It has a
highernutrientvolumethanthemanureandinadditionallpathogenshavebeenkilledduring
fermentation,whichgivesaverycleannaturalfertilizer.

Therearedifferentdesignsforabiogasdigester,mostfrequentlyusedarefixeddome,floating
domeandplugflowdigester(Kerkhof,2007).ThedigesteroftheKerkhofcaseisafixeddome.
Therearenospecialrequirementsforabiogassystemtobeabletorunonjatrophapresscake.
However, there is little experience with a system running on cake alone. Biogas cannot be
stored.Thismeanstheenduserhastobeclosetothebiogasdigester.Dependingonthesize
ofthedigester(andthepressureunderwhichthebiogasistransported,0.2bar)amaximumof
one kilometer between the enduser and the digester is advised. Besides using the gas in a
kitchen,abiogasgeneratorcouldalsobeused.Howeverforthisalargedigesterisnecessary.
Thedigesterdiscussedinthecase(60m3digesterwith12m3/dayofbiogas)coulddrivea2kW
engineforabout11hours/day.

CasebiogasinstallationatDiligent(Tanzania)
For a 60m3 digester which is fed by a combination of toilets (8 toilets for about
150 people) and Jatropha seedcake (as is the case for the digester at Diligent
TanzaniainArusha)anamountof60kgofseedcakeisrequiredperday(and1500
litersofwater)toproducearound12m3ofgasperday(whichisabout20%ofthe
sizeofthedigester).Thisamountofgasisenoughtofuelthreestovesinakitchen
whichserves250people.

Figure520StoverunbybiogasatDiligent
Tanzanialtd

Figure520The60m3digesterat
DiligentTanzanialtd.(installedby
Camartec,Arusha)

5.3.2.3

Presscakeasbriquettesforfuel

1.Presscakebriquettes
Jatropha presscake has an energy content of around 25 MJ per kg. Although the presscake
already is a pressed product, its energy content per liter can be considerably increased by
compacting the material to increase its density. This process of compacting the biomass
material to increase density (biomass densification) is traditionally called briquetting. A low
pressure briquetting machine operates in a similar way as a screw press, the presscake is in
principlecompressedagain.Thecohesionforcebetweenthepresscakeparticlesissmall,soa

83


binding material has to be added during the process of making briquettes. This enhances
compactionforalowpressurecompactionsystem.Asuitablebindingmaterialcanforexample
be starch. Also slightly burning the outer part of the briquette increases the strength of the
briquette.

Thedisadvantageofthesepresscakebriquettes(fromfreshpresscake)isthatalotofsmokeis
emittedwhentheyareburned.Theenergycontenthoweverisveryhigh.

Figure521Presscakebriquetsandbriquettingpress(right)atDiligentTanzaniaLtd.

2.Charcoalbriquettes
Asecondoptionistoturnthepresscakeintocharcoal.Thisincreasestheenergycontentasthe
weightisreduced.Inprinciplecharcoalingmeansburningthepresscakewithoutoxygen.The
smokeemissionfromburningthesecharcoalbriquettesismuchlowerthanfromthepresscake
briquettes and they burn more easily. The presscake can be turned into charcoal before or
after pressing into briquettes. If presscake is turned into charcoal (dust) a similar process as
with presscake briquettes can make charcoal briquettes. Again, a binder is necessary. In an
ovenoratraditionalwayofmakingcharcoal(coveringwithsoil)apresscakebriquettecanalso
completely be turned into charcoal. About 60% of the weight of a presscake briquette will
remainwhenprocessedintoacharcoalbriquette.

Figure522charcoalproductionatTEMDO,
ArushaTanzania(photoJanskevEijck)

5.3.2.4

Figure523charcoalbriquettesatDiligent
TanzaniaLtd.(photoJanskevEijck)

Presscakeasafertilizer

Jatrophapresscakecontainshighamountsofnitrogen(3.86.4%bywt),phosphorus(0.92.8%
bywt)andpotassium(0.91.8%bywt).Italsocontainstraceamountsofcalcium,magnesium,
sulphur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese and sodium. One ton of presscake contains
approximately51kgofnitrogen,18kgofphosphorusand13kgofpotassium.Itisequivalent

84


to 153 kg of NPK industrial fertilizer having the composition ratio of 15:15:15, based on
nitrogen content in presscake [9]. Presscake has to be composted before it can be used as
fertilizer.Thiscanbedonebyleavingthecakeforsometime(afewdays)outside.Especially
whenpresscakewithahighoilcontentisputontheplantsdirectly,itwillnegativelyaffectthe
plants,asitdecreasesthepermeabilityofthesoil.
5.3.2.5

Insecticidefromoiland/orpresscake

Jatrophaoilhasalsoproventobeaneffectivepesticide.Inonestudy1.4litersofjatrophaoil
was mixed with 16 liters of water and sprayed on cotton and acted efficiently [10]. An
organization in Tanzania promotes the following process for obtaining insecticide out of
jatrophaseeds:grindsomejatrophaseeds,soaktheminwaterfor24hours,filtertheparticles
fromthismixture,dilutethemixtureina1:10ratiowithwater.
5.3.3

Whatisnotrecommended

Whenjatrophapresscakeispresseddirectlyintobriquettes,thesebriquettesproducealotof
smoke when burned. Use of these briquettes indoor without proper ventilation is not
recommended. However if they are used in, for example, industrial boilers or in ovens with
chimneys,thesmokewillnotbeinhaled.

Unlikemanyotheroilseeds,thejatrophapresscakecannotbeusedasanimalfeed,asitistoxic
due to the presence of several components (phorbol esters, curcins, trypsin inhibitors and
others).

5.4
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

References
www.jatropha.de
www.jatropha.de/lamps/protzen2.html
www.jatropha.de/zimbabwe/binga.htm
http://www.fierna.com/English/UB16.htm
www.jatropha.de
DAJOLKAPPOcars:http://dajolka.dk/en/our_ppo_cars_overv.htm
FAIRCT950627AdvancedCombustionResearchforEnergyfromVegetableOils(ACREVO)
http://www.biomatnet.org/secure/Fair/F484.htm
UntersuchungderWechselwirkungenzwischenRapslalsKraftstoffunddemMotorenl
inpflanzenltauglichenMotoren
http://www.tfz.bayern.de/sonstiges/15951/bericht_7.pdf

9. http://www.bshgroup.com/index.php?page=109906

10. R.E.E. Jongschaap et al. (2007) Claims and Facts on Jatropha curcas L.,Global Jatropha
curcas evaluation, breeding and propagation programme, Plant Research International,
WageningenUR

85

11. Milaflor L. Morales a safe and effective pesticide, Cotton Research and Development
Institute,Batac,2906IlocosNorte,Philippines

12. Binas1998,NVONcommissie,tabel11

13. Wikipedia

14. Source:infopop.biodiesel.ccandjouneytoforever

15. Source:http://www.biofuelreview.com/content/view/1793/

16. Groeneveldetal.

17. T. Adriaans et al. Anearobic digestion of jatropha curcas presscake, FACT publication,
January2007.

Othersources

http://www.journeytoforever.org

ManualD23:Construction,installationandmaintenanceofasmallbiodieselplant,Gota
Verde(2009)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiesel

BegleitforschungzurStandardisierungvonRapslalsKraftstofffrpflanzenltaugliche
DieselmotoreninFahrzeugenundBHKW

http://www.tfz.bayern.de/sonstiges/16411/gelbesheft69.pdf

http://w1.siemens.com/responsibility/en/sustainable/Protos.htm

Henning(2001)ManualforJatrophacurcasLinZambia

E. Kerkhof, (2007) Jatropha presscake, waste or valuable? An investigation into


possibilitiesofusingJatrophapresscakeinTanzania,EindhovenTechnicalUniversity

86

PROJECTIMPLEMENTATION

Mainauthor:PeterMoers

6.1

Introduction

Once the feasibility of a jatropha project has been established, the actual project can be
realized.Thiscanbedoneinmanywaysanditinvolvesmanydecisions.Aprojectdesignerwill
have to take important decisions on the ownership model (who owns the plantations? who
owns the processing plant?), on the production model (how will the production chain look
like?)andonthefinancingmodel(howareplantations,processingplantetc.financed?).This
chapterprovidesanoverviewoftheoptionsandindicateswhichoptionismoreappropriate,
givenacertaincontext.Finally,thischapteroffersinsightintothemaincriteriathathavetobe
takenintoaccountifthepromoterintendstodesignasustainablejatrophaproject.

6.2

Ownership,ProductionandFinancemodels

Jatropha project designers focusing on the implementation phase will have to make several
strategic decisions about who will own the production facilities, what products to include in
the chain and how to finance the different components of the enterprise. These decisions
determinetoalargedegreethesocialimpactandsustainabilityoftheproductionchaintobe
promoted. This chapter aims to describe the most important options, with the respective
advantagesanddisadvantages.

As stated before, this manual will only focus on small and mediumscale initiatives (up to a
total of 1000 ha, in smaller parcels) whose main objective is to improve living conditions of
smallfarmersandtheirfamilies.Thisexcludesmodelsbasedonthepurchaseoflargeareasof
land for jatropha monocultures, in which the role of the local population is reduced to the
supplyofcheaplabour.

6.2.1

Ownership

Participation of the small producer in the jatropha production chain varies widely among
jatropha projects worldwide. Ownership is in this section defined as the economic
participation of small farmers in the different stages of the production chain. Ownership
matters,becauseitcanbethedifferencebetweenreceivingafairpriceorbeingexploited.But
if conditions are not right, ownership may lead also to corruption, inefficiency and
entrepreneurialfailure.

This section first gives an overview of the different ownership models, each with its own
advantages and disadvantages. Recommendations about choosing the most appropriate
model are also given, based on the opportunities and constraints that the local context
presents.
6.2.1.1

Ownershipmodels

When describing the role of small farmers in the production chain, three pure ownership
modelsandtwohybridmodelscanbedistinguished,basedontwocriteria:theownershipof

87


the plantations and he ownership of the processing plant. The following table gives an
overviewoftheownershipoptions.

Table61Overviewofownershipmodels
Model
Plantationsownedby
Processingownedby
Processing
Farmers
Farmers
Thirdparty
enterprise
Puremodels:

A.Pureplantation

X
C.Pureoutgrowers
X

X
E.Purefarmerowned
X

Hybridmodels:

B.Plantationwithoutgrowers
X
X

X
D.Farmerparticipationin
X
(X)
X
X
processingplant

1.Pureplantationmodel(modelA)
In the pure plantation model, a single (often foreign) company buys large areas of land
(thousandsofhaarenotuncommon)andestablishesjatrophaplantationsmanageddirectlyby
thesamecompany.ThismodelisparticularlyusedinLatinAmerica,where44%ofalljatropha
initiativesaremanagedaslarge,singleownedplantations[1].Giventheextremelyhighstart
up costs for land purchase, most promoters negotiate longterm concessions or lease
agreementswith(local)governmentsorformerlandowners.Asmentionedabove,thismodel
willnotbefurtherdiscussed,becauseitdoesnotinvolvesmall,independentfarmers.

2.Pureoutgrowermodel(modelC)
Inthepureoutgrowermodel,aprivate(nationalorforeign)biofuelprocessingandmarketing
enterprisesignscontractswithfarmersfortheproductionandsupplyofjatrophaseeds.The
central enterprise generally prefinances part of the plantation investment of outgrowing
farmersinexchangefortheexclusiverighttobuyseedsfromthesefarmers.Someprocessing
enterprisescreatefundsforsocialprojectsinthecommunitiesoftheiroutgrowers.

The processing enterprise is not necessarily an external or capitalintensive enterprise. An


example of a pure outgrower model that is communityowned are the MultiFunctional
Platforms(MFP)inWesternAfrica.Theplatformsaregenerallyownedandoperatedbyalocal
entrepreneurialgroup(oftenwomen).Farmersbringtheirjatrophafruitstothedehullerand
press of the platform, pay for the service but remain owner of the oil and presscake. The
processingenterprisemayormaynotbeengagedinthemarketingoftheoilandpresscake.In
thiswayaserviceisprovidedtothecommunityandlocalemploymentandincomeiscreated.
Theseplatformsmayalsocoexistwithacentralprocessingfacility,inwhichtheplatformsplay
theroleoflocalcollectioncentres.Whenreferringtothesustainabilityoftheseplatforms,the
importance of organizational capacity and technical skills at community level cannot be
overemphasized. More information on Multi Functional energy Platforms can be found at:
http://www.mfrfp.com/.

3.Purefarmerownedenterprise(modelE)
Pure(100%)farmerownedprocessingenterprisesareextremelyrare.Inthismodel,jatropha
producingfarmersare100%ownersofboththeprocessingandmarketingfacilities.Thiscan
be in the form of a cooperative (in which the surplus is distributed according to the

88


production supplied by each member) or as a private enterprise (in which profits are
distributed according to the value of shares held by each owner). The latter is especially
appropriate in countries where the term cooperative has a connotation of corruption and
inefficiency.Toavoidadominanceofoneormorelargefarmersintheprivateenterprise,BYSA
inHondurashasoptedtoincludeintheirstatutesanarticlethatmakesitimpossibleforone
singlepersontoownmorethan5%ofallshares.

Themainreasonforrelativelyfewfarmerownedjatrophaenterprisesisthelackofconfidence
ofinvestors(includingbanks)injatrophaventures.Itisexpectedthatinthenearfuture,once
more field evidence about the crops yields becomes available, more memberbased
enterprises,suchascooperatives,willinvestinjatrophaventures.

4.Plantationwithoutgrowers4(modelB)
The central plantation with outgrowers is an intermediate model between model A (pure
plantation) and model C (pure outgrowers). It is the most common model worldwide.
According to a survey conducted in 2008 by GEXSI among 240 jatropha projects in 55
countries,twothirdsofalljatrophaprojectsinvolvesmallfarmers,mostlyincombinationwith
alargerplantationmanagedbythepromotersthemselves[1].

Thepopularityofthismodelisduetothecombinationoflowcostandreducedrisks.Working
withoutgrowersreducesstartupcostssignificantly(nolandpurchaserequired).Ontheother
hand, depending completely on outgrowers is considered a high risk by external investors
because of the lack of control over the feedstock. The combination of operating an own
plantation to secure a minimum of feedstock, and contracting outgrowers to increase the
occupancyrateoftheprocessingequipment,isconsideredbymanyexternalinvestorstobean
attractivecombination.

5.Partialfarmerparticipationinprocessingplant(modelD)
Jatrophainitiativesinwhichfarmersarecoowneroftheprocessingenterprisearerarebutdo
exist. One example is the BYSA enterprise in Honduras [2], which is set up as a private
enterprise with 49% of its shares owned by jatrophaproducing farmers and the remaining
shares by a local development NGO [3], who will sell the shares gradually to farmers as the
enterprise matures (transition to model E). BYSA is according the above mentioned GEXSI
study the only initiative in Latin America that does not follow model A or B [4]. Another
example is Mali Biocarburant, which is 20% owned by a farmers association [5]. In order to
facilitate the purchase of shares by poor farmers, part of the payment for seeds to farmers
maytakeplaceintheformofshares.
6.2.1.2

Appropriateownershipmodels

As explained in the previous sections, the economic participation (in terms of ownership) of
jatrophafarmersinthebiofuelproductionchainisthelowestinmodelA,andthehighestin
modelE.WhilemodelE.maybethemostpreferablefromthesocialpointofview(maximum
distribution of added value among the final target group, farmers), the sustainability may
sufferifthereisnolocalcapacityinkeytechnicalandmanagementareas.

The following table gives an overview of the main factors influencing the choice of the
ownership model. Obviously, these factors are context indicators, not absolute conditions. A

Outgrowersaredefinedinthisdocumentasindependent(oftensmall)farmersthatsupplyjatropha
seedstoanexternalprocessingfacility,mostlyoncontractbasis.

89


distinction is made between more centralised ownership models (A, B, C) and models with
moreparticipationofsmallfarmers(modelDandE).

Table62Overviewofmainfactorsdeterminingthechoiceofownershipmodel

Factor
Localmanagementcapacity
Localtechnicalcapacity
Market
Landdistribution
Previousexperienceswithfarmer
ownedenterprises(e.g.coops)
Localinvestmentcapital
Grantsforcapacitybuildingforsmall
farmersandprocessingenterprise

FavoursABCmodel
Poor
Poor
Mainlyoverseas
Unequal
Bad

FavoursDEmodel
Good
Good
Local
Equal
Good

Unavailable
Unavailable

Available
Available

1.OwnershipmodelsBandC
ItisclearthattheBandCmodelstendtobelessriskyoptionsinacontextwithlowtechnical,
managerial,organizationalandmarketingcapacities(alltypicalfeaturesofadevelopingarea
context). The participation of a wellreputed commercial party who has these qualities can
compensateforcapacitydeficienciesatthelocallevel.TheparticipationintheBandCmodels
of nonprofit parties5 and social venture capital6, with a clear and genuine vision of poverty
alleviation,canincreasechancesofpositivesocialimpact.

Incasethejatrophainitiativeisfinancedfrom(semi)commercialsources,BandCareprobably
the most acceptable models to start with for all parties involved, especially in capacity
deficientareassuchassubSaharanAfrica.ThechallengeintheseBandCmodelsistoensure
fair conditions for the (small farmer) outgrowers. SNV is active in developing the Inclusive
BusinessconceptinLatinAmerica,AfricaandAsia,andcanbeaninterestingpartytoensurea
fairdistributionofbenefitsbetweentheinvestorandsmall,outgrowingfarmers7.

Inalowcapacitycontext,FACTconsidersmodelsBandCtobeacceptabletransitionalmodels,
to bridge the period in which local capacities are built or strengthened as a necessary
conditiontocreateaviableprocessingenterprise.However,FACTrecommendsinthelonger
runtostriveforownershipmodelsthatintegratesmallfarmers,notonlyassuppliers,butalso
asshareholdersintheenterprise.

TheparticipationofdevelopmentNGOsinjatrophaprojectsinvolvingsmallfarmersisquitecommon:
DED,GTZ(bothGerman),SNV,HIVOS,FACT,KIT,STRO(allNetherlands)arejustafewofthemanynon
profitorganizationsactiveinthisfield.Therearealsovariousreportsofcommercialenterprisesmaking
useoffieldstructuresofNGOsintheirpromotionalnetwork(seeZambiapag.62).Inthesecases,NGOs
usecommercialcapitaltoprovideloanstotheirtargetgroupandfinancepartoftheirownactivities.In
fact,thesocialandphysicalassetsofruraldevelopmentNGOs,suchastheirdetailedknowledgeofthe
local context, their experience with rural credit, their existing field structures (offices, extension
workers,vehiclesetc.),theconfidencebuiltamongfarmersandabilitytocallforwellattendedmeetings
can become of increasing commercial interest, paving the path for more and more mixed (profit
nonprofit)alliancesinthenearfuture.
6
Socialventurecapitalisaformofventurecapitalinvestingthatprovidescapitaltobusinessesdeemed
socially and environmentally responsible. These investments are intended to both provide attractive
returnstoinvestorsandtoprovidemarketbasedsolutionstosocialandenvironmentalissues.
7
For more information on SNVs inclusive business approach, see e.g.
http://www.inclusivebusiness.org/

90


The transition of outgrowing farmers from a B or C model to a D or E model, may occur
naturallyoncelocalcapacitieshavedevelopedsufficiently.Farmersmayseeopportunitiesto
engage in processing activities (independent from the central processing enterprise), thus
increasing their incomes. It has to be ensured that farmers (outgrowers) are not tied into
stranglingcontractswiththepromoter(centralprocessingenterprise)aimedatmaintaininga
relationship of dependency and exploitation. Exploitative conditions in contracts are mainly
relatedtoduration(e.g.30yearexclusivepurchasingrights)andprice(determinedarbitrarily
and exclusively by the promoter). These conditions make it difficult for farmers to organize
theirownenterpriseinordertoincreasetheirearnings.

2.OwnershipmodelsDandE
In a more developed situation, where basic technological, managerial, organizational and
marketingcapacitiesarelocallyavailable,thefarmerownedmodels(DandE)tendtobemore
appropriate because they offer more guarantees for a fair distribution of the benefits
generatedintheproductionchain.

Alternatively, in case this context does not exist, but the initiative has access to grants,
especiallyforcapacitybuildinginterventionsatboththeenterprise(technical,managerial)and
farmer (agricultural) level, one may opt for model D or (in case of a strong existing farmer
owned organization) model E. In this case it is important to ensure that the project has
sufficientdurationtoreachthebreakevenpointoftheprocessingenterprise(atleast5years).
6.2.2

Productionmodels:thejatrophavaluechain

Inabsenceofsignificanteconomiesofscale,smallbiofuelinitiativesfacethechallengetotake
fulladvantageofall(sub)productsintheirproductionchain.Thedifferentproductionoptions
arerevisedinthefollowingsections,startingwiththemostbasicchain(producingjatrophaoil
andpresscake),followedbyanoverviewoftheextendedproduction chain,includingalarge
varietyofendandintermediateproducts(includingbiogas,soap,electricity,biodiesel,edible
oils, and others). In each section the minimum conditions are discussed that determine the
viabilityofeachchainextension.
6.2.2.1

Thebasicjatrophabiofuelproductionchain

Thebasicjatrophaproductionchainhastwoendproducts:oilandpresscake.

crudeoil

Farmer

Seeds

Presscake

filter

Oilpress

Figure61Jatrophabiofuelproductionchain

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Mainproductsofthebasicbiofuelchain:

Jatrophapureoil(JPO)
Inthe most basicproductionchain,JPOcanbeusedinablend
with fossil diesel fuel in conventional (non adapted) stationary
dieselengines(seesection5.2.2).Otherlowtechapplicationsof
JPOincludeartisansoapproductionandtheuseasasubstitute
for kerosene in oil lamps (as in the FACT project in
Mozambique).Inalesslowtechcontext,100%JPOcanbeused
in adapted diesel engines. See section 5.2.2 for more
informationonthetechnicaldetails.

Presscake
Although it may be optimal from the nutrient balance point of
view to recycle the presscake back to the jatropha fields, from
thebusinesspointofviewtheremaybemoreprofitableoptions.
Thereisno(ornotyet)apricepremiumfororganicallyproduced
jatropha oil8, while there are significant price premiums for
certified organic crops such, as coffee. The sale of presscake to
certified organic producers (which may be present among the
veryjatrophafarmers)shouldthereforebestudiedasanoption.

Itisunlikelythatsmallscalebiodieselproduction(lessthanafewhundredlitresperday)will
become a feasible activity to be added to this basic chain. For that to happen diesel prices
need to be very high or there need to be cheap and large feed stock sources (e.g. used
vegetableoil)andapremiummarketfororganicfertilisermustbefound.
6.2.2.2

Mainfactorsdeterminingfeasibilityofthebasicbiofuelchain

The economic and technical feasibility of the basic jatropha chain depends mainly on three
factors:
1. Highcompetingdiesel/keroseneprices;
2. Presenceofonelargefuelconsumer9ormanysmallones10;
3. Accesstoa(premium)marketfororganicfertiliser.

At least two of these three conditions should exist in order for the basic biofuel chain to be
viable.Inisolatedareas,wherefossildieselsupplyisunreliableorexpensive,thebasicchain
canbeprofitableevenatasmallscale[6].JPOcanbeusedindieselenginesdrivingelectricity
generators, water pumps or agroindustrial equipment (such as grain mills). The advantage is
that with relatively modest investments, significant impact can be achieved. Small islands or
very isolated areas that cannot be reached by road or with a reasonable population may
complywiththeseconditions.

The exceptions always confirm the rule: e.g. Diligent Tanzania sells at a premium price JPO to
Tanzaniansafaricompaniestodrivetheirmodifiedvehicles.Theuseofthisbiofuelcontributesthesafari
companiesimageofagreenandsociallyresponsibleenterprise.
9
Example of one large consumer is a stationary diesel engine for electricity generation that can be
adapted(oruseadiesel/PPOmix(seeFACTsdemonstrationprojectinGaralo,Mali).
10
AnexampleofmanysmallconsumersistheuseofJPOinoillamps.Thesimplestfunctionaldesignis
theJatrophaBingaLamp.ItwasdemonstratedduringtheFACTorganisedworkshopofNovember2008
in Chimoio, Mozambique, by Chrispen Zana of GTZAMES. See: http://www.jatropha.org/lamps/princ
burning.htmforadescriptionofthefunctioningofthelamp.

92

Areaswithreasonableaccessandnormaldieselpricesdonotenjoythenaturalprotectionof
anisolatedarea.Itisthereforerecommendedtolookforadditionalwaystotakeadvantageof
allproductsandsubproductsoftheproductionchain,oftheinfrastructureestablishedandof
intercrops produced by jatropha farmers. The following section will give a fairly complete
overviewoftheoptionstoextendthebasicbiofuelchain.
6.2.2.3

Theextendedproductionchain

Thebasicproductionchaindescribedintheprevioussectioncanbeexpandedalmostinfinitely
with a large number of linked activities, which increase the value added in the chain. It is
impossible to give a precise indication of the minimum production level required to make
theseadditionalcomponentsprofitable.Localconditionssuchasdieselprice,marketfor(sub)
products,availabilityofrepairandmaintenanceservices,investmentcostsetc.areoftenmore
importantfactorsthanthesizeoftheplantations.

However, as a rule of thumb, one has to think of a minimal production level of 250 ha of
mature jatropha plantations in order to make extensions of the basic chain economically
feasible, together with a reasonable technical capacity and potential consumers within the
targetregion.

As for location of the processing site, it is recommended to look for locations that are both
closetofarmers(reducetransportcosts),closetopotentiallargerconsumers(heavytransport,
grain drying installations, sawmill) and close to a certain basic technical capacity (car
mechanics,repairofagriculturalmachinery).Sitesnearsmallcitiesthatplayaroleasservice
centreforthesurroundingruralareas,oftencomplywiththeseconditions.

1.Biogas
Thefirstcandidatetoexpandtheproductionchainisabiogasinstallation.Biogasisamixture
of 2535% CO2 (carbon dioxide) and 6575% CH4 (methane) which can be burned directly to
generate heat or combusted in engines to generate mechanical energy or electricity. The
presscakeleftafterpressingjatrophaseedsstillcontainsasignificantamountofoil11,whichis
a favourite feedstock of the methane producing bacteria. Other sources for biogas
production, such as waste plant materials, cattle manure and animal remains, are generally
alsoavailableinruralareas.Fastgrowinggrasses(iftheclimateissuitable)maybecultivated
tocomplementthebiodigesterfeedstock,incasethefreefeedstocksupplyisirregularand/or
unreliable.

An important question to answer before investing in a biodigester, is: what to do with the
biogas produced? One important limitation is that the transport of biogas to clients outside
the production facility is technically difficult and expensive [7]. In the context of smallscale
production, the biogas should therefore be used on site. In spite of this limitation, many
options remain. The viability of these options depends to a large degree on the existing
demandofboththeprocessingenterpriseandotherenterprisesinthesameregion.Themore
industriallydevelopedtheareais,theeasieritwillbetousethegasinaprofitableway.Some
optionstousetheenergyproducedfrombiogas,are:

11

Mechanical smallscale oil extraction has in general an efficiency of 70% or less, which means that
evenifthetheoreticalmaximumoilcontentoftheseedsis38%,themechanicalpresswillnotbeableto
extractmorethansome2025%.

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Table63Optionstousetheenergyproducedfrombiogas
Energyform
Forinternaluse
Forexternaluse
Heat
Drying installations (e.g. drying Heatintensive local industries that are
jatrophafruitsbeforedehulling)
willing to relocate to the processing site
Biodiesel processing (e.g. boiling (e.g. grain drying installations, soap
water out of WVO, distillation of making,baking,etc.).
methanol, heating oil before
chemicalreaction)
Cooking(onsiterestaurant)
Mechanical
Oilextraction
Mechanical energy intensive local
Power
industriesthatarewillingtorelocatetothe
Dehulling
processingsite(e.g.sawing,).
Movingbeltconveyer,etc.
Electricity
Officesuppliesandlightning
Electricity intensive local industries that
are willing to relocate to the processing
site(e.g.milkcollectionpointwithcooling
equipment,icecubemaking,etc.).
Most heat and mechanical energy Selling to the grid (national or local
using equipment mentioned above electricitydistributioncompany)
canalsoberunonelectricity12.

N.B.TheflowchartinFigure66givesseveralotherideasonhowtousebiogasenergy.

In general, one should first try to satisfy the internal energy needs of the processing facility,
andsecondlytrytoattractindustriesthatarewillingtorelocatetothesite.Sellingelectricity
tothegridisineconomictermsgenerallytheleastinterestingoptionandmayalsoinvolve
substantialbureaucracy.Ifattractingotherenergyefficientbusinesstothebiogasproduction
siteformspartofthebusinessplan,thisshouldbetakenintoaccountintheacquisitionphase
ofthesiteandthedesignofthefacilities.

Factorsthatcontributetotheviabilityofthebiogascomponentare:
Standardenergysources(electricity,fuel)areexpensiveornotavailable
Cheaperalternativeenergysolutions(e.g.hydropower)arenotfeasible
Yearroundavailabilityoffeedstock(humid,littlefibre,concentrated)
Feedstockisavailableatnoorverylowcost13
Sufficientwaterisavailable14
Sufficientenergydemandoflocalindustriesandthepopulationingeneral
Government policy and legislation favours the entrance of new suppliers of electric
energy(marketforexcessenergyproduction)

12

Althoughusingelectricityisalwayslessefficientthanusingdirectheatandmechanicalenergy,inthe
shortruntheuseofelectricityisoftenmorepracticalandcheaper(requiringlessinvestments).
Replacingelectricenergybydirectheatandmechanicalenergymayformpartofalaterexercise,once
theprocessingfacilityisupandrunning.
13
Thisgenerallymeansthatthereisnoalternativeuseforthefeedstock,e.gasanimalfodder,andthat
transportcostsareminimal.Itisalsoimportanttolookatpossibleprofitableusesoftheforeseen
feedstockinthefuture,sincethismayaffectavailability.Finally,thereshouldbesufficientmargintopay
thesuppliersofthefeedstocksomeminimumamount,sincetheywillstartchargingforthefeedstock
onceitbecomesclearthatitisusedproductively.Havingaccesstovarioussourcesoffeedstockin
sufficientamountwillkeepthiseffectmanageable.
14
E.g.a160kWbiogasinstallationwillneedsome30m3waterperday.Onlyasmallpartofthewateris
consumedintheprocess.Wastewaterfromabiogasinstallationisanexcellentfertilizerwhenusedfor
irrigation.Itmayevenbesoldasaliquidfertilizer.

94


2.Biodiesel
A second logical extension of the jatropha biofuel chain is biodiesel production (also called
transesterification).Foratechnicaldescriptionofthebiodieselproductionprocess,pleasesee
section5.2.4.

Inmanycountries,theproductionandmarketingofbiodieselisregulated.Thequalityhasto
comply with certain standard quality norms15 and its marketing has to follow certain
predeterminedchannels. Although theseregulationsarecomprehensiblefromtheconsumer
protectionpointofview,theyoftenimpedesmallbiodieselproducersfromsellingthroughthe
regularmarket.Thisisbecausetheequipmentneededtoproducethisqualityistooexpensive
and because marketing through the existing network of fuelmixing installations and fuel
stationsabsorbsanimportantpartofthemargin.

Moreover,theproductionofbiodieselismoreexpensivethantheproductionofpureplantoil
(PPO). This meansthatabiodieselproduceris moresensible tochangesin feedstockorfuel
prices,thanaPPOproducer.Giventhehighlyunstableworldmarketpricesforfossiloil16,this
isaveryimportantargumentinfavourofPPO,especiallyforsmallproducers,whogenerally
havesmallermarginsthanlargebiofuelproducers.

FACTthereforerecommendsbiodieselproductiononlyintwocases:
1. if the production has reached sufficient scale to justify the investment in a hightech
biodieselequipmentthatguaranteesfuelqualitystandardsaremet17
2. iftheinternaldemandofbiodieselissufficientlylargeandtheinternaluser(s)acceptthat
thefueldoesnotalwayscomplywithstandardnorms.

Inthelattercase,cheaperequipmentisavailableorcanbebuiltonsite18.

15

GenerallyadaptationsorcopiesoftheAmericanASTMD675107ortheEuropeanEN14214:2003
norms.
16
Oilpricessurgedfrom35US$perbarrelin2003to146US$inJuly2008,fallingbackagainto37US$
inDecember2008.
17
Asanindication:thesmallestbiodieselequipmentofAGERATEC(Swedishmanufacturerof
professionalbiodieselequipments)hasacapacityof1000ltrperdayandcostsabout80000EUR.If
working250daysayearthatwouldrequireaninputof250000ltrperyearofoil.Thisisequivalentto
250hamaturejatrophaplantationsproducing4000kgperyearperhawithanoilextractionrateof
25%.
18
Awealthofinformationonlowtechbiofuelproductioncanbefoundon
http://www.journeytoforever.org/biodiesel.html.TheequipmentsusedinheFACTprojectinHonduras
werebuiltaccordingtotheinstructionspublishedinamanualelaboratedbyWhitmanDirectAction:
http://www.whitmandirectaction.org/downloads/documents/biodieselguide(espanol).pdf

95

Figure62Images(drawingsandpictures)oflocallybuiltbiodieselequipmentinYoro,Honduras

Factorsthatcontributetotheviabilityofsmallscalebiodieselproductionare:
Fossildieselfuelisexpensive.
Availabilityofcheapsourcesofwastevegetableoilorevenanimalfats19.
Presenceofalocaltechnicalcapacitytoensurerepairandmaintenance.
ReliableavailabilityofmethanolandKOHorNaOHatreasonableprices.
Legislationpermitsthelocalproductionandinternaluseofbiofuels(e.g.atthelevelofa
cooperative, an association etc.), thus avoiding the marketing through regular gas
stations.
Governmenttaxpolicythatstabilizesfuelprices.

3.Soap
Athirdextensionofthejatrophabiofuelchaintobeconsideredissoapproduction.Soapcan
be produced both from virgin jatropha oil (JPO) and from glycerine (a byproduct of the
biodiesel process). Soap is traditionally made from jatropha oil in many regions in Latin
America,AfricaandAsia.Womenareespeciallyactiveinthisactivity.Thesoapisbelievedto
havemedicalpropertiesagainstskindiseases.

19

Some professional biodiesel equipment manufacturers do not guarantee quality norms if other
feedstocks are used than virgin vegetable oil.

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Soapmaking is a relatively easy process (see section 5.2.3): it involves heating the oil and a
reactionwithNaOH(incasehardsoapisdesired)orKOH(softsoap).Colorantsandperfumes
canimprovemarketacceptation.

Whenusing glycerinetomakesoap,beforestartingtheprocessitisimportanttoboiloffall
remainingmethanol.Methanolistoxicforhumansandhighlyinflammable,soboilingshould
takeplaceoutsideinasafeplaceandnofumesshouldbeinhaled.

When using crude glycerine to make soap, it important to know that getting rid of the
unattractive(brownish)colourandtypicalsmellofglycerineisquitedifficult,especiallyincase
itcomesfromabatchofusedvegetableoil.SoapmadefromVWOglycerinecanbestbesold
as a cheap and effective cleaning product to car mechanics and other workshops that work
withgrease.Theygenerallydonotmindtheunattractivecolourandsmell,butappreciatethe
strong degreasing properties of the soap. Another possibility is to supply to the bottomend
clotheswashingsoapmarketsegment.Inthatcasethesoaphastobecheaperthananyofthe
existingbrands.Thepurificationofglycerineforpharmaceuticalorcosmeticpurposesisnota
viableoptionatsmallscale.

Soapmadefrompurejatrophaoilcanbemarketedthroughnichemarketsfornaturalhealth
and beauty products, or even the fair trade (export) market. If accompanied with the right
marketingeffort,thisactivitycanbehighlyrewarding.

4.Diversificationwithedibleoils
Complementingtheabovedescribedbiofuelchainwiththeproductionandprocessingof
edibleoilscanbeanimportantstrategytostabilisetheincomeoftheprocessingenterprise
andoffershorttermalternativestofarmers.

Whyedibleoils?
The presscake of edible oilseeds is often easy to sell locally (to cattle, pork or chicken
farms),ishighlynutritiousandhasthereforeagoodvalue20.
Moreover,edibleoilprocessingrequireslargelythesameinfrastructureandskillsasthe
biofuel seeds processing21: this leads to efficiency gains when contracting technical
personal(samepersoncanoperate,maintainandrepairedibleoilandjatrophapress)and
whensharingcertainequipment(e.g. usejatrophabiogasindryinginstallationforgrain
andedibleoilseeds).
Thirdly, jatropha farmers need short cycle crops to stay motivated to maintain the
jatropha plantations. Instead of paying farmers to weed their jatropha plantations,
investing in an edible oil crop may be more attractive for both the promoter and the
farmer.
Inanenvironmentofunstablepetroloilprices,thediversificationofabiofuelprocessing
enterprisetowardsedibleoilstendtoincreasethestabilityofthebusiness.Thereasonis
thatthelowerpricelimitofedibleoilsaredeterminedbyproductioncostsoflargescale
intensiveoilcropfarming,whichishigherthantheaverageproductioncostsofdieselfuel
production(seeFigure63below).Inotherwords,thepricebottomforbiofuelsislower
thanthatofedibleoils.Edibleoilproducers,likebiofuelproducers,benefitfromtheups
ofthepetroloilprice,butdonotsufferasmuchfromthedownsofthepetroloilmarket.
Edibleoilproducerscanswitchtobiofuelincasepetroloilpricesrisesharplyandtheycan
switch back to edible oil if fuel prices fall beneath their production costs. It is this

20
21

Inthecaseofsomeedibleoils,likesoya,thepresscakeiseventhemainproduct.
Althoughproductionlinesofbiofuelandedibleoilsneedtobeseparatedforobviousreasons.

97

flexibilitythatgivesmorestabilitytoamixededibleoil/biofuelbusiness,ascomparedtoa
100% biofuel business. To compensate for the lower efficiency levels of small farmers
comparedtolargescale,highlymechanisedoilcropfarmingine.g.ArgentinaandBrazil,it
isimportanttoensurethattheprocessingenterprisecanselltheedibleoilandpresscake
directly to endusers (e.g. oil to restaurants or agroindustries: presscake to dairy farm
cooperatives, chicken and pig farms). In this way, the shorter marketing channels can
compensate for the lower efficiency levels of the small farmers. This is especially
necessaryintimeswhentheedibleoilmarkethitsthepricebottom(b).
Finally,almostalloilyieldingshortcyclecropscanbeplantedtowardstheendoftherainy
season. They generally need sufficient water in the beginning of their production cycle,
butpreferdryconditionstowardstheendofthecycle.Itcanthereforebeplantedonthe
same land as the staple crop and would not require additional land to cultivate.
Moreover, crops like sunflower tend to draw nutrients from deeper soil layers to the
surface,thuspreparingthesoilforthenextstaplecrop.

US$perlitre
(c) Highend market price
dieselfuel
Edibleoilprice
(b)Productioncostintensive
edibleoilcultivation

Dieselfuelprice

(a)Productioncostdieselfuel
Time

Figure63(Fictitious)visualisationofdifferentpricebandwidthsofedibleandpetroloilprices.

Thefollowingtablegivesexampleofamixedcroppingschemeincludingjatropha,abasicgrain
(e.g.corn)andashortcycleedibleoilcrop(e.g.sunflower,sesame,etc.).

Table64Exampleofamixedjatrophaedibleoilcroppingscheme
Month
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Season(rainy/dry)
D D D D D R R R R R R
Jatropha(permanent) X X X X X X X X X X X
Basicgraincrop
X X X X X X
Shortcycleoilcrop
X

12
R/D
X

1
D
X

2 3 4 5 6 Etc.
D D D D R
X X X X X
X
X

Caution!Whenchangingfrompressingnonedibleoils(suchasjatropha)toedibleoils,great
careshouldbetakentocleanthepressthoroughlyandnottousethefirstbatchesofpressed
edibleoilforhumanconsumption,becauseofthetoxicityofthejatropha.

98


Whichediblecropstouse?
The main edible oils that grow in the same climate conditions as jatropha are: sunflower,
groundnut, soy, sesame, groundnut and cotton. However, many local species may also grow
well.Rapeseedgenerallygrowsinthetropicsataltitudes(>1000m)thatarenotoptimalfor
jatropha. The choice of the crop depends mainly on soil suitability, climatic conditions and
localmarketdemand.

Figure64WeedcontrolandpostharvestactivitiesinsoybeanproductioninYoro,Honduras

Figure65Landpreparation,sowingandharvestofsesameseed

99


Figure66belowgivesanoverviewofthedifferentpossibilitiestoextendthejatrophabiofuel
chain. The easiest way to read the figure to start with the basic jatropha biofuel chain (in
green), followed by an expansion with a biodiesel processor (in yellow), an expansion with
edible oil crops and cattle fodder (in red), the expansion with a biogas installation (in blue),
and finally the addition of a graindrying installation (in black). Obviously, the expansion
process can follow another order and can only include a few of the expansions mentioned
here.

Figure66Theintegratedbiofuelchain

100


6.2.3
6.2.3.1

Financingmodels
Howtofinancefarmersplantations

1.Introduction
The agricultural component is the backbone of the jatropha biofuel chain. Within this
component, the financial scheme offered to farmers is one of the most important factors
determiningthesuccessoftheundertaking.

Designing viable and acceptable financing schemes for jatropha is a challenge for several
reasons. In the first place, it is a new (cash) crop for many regions. Second, it is a perennial
crop that takes several years to become fully productive. Finally, its price development is
uncertainbecauseitfollowsthehighlyvolatileoilmarket.Forthesereasons,specialattention
needstobegiventothewaythejatrophaintroductionisfinanced.

Promotingjatrophaamongsmallfarmersrequiresdiligentplanning,awelldesignedfinancial
scheme, good knowledge of local customs and production patterns, and most of all
patience.Experiencesofoutgrowerpromotionschemesshowthatmassivepromotionamong
farmers, promising large profits, but only contributing seeds and occasional visits by
promoters,donotwork[8].Smallfarmersexpectseedmaterial,fertilizer,supportinpestand
weedcontrol,anacceptableloanagreement,astablemarketandcloseguidance.

In this section, three standard schemes to finance the jatropha introduction among farmers
willbedescribed.Thethreemodelsare:
1. Outgrowerfinancescheme
2. Jointventurebetweenpromoterandfarmer
3. Conventionalloanscheme

It is not the purpose of this section to give an exhaustive overview of possible finance
schemes.However,itishopedthatbydescribingthesethreeschemes,thereaderwillbeable
tochoosetheschemethatbestfitsthecontextandadaptittolocalconditions.Inpracticeone
willfindmanyvariationsandhybridsofthementionedschemes.

Inordertobeabletocomparethemodels,thefollowingassumptionshavebeenmadeforall
models:
Thejatrophaplantstartsproducingfromyear3onwards
Thepromoterofthesystemisalso(co)owneroftheoilprocessingfacility(press)
Promoterhassufficientdemandtosellalloilproduced
Technicalassistanceisprovidedtothefarmerswithoutcost

Duringtheintroductionphase(inwhichmanyuncertaintiesstillexist),itisrecommendedthat
the technical assistance be provided free of charge. In the expansion phase, technical
assistance may be included in the promoters contribution, especially in the case of
commercial(nonsubsistence)farmers.

2.Outgrowerfinancescheme
Inthismodelfarmerscontributetheirlandandlabour,whilethepromotercontributesseeds,
initial fertilizer and technical assistance. This finance model is common in (but not exclusive
for)outgrower(BandCownershipmodels)schemes.Technicalassistanceisprovidedforfree,
whileplantingmaterialandfertilizerisprovidedintheformofaloan.Allcontributionsarein

101


kind,sonomoneyflowstakeplacebetweenthepromoterandthefarmeruntilyear3,when
theoutgrowingfarmersselltheirfirstjatrophaseedstothepromoter.Typicalinthisschemeis
thattheloanisrepaidwiththeseedsproducedbythefarmers.Thismeansthattherepayment
timeoftheloanisnotfixed:itdependsontheproductivityoftheoutgrowersplantations.

Table65ExampleOutgrowerFinancingscheme

Input

Year1
Year2
Year3
Contributionof
Contributionof
Contribution
Promoter
Farmer
Promoter
Farmer
Promoter
Farmer
X
X

Land
X
X

Labour

X
Seed
X

X
X
Fertilizer
X
X
X
Techn.ass.
Output
Year1
Year2
Year3
Incomefor
Incomefor
Incomefor
Promoter
Farmer
Promoter
Farmer
Promoter
Farmer
Seeds

X(1)
Oil

Presscake

X(2)
X(2)

Notes:
1. Preferablythepromotersignsanagreementwiththefarmersinwhich:
Thefarmeragreestosellallproductiontothepromoter;and
Thepromoteragreestobuyalltheproductionofthefarmersatafixedpriceperkg
oratapricedirectlylinkedtothefuelprice.
Inordertomaintainthemotivationofthefarmersitisrecommendedtonotretain100%
ofthevalueoftheseedsasaloanrepayment,bute.g.30%andpaytheremaining70%to
thefarmer.
2. See section 6.2.2 (basic jatropha biofuel production chain) on the use of jatropha
presscake.Dependingonthemarketsituation,thepresscakecanbesoldtothirdparties
(resultinginhigherpriceperkgforfarmers)orreturnedtothefarmers(resultinginlower
costsforfarmers).

Thefollowingflowstakeplaceduringthefirstthreeyears.

Figure67Product,serviceandmoneyflowsintheoutgrowerfinancescheme

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Theadvantagesofthismodelare:
Itssimplicity:nofinancialflowstakeplaceuntilyear3.Thisisusefulwhenworkingwitha
largenumberofsmallfarmers.
Subsistencefarmers,whoareoftenresistanttoloans,mayfindthisanacceptablemodel.
Riskforthefarmerissmall:thepromoterguaranteestobuyatafixedpriceanyquantity
produced.

Thebuyingandpriceguaranteescanonlybegivenifthereisaneconomicallyviableprocessing
facilityoperating.Thisisonlypossibleifsufficientproductionvolumeissupplied.

Thedisadvantagesare:
Riskliesmainlywiththepromoter.
Farmersmaynothaveaclearideaofthemarketpriceoftheirproduct.
Thereisnocompensationfortheworkofthefarmersduringthefirst2years.

Factorsthatmaycontributetothesuccessofoutgrowerfinancingschemesare:
Clear, enforceable contracts: farmers know that intentional incompliance will have
consequences
Financecoversanintegratedjatrophacultivationsystem(jatrophaandintercrops)
Promoteristheonlybuyerofjatrophaseedsintheregion
Significantandwellbalancedcontributionofallpartiesinvolved

3.Jointventure
This model is implicit in the farmerowned (models D and E) business models described in
section6.2.1.2.Farmersshareinprofits(orincaseofacooperative,inthesurplus)according
to the share value they possess (in case of a capitalistic enterprise) or the amount of seeds
theyhavecontributed(incaseofacooperativeenterprise).

Table66Exampleofjointventureinvestmentplan
Input
Year1
Year2
Contributionof
Contribution
Promoter Farmer Promoter Farmer

1
Land

1
Labour

10

Seed
1

Fertilizer
3
7
3
7
TA
donated
donated
Processor

Total
4
18
3
13
Output

Oil
Presscake
Total

Year1
Incomefor
Promoter Farmer

Year2
Incomefor
Promoter Farmer

Year3
Contribution
Promoter Farmer

3
8

donated
15
30
33
29

Total

Promoter

1
9

30
40

Farmer
3
20

22

15
60

Year3
Incomefor
Promoter Farmer
30
45
10
15
40
60

Total

Promoter
30
10
40

Farmer
45
15
60

ButalsointheBandC(outgrower)models,theremayberoomfornegotiatingajointventure.
Inthiscase,thepromoterandfarmersagreetodistributetheresultsoftheinvestment(seeds,
oil,presscakeandtheincomegeneratedwiththeirsale),accordingtothecontributionofeach

103


investor.Inordertodothis,thecontributionofeachpartyhastobevalued.Inthefollowinga
numericexamplewillbepresented(numbersarefictitious).

Theadvantagesofthismodelare:
Riskismoreequallysharedbetweenfarmersandpromoter.
More interesting for farmers with entrepreneurial spirit because potential rewards are
higher.

Thedisadvantagesare:
Moreintensiveinfieldfollowupisnecessaryinordertopreventfarmersfromreporting
lessharvestthantheyactuallyhave.Thisriskislessthreateningifthepromoteristheonly
buyerofjatrophaseedsintheregion.
Administrationismorecomplexthanmodel1.
Thereisnocompensationfortheworkofthefarmersduringthefirst2years.

Factorsthatmaycontributetothesuccessofjatrophajointventures:
Clearandenforceablecontracts.
Strictfollowupduringthegrowingprocess.
Significantandwellbalancedcontributionofallpartiesinvolved.

4.Conventionalloanscheme
Inthismodel,afinancialinstitution(possiblysubcontractedbythepromoter)issuesloansto
thefarmers.Theloansshouldpreferablybelimitedtoinputs(seedsandfertilizer),while
farmerscontributelandandlabour.Alsoagraceperiodofatleast2yearsshouldbe
considered,untiltheplantationbecomesproductive.Inthesetwocasesloansforlabourmay
beconsidered:
Subsistence farmers who replace other (less rewarding nonedible) crops for jatropha.
This transition may result in a temporary decrease in their income until the jatropha
plantationbecomesfullyproductive.
Commercialfarmerswhocontractexternallabour.

Themaindifferencebetweenthefirst(outgrower)financeschemeandtheloanschemeisthat
in the first scheme there is not an agreed fixed repayment per year (payment takes place
accordingtoproductionlevels).Moreover,repaymentinthefirstmodeltakesplaceexclusively
in kind (jatropha seeds), while in the conventional loan scheme, payment is probably in
money.Intheconventionalloanschemeaninterestrateischargedtocovertheadministrative
and financial costs. In the outgrower finance scheme, the credit administration costs will
probablybetakenintoaccountbythepromoterwhendeterminingthepurchasepriceofthe
seeds. Another important difference is that in case of an unintentional complete loss (e.g. a
flooding)inthefirsttwoschemes,thefarmerwillprobablyonlylosethelabourinvested,while
in conventional loan scheme the farmer will have to pay, on top of this loss, his (seed and
fertilizer)debt.

Another important aspect of the conventional loan scheme is the repayment conditions. To
avoid that farmers lose interest in the crop, it is important to leave a significant part of the
incometothefarmerduringthefirstproductionyears,evenifhestillhastopayalargedebt.
This implies a risksharing agreement between the promoter and the farmer. That is, if
productionislowerthanexpected,thefarmerreceiveslessincomeandthepromoterrecovers
hisloanataslowerrate.Thisdoes,ofcourse,notexcludetakingactionagainstfarmersthat

104


deliberately eliminateplantations.Supportingthefarmerinestablishinganintercropnext to
thejatrophaisanotherimportantstrategytomaintaintheinterestofthefarmer.

Theadvantagesoftheloanmodelare:
Morepricetransparency:farmersreceivemarketpricefortheirproduct.
Noneedforintensivemonitoringinthefield.
Possibilitytogivetransitionalconsumptiveloansduringthefirst2years.
Lessfinancialriskforthepromoter.

Thedisadvantagesare:
Administrativecapacitytoadministrateloansmustbecreated,ifnotalreadyexisting.
The loan administration (especially if a financial institution is involved) has a high cost,
whichintheendtranslatestolowerpricespaidtothefarmers.
Subsistencefarmersmayberesistanttoloans.
Higherlossforfarmersincaseofbadharvest.

Importantfactorsthatmayinfluencepositivelytherepaymentrateofloans:
Feasibilitystudiesarebasedonrealisticyields.
Goodcreditadministrationcapacity(withpromoterorfinancialinstitution).
Loansareissuedinkind(seeds,fertilizer).
Repaymentinkind(seeds)isaccepted.
Goodqualityseedisprovided.
Producerswithexperienceincashcropsareselected.
Technicalassistanceisprovided.
Regions are selected in which there are no other jatropha seed buyers (avoids the
deviationofreturns).
Farmersintroducejatrophaasanadditionalcrop,ontopofother,moretraditional(cash)
crops.

5.Conclusionsonfarmerfinancing
Thechoiceforafinancescheme1,2or3isbasicallydeterminedbytheattitudeofthefarmers
and the promoter (or financial institutions) towards the risks. The attitude of the farmer
towardsriskcanoftenbeestimatedbysuchfactorsasa)accesstoalternativeincomesources
(themorealternativeincomesourcesthefarmerhas,theeasierthefarmerwillacceptriskof
engaginginanewcrop),b)theeconomicpositionofthefarmers(moreincomemeansmore
capacitytocopewithrisk)andc)thegrowthofthefarmersoperations(subsistencefarmers
tendtoconsidersecurityzeroriskasmoreimportantthanincomegrowth).

In general terms, one can expect subsistence farmers to be riskaversive and inclined to
scheme 1 (outgrower). More commercial farmers (small, medium or large), with several
income sources and with an entrepreneurial spirit, may be attracted to model 2 (joint
venture).Possibly,thesefarmersarealsowillingtocoinvestintheprocessingfacility.Manyof
thesefarmerswillalsobeusingdieselpoweredequipment.Ifthisisthecase,farmersnotonly
generateextraincomebutalsomakeimportantsavingsontheirfuelbill.

Scheme 3 (conventional loans) seems to be an appropriate option in the expansion phase


when good seeds are available, yield predictions are reliable and appropriate agricultural
practiceshavebeendeterminedandadaptedtothelocalcontext.

105


As mentioned before, within one project different financing schemes may be applied,
depending on the characteristics of the target groups. For example, in order to assure that
thereisaminimumproductiontomakeapressfacilityviable,amixedmodelmaybeapplied
inwhichonelargerfarmerworksinajointventurewiththepromoter(scheme2)andalarge
numberofsmallfarmers(outgrowers)haveabuyingagreementaccordingtoscheme1.

All finance models face the difficulty of how to bridge the first two years of the plantation,
whennosignificantproductioncanbeexpected.Practiceshowsthatfarmersaretemptedto
clearplantationswhentheyseebetteropportunities,orsimplyneglectplantationsinabsence
ofanimmediatestimulus22.Asimplesolutionistoprovidecredit(orcontractalaboursquad)
forweedingtheplantations.Abetterandmoreproductivesolutionisintercropping:usingthe
empty space between the jatropha rows to cultivate shortcycle crops. The weeding and
fertilizingoftheintercropalsobenefitsthejatrophaplantation.Thisrequiresmoreinvestment
thanjustweeding,butontheotherhanditgeneratesanimmediateincome(andthusaloan
repayment capacity). The investment may also be financed from conventional sources of
financeifitconcernscropswithatrackrecordintheregion.Anyofthesestrategiesrequires
additionalinvestments.However,thecostofnotimplementinganyoftheabovestrategiesis
likelytoresultinamuchhighercapitallossintheformoflossofplantations.

TheGotaVerdeprojecthasdevelopedanumberofcreditadministrationdocumentsandtools
thatareavailableuponrequestthroughFACT.
6.2.3.2

Howtofinancetheprocessingenterprise

Manyjatrophaprojectsinvesttooearlyandtoomuchintheprocessingfacility.Thisislargely
due to overoptimistic crop yield projections, although the short time horizon of project
funders, and their preference for visible physical field structures and the lack of field
informationalsoplayarole.

Asexplainedinchapter2,plantationsenterincommercialproductionfromyear34onwards.
Duringthefirst23yearsasmallscalejatrophainitiative(plantingupto150haperyear),can
operate with a very small processing unit, consisting of one or two small presses, several
manual dehullers, a filter unit and some storage facilities. Two or three engines may be
adapted(seenextsection)fordemonstrationpurposesthathelpmarketintroductioninlater
years.

In chapters 3, 4 and 5 an overview is given of the technical options for each piece of
equipment. Total cost can be limited to less than US$ 20,000. This excludes the technical
assistanceneededtoinstallequipmentandtrainpersonnel.Iftheinitiativehasanownership
structurewithfarmerparticipation(modelD.orE.),thistechnicalassistancemaybeobtained
intheformofagrantfromdevelopmentorganizations(seeannexE.4).

Furthermore, it is recommended to look first for abandoned agroindustrial installations that


canberefurbishedandrented.Alternatively,oneoftheparticipatingfarmersmaybewillingto
contributetothesocialcapitaloftheenterpriseintheformofatemporaryorpermanentsite
withexistingbuildings.

22

Thisproblemcannotbeunderestimated.E.g.intheFACTprojectinHonduras(GotaVerde),morethan
40%oftheplantationsestablishedduringyear1and2werelostbyyear3,ofwhichatleasthalfcanbe
attributedtotheneglectoffarmers(floodingsandwaterloggingwereotherimportantfactors).

106


It is not recommended to buy land and build installations from year 0 onwards, unless the
projectisfundedbyinvestorswithalongterm(10yearsormore)vision.Eventhen,itismore
prudentinthefirstyearstoinvestintheestablishmentoftheplantationsandgiveincentives
tofarmerstomaintainthem,thaninbuildingprocessingfacilitieswithanovercapacity.

Once commercial operations take off (from year 4 onwards), the processing enterprise will
have accumulated sufficient information and experience to write a convincing business plan
thatsupportsthepurchaseofitsownsiteandmorepowerfulprocessingequipment.

Forpotentialfundingsources,pleaseseeannexE.
6.2.3.3

Howtofinanceengineadaptations

As explained in the previous sections, the use of PPO as a diesel substitute reduces
considerably the complexity and the cost of biofuel production. Moreover, most of the
technical problems with PPO technology are related to low outside temperatures, which is
obviously less of a problem in tropical regions that are apt for jatropha cultivation. PPO
technologyisthereforeconsideredappropriateforsmallscalebiofuelinitiativesindeveloping
countries.However,theuseofPPOasadieselsubstituterequiresanengineadaptation(see
section 5.2.2 for more technical details). Therefore, the introduction of PPO technology
encounterstwoimportantbarriers:(a)lackofconfidenceand(b)theupfrontcostfortheuser.

Ad(a)Howtoovercometheinitiallackofuserconfidence?
The recommended market introduction strategy is to start early in the project development
(before commercial production takes off in year 4) with adapting engines that are 100%
controlledbythepromoteroftheproject(projectorenterprisecars,tractors,trucks,irrigation
pumps, etc.). This allows the enterprise (and/or local technicians) to gain experience in the
functioning of the PPO technology, in solving the most common problems and to start
investigating the possibility to assemble local adaptation kits. If insufficient oil is locally
available for these internal experiments, one can look for local oil sources, such as refined
palm oil. The import of industrial quantity vegetable oil is another possibility to gain
experience. Waste vegetable oil of good quality (low acid degree) may also serve the
purpose23.

This period of internal experimentation and capacity building may take 23 years (the same
periodtheplantationtakestobecomeproductive),becausesometechnicalproblemspresent
themselves only after prolonged use of PPO. If no PPOdiesel expertise exists locally, the
enterprisewillneedtohire(expensive)foreignexpertisetobuilditlocally.Again,thisexpertise
(possibly together with the experimental kits) may be negotiated without costs from
developmentorganizationsforenterprisesfollowingtheDandEownershipmodels(seeannex
E for organizations with expertise in this area). During the experimentation phase, local car
mechanics need to be trained in the installation, maintenance and repair of adapted diesel
engines. Once the enterprise has built sufficient local capacity in these areas, it can start
commercialmarketintroduction(seepoint(b)below).

23

SomemanufacturersofPPOadaptationkitsdonotrecommendtheuseofwastevegetableoil(WVO)
becauseittendstohaveahigheracidvalue.Theacidvaluedependsmainlyonhowlongtheoilhas
beenusedandatwhattemperatures.Theacidvaluecanbedeterminedbyusingthesametitration
methodusedinbiodieselproduction.Thefollowingarticlegivesafairlycompleteoverviewoftheissues
totakeintoaccountwhenusingWVOasadieselsubstitute
http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_svo.html.

107

Figure68ImagesoftheOctober2008workshopforcarmechanicsinYoro,Honduras,carriedoutby
NielsAnsoftheDanishPPOspecializedenterpriseDajolka(www.dajolka.dk).

Ad(b)Howtoovercomethehighupfrontcostofadaptationkitsforusers?
CommercialadaptationkitsmaycostasmuchasUS$1000$1500forsmallcars.However,with
sufficient local demand kits may be assembled for $250$300 from locally available spare
parts.Evenatthiscost,theinitialinvestmentisanobstacleformanypotentialusers.Inorder
to overcome this obstacle, the BPE may consider a lease construction in which the BPE pre
finances the engine adaptation and sells the PPO fuel at a guaranteed price that is slightly
lower than local fossil diesel prices. The time needed to recover the investment depends
largelyonthequantityoffuelconsumedandthedieselpricelevel.Itisrecommendedtostart
with large industrial users, such as agroindustrial equipment (grain dryers, sawmills, etc.),
busses, trucks, tractors, electricity generators etc. because they use large quantities of fuel,
resulting in relatively low marketing and distribution costs per litre of oil sold. As the oil
production increases, so too can the number and type of clients (private, industrial, heavy
transport).

In the longer run (especially if fossil fuel prices rise significantly), it is expected that diesel
enginemanufacturerswilloffermodelsthataredirectlycompatiblewithPPOfuel.
6.2.3.4

ProjectFundingSources

From the previous sections, it has become clear that building a profitable biofuel chain
demands considerable investment in the establishment of plantations, the installation of
equipmentandthetechnicalcapacityoflocalpersonnelandsupportservices.Findingsources
offinancefortheseinvestmentsisachallengingtask.

The first place to look for investment funding is among the (future) owners of the BPE.
Contributionsdonotnecessarilyhavetobeintheformofcash.Underusedassetssuchasland,
buildings, vehicles, machinery etc. can be meaningful contributions to the enterprise. The
more the future owners are willing and able to contribute to the total investment, the less
difficultitwillbetofindthecorrespondingcofinancing.Thecofundersneedtobeconvinced
thatthepromotersbelieveintheirundertaking.Thewillingnesstorisktheirowncapitalisthe
strongestindicatorofthatbelief.

Whenlookingatexternalsources,theaccessdependsfirstofallontheownershipmodelthat
ischosen.Table67givesanoverviewofwhichsourcesaremoreaccessible,accordingtothe

108


ownership model. In all cases it is presumed that the promoters present a good quality,
optimisticbusinessplan.

Table 67 Potential to obtain access to funding sources, per ownership model (1 = most difficult
access,5=bestaccess,incomparisonwithotherownershipmodels)
Ownershipmodel
ModelA
ModelB
ModelC
ModelD
ModelE
Fundingsource
Grants24
1
2
3
4
5
Loans
3
3
3
1
1
Venturecapital:

- Conventional
5
5
3
2
1
- Social
1
2
3
4
5

NB1.IncomegeneratedfromCO2reductionmechanismsisnotconsideredgrants.Sourcesfor
CO2reductioncanbefoundonhttp://www.sefdirectory.net/.
NB2.Thevaluationreflectsanorder,incomparisonwithotherownershipmodels.Theydonot
pretendtogiveabsoluteorproportionaterelativedifferencesbetweenthemodels.

Thereasonsforthesevaluationshavebeenexplainedlargelyinthesectionaboutownership
models.Socialventurecapitalandgrantgiversgivehighimportancetothesocialbenefitsof
modelsDandE(incomegenerationforsmallfarmers).Conventionalfinancesourcessuchas
banks (loans) and profit maximizing investors seek the best possible combination of limited
riskandhighefficiency.

Thedestinyofthefundingalsovarieshighlyaccordingtointheownershipmodel,asreflected
byTable68:

Table68Comparisonofdestinyofinvestments,perownershipmodel(1=leastinvestment,5=most
investment,incomparisonwithotherownershipmodels)
Ownershipmodel
ModelA
ModelB
ModelC
ModelD
ModelE
Fundingdestiny
Landpurchase
5
4
0
0
0
Technicalassistancefarmers
0
3
5
5
5
Techn.ass.Enterprisedevt
1
1
1
4
5
Plantations25
5
4
3
2
1
26
Processingequipment
5
5
5
3
3

Conventionalcapitalsources(bankloansandconventionalventurecapital)arenotconsidered
inthismanualbecausetheyaremoreappropriateforModelsAandB,whichdonotoronly

24

Includingtechnicaladvisory.
The funding needs per ha of plantation tends to be lower in the case of model D and E because
farmers generally contribute their own labour. On the other hand, the risk of plantations being
abandonedishigherinthecaseofmodelsDandE.Intheend,theinvestmentperhathatreachesfull
productionmaybesimilarforallmodels.
26
InvestmentsinequipmenttendtobelowerforModelsDandEbecausetheirmarketsaregenerally
localoreveninternal,whilemodelsA,BandCgenerallyproduceforexportmarketswithhighquality
standards.
25

109


scarcely involve small farmers. Of course, this does not mean that these sources are not
feasibleformodelsC,DandE.Pleaseconsultyourlocalbankbranchformoreinformation.
6.2.3.5

Alternativefinancingschemes

In this section, two alternative finance schemes will be described that are considered
appropriatetodevelopincombinationwithaprojectthatbuildsajatrophaproductionchain.
Thefirstschemeshowsthatbiofuelproductioncanactuallyincreasefoodproductionusingthe
productioncapacityofthejatrophaplantationsasaguarantee.Thesecondschemedescribes
howtheprocessingenterprisecancreateadditional,cheapworkingcapitalthatalsohelpsto
boostsales.

1.UsingJatrophatoincreaseaccesstocreditforfoodcrops
In the foodfuel debate, fuel crops are often blamed for affecting food production. In this
section an example will be given of how an integrated financing model for biofuel and food
cropscanactuallystimulatefoodproduction.Themodeldescribedbelowisespeciallyrelevant
forenterprisemodelsDandE(farmer(co)ownedprocessingenterprise)andinacontextof
underutilizationofarableland.

Many farmers only cultivate part of the arable land they possess. When one asks a small
farmer why he does not plant all of the land with food crops, one of the main obstacles
mentionedisgenerallythelackofaccesstocredit.Financialinstitutionsareveryreluctantto
financebasicgrainproduction,especiallytosmallfarmerswhotendtoconsume(andnotsell)
alargepartoftheirproduction.Asaresult,manyfarmerssowwithaminimalofinputs27orare
forcedintodealswithmiddlemenorloansharksthatrakeinalargeproportionofthefarmers
margin.

Jatropha can provide a stable financial basis to make small farmers independent from
(unwilling) financial institutions or (exploitive) loan sharks and middlemen, although initially
externalsupportremainsnecessary.PivotaltothestrategyistheBiofuelProcessingEnterprise
(BPE).ExternalfundingmaycomefromprivateinvestorsorbankloanscontractedbytheBPE,
whichinturnadministerstheloanstosmallfarmers.Thestrategyinvolves:

Table69Usingjatrophaplantationstoincreaseaccesstocreditforfoodcrops:strategydescriptionof
peractor
Year
BPE
Farmers
13
BPEgivesinkindsupportforthe
Farmersarestimulatedtogrowfoodcropsin
establishmentandmaintenanceof
betweenthejatropharows28.
jatrophaplantations(landpreparation,
seeds,fertilizer,).
450
BPEgivesloansinkindformaintenanceof Farmersrepaytheloanintheformof
jatrophaplantationandforfood
jatrophaseedsand(ifthefarmerswishesso)
production29.
basicgrains.

27

Infact,thisexplainslargepartofthelowlandproductivityinmanydevelopingcountries.
ThepresenceofaruraldevelopmentNGOorstateentitythatiswillingtoprovideloansforbasicgrain
production,wouldbeagreathelp.
29
Thevalueofthefoodproductionloanisdeterminedonthebasisoftheexpectedvalueofthe
jatrophaharvestforthesameyear.
28

110


This approach is still in its design stage in Yoro, Honduras. It will be implemented when
jatrophaplantationshavebecomefullyproductiveandnewinvestmentsfundsareavailable.

Themodelhasvariousadvantages:
1. Administration of the loan by the BPE instead of a financial institution reduces financial
risksinseveralways:
Theriskofselfconsumptionofgrains(andthuslackofcashatthemomentofpaying
theirdebt)iseliminated.Farmerscanconsume(orselltothirdparties)asmuchcorn
as they want because the value of the jatropha harvest is sufficient to cover the
entirevalueoftheloan.
Theriskofloandeviationorrobberyisreducedbecausealltransactionstakeplacein
kind(orlocallycirculatingvouchers).
Theriskoffarmerssellingjatrophatothirdpartiesissmallbecauseatleastforthe
momentthesethirdpartiesdonotexists.
Fewerriskscanbetranslatedintolowerfinancialcostsforthefarmers.Inordertolimit
thecreditriskfurther,thevalueoftheloancanbelimitedtoforexample50%ofthe
valueoftheexpectedjatrophaharvestofthatyear.
2. The model gives loan access to farmers that normally are not considered by financial
institutions.TheBPEoffersacollectiveguarantee(productioncapacity,buildings,awell
foundedbusinessplan,assuredmarkets)thatindividualfarmerscannotoffer.
3. TheBPEcanobtaindiscountsforbuyinginputsatwholesaleprices.ThecostsofBYSAfor
administratingtheloanstofarmerscanbecoveredlargelybythisdiscount.
4. The BPE can also act as a trader for grain for the farmers as an additional task, it only
requiresmoreinvestmentinastoragefacilityforgrainattheBPE
5. IncasetheBPEalsoproducesanimalfodder,basicgrainsareanimportantingredient(as
well as edible oil presscake of possible other crops promoted by the BPE). The added
valuethatderivesfromthistransformation,putsBYSAinapositiontoofferhigherprices
forbasicgrainsthanmostmiddlemen.

Avouchersystem,asdescribedinthefollowingsection,mayfacilitatethesetransactions.The
BPEissuesloansintheformofvoucherstofarmers,whocangotopredetermineddistribution
points to withdraw their agricultural inputs. This reduces the BPEs need for (cash) working
capitalandthusdecreasesitsfinancialcosts.

2.Vouchersforlocaleconomicdevelopment
AninnovativewayforaBPEtoraiseworkingcapitalistheissuingofbiofuelbackedvouchers.
ThesevouchersarebasicallydebtoftheBPEtothebearerofthevoucher.Thevouchergives
thebearertherighttobuybiofuelsfromtheBPEfortheamountmentionedonthevoucher.
TheBPEcanissuethevouchersintwoways:
1. PurchasesoftheBPE:e.g.buyingseedsfromfarmers,payingtransportservices,payment
ofpersonnel.
2. LoansoftheBPEtofarmers(orotherlocaleconomicplayers).

Inpracticetheissuancewillbeamixtureofvouchersandnationalcurrency.Theproportionof
vouchers that is acceptable for the receiver depends on the expenditure pattern and on
incentives given by the BPE (e.g. bonus payment, lower interest rate on loans etc.). The
introductionofvouchersisonlyfeasiblewhentheproductionhasreachedcommerciallevels
andtheBPEhasgainedasignificantleveloftrustandconfidenceamongthelocal(economic)
players.

111

Figure69ExampleofthelocalcurrencyissuedbytheBYSAprocessingcompanyinYoro,Honduras

TheadvantagesofthisvouchersystemfortheBPEaremultiple:
1. Increaseoftheworkingcapitalatzerocost(theemissionofavoucherisinfinancialterms
equivalenttoreceivingaloanat0%interest).
2. Increaseofsales:eachvoucherspentintoemissionisasecuredsaleinthefuture.
3. More security: vouchers are not very popular targets for thieves and assaulters. The
voucherscanonlybespentlocally,whichincreaseschancesofbeingdetected30ifstolen.
4. Moreinstitutionalimage building. Thevouchers drawtheattentionofusers andmedia,
resultinginfreepublicityandpositiveimagebuilding.

ThefinancialadvantagefortheBPEandtheimpactonthelocaleconomycanbeenhancedby
promoting a wider local trade network (shops, transport services, hairdressers etc.) that
acceptsthevouchers.Inthatsense,thevouchersystemcanalsobeconsideredtobeatoolto
maximizetheimpactonthelocaleconomyofthewealthcreatedbythebiofuelchain.

For examples of working voucher systems in developing countries, please go to www.stro


ca.org

6.3

SustainabilityofJatrophacurcasactivities

Mainauthor:WinfriedRijssenbeek
6.3.1

Introduction

Thesustainabilityofbiofuelshasbecomeagreatissuesinceinterestinandtheproductionof
biofuelshasincreasedsignificantlyduringrecentyears,becauseofsoaringoilpricesin2007
2008andstimulusprogramsofgovernments.Thereasonsforencouragingtheproductionand
use of biofuels by the government are threefold: mitigation of climatechange, support for
domesticfarmersandmaintenanceofenergysecurity[1].

Unfortunately not all impacts can be qualified as positive. Due to the rapid growth of the
sector, attention to biofuels was intensified and the impacts became more visible.

30

In fact several counterpart organizations of STRO in Central America have been victim of theft and
armedassaults.Inallcasesthevouchershavebeenleftorthrownaway.

112


Government and governmental organisations fear that unsustainable production of biofuels
willleadtonegativeimpactsonthelivesofthepoorestbecausetheywillexperiencelackof
water,lossofland,reducedfoodsecurityandlessbiodiversity[2].Becauseofthis,production
of biofuels should meet a set of requirements leading to sustainable production,
transformation and use. The requirements set out as guidelines, criteria and indicators are
currentlystillbeingimproved.

Many southern countries with low fossil fuel reserves have high expectations of biofuels.
Biofuel is often seen as a panacea, as it offers a good opportunity for these developing
countriesorregionstohaveanindependentenergyproductionandtospendlessonforeign
exchange.Furthermore,thedevelopmentofbiofuelsasasectorpromisesemploymentinrural
areas. Currently, it seems that the attitude towards biofuels has become less positive in the
richer northern countries. Whether southern countries will arrive at the same conclusion is
doubtful, simply because the promise of being less dependent on fossil fuel imports,
generatingemployment,andincreasingexportopportunitiesstillremains.

ItshouldbeclearthatFACThasincludedthischapterinthemanual,withtwoobjectives:
1. Sustainabilityisamustforallstakeholders,whetheritconcernssmallorbigprojects.The
aimisthatjatrophaactivitiescanbesustainedinthelongtermandthatthebenefitsto
thoseinvolvedwillbeequitableandsustained.
2. For different players different sustainability criteria should be applied: a larger export
scheme of jatropha has to adhere to different criteria than that of a small holder,
producingononeha.AsFACT,werealisethatthecriteriathatwillbediscussedaremost
ofthefirstsort:applicableforlargerscale.

FACTrecommendsonlytakingthosethatalsoapplyforsmallerscale,astheycanbehandyand
usefulaswell.
6.3.2

Sustainabilitycriteriaandinitiatives

There are a number of initiatives led by different parties that have seen first drafts and
concept notes. Some have moved further to more detailed indicators. Some are biomass
specific, others only include the production part of biofuels. Some focus only on one plant
species,whileothersaredirectedonlyatexporttypeofprojects.Oftentheseinitiativeswere
started in OECD countries, as their governments demand sustainability as a condition of
initiativesbeingfinancedorsupportedthroughtheirenvironmentclimatechangefunding.

It is not possible to discuss all of these drafts and notes. The most important ones the
roundtable discussion on biofuels and the Cramer Criteria are discussed in annex E.5. As a
result of this ongoing discussion, the international expert workshop on jatropha, FACT
preparedapositionpaperonhowbusinessshouldbestmoveinthefieldofjatropha.Inthis
position paper the People Planet and Profit criteria were translated to the production of
jatropha[3].

FACT follows the 3P principle People, Profit, Planet in its work, emphasizing the need for
foodsecurity,positiveimpactontheenvironmentandincomegenerationbylocalproducers.
AstartingpointwastheestablishmentofsustainabilitycriteriadevelopedfortheGovernment
oftheNetherlands(thesocalledCramerCriteria).Underitsprogramme,FACTwillmonitor
the applicability of these criteria and work towards the further improvement thereof, taking
into account other sustainability criteria under development, such as from RSB and more
elaboratedNEN8080criteria.

113


6.3.3

Tentativecriteriaforsustainabledevelopmentoflargescalejatrophaproduction

People:
Nodestructionofruralcommunitiesandvillagesorsocialstructures.
Noinfringementofcommonlandsortraditionaluserrights.
Nodisplacementofpeople.
Enhancementoflocalemploymentorincomegenerationoflocalpeople.
Decentwagestobepaid.
Preferablynodependencyofasoleincomesourceofpeople(riskavoidance).

Respect for the local peoples livelihoods, resources use, their points of view and traditional
rights is a must. Projects should improve local peoples welfare and wellbeing. Ideally, they
shouldincludelocalownershiporpartnershipintheproductchain.Risksofmonocultureand
only one income opportunity should be avoided, for both the involved population and the
projectmanagement.

Planet:
Takecareonwhatisrealwasteoridleland.
Minimal and no lasting environmental pollution in production by agrochemicals and
fertilizers.
Greenhousegasbalance;netemissionreductioncomparedwithfossilreference,inclusive
thatoftheapplication.
Nomonoculture.
Noselectionoflandswithhighbiodiversityimportance.
Intercroppingpreferable,especiallyintheearlieryears.

Acarefulanalysisshouldbemadeonthelanduse,thenutrientsandwaterusesforalarge
scale project. In many instances, project implementers only find out later that the land
plannedforcultivationwasalreadyinuse,e.g.inshiftingcultivationasfreepastureland,etc.
Theproductionofbiofuelscanlearnalotfromfoodproduction:nomonoculture,correctand
timely application of plant nutrients, existing land use and soil classification maps,
intercropping,alleycropping,etc.Biodiversityandconservationareasoftodayandlikelyofthe
futureshouldofcoursebeavoided.

Profit:
Prepareclearbusinessplans,basedonconservative/provendata.
Companyprofitspreferablyshouldbereinvestedinthecountry.
Jatropha should be, in the first instance, used to supply internal markets. Local use is
moreenergyefficientandthereisalwaysenoughinternaldemand.
Companyprofitssharingwithfarmers,andfarmersreceivingdecentpayment.
Noexcessivecompanyprofits.
Incomestabilityisasimportantasincomeheight:diversificationofthebiofuelchain(e.g.
intercroppingedibleoils)canhelptheenterprisetosurvivetimesoflowfuelprices.

All the plans should be viable to all stakeholders concerned: a net profit for all stakeholders
can be differently defined for each one. Some will see the profit in employment generation,
whereas others might see the benefits of rural affordable modern energy. Such sustainable
viabilitymightrequireasoundlegislativeframeworkforfoodandfuelcropsthatmightinclude
minimum prices (safety net prices), accessible savings and credit schemes and training and
extension.

114

Sustainabilityofincomecanalsobeforatarget,byturningproducersintostakeholdersinthe
processingchainofthebiofuelcroptoacommercialfuel.

Theissuesarerelevantforjatropha,butcanalsobeappliedtootherbiomass.Biomassoptions
when applied on a large scale can have serious drawbacks. To mitigate their negative
effects, a long set of criteria need to be established. FACT argues, therefore, that it is more
effective to design a biomass operation in developing countries straightaway for the
developmentofthelocaleconomyandadheretothesustainabledevelopmentgoals:
Povertyalleviation
Biodiversity
Environment
Socioeconomicdevelopment
Participationoflocalstakeholders

Thiswillmoreeasilycreateanoperationthatissustainableand,ifsuccessful,canbescaledup
andcheckedregularlyforsustainabilityusingtheCramerCriteriaorRSBandothers.
6.3.4. Conclusion
FACTcontributestothediscussiononsustainabilityfromthemultifacettedpractiseofitspilot
projects. What becomes clear is that THE sustainability problem does not exist, nor does
THEsolutionexist.Ineachcontextbiofuelinitiativesresultinchangesinmanyareas,some
positive,somenegative.ManyfarmersandlocalNGOsfeelthatinsmallscaleinitiativeswith
farmers the positive effects seem to outweigh the negative effects, although further
investigationisnecessarytoprovethispoint.

General discussions on whether biofueldriven development is good or bad have limited


relevance without specific information on the regions land and labour availability, the
ownershipstructureoftheinitiative,marketsituationetc.

Ingeneral,itcanbeconcludedthatentrepreneursoflargescaleplantationsshouldbemuch
moreawareofthepossibleimpactsoftheirprojectduringthedevelopmentphase.Largescale
projectscanmoreeasilydoharmtotheenvironmentand,onalongerterm,thecontribution
to social and economic development will not exist unless its an objective of the project
developers. When considering starting with jatropha production, feasibility studies based on
sufficient, conservative and reliable data are important. Jatropha under current oil prices is
likely to offer minimal margins. Furthermore, yields are often very context dependent. It is
therefore recommended to start small scale to build up the required knowledge for a viable
production and market development of jatropha end products, taking into account the
sustainabilitycriteria.Presently,therearepractitionersthatstatethattheirjatrophaprojector
businessissustainable.However,independentverificationoftheseprojectssustainabilityhas
yettoemerge.Theverificationbringssomecomplexity,assustainabilitycriteriaarestillunder
developmentbyvariousplayersandhavenotbeentestedsufficientlyyet.

FACT supports sustainable development of biofuel production placing income generation for
small farmers and the rural population as the highest priority. FACT supports initiatives for
localuseandapplications.Whenthemarketisnotforexportandonlyforlocaluse,itshould
beunderstoodthatitwouldveryhardforthesesmallfarmersandlocalworkshopstofulfilthe
westernISObasedstandardsforqualitythatarenowbeingdevelopedfortheCramerCriteria
(e.g.NTA8080). Thisgrouphasavery largepotential,sinceabout70%of populationsin Sub

115


Sahel Africa live in rural areas for example. FACT, therefore, strongly recommends that the
criteriadevelopedforexportorientedcompanies,willnotbeappliedtothefarmers.Thatis,in
anoutgrowersschemeitshouldbetheaggregatororbuyerandprocessorwhowillhaveto
complywiththesustainabilitycriteria.Iftheserefertotheoutgrowingscheme,theaggregator
willhavetosupportthefarmerswiththenecessaryconditionstoadheretothosestandards

Furthermore, FACT recommends national governments in developing countries should not


apply these exportoriented sustainability standards for local producers under pressure of
international bodies. Of course national governments can set their own standards and FACT
recommendsthesestandardstobefeasibleforruralpeople,smallfarmersandworkshops,not
imposingthemwithalltypeofconditionsthatonlybringbureaucracy,andnooutput.Toset
up projects by local organisations that are socially, economically, environmentally and
technically viable already requires major efforts. FACT recommends setting standards in the
planning phase as some of the standards can be relatively simply addressed without
consequences.

6.4

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

References
GEXSI,http://www.jatrophaplatform.org/documents/GEXSI_GlobalJatropha
Study_ABSTRACT.pdf(p.14).
BiocombustiblesYoroSociedadAnnima,abiofuelprocessingenterprisepromotedby
theFACTGotaVerdeproject.Seewww.gotaverde.organdwww.factfoundation.com
FUNDER(FoundationfortheDevelopmentofRuralEntrepreneurship).See:
www.funder.hn.
GEXSI(2008),GlobalMarketStudyonJatropha,FinalReportAbstract,p.28.
http://www.jatrophaplatform.org/documents/GEXSI_GlobalJatropha
Study_ABSTRACT.pdf
Seehttp://www.malibiocarburant.com/
See:http://www.factfoundation.com/media_en/Major_findings_seminar_Chimoiofora
reportonthemajorfindingsofChimoioWorkshop,Nov2008.
Althoughsomeliteraturesuggestssmallscalebiogasbottlingisnotimpossible.See:
www.idosi.org/wasj/wasj1(2)/12.pdfforafeasibilitystudyonafacilityinPakistan.
SeeforexampletheexperienceinZambia:
http://www.umb.no/statisk/noragric/publications/master/2008_lars_olav_freim.pdf(p.
30)
Perspective:Jatrophabiodieselfuelingsustainability,WMJAchtenandothers,Biofuels,
bioproducts&biorefining,ISSN:1932104X,2007

10. SmallscaleProductionandUseofLiquidbiofuelsinSubSaharanAfrica:Perspectivesfor
Sustainabledevelopment,Backgroundpaperno.2,UNDESA,CommissiononSustainable
Development,NewYork,2007

116


11. Jatropha literature and perspectives review: Main potential social and environmental
impactsarisingfromlargescaleplantations,May2008,Proforestltd.

12. FACTpositionpaper

Recommendedliteratureforsustainability

1 Beleidsnotitiemilieuenhernieuwbareenergieinontwikkelingssamenwerking,Ministryof
ForeignAffairs,November2008

2 FACT reactie op Heldergroene Biomassa, Stichting Natuur en Milieu, www.fact


foundation.com,30januari2008

3 Empowering rural communities by planting energy, Roundtable on bioenergy enterprise


indevelopingregions,backgroundpaper,UNEP,2008

4 RoundtableonSustainableBiofuels,Globalprinciplesandcriteriaforsustainablebiofuels
production,versionzero,colepolytechniquefdraledeLausanne,EnergyCenter,2008.
Title: Version Zero Principles for sustainable biofuels Version 0.0 (August 2008) RSB
SteeringBoard(http://cgse.epfl.ch/Jahia/site/cgse/op/edit/lang/en/pid/70341)

5 Thestateoffoodandagriculture,biofuels:prospects,risksandopportunities,FAO,2008,
ISSN00814539

6 DiscussionNote:SustainableBiomassforPovertyReductionetc,19/07/07tbvFoodand
EnergyWorkshopWR

7. 2productphilosophyprof.KeesDaeyOuwens

117

118

A.

PLANTATIONESTABLISHMENTANDMANAGEMENT

TableA1withdrawalofnutrientsofonetonofdryseedofJatrophacomparedwithoilseedcrops.
Source:firstthreecropsPlantnutritionforfoodsecurity,FAOchapter8

Oilseedrape
Sunflower
Groundnuts
Jatropha

Seeds
Seeds
pods
dryseeds
Production
kg/ha/yr
1000
1000
1000
1000

N
kg
93
37
55
33
P2O5
kg
37
25
14
4
K2O
kg
100
110
23
27
Ca
kg
0

7
Mg
kg
11
20
11
5
S
kg
26
0
8
2

TableA2Yieldsincaseof:Optimalwatersupply(rainfall12001500mm)
Wet Fruit
Power
Shells
Output
Soil
DrySeeds
Oil
Presscake
(kg/ha/yr) (kg/ha/yr) (kg/ha/yr) (kWh/ha/yr)
Fertility Bioenergy
(kg/ha/yr)
High
yield(kg)
6000
18000
1200
4800
n.a.

biogas(m3)
n.a.
600
n.a.
2400
n.a.

electricity(kWh)
n.a.
1200
4998
4800
10998
Medium yield(kg)
2500
7500
500
2000
n.a.

biogas(m3)
n.a.
250
n.a.
1000
n.a.

electricity(kWh)
n.a.
500
2083
2000
4583
Low
yield(kg)
750
2250
150
600
n.a.

biogas(m3)
n.a.
75
n.a.
300
n.a.

electricity(kWh)
n.a.
150
625
600
1375

TableA3YieldsincaseofNormalwatersupply(rainfall7001200mmor15002500mm).
Soil
Bioenergy
Dry
Seeds Wet Fruit Oil
(kg/ Presscake
Power
Fertility
(kg/ha/yr)
Shells
ha/yr)
(kg/ha/yr) Output
(kg/ha/yr)
(kWh/ha/yr)
High
yield(kg)
3500
10500
700
2800
n.a.

biogas(m3)
n.a.
350
n.a.
1400
n.a.

electricity(kWh)
n.a.
700
2916
2800
6416
Medium yield(kg)
1500
4500
300
1200
n.a.

biogas(m3)
n.a.
150
n.a.
600
n.a.

electricity(kWh)
n.a.
300
1250
1200
2750
Low
yield(kg)
500
1500
100
400
n.a.

biogas(m3)
n.a.
50
n.a.
200
n.a.

electricity(kWh)
n.a.
100
417
400
917

A1


TabelA4Incaseofsuboptimalwatersupply(rainfall500700mmor>2500mm)
Wet Fruit
Soil
Dry Seeds Shells
Oil
(kg/ Presscake
Fertility Bioenergy
(kg/ha/yr)
(kg/ha/yr) ha/yr)
(kg/ha/yr)
High
yield(kg)
1500
4500
300
1200

biogas(m3)
n.a.
150
n.a.
600

electricity(kWh)
n.a.
300
1250
1200
Medium yield(kg)
750
2250
150
600

biogas(m3)
n.a.
75
n.a.
300

electricity(kWh)
n.a.
150
625
600
Low
yield(kg)
250
750
50
200

biogas(m3)
n.a.
25
n.a.
100

electricity(kWh)
n.a.
50
208
200

Power
Output
(kWh/ha/yr)
n.a.
n.a.
2750
n.a.
n.a.
1375
n.a.
n.a.
458

TabelA5PestandDiseasesinJatrophacurcas
Name
Aphthonaspp.(goldenfleabeetle)
AphthonadilutipesJacoby(yellowfleabeetle)
Phytophthoraspp.,Pythiumspp.,Fusarium
spp.,etc.
Fusariummoniliforme
Helminthosporiumtetramera
Pestalotiopsisparaguarensis
Pestalotiopsisversicolor
Cercosporajatrophaecurces
Julussp.(millipede)
Oedaleussenegalensis(locust)
Lepidopteraelarvae
Pinnaspisstrachani(cushionscale)
Ferrisiavirgata(woollyaphid)
Calideadregei(bluebug)
Nezaraviridula(greenstinkbug)
Spodopteralitura
Indarbelaspp.
Clitocybetabescens
Colletotrichumgloeosporioides
Phakopsorajatrophicola
Macrophominaphaseolina
Rhizoctoniabataticola
PachycorisklugiiBurmeister(Scutelleridae)
Leptoglossuszonatus(Coreidae)
Achaeajanata
Stomphastisthraustica(blisterminer)

A2

Damageandsymptoms
leafdamage,larvaedamageroots
severeleaf&rootdamage,dieoff
dampingoff,rootrot

Source

leafspots
leafspots
leafspots
leafspots
leafspots
totallossofseedlings
leaves,seedlings
galleriesinleaves
diebackofbranches
diebackofbranches
suckingonfruits,prematurefruit
abortionandmalformedseeds
suckingonfruits,prematurefruit
abortionandmalformedseeds
larvalfeedingonleaves
barkdamage
rootrot
leafspot
rust
collarrot
collarrot
suckingonfruits,prematurefruit
abortionandmalformedseeds
suckingonfruits,prematurefruit
abortionandmalformedseeds

leafdamage

[4]
[5]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[3]
[3]
[3]
[8]
[8]
[8]

[1]&[2]
[1]&[2]
[3]

[8]
[9]
[10]
[10]
[10]
[10]
[11]&[4]
[11]
[12]
[12]
[13]
[13]

B.

HARVESTING

B.1 Rulesofthumb
TherulesofThumbfortheharvestingprocessinpracticeare:
Measure on spot in existing plantations the yield of dry seed picking per hour, asking a
numberofpeopletopick;
LookatexistingJatrophafieldswhichareinproduction,topredicttheyieldcurveoverthe
year.Thiscangiveagoodunderstandingforthepredictionofyourownfieldsyieldand
storageneeds;
DonotenterinJatrophaproductioninanareawherelaborcostsexceedUS$4,/day;
Mostlikelyitwouldbemoreattractiveforafarmertopaylaborbytheseedcollectedas
byhourorday;
Jatropha in high yielding fields will require approximately 8 hours/ person for the
collectionofca60kg;
Provide the pickers with proper tools and baskets and train them on how to pick most
effectively;
wherelaboriscostly,experimentingwithlineplantingswithtractorpassagespacingand
pickingcartsisworthwhile;
BulkdensityofJatrophaseedsisapprox400kg/m;
Onehacanyield0to6MTofseedperha/ainthefourthyearofestablishment,butthe
high value is only under optimal nutrient/soil and climate and water conditions and
selected high yielding seed. So it is all about inputs and costs, and balancing the
economicsofreturnoninvestment!

B.2 Tipsandtricks
Sometipsaregivenhereunderwithrelationtopostharvest:
CarefulplanningisamusttomakeJatrophagrowsuccessfully;
Optimize yields of Jatropha: very high nutrient gifts might not be worthwhile; however
when no nutrients will be given depletion will take place, and yields will gradually go
down;
Looking at experiences in the region with Jatropha, interviewing the farmers and press
ownerswillgiveinsightinbothpositiveandnegativefactorsingrowingJatropha.Much
canbelearnttopreventthesameerrors.

B1

B2

C.

OILPRESSINGANDPURIFICATION

C.1 Practicalexperiencewithpressesandjatropha
Researchinstitutes,small&mediumEnterprisesandprivatepartieshavegainedexperiencein
mechanical pressing of Jatropha Curcas seeds over the last years. A short overview of the
findingsfromsomeactivitiesispresentedbelow[1,5,8]:

C.1.1 Mali:FACTjatrophaprojectsinBamakoandGaralo,January2008
In a progress report Mara Wijnker, M.Sc., FACT Team member reports: Currently for tests a
smallpresswithcapacityof14litres/hourisavailable.Thiswaslocallyproducedbythemilitary
workshopinBamako.Thepresshasdifficultywithpressingtheseedswhentheyareolder(and
dryer)andbecauseoftheirhardness.

C.1.2 Honduras:GotaVerdeprojectupdateJanuary2008
ATaby40ApresswasimportedfromSwedeninOctober2007.Thepresshasbeentestedin
the CEVER: the press capacity is about 20 kg of dry Jatropha seed per hour. The oil yield
obtainedwasrelativelylow(20%).Moreinvestigationisnecessarytodetermineifthisisdue
tothelowoilcontentoftheseedsortheefficiencyofthepress.Moreover,thepressheaddid
notholdthepressureandbrokeintotwoparts.Theexactreasonforthisdamageisstillunder
investigation.

C.1.3.Honduras:GotaVerdeproject
JoostFokkinkfromBiofuelsBVsetuplocalproductionanduseofacylinderholetypeoilpress
inHondurasfortheGotaVerdeproject.ThepressisbasedontheTbyandBTdesigns.The
processing capacity is 8.5 kg/hr at 23% oil yield. Some adaptations have to be made for
jatrophaasthefirstprototypewasdamagedafterpressingasmallamountofjatrophaseeds.

C.1.4 Denmark:Dajolka
NielsAnshasonbehalfofDajolkabeeninvolvedinbiofuelactivitiesformanyyears.Nielsdid
someexperimentswithJatrophaseedsinaBT50screwpress.Hismainfindingswerethatthe
pressoperatesbetterwhenseedsarecrushedbeforetheyarefedtothepress.Furthermore
hereportedlargequantitiesofsedimentsintheoilthatcamefromthepressmakingfurther
treatmentoftheoilmoredifficult.

C.1.5 Netherlands:EindhovenUniversityofTechnology
In2007PeterBeerensdidhisMScthesisonscrewpressingofJatrophaCurcasforapplication
in developing countries. From practical tests at Eindhoven University of Technology and at
DiligentEnergyTanzaniasomesignificantinsightsinthisprocesswereobtained.Jatrophatests
wereconductedwiththefollowingpresses:
BTBioPressType50(cylinderholepress),withacapacityof12kgJatropha/hr
Sayariexpeller(strainerpress),withacapacityof70kgJatropha/hr
KEKKellerP0101(strainerpress),withacapacityof70kgJatropha/hr
ReinartzAP08(strainerpress),withacapacityof300kgJatropha/hr

Themostimportantfindingsofthepresstestswhere:
Thestrainerpresshassuperiorcharacteristicsfromanoperationalpointofview.Thebig
sizeoftheJatrophaseedsandtherelativelyhighamountofhullcausethecylinderhole

C1

press to yam more frequent. In case of jamming the strainer press is also more easily
cleanedthanthecylinderholepress.
With proper press settings an oil recovery of around 85% can be achieved. This means
that85%oftheoilpresentintheseedsisremoved,whichcomesdownto35litersofraw
oilfrom100kg.Afterfiltering2528litersofreadytousecleanoilremains.Thisnumber
isequalforbothstrainerpressesandcylinderholepresses.
All tests revealed a high amount of sediments varying between 2060%. This sediment
contains approximately 50% of oil. Either a reduction in the amount of sediment or a
filteringmethodsuitedtosuchhighamountsofsolidmaterialwouldinpotentialincrease
theamountofcleanoilby1015percentpoints.
Bestefficiencieswereachievedatlowrevolutions(3040RPMfortheBT50).Offcourse
thismeanslowerthroughputinkg/hr.Optimizingthenozzlesizeleadstoanincreaseinoil
recovery of around 10% for a cylinder hole press and up to 6% for a strainer press. In
addition to the press settings seed conditioning will also affect the oil recovery. Oil
recovery appeared highest for low seed moisture level (24%) and whole seeds without
dehulling.
No consistent results were found on the effect of moisture level and pressing
temperatureonoilquality.
Itisexpectedthatoiltemperaturesabove70Cincreasetheamountofphosphorintheoil
andfurthertestsareneededtoconfirmthis.

C.1.6 Netherlands: Wageningen University and Research centre, Department Food


TechnologyCentre
TheWURhasstartedaresearchprogramforJatrophapressingattheendof2007.Theirchoice
touseastrainerpressfromDeSmetRosedowns(MINI200)supportsthesuggestionbyPeter
BeerensthatastrainerpressispreferredforpressingJatrophaCurcasseeds.CurrentlyWUR
commencedpracticaltestingwiththeMINI200andaimstomakeanimprovedJatrophapress
design.

C.1.7.Germany:MaschinenfabrikReinartzGmbH&Co.KG
In June 2006 Maschinenfabrik Reinartz GmbH & Co. KG conducted test runs on Jatropha
togetherwithPeterBeerens.Resultsshowedanoilrecoveryof90%underimprovedsettings.

C.1.8 Germany:EgonKellerGMBH&CoKG
InJune2006EgonKeller GMBHCO KG conductedtestrunsonJatrophatogether withPeter
Beerens.Resultsshowedanoilrecoveryof80%undernormalsettings.Testsshowinghigher
oil yield were also done, however Keller advised not to use these settings as machine wear
woulddrasticallyincreaseduetothehighpressuresandfriction.

C.1.9 Honduras:FACTpilotprojectGotaVerde
InApril2008,apresswasconstructedlocallyinHonduras,allbasedondrawingsprovidedby
JoostFokkink(www.biofuels.nl).ThedesignwasbasedonaTabyType70,cylinderholepress.
Duringthefirstteststhepressranat50%ratedspeed,approximately25Hz.Atthatspeedthe
presshadacapacityof8.5kgJatropaperhour.Atanefficiencyof22.8%cleanoil.Usingcastor
acapacityof13kg/hrwasachievedwithanefficiencyof28%.

C.1.10 Mozambique:FACTpilotprojectMozambiquewithPrivatefarmEVRETZinChimoio
BrendonEvansonbehalfofEVRETZ,pressescottonseedswithtwo6YL95pressestypeDouble
Elephants,madeinChina.OneofthemwasboughtviaATAinZimbabweandtheotheronein
South Africa. The one from Zimbabwe is performing best. His experience with these strainer

C2


pressesisthattheoilyieldisquitelow(nospecificnumberavailable).Crushingtheseeds(e.g.
withahammermill)appearedtoimprovetheoilrecovery.Afterashorttimeofoperationthe
bearingswerewornoutandBrendonreplacedthebearingsforSKFones.Hereportedin2008
thatthepressesperformquitewell.Maintenanceisrestrictedtoreplacingthecompleteworm
(whichisinparts)withinoneyear.

He knows about 10 of these presses with various owners in the region, who are also quite
satisfiedaboutthepresses.

C3

C.2Overviewpressmanufacturers

C4

D.
D.1.

APPLICATIONSOFJATROPHAPRODUCTS
Stovefactsheets

D.1.1 Protosplantoilburner

Source: Report: Plant oil cooking stove for developing


countries, ElmarStumpf andWerner Mhlhausen,Institute
for Agricultural Engineering in the Tropics and Subtropics,
HohenheimUniversity,Stuttgart,Germany.
http://w1.siemens.com/responsibility/en/sustainable/Prot
os.htm
http://www.bshgroup.com/index.php?page=109906

Introduction
ThePROTOSplantoilstovewasdevelopedbyBSH(BoschandSiemensHausgerteGmbH)
in 2004. This unusual stove can be fueled by unrefined and refined vegetable oils such as
coconutoil,sunfloweroil,rapeseedoil,jatrophaoil,castoroil,cottonseedoilandpeanutoil.
Except for the burner, this stove can be produced locally thereby creating labor. Over 500
ProtosstoveshavebeentestedinthePhilippines,India,Indonesia,GuatemalaandTanzania.
Thewaythe plantoilstoveworksisquitesimple.Anairpumpbuildspressurewithinatank
filled with oil. As a result, the oil is forced into a stainless steel vaporizer tube, where it is
vaporizedbytheapplicationofheat.Anethanolpreheaterisinstalledbelowthenozzleascan
also be found in most small burners used by hikers. The nowvaporized fuel is channeled
through a nozzle, mixes with ambient air in the combustion chamber and produces a blue
flame.Theoilairmixturehastobepreheatedto180260Cbeforeignitionoccurs.Theflame
strengthcanberegulatedbymeansofavalveintheoilline.DisadvantageoftheProtosstove
is the high noise level when burning (Pflanzenlkocher sollen den Regenwald retten,
Handelsblatt,8juni,2006)

Specifications
Suppliersdata:BSH(BoschandSiemensHausgerteGmbH)
Dealers in countries: The Protos has been tested in the Philippines, India, Indonesia,
SouthAfricaandTanzania.
Capacity:1.63.8kW,fuelefficiency4050%
Howisqualityofoutputmeasuredand/orchecked?Researchbysupplier.
Requiredinputpower:2litersoilperweekforafamilyof45>100litersperyear
Operationalrequirements:1personduringcooking.
Required maintenance and spare parts: frequent cleaning of the burner each time the
burnerisused.
Downtimeformaintenance:unknown
Overalldimensions:approx30x30x30cm
Costs:intendedsellingpriceof30(ElmarStumpf,BSHBosch)
Emissions:tentimeslowerthanwithhighqualitykerosene
Questions
Howmanyinstalled?>500,testedin>100householdsinPhilippines
Howmanyareoperational?unknown
Whoissupplyingthisequipment?BSHBoschandSiemensHausgerteGmbH

D1

Ease, speed and reliability of supply chain, for new equipment and for spare parts?
Cooking time reduced 3040% compared to wood fired stoves (Protos. The plant oil
stove,BSHBoschandSiemensHausgerteGmbH).
Training of operators possible? Given by whom? BSH Bosch and Siemens Hausgerte
GmbH
Userexperiences?AccordingtoBSHBoschtheintroductioninTanzaniawassuccessfulas
peoplewerepositiveabouttheProtos.

D.1.2 Kakutestove

Source:http://www.bioenergylists.org/kakutestove

Introduction
TheKakutestovehasbeendevelopedbyKakutein
collaborationwithTirdo(TanzaniaIndustrialResearchand
DevelopmentOrganization).Thereisnoclearinformation
astowhetherthestoveshavebeencommerciallysold.
GTZtestedtheKakutestovesinMadagascarwithGreenMad.Thestovewasprovidedby
SOLTECandtheoilbyERIlocatedinFianarantsoa.Themaingoalofthetestwastofindwicks
thataresuitableforjatropha.Thebestresultswereobtainedwithwicksfrompetroleum
lampsandcrpe.Evenwiththesewickstheflamedimsafter1525minutes.Thewater
temperatureinmostcasesdoesnotincreasebeyond80C(ErikJanRodenhuis,Werkgroep
Ontwikkelingstechnieken).

Specifications
Suppliersdata:KakutetogetherwithTirdo
Dealersincountries:Tanzania.
Capacity:unknown
Howisqualityofoutputmeasuredand/orchecked?unknown
Requiredinputpower:unknown
Operationalrequirements:1personduringcooking.
Requiredmaintenanceandspareparts:unknown
Downtimeformaintenance:unknown
Overalldimensions:approx30x30x30cm
Costs:unknown

Questions
Howmanyinstalled?none
Howmanyareoperational?none
Whoissupplyingthisequipment?KakutetogetherwithTirdo
Ease,speedandreliabilityofsupplychain,fornewequipmentandforspareparts?unknown
Trainingofoperatorspossible?Givenbywhom?Unknown,probablybyKakute
Userexperiences?unknown

D2

D.1.3 UB16JatrophacurcasLseedsstove

Source:http://www.fierna.com/English/UB16.htm

Introduction:
ThisstoveisfiredwithJatrophaseedsinsteadofitsoil.Theseed
hullhastoberemovedforbetterburningastheenergycontent
perunitmassishigherfortheseedkernel.

Specifications:
Suppliersdata:unknown
Dealersincountries:unknown
Capacity:maximum300grseeds
Howisqualityofoutputmeasuredand/orchecked?Itneeds8minutestoboil1500mlof
water.Energyefficiencyhasbeencalculatedat58%basedontheheatingtimefor1literof
water.
Requiredinputpower:200gofpeeledseedsareabletofire60minutes.Basedon1015liter
water boiling per day per family the total energy can be supplied by 100150 kg of Jatropha
CurcasLseedsperfamilyyear.
Operationalrequirements:1personduringcooking.
Requiredmaintenanceandspareparts:unknown
Downtimeformaintenance:unknown
Weight:12kg
Overalldimensions:27x27x27cm
Costs:unknown

Questions
Howmanyinstalled?none
Howmanyareoperational?none
Whoissupplyingthisequipment?unknown
Ease,speedandreliabilityofsupplychain,fornewequipmentandforspareparts?unknown
Trainingofoperatorspossible?Givenbywhom?unknown
Userexperiences?unknown

Inadditiontothethreestovesmentionedabovesomeinformationwasfoundonotherstove
designs.Asthedetailleveloftheinformationwasverylimited,imagesofthestovesare
representedbelowinfigure5inordertoprovidethereaderwithcreativeideas.

D3

NaturStove

HanjuangstoveJava

Stove on Jatropha paste StovefromITB


WestNusaTenggara
www.jatropha.de

Butterflybrandstoves
www.jatropha.de

TheKakutestove,Tanzania

Aristo stove from Grupo Ari SA,


SantoDomingo,DominicanRepublic
(Erik Jan Rodenhuis, Werkgroep
OntwikkelingsTechnieken).

D.2 Recipeforsoap
Theoutlineoftherecipeisasfollows:
Prepare a solution of the caustic soda by dissolving the soda into the water (never mix
thesecomponentstheotherwayaroundriskofburning!)
Stir until everything has dissolved. The bowl will get hot, cool it using cold water at the
outside,orjustletitcooldownforawhile.
Pour the oil into a bowl and put it beside the bowl of caustic soda solution. Pour the
causticsodasolutionslowlyintotheoil,stirringallthetime.
Immediately the mixture will go white and soon it becomes creamy. Continue stirring
until the mixture is like mayonnaise. This is the moment to add additives like glycerine,
perfumeetc.
If the mixture is still creamy, pour it into a mould, where it can harden overnight. The
mouldscanbemadefromawoodentrayoracardboardbox,linedwithaplasticsheet.
Alternatively,considerusingconvenientandattractiveshapeslikesmallplasticbowls.
Themixturehardensovernightintropicaltemperatures,orinseveraldaysintemperate
regions.Thenitcanbereleasedfromthemouldandcutifnecessary.Forgoodsaleand
usethepiecesofsoapshouldnotbelargerthan150gramor6to8to2cm.
Evenafterthisfirsthardeningthesoapcontinuestomatureforsometime.Itshouldbe
storedforsometwoweeksonshelfbeforesale.
Wrappingthesoapintoanicepaperorclearplasticwilladdgreatlytoitssalesvalue!
Lastbutnot least,dontforgetto cleanall the usedutensilsproperly,ascausticsodais
ratheraggressiveandJatrophaPPOistoxic.

D4


D.2.1 RuralSoap
Another,moreruralandworldwideapplicablerecipeforsoapmakingisasfollows1:

Youwouldneedthefollowingingredients:(amountintheindicatedratios)
MilledJatrophakernel(100)
Nicedryash(50)
Water(20)
Threepans(onewithaholeinthebottom)
Acloth
Fireplace
Optional:otheroilsoranimalfats

Theactionsareaccordingthefollowingprocess:
1.
Heatupapotwithwater;itisnotnecessarytoboilit,butitshouldbequitehot.
2.
Placeaclothontopoftheopeningofanotherpanandfilltheclothwithash(Similarto
fillingacoffeefilterwithcoffee).
3.
Slowlypourthehotwaterontheclothwiththeashtomakeastrongabstractofash
water. It is important that the abstract is quite strong. This can be checked simply by
tastingthespicinessoftheabstractbyputtingasmalldroponthetipofyourtongue.
(Becarefull,dontswallow)
4.
Putthemilledjatrophakernelinapanandputitonalowfire
5.
Ifdesiredothertypesoffatscanbeaddtothejatrophakernel.
6.
Slowlyaddtheashabstracttothejatrophakernel
7.
Mixslowly
8.
Thejatrophakernelwillslowlyabsorbtheashliquid.Keeponaddingtheashliquiduntil
thefatsaretotallyconverted.Thisisapatientprocesswhichshouldbedoneonlowfire.
9.
Afteritgetsamoresolidform,ballscanbemade.
10. Afterthreedaysthesesoapballsarereadytouse.

The soap balls are famous for their dandruff curing effect and their general cleaning
properties.

D2.2 Watercontenttestandacidtest
1. Totestforwatercontent,heatabout0,5litreoftheoilinasaucepanonthestoveand
monitor the temperature with a thermometer. With more than 30% water in it, it will
starttomakecracklingsoundsfromabout50C.Ifitsstillnotcracklingby6065Cthere
should be no need to dewater it. To remove the water, keep the oil at 60 C for 15
minutes and then pour the oil into a settling tank. Let it settle for at least 24 hours,
allowing the water to sink to the bottom. Then pour or drain the oil from above. Make
sureyouneveremptythesettlingvesselmorethan90%.
2. Totesttheacid(FFA)contentyouneedtoperformatitrationoftheoilwithlyeandan
indicator.Thismeansyoucarefullyaddsmalldropsoflyetopreparedoiluntilalltheacid
inthetestmixturehasbeenneutralized.Thenyoucancalculatehowmuchextralyewill
beneededtoneutralizetheFFAintheconversion.Youllneedsomebasickitchenwareas
well as a syringe with ml indication and some basic chemicals: deionized water, NaOH,
isopropanol and phenolphthalein. Heres how to test: Dissolve 1 gram of pure sodium
hydroxidelye(NaOH)in1litreofdistilledordeionizedwater(0,1%w/vNaOHsolution)
(weighttovolume).Inasmallerbeaker,dissolve1mlofdewateredoilin10mlofpure
isopropylalcohol(isopropanol).Warmthebeakergentlybystandingitinsomehotwater,

ThisrecipeisbasedoncollectedinformationinruralzoneofHonduras:Yorodepartment

D5


stir until all the oil dissolves in the alcohol and the mixture turns clear. Add 2 drops of
phenolphthalein solution (acidity indicator). Using a graduated syringe, add the 0,1%
NaOH solution drop by drop to the oilalcoholphenolphthalein solution, stirring all the
time. It might turn a bit cloudy, keep stirring. Keep on carefully adding the lye solution
until the solution stays pink (actually magenta) for 15 seconds. Take the number of
millilitresof0,1%lyesolutionyouusedandadd3,5(thebasicamountoflyeneededfor
freshoil).Thisisthenumberofgramsoflyeyou'llneedperlitreofoiltoprocesstheoil.
For used oil these same precautions and preparations hold, usually used oils quality is
worse than fresh oils, leading to frequent need for dewatering and determination of
acidity.

D.3 PracticalexperienceandpotentialproblemswithPPOinengines
Fuelfordieselengineshastocomplywithacertainqualitytopreventoperationalproblems.
Withoutproperoilcleaningthefollowingcanoccurinadieselengine[1]:

Erosionofpistonheadandinletport;
Increasedwearofpistonrings;
Polymerisationoflubricationoil;
Cavitationsandcorrosionintheinjectorsduetotoomuchwaterintheoil;
Incompletecombustionwithexcessnoise,smellandemissionsduetohighviscosity;
FailureofinjectorsduetohighFFAcontent;
Abrasiveeffectonfuelinjectorsandcombustionchambersduetophosphor;
Frequentcloggingofenginefuelfilterduetophosphorandsolids;

Somespecificexperienceshavebeenoutlinedbelow[5]:

Netherlands/Mozambique:FACTproject
At the end of 2008 Ger Groeneveld from PPO Groeneveld conducted several tests for oil
cleaningandenginetesting.HehasadjustedtwoenginestorunonPPO;a17kWListerST3
andan18kWFeidong295GJ.Endurancetestswereperformedwithbothengines.A500hour
testwiththeListeronmainlysunfloweroilshowednofuelrelatedproblems.Theviscosityof
sunflower(17.1cSat38C)issomewhatlowerthanthatofjatropha(3754cSat30C).

ThehighviscosityofJatrophaoilcancauseenginestorunshortonfuel.Dieselengineshave
beendesignedforviscositiesof1.72.4cS.Whentheenginerunsshortoffuelthiscandamage
thepistonseninjectornozzleswillnotsprayproperlyorevenclog.Theviscosityofvegetable
oilscanbereducedbyheating.Viscositiesbelow5cSareacceptableformostdieselengines
[5].

If the level of FFA is above 3%, there is a risk of engine damage by corrosion. Corrosion
problemsarerelevantforenginesthatrunintermittent.Oxygenthenhasachangetocatalyze
corrosion.TheacidinthePPOwilletchoffanyprotectivelayersthatnormallypreventerosion.

MichaelAllan(2002)
ConductedendurancetestswithaKabotadieselonpalmoil.Onrefinedpalmoiltheengine
ran perfectly for over 2000 hours. Refining included deguming and neutralization. On crude
palmoilhowever,theenginebrokedownafter300hoursandagainafter550.Boththeinlet
portandpistonheadappearedbadlyeroded,thepistonringswerewornandthelubrication
oilhadpolymerized.Theseareclearlyeffectsofpoorfuelquality[5].

D6

Colombia,Aprotec
Mauricio Gnecco found much carbon on the indirect injection prechamber when using well
filteredpalmoil. Usersofanother10HPListerenginereported aburnedheatsealwhen the
engine broke down. Analysis by Mauricio again showed high carbon deposits on the indirect
injectionprechamberthroat.
D.4 Propertiesofoilandfats
Allvegetableoilsandanimalfatsdocontaindifferentmixturesofthefollowingbasicoil
components:

TableD1contentofcommonvegetableoils2
Acid
ElementaryFormula
ConstitutionalFormula
Lauric
C12H24O2
CH3(CH2)10COOH
Myristic
C14H28O2
CH3(CH2)12COOH
Palmitic
C16H32O2
CH3(CH2)14COOH
Stearic
C18H36O2
CH3(CH2)16COOH
Oleic
C18H34O2
CH3(CH2)14(CH)2COOH
Linoleic
C18H32O2
CH3(CH2)12(CH)4COOH
Linolenic
C18H30O2
CH3(CH2)10(CH)6COOH

Systematicname
C12:0
C14:0
C16:0
C18:0
C18:1
C18:2
C18:3

TableD2Percentagesofthemoreimportantfattyacidsincommonlyusedfatsandoils3,4.
Fatoroil
Lauric
Myristic
Palmitic
Stearic
Oleic
Linoleic Linolenic
Jatropha

1020
510
3050
3050

Coconut
45
20
5
3
6

Palmkernel
55
12
6
4
10

Tallow(beef)

2
29.0
24.5
44.5

Tallow(mutton)

2
27.2
25.0
43.1
2.7

Lard

24.6
15.0
50.4
10.0

Olive

14.6

75.4
10.0

Arachis(peanut)

8.5
6.00
51.6
26.0

Cottonseed

23.4

31.6
45.0

Maize

6.0
2.0
44.0
48.0

Linseed

3
6.0

74.0
17.0
Soybean

11.0
2.0
20.0
64.0
3.0

D.5 Propertiesofbiodiesel
Thefollowingtablegivesasummaryofbiodieselpropertiesfordifferentfeedstock.Whenfats
andoilsareconvertedtobiodiesel(FAMEorFAEE),itspropertiesdochange.Thepropertiesin
thetablearemoreorlessgeneralforaspecificfeedstock.Otherfeatureslikeacidnumberand
content of ash, sludge and water are highly variable per batch, season or geography. All
parameters have their relevance for shelf life, handling and use, engine power and lifetime,
fuelconsumption,etc.ThetableshowsCN(cetanenumber)thatdeterminesignitionquality,
LHV (lower heating value) that states the energy content, viscosity, cold plug point (CP) and
pourpoint(PP)thatarerelevantforcoldweatheruse,andflashpoint(FP)thatisrelatedto
safety.

2 CRC55theditionofHandbookofchemistryandphysics.
3 E.T.Webb,OilsandFatsinSoapManufacture,SoapGazetteandPerfumer,October1,1926,xxviii,302
4 Heller(1996):PhysicNut

D7


TableD3Fuelrelatedphysicalpropertiesofestersofoilsandfats5
CP
Feedstock
CN
LHV
Viscosity
(degC)
(MJ/kg)
(mm2/s)
Cottonseed7
Rapeseed8
Safflower9
Soybean10
Sunflower11
Tallow12

51.2
54.4
49.8
46.2
46.6

40,4
40,0
39,8
39,8
39,9

Palm13
Soybean
Tallow14

56.2
48.2

39,1
40,0

Methylesters
6.8(21C)
6.7(40C)

4.08(40C)
4.22(C)
4.11(40C)
Ethylesters
4.5(37.8C)
4.41(40C)

PP
(degC)

FP
(degC)

2
0
12

4
9
6
1
4
9

110
84
180
171

96

8
1
15

6
4
12

190
174

Many parameters of fossil diesel fuel are about the same. Its viscosity is a bit lower (easier
flowing)soheatingupofbiodieselwillbeadvantageoustoreduceitsviscosity.Thecoldplug
point, the point a fuel filter will be blocked by solid fat or wax, is higher for biodiesel, so a
heated fuel filter will be advantageous as well. But given the figures of biodiesel compared
withdailyoutsidetemperaturesinforexampleHonduras,noproblemsregardingcoldweather
propertiesofbiodieselaretobeexpected.

5 G.Knothe,R.O.Dunn,andM.O.Bagby,inFuelsandChemicalsfromBiomass.Washington,D.C.:American
ChemicalSociety.
6 Someflashpointsareverylow.Thesemaybetypographicalerrorsinthereferencesorthematerialsmayhave
containedresidualalcohols.
7 Geyer,S.M.;Jacobus,M.J.;Lestz,S.S.Trans.ASAE1984,27,375381.
8 Peterson,C.L.;Korus,R.A;Mora,P.G.;Madsen,J.P.Trans.ASAE,1987,30,2835.
9 Isiigr,A.;Karaosmanolu,F.;Aksoy,H.A.;Hamdallahpur,F.;Glder,.L.Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol.1994,4546,
93102.
10 Bagby,M.O.InProc.9thInt.Conf.JojobaUses,3rdInt.Conf.NewIndustr.CropsProd.;Princen,L.H.,Rossi,C.,
Eds.;Assoc.Advancem.Industr.Crops.publ.1996;pp.220224.
11 Kaufman,K.R.;Ziejewski,M.Trans.ASAE1984,27,16261633.
12 Ali,Y.;Hanna,M.A.;Cuppett,S.L.J.Am.OilChem.Soc.1995,72,15571564.
13 Avella,F.;Galtieri,A.;Fiumara,A.Riv.Combust.1992,46,181188.
14 Nelson,L.A.;Foglia,T.A.;Dunn,R.O.;Marmer,W.N.submittedforpublication.

D8


D.5.1 MaterialSafetyDataSheetMethylAlcohol,ReagentACS,99.8%(GC)
ACC#95294
Section1ChemicalProductandCompanyIdentification
MSDSName:MethylAlcohol,ReagentACS,99.8%(GC)
Catalog Numbers: AC423950000, AC423950010, AC423950020, AC423955000, AC9541632,
AC423952
Synonyms: Carbinol; Methanol; Methyl hydroxide; Monohydroxymethane; Pyroxylic spirit;
Woodalcohol;Woodnaptha;Woodspirit;Monohydroxymethane;Methylhydrate.
CompanyIdentification:
AcrosOrganicsN.V.
OneReagentLane
FairLawn,NJ07410
ForinformationinNorthAmerica,call:800ACROS01
ForemergenciesintheUS,callCHEMTREC:8004249300
Section2Composition,InformationonIngredients

CAS#
67561

ChemicalName

Percent

EINECS/ELINCS

99+

2006596

Methylalcohol

HazardSymbols:TF
RiskPhrases:1123/24/2539/23/24/25
Section3HazardsIdentification

EMERGENCYOVERVIEW
Appearance: clear, colorless. Flash Point: 11 deg C. Poison! Cannot be made nonpoisonous.
Causeseyeandskinirritation.Maybeabsorbedthroughintactskin.Thissubstancehascaused
adverse reproductive and fetal effects in animals. Danger! Flammable liquid and vapor.
Harmfulifinhaled.Maybefatalorcauseblindnessifswallowed.Maycausecentralnervous
system depression. May cause digestive tract irritation with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Causesrespiratorytractirritation.Maycauseliver,kidneyandheartdamage.
TargetOrgans:Kidneys,heart,centralnervoussystem,liver,eyes.

PotentialHealthEffects
Eye:Producesirritation,characterizedbyaburningsensation,redness,tearing,inflammation,
andpossiblecornealinjury.Maycausepainfulsensitizationtolight.
Skin:Causesmoderateskinirritation.Maybeabsorbedthroughtheskininharmfulamounts.
Prolongedand/orrepeatedcontactmaycausedefattingoftheskinanddermatitis.
Ingestion:Maybefatalorcauseblindnessifswallowed.Maycausegastrointestinalirritation
with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause systemic toxicity with acidosis. May cause
central nervous system depression, characterized by excitement, followed by headache,
dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea. Advanced stages may cause collapse, unconsciousness,
coma and possible death due to respiratory failure. May cause cardiopulmonary system
effects.

D9


Inhalation: Harmful if inhaled. May cause adverse central nervous system effects including
headache, convulsions, and possible death. May cause visual impairment and possible
permanentblindness.Causesirritationofthemucousmembrane.
Chronic: Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis. Chronic inhalation and
ingestion may cause effects similar to those of acute inhalation and ingestion. Chronic
exposure may cause reproductive disorders and teratogenic effects. Laboratory experiments
have resulted in mutagenic effects. Prolonged exposure may cause liver, kidney, and heart
damage.

Section4FirstAidMeasures

Eyes:Immediatelyflusheyeswithplentyofwaterforatleast15minutes,occasionallylifting
theupperandlowereyelids.Getmedicalaidimmediately.
Skin: Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while
removingcontaminated clothingandshoes.Get medicalaidifirritationdevelopsorpersists.
Washclothingbeforereuse.
Ingestion:Ifvictimisconsciousandalert,give24cupfulsofmilkorwater.Nevergiveanything
bymouthtoanunconsciousperson.Getmedicalaidimmediately.Inducevomitingbygiving
oneteaspoonofSyrupofIpecac.
Inhalation: Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If
breathingisdifficult,giveoxygen.DoNOTusemouthtomouthresuscitation.Ifbreathinghas
ceasedapplyartificialrespirationusingoxygenandasuitablemechanicaldevicesuchasabag
andamask.
NotestoPhysician:Effectsmaybedelayed.Ethanolmayinhibitmethanolmetabolism.

Section5FireFightingMeasures

GeneralInformation:Containerscanbuilduppressureifexposedtoheatand/orfire.Asinany
fire,wearaselfcontainedbreathingapparatusinpressuredemand,MSHA/NIOSH(approved
orequivalent),andfullprotectivegear.Waterrunoffcancauseenvironmentaldamage.Dike
and collect water used to fight fire. Vapors can travel to a source of ignition and flash back.
Duringafire,irritatingandhighlytoxicgasesmaybegeneratedbythermaldecompositionor
combustion. Flammable Liquid. Can release vapors that form explosive mixtures at
temperatures above the flashpoint. Use water spray to keep fireexposed containers cool.
Watermaybeineffective.Materialislighterthanwaterandafiremaybespreadbytheuseof
water.Vaporsmaybeheavierthanair.Theycanspreadalongthegroundandcollectinlowor
confinedareas.Maybeignitedbyheat,sparks,andflame.
ExtinguishingMedia:Forsmallfires,usedrychemical,carbondioxide,watersprayoralcohol
resistantfoam.Usewaterspraytocoolfireexposedcontainers.Watermaybeineffective.For
large fires, use water spray, fog or alcoholresistant foam. Do NOT use straight streams of
water.

Section6AccidentalReleaseMeasures

General Information: Use proper personal protective equipment as indicated in Section 8.


Spills/Leaks: Scoop up with a nonsparking tool, then place into a suitable container for

D10


disposal. Use water spray to disperse the gas/vapor. Remove all sources of ignition. Absorb
spillusinganabsorbent,noncombustiblematerialsuchasearth,sand,orvermiculite.Donot
use combustible materials such as saw dust. Provide ventilation. A vapor suppressing foam
maybeusedtoreducevapors.Waterspraymayreducevaporbutmaynotpreventignitionin
closedspaces.

Section7HandlingandStorage

Handling: Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before
reuse. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Do not breathe dust, vapor,
mist, or gas. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Empty containers retain product
residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid
contactwithheat,sparksandflame.Donotingestorinhale.Useonlyinachemicalfumehood.
Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat,
sparksoropenflames.
Storage:Keepawayfromheat,sparks,andflame.Keepawayfromsourcesofignition.Storein
a cool, dry, wellventilated area away from incompatible substances. Flammablesarea. Keep
containerstightlyclosed.Donotstoreinaluminumorleadcontainers.

Section8ExposureControls,PersonalProtection

EngineeringControls:Useexplosionproofventilationequipment.Facilitiesstoringorutilizing
thismaterialshouldbeequippedwithaneyewashfacilityandasafetyshower.Useadequate
general or local exhaust ventilation to keep airborne concentrations below the permissible
exposurelimits.Useonlyunderachemicalfumehood.
ExposureLimits

ChemicalName
ACGIH
NIOSH
OSHAFinalPELs
Methylalcohol

200 ppm TWA; 250


200ppmTWA;260
ppm STEL; skin
mg/m3TWA6000
potential
for
ppmIDLH
cutaneousabsorption

200ppmTWA;260
mg/m3TWA

OSHA Vacated PELs: Methyl alcohol: 200 ppm TWA; 260 mg/m3 TWA; 250 ppm STEL; 325
mg/m3STEL
PersonalProtectiveEquipment
Eyes:Wearchemicalgoggles.
Skin:Wearappropriateprotectiveglovestopreventskinexposure.
Clothing:Wearappropriateprotectiveclothingtopreventskinexposure.
Respirators:ArespiratoryprotectionprogramthatmeetsOSHA's29CFR 1910.134andANSI
Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace
conditionswarrantarespirator'suse.

Section9PhysicalandChemicalProperties

PhysicalState:Liquid

D11


Appearance:clear,colorless
Odor:alcohollikeweakodor
pH:Notavailable.
VaporPressure:128mmHg@20degC
VaporDensity:1.11(Air=1)
EvaporationRate:5.2(Ether=1)
Viscosity:0.55cP20degC
BoilingPoint:64.7degC@760.00mmHg
Freezing/MeltingPoint:98degC
AutoignitionTemperature:464degC(867.20degF)
FlashPoint:11degC(51.80degF)
DecompositionTemperature:Notavailable.
NFPARating:(estimated)Health:1;Flammability:3;Reactivity:0
ExplosionLimits,Lower:6.0vol%
Upper:36.00vol%
Solubility:miscible
SpecificGravity/Density:.7910g/cm3
MolecularFormula:CH4O
MolecularWeight:32.04

Section10StabilityandReactivity

ChemicalStability:Stableundernormaltemperaturesandpressures.
ConditionstoAvoid:Hightemperatures,incompatiblematerials,ignitionsources,oxidizers.
Incompatibilities with Other Materials: Acids (mineral, nonoxidizing, e.g. hydrochloric acid,
hydrofluoric acid,muriaticacid,phosphoricacid),acids (mineral,oxidizing,e.g.chromicacid,
hypochlorousacid,nitricacid,sulfuricacid),acids(organic,e.g.aceticacid,benzoicacid,formic
acid, methanoic acid, oxalic acid), azo, diazo, and hydrazines (e.g. dimethyl hydrazine,
hydrazine, methyl hydrazine), isocyanates (e.g. methyl isocyanate), nitrides (e.g. potassium
nitride,sodiumnitride),peroxidesandhydroperoxides(organic,e.g.acetylperoxide,benzoyl
peroxide, butyl peroxide, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide), epoxides (e.g. butyl glycidyl ether),
Oxidants(suchasbariumperchlorate,bromine,chlorine,hydrogenperoxide,leadperchlorate,
perchloric acid, sodium hypochlorite)., Active metals (such as potassium and magnesium).,
acetyl bromide, alkyl aluminum salts, beryllium dihydride, carbontetrachloride, carbon
tetrachloride+metals,chloroform+heat,chloroform+sodiumhydroxide,cyanuricchloride,
diethyl zinc, nitric acid, potassiumtertbutoxide, chloroform + hydroxide, water reactive
substances (e.g. acetic anyhdride, alkyl aluminum chloride, calcium carbide, ethyl
dichlorosilane).
Hazardous Decomposition Products: Carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases,
carbondioxide,formaldehyde.
HazardousPolymerization:Willnotoccur.

Section11ToxicologicalInformation

RTECS#:
CAS#67561:PC1400000
LD50/LC50:

D12


CAS#67561:
Draizetest,rabbit,eye:40mgModerate;
Draizetest,rabbit,eye:100mg/24HModerate;
Draizetest,rabbit,skin:20mg/24HModerate;
Inhalation,rat:LC50=64000ppm/4H;
Oral,mouse:LD50=7300mg/kg;
Oral,rabbit:LD50=14200mg/kg;
Oral,rat:LD50=5628mg/kg;
Skin,rabbit:LD50=15800mg/kg;

arcinogenicity:
CAS#67561:NotlistedbyACGIH,IARC,NIOSH,NTP,orOSHA.
Epidemiology: Methanol has been shown to produce fetotoxicity in the embr yo or fetus of
laboratory animals. Specific developmenta l abnormalities include cardiovascular,
musculoskeletal,andurogenitalsystems.
Teratogenicity: Effects on Newborn: Behaviorial, Oral, rat: TDLo=7500 mg/kg (female 1719
days after conception). Effects on Embryo or Fetus: Fetotoxicity, Inhalation, rat: TCLo=10000
ppm/7H (female 715 days after conception). Specific Developmental Abnormalities:
Cardiovascular, Musculoskeletal, Urogenital, Inhalation, rat: TCLo=20000 ppm/7H (714 days
afterconception).
ReproductiveEffects:PaternalEffects:Spermatogenesis:Intraperitoneal,mouseTDLo=5g/kg(
male 5 days premating). Fertility: Oral, rat: TDLo = 35295 mg/kg (female 115 days after
conception).PaternalEffects:Testes,Epididymis,Spermduct:Oral,rat:TDLo=200ppm/20H
(male78weekspremating).
Neurotoxicity:Noinformationavailable.
Mutagenicity:DNAinhibition:HumanLymphocyte=300mmol/L.DNAdamage:Oral,rat=10
umol/kg.Mutationinmicroorganisms:MouseLymphocyte=7900mg/L.Cytogeneticanalysis:
Oral,mouse=1gm/kg.
Other Studies: Standard Draize Test(Skin, rabbit) = 20 mg/24H (Moderate) S tandard Draize
Test: Administration into the eye (rabbit) = 40 mg (Moderate). Standard Draize test:
Administrationintotheeye(rabbit)=100mg/24H(Moderate).

Section12EcologicalInformation

Ecotoxicity:Fish:FatheadMinnow:29.4g/L;96Hr;LC50(unspecified)Goldfish:250ppm;11
Hr;resultedindeathRainbowtrout:8000mg/L;48Hr;LC50(unspecified)Rainbowtrout:LC50
=1368mg/L;96Hr.;12degreesCFatheadMinnow:LC50=29400mg/L;96Hr.;25degreesC,
pH 7.63 Rainbow trout: LC50 = 8000 mg/L; 48 Hr.; Unspecified ria: Phytobacterium
phosphoreum:EC50=51,000320,000mg/L;30minutes;MicrotoxtestNodataavailable.
Environmental:Dangeroustoaquaticlifeinhighconcentrations.Aquatictoxicityrating:TLm
96>1000 ppm. May be dangerous if it enters water intakes. Methyl alcohol is expected to
biodegradeinsoilandwaterveryrapidly.Thisproductwillshowhighsoilmobilityandwillbe
degraded from the ambient atmosphere by the reaction with photochemically produced
hyroxyl radicals with an estimated halflife of 17.8 days. Bioconcentration factor for fish
(goldenide)<10.BasedonalogKowof0.77,theBCFvalueformethanolcanbeestimatedto
be0.2.
Physical:Noinformationavailable.
Other:None.

D13


Section13DisposalConsiderations

Chemical waste generators must determine whether a discarded chemical is classified as a


hazardous waste. US EPA guidelines for the classification determination are listed in 40 CFR
Parts 261.3. Additionally, waste generators must consult state and local hazardous waste
regulationstoensurecompleteandaccurateclassification.
RCRAPSeries:Nonelisted.
RCRAUSeries:CAS#67561:wastenumberU154;(Ignitablewaste).
Section14TransportInformation

USDOT

IATA

RID/ADR

IMO

CanadaTDG

METHANOL

HazardClass: 3

3(6.1)

UNNumber: UN1230

UN1230

PackingGroup: II

II

AdditionalInfo:

FLASHPOINT
11C

ShippingName: METHANOL

Section15RegulatoryInformation

USFEDERAL

TSCA
CAS#67561islistedontheTSCAinventory.
Health&SafetyReportingList
NoneofthechemicalsareontheHealth&SafetyReportingList.
ChemicalTestRules
NoneofthechemicalsinthisproductareunderaChemicalTestRule.
Section12b
NoneofthechemicalsarelistedunderTSCASection12b.
TSCASignificantNewUseRule
NoneofthechemicalsinthismaterialhaveaSNURunderTSCA.
SARA

Section302(RQ)
CAS#67561:finalRQ=5000pounds(2270kg)
Section302(TPQ)
NoneofthechemicalsinthisproducthaveaTPQ.
SARACodes
CAS#67561:acute,flammable.
Section313
This material contains Methyl alcohol (CAS# 67561, 99%),which is subject to the reporting
requirementsofSection313ofSARATitleIIIand40CFRPart373.
CleanAirAct:

D14


CAS#67561islistedasahazardousairpollutant (HAP). Thismaterialdoes notcontainany
Class1Ozonedepletors.ThismaterialdoesnotcontainanyClass2Ozonedepletors.
CleanWaterAct:
None of the chemicals in this product are listed as Hazardous Substances under the CWA.
NoneofthechemicalsinthisproductarelistedasPriorityPollutantsundertheCWA.Noneof
thechemicalsinthisproductarelistedasToxicPollutantsundertheCWA.
OSHA:
NoneofthechemicalsinthisproductareconsideredhighlyhazardousbyOSHA.
STATE
CAS#67561canbefoundonthefollowingstaterighttoknowlists:California,NewJersey,
Florida,Pennsylvania,Minnesota,Massachusetts.
California No Significant Risk Level: None of the chemicals in this product are listed.
European/InternationalRegulations
EuropeanLabelinginAccordancewithECDirectives
HazardSymbols:
TF
RiskPhrases:
R11Highlyflammable.
R23/24/25Toxicbyinhalation,incontactwithskinandifswallowed.
R39/23/24/25Toxic:dangerofveryserious
irreversibleeffectsthroughinhalation,incontactwithskinandifswallowed.

SafetyPhrases:
S16KeepawayfromsourcesofignitionNosmoking.
S36/37Wearsuitableprotectiveclothingandgloves.
S45Incaseofaccidentorifyoufeelunwell,seekmedicaladviceimmediately(showthelabel
wherepossible).
S7Keepcontainertightlyclosed.

WGK(WaterDanger/Protection)
CAS#67561:1
Canada
CAS#67561islistedonCanada'sDSLList.CAS#67561islistedonCanada'sDSLList.
ThisproducthasaWHMISclassificationofB2,D1A,D2B.
CAS#67561islistedonCanada'sIngredientDisclosureList.
ExposureLimits
CAS# 67561: OELARAB Republic of Egypt:TWA 200 ppm (260 mg/m3);Ski n OEL
AUSTRALIA:TWA200ppm(260mg/m3);STEL250ppm;SkinOELBELGIUM:TWA200ppm(262
mg/m3);STEL 250 ppm;Skin OELCZECHOSLOVAKIA:TWA 10 0 mg/m3;STEL 500 mg/m3 OEL
DENMARK:TWA 200 ppm (260 mg/m3);Skin OELFINLAND:TWA 200 ppm (260 mg/m3);STEL
250 ppm;Skin OELFRANCE:TWA 200 ppm (260 mg/m3);STEL 1000 ppm (1300 mg/m3) OEL
GERMANY:TWA 200 ppm (260 mg/m3);Skin OELHUNGARY:TWA 50 mg/m3;STEL 100
mg/m3;Skin JAN9 OELJAPAN:TWA 200 ppm (260 mg/m3);Skin OELTHE NETHERLANDS:TWA
200 ppm (260 mg/m3);Skin OELTHE PHILIPPINES:TWA 200 ppm (260 mg/m3) OEL
POLAND:TWA 100 mg/m3 OELRUSSIA:TWA 200 ppm;STEL 5 mg/m3;Skin OELSWEDEN:TWA
200ppm(250mg/m3);STEL250ppm(350mg/m3);SkinOELSWITZERLAND:TWA200ppm(260
mg/m3);STEL400ppm;SkinOELTHAILAND:TWA200ppm(260mg/m3)OELTURKEY:TWA200
ppm(260mg/m3)OELUNITEDKINGDOM:TWA200ppm(260mg/m3);STEL250ppm;SkinOEL
IN BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA check ACGIH TLV OEL IN NEW ZEALAND,
SINGAPORE,VIETNAMcheckACGITLV

D15


Section16AdditionalInformation

MSDSCreationDate:7/21/1999
Revision#4Date:3/14/2001
Theinformationaboveisbelievedtobeaccurateandrepresentsthebestinformationcurrently
available to us. However, we make no warranty of merchantability or any other warranty,
expressorimplied,withrespecttosuchinformation,andweassumenoliabilityresultingfrom
its use. Users should make their own investigations to determine the suitability of the
information for their particular purposes. In no event shall Fisher be liable for any claims,
losses, or damages of any third party or for lost profits or any special, indirect, incidental,
consequentialorexemplarydamages,howsoeverarising,evenifFisherhasbeenadvisedofthe
possibilityofsuchdamages.

D16


D.5.2 MaterialSafetyDataSheetPotassiumHydroxide
ACC#19431
Section1ChemicalProductandCompanyIdentification

MSDSName:PotassiumHydroxide
Catalog Numbers: S71978, S71979, S719791, S719792, P2463, P2501, P25010, P2503,
P25050, P250500, P25050LC, P2513, P25150, P251500, P25150KG, P25812, P258212,
P25850,P25850LC,PFP25050LC,S71977,S72221D
Synonyms:Causticpotash,Lye,Potassiumhydrate
CompanyIdentification:
FisherScientific
1ReagentLane
FairLawn,NJ07410
Forinformation,call:2017967100
EmergencyNumber:2017967100
ForCHEMTRECassistance,call:8004249300
ForInternationalCHEMTRECassistance,call:7035273887

Section2Composition,InformationonIngredients

CAS#
1310583

ChemicalName
Potassiumhydroxide(KOH)

Percent

EINECS/ELINCS

100.0

2151813

HazardSymbols:C
RiskPhrases:2235

Section3HazardsIdentification

EMERGENCYOVERVIEW
Appearance:whiteoryellow.Danger!Corrosive.WaterReactive.Harmfulifswallowed.
Causessevereeyeandskinburns.Causesseveredigestiveandrespiratorytractburns.
TargetOrgans:None.

PotentialHealthEffects
Eye:Causessevereeyeburns.Maycauseirreversibleeyeinjury.Contactmaycauseulceration
oftheconjunctivaandcornea.Eyedamagemaybedelayed.
Skin:Causesskinburns.Maycausedeep,penetratingulcersoftheskin.
Ingestion:Harmfulifswallowed.Maycausecirculatorysystemfailure.Maycauseperforation
ofthedigestivetract.Causesseveredigestivetractburnswithabdominalpain,vomiting,and
possibledeath.
Inhalation:Harmfulifinhaled.Irritationmayleadtochemicalpneumonitisandpulmonary
edema.Causessevereirritationofupperrespiratorytractwithcoughing,burns,breathing
difficulty,andpossiblecoma.
Chronic:Prolongedorrepeatedskincontactmaycausedermatitis.Prolongedorrepeatedeye
contactmaycauseconjunctivitis.

D17


Section4FirstAidMeasures

Eyes:Immediatelyflusheyeswithplentyofwaterforatleast15minutes,occasionallylifting
theupperandlowereyelids.Getmedicalaidimmediately.
Skin:Getmedicalaidimmediately.Immediatelyflushskinwithplentyofsoapandwaterforat
least15minuteswhileremovingcontaminatedclothingandshoes.Discardcontaminated
clothinginamannerwhichlimitsfurtherexposure.
Ingestion:DoNOTinducevomiting.Ifvictimisconsciousandalert,give24cupfulsofmilkor
water.Nevergiveanythingbymouthtoanunconsciousperson.Getmedicalaidimmediately.
Inhalation:Getmedicalaidimmediately.Removefromexposuretofreshairimmediately.If
breathingisdifficult,giveoxygen.Ifbreathinghasceasedapplyartificialrespirationusing
oxygenandasuitablemechanicaldevicesuchasabagandamask.
NotestoPhysician:Treatsymptomaticallyandsupportively.

Section5FireFightingMeasures

GeneralInformation:Asinanyfire,wearaselfcontainedbreathingapparatusinpressure
demand,MSHA/NIOSH(approvedorequivalent),andfullprotectivegear.Usewaterwith
cautionandinfloodingamounts.Contactwithmoistureorwatermaygeneratesufficientheat
toignitenearbycombustiblematerials.
ExtinguishingMedia:Forsmallfires,usedrychemical,carbondioxide,watersprayoralcohol
resistantfoam.

Section6AccidentalReleaseMeasures

GeneralInformation:UseproperpersonalprotectiveequipmentasindicatedinSection8.
Spills/Leaks:Vacuumorsweepupmaterialandplaceintoasuitabledisposalcontainer.Avoid
generatingdustyconditions.

Section7HandlingandStorage

Handling:Washthoroughlyafterhandling.Usewithadequateventilation.Donotallowwater
togetintothecontainerbecauseofviolentreaction.Donotgetineyes,onskin,oron
clothing.Donotingestorinhale.
Storage:Storeinatightlyclosedcontainer.Storeinacool,dry,wellventilatedareaawayfrom
incompatible substances. Keep away from strong acids. Keep away from water. Keep away
frommetals.Keepawayfromflammableliquids.Keepawayfromorganichalogens.

Section8ExposureControls,PersonalProtection

EngineeringControls:Useadequategeneralorlocalexhaustventilationtokeepairborne
concentrationsbelowthepermissibleexposurelimits.
ExposureLimits

D18


ChemicalName

ACGIH

Potassiumhydroxide
C2mg/m3
(KOH)

NIOSH

OSHAFinalPELs

nonelisted

nonelisted

OSHAVacatedPELs:Potassiumhydroxide(KOH):C2mg/m3
PersonalProtectiveEquipment
Eyes:Wearsafetyglassesandchemicalgogglesorfaceshieldifhandlingliquids.
Skin:Wearappropriateglovestopreventskinexposure.
Clothing:Wearappropriateprotectiveclothingtopreventskinexposure.
Respirators: Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European
StandardEN149.AlwaysuseaNIOSHorEuropeanStandardEN149approvedrespiratorwhen
necessary.

Section9PhysicalandChemicalProperties

PhysicalState:Solid
Appearance:whiteoryellow
Odor:odorless
pH:13.5(0.1Msolution)
VaporPressure:Notavailable.
VaporDensity:Notavailable.
EvaporationRate:Notavailable.
Viscosity:Notavailable.
BoilingPoint:2408degF
Freezing/MeltingPoint:680degF
AutoignitionTemperature:Notapplicable.
FlashPoint:Notapplicable.
DecompositionTemperature:Notavailable.
NFPARating:(estimated)Health:3;Flammability:0;Reactivity:1
ExplosionLimits,Lower:Notavailable.
Upper:Notavailable.
Solubility:Solubleinwater
SpecificGravity/Density:2.04
MolecularFormula:KOH
MolecularWeight:56.1047

Section10StabilityandReactivity

ChemicalStability:Stable.Readilyabsorbscarbondioxideandmoisturefromtheairand
deliquesces.
ConditionstoAvoid:Incompatiblematerials,moisture,contactwithwater,acids,metals.
IncompatibilitieswithOtherMaterials:Generateslargeamountsofheatwhenincontactwith
waterandmaysteamandsplatter.Reactswithchlorinedioxide,nitrobenzene,nitromethane,
nitrogentrichloride,peroxidizedtetrahydrofuran,2,4,6trinitrotoluene,bromoform+crown
ethers,acidsalcohols,sugars,germaniumcyclopentadiene,maleicdicarbide.Corrosiveto
metalssuchasaluminum,tin,andzinctocauseformationofflammablehydrogengas.
HazardousDecompositionProducts:Oxidesofpotassium.

D19


HazardousPolymerization:Hasnotbeenreported.

Section11ToxicologicalInformation

RTECS#:
CAS#1310583:TT2100000
LD50/LC50:
CAS#1310583:
Draizetest,rabbit,skin:50mg/24HSevere;
Oral,rat:LD50=273mg/kg;

Carcinogenicity:
CAS#1310583:NotlistedbyACGIH,IARC,NIOSH,NTP,orOSHA.
Epidemiology:Nodataavailable.
Teratogenicity:Noinformationreported.
ReproductiveEffects:Nodataavailable.
Neurotoxicity:Nodataavailable.
Mutagenicity:Nodataavailable.
OtherStudies:Nodataavailable.

Section12EcologicalInformation

Ecotoxicity:Fish:MosquitoFish:LC50=80.0mg/L;24Hr.;UnspecifiedNodataavailable.
Environmental:Noinformationfound.
Physical:Noinformationfound.
Other:Noinformationavailable.

Section13DisposalConsiderations

Chemicalwastegeneratorsmustdeterminewhetheradiscardedchemicalisclassifiedasa
hazardouswaste.USEPAguidelinesfortheclassificationdeterminationarelistedin40CFR
Parts261.3.Additionally,wastegeneratorsmustconsultstateandlocalhazardouswaste
regulationstoensurecompleteandaccurateclassification.
RCRAPSeries:Nonelisted.
RCRAUSeries:Nonelisted.

Section14TransportInformation

USDOT

POTASSIUM
ShippingName: HYDROXIDE,
SOLID
HazardClass: 8

D20

IATA

RID/ADR

IMO

Canada
TDG

POTASSIUM
HYDROXIDE

8(9.2)


UNNumber: UN1813
PackingGroup: II

UN1813

II

Section15RegulatoryInformation

USFEDERAL

TSCA
CAS#1310583islistedontheTSCAinventory.
Health&SafetyReportingList
NoneofthechemicalsareontheHealth&SafetyReportingList.
ChemicalTestRules
NoneofthechemicalsinthisproductareunderaChemicalTestRule.
Section12b
NoneofthechemicalsarelistedunderTSCASection12b.
TSCASignificantNewUseRule
NoneofthechemicalsinthismaterialhaveaSNURunderTSCA.
SARA

Section302(RQ)
CAS#1310583:finalRQ=1000pounds(454kg)
Section302(TPQ)
NoneofthechemicalsinthisproducthaveaTPQ.
SARACodes
CAS#1310583:acute,reactive.
Section313
NochemicalsarereportableunderSection313.
CleanAirAct:
Thismaterialdoesnotcontainanyhazardousairpollutants.Thismaterialdoesnotcontainany
Class1Ozonedepletors.ThismaterialdoesnotcontainanyClass2Ozonedepletors.
CleanWaterAct:
CAS#1310583islistedasaHazardousSubstanceundertheCWA.Noneofthechemicalsin
thisproductarelistedasPriorityPollutantsundertheCWA.Noneofthechemicalsinthis
productarelistedasToxicPollutantsundertheCWA.
OSHA:
NoneofthechemicalsinthisproductareconsideredhighlyhazardousbyOSHA.
STATE
CAS#1310583canbefoundonthefollowingstaterighttoknowlists:California,NewJersey,
Florida,Pennsylvania,Minnesota,Massachusetts.
CaliforniaNoSignificantRiskLevel:Noneofthechemicalsinthisproductarelisted.
European/InternationalRegulations
EuropeanLabelinginAccordancewithECDirectives
HazardSymbols:
C
RiskPhrases:
R22Harmfulifswallowed.
R35Causessevereburns.

D21


SafetyPhrases:
S26Incaseofcontactwitheyes,rinseimmediatelywithplentyofwaterandseekmedical
advice.
S36/37/39Wearsuitableprotectiveclothing,glovesandeye/faceprotection.
S45Incaseofaccidentorifyoufeelunwell,seekmedicaladviceimmediately(showthelabel
wherepossible).

WGK(WaterDanger/Protection)
CAS#1310583:1
Canada
CAS#1310583islistedonCanada'sDSLList.CAS#1310583islistedonCanada'sDSLList.
ThisproducthasaWHMISclassificationofD1B,E.
CAS#1310583islistedonCanada'sIngredientDisclosureList.
ExposureLimits
CAS#1310583:OELAUSTRALIA:TWA2mg/m3OELBELGIUM:STEL2mg/m3OEL
DENMARK:TWA2mg/m3OELFINLAND:TWA2mg/m3OELFRANCE:STEL2mg/m3OEL
JAPAN:STEL2mg/m3OELTHENETHERLANDS:TWA2mg/m3OELSWITZERLAND:TWA2
mg/m3OELUNITEDKINGDOM:TWA2mg/m3;STEL2mg/m3OELINBULGARIA,COLOMBIA,
JORDAN,KOREAcheckACGIHTLVOELINNEWZEALAND,SINGAPORE,VIETNAMcheckACGI
TLV

Section16AdditionalInformation

MSDSCreationDate:6/21/1999
Revision#3Date:10/06/2000
Theinformationaboveisbelievedtobeaccurateandrepresentsthebestinformationcurrently
available to us. However, we make no warranty of merchantability or any other warranty,
expressorimplied,withrespecttosuchinformation,andweassumenoliabilityresultingfrom
its use. Users should make their own investigations to determine the suitability of the
information for their particular purposes. In no event shall Fisher be liable for any claims,
losses, or damages of any third party or for lost profits or any special, indirect, incidental,
consequentialorexemplarydamages,howsoeverarising,evenifFisherhasbeenadvisedofthe
possibilityofsuchdamages.

D22


D.5.3 Purificationofglycerine
Glycerine in its pure form is colourless, odourless and it tastes sweet [12]. Avoid tasting
glycerinefromthebiodieselprocessthough,becauseitisneverpure.Especiallynotwhenthe
biodieselandglycerineareproducedfromJatrophaoilwithhighfreefattyacidlevels.Thenit
contains methanol or ethanol, lye (potassium hydroxide KOH or sodium hydroxide NaOH),
water, soap residues, biodiesel, free fatty acids and nonreacted mono, di or triglicerides.
Mostoftheseresiduesaredissolvedinthemethanolandcanbefilteredoutoftheglycerine,
oncethemethanolhasbeendistilledoff.Othershavetobeneutralizedwithacidsandwillbe
separatedbygravity.

To get 100% pure Glycerine it should be distilled, nevertheless this is a very costly process
since the boiling point of glycerine is 290C [11]. This cost usually doesnt make up for the
profitunlessatlargeindustrialscale.

D.5.4 Practicalapplicationsofbiodieselglycerine
Applications ofpureglycerinearemainlyinchemistryandpharmacy.Crude Glycerine canbe
usedinmorepracticalapplicationswhichwillbedescribedbelow.

1.Soap
Soapcaneitherbemadebysaponificationoffatsandlyeorwithfattyacidsandalye.Thefinal
productistobeusedwithwatertogainitscleaningeffect.GlycerinecontainsFFAwhichcan
beconvertedintosoap.Thepresenceofglycerinemakesthesoapfeelsoftandhydratesthe
skin while using it. For the saponification process the same lye as used during the
transesterificationprocessshouldbeused.Sodiumhydroxide(NaOH)willgiveasolidbarsoap,
potassiumhydroxide(KOH)makesliquidsoap.Beforemakingsoapoutofglycerinethealcohol
(methanolorethanol)shouldbedistilledoff.Inthecaseofmethanolitisimportantthatall
the methanol is removed since it is a highly toxic and combustible chemical that has an
extremelylowflashpoint,whichmakesitveryeasytoinhalebyaccident15.Then,depending
ontheFFAlevel,theamountoflyeistobedetermined(normallybetween40gramsand80
grams per litre of glycerine). The amount of water to be added is about 40% of the original
amount of glycerine. More water makes a more liquid soap. More lye makes the soap feel
morecorrosive.Thenthelyeandthewateraremixeduntilthelyeissolvedtotally.Becareful:
Sodiumhydroxide(NaOH)andpotassiumhydroxide(KOH)arecorrosivesubstances16.Addthe
mixturetotheglycerineandmixfor20minutes.Leaveitforthreeweeks,shakingitdaily.In
case you are using purified glycerine, colorant and odours can be added for domestic use.
Industrialquantitiesofglycerinesoapcanbeusedforcarwashesormechanicworkshops.

2.Organicmanure
Glycerineisclaimedtobeanexcellentfertilizer.Butisthistrue?
Thechemicalcompositionoftheglycerinedependsindirectontheoilqualityandtheamount
ofchemicalsaddedinthetransesterficationprocess.Thealcoholresidues,ifmethanol,should
be distilled off before using glycerine as an organic fertilizer to prevent human health
problems. Nevertheless in the environment methanol is biodegradable. Methyl alcohol is
expectedto evaporateandbiodegradeinsoiland waterveryrapidly.Thisproductwillshow
high soil mobility and will be degraded from the ambient atmosphere by the reaction with
photochemicallyproducedhyroxylradicalswithan estimatedhalflifeof17.8days.It can be

15
16

Annex1:safetysheetmethanol
Annex2:safetysheetSodiumhydroxide(NaOH)andpotassiumhydroxide(KOH)

D23


dangeroustoaquaticlifeinhighconcentrations17AlsothepureglycerineandtheFFAacidsare
biodegradable. Potash (K) is one of the main elements for plant growth and sodium(Na) is
neededtocontrolhumidityincells,inasmallerquantity.

Sincethenutrient compositionisnot inbalancewithplantrequirements,biodieselglycerine


could only serve as an additional fertilizer. Moreover, more economically valuable products
can be made out of the glycerine which makes the use of the glycerine as a fertilizer less
interesting.

3.Biogas
Glycerine can also be used as an additional ingredient for biogas production. Biogas is
producedwithinananaerobicdigestionunit.Togetherwithjatrophapresscakeandfreshcow
manure it has shown to be an effective digestible ingredient in the composition of 5%
glycerine, 10% jatropha press cake, 35% cow manure and 50% water. More investigation is
neededtooptimizethisanaerobicdigestionprocess.Becarefulwiththeadditionofgrassasit
onlydigestsslowlyandcanplugthereactor.

4.Burning
The simplest way to get rid of the bioglycerine is by burning it. Though, successful burning
devices for direct burning of crude glycerine are not available. The high viscosity makes it a
difficultfuelforsprayburningandforwicks.Mixedwithsawdust(16MJ/kg)itcanbepressed
intobriquettesbutwelldesignedfurnacesareneededbecauselowcombustiontemperatures
maygeneratetoxicgaseslikeacrolein[13].AtalargerscaleCombinedHeatandPower(CHP)
generators can be considered to generate electricity[14]. Although a PPO converted diesel
enginecouldbeabletousesomecleanglycerineinafuelmixturewithPPOor(bio)diesel,care
must be taken that unrefined glycerine is unsuitable for engines because of its high ash
content. In large marine diesel engines or steam boilers it would be possible to use it to
producebothelectricityandhotwaterorsteam.

5.Applicationsinbiodieselprocess
Consideringthefactthattheglycerinecontainshighcontentsofalcohol(methanolorethanol)
it can be used as a partial replacer of the alcohol for the transesterification process. The
methanol content in glycerine can go up to 35%. Replacing 30% percent of the alcohol by
glycerinemayresultina20%methanolsaving[15].Anotherapplicationofcrudeglycerinein
thebiodieselprocessisusingitasaliquidtoexecuteaprewashofthebiodiesel.Soapresidues
willdissolveinthecrudeglycerinewhichresultsinlessuseofwaterofsolidpurifiers

6.Industrialapplications
Pure glycerine is used for applications in medicines, personal healthcare, toys, food and
chemicalindustryforthemakingofforexampledynamite.

17

D24

Source:Safetysheetmethylalcohol

E. PROJECTIMPLEMENTATION
E.1
Multilateralfundingagencies
Thefollowingmultilateralagenciesprovideprogramstoaccelerateandfacilitateinvestments
inrenewableenergyprograms.Thesupportcanconsistofgrants,loansorguarantees.

Agency
European
Commission(EC)

NameProgram
ENRTP18

GEEREF

Global Environ Small


Grant
ment
Facility Program(SGP)
(GEF)
MediumSized
Projects(MSPs)
FullSized
Projects(FSPs)
WorldBank
Climate
Investment
Funds(CIF)
GlobalVillageEn.
Prog.(GVEP)
AfDB
(African FINESSE
Development
Bank)
CleanEnergyIn
vestmentFram
ework(CEIF)
ADB (Asian Devt Clean
Eergy
Bank)
Program
IADB
(Inter FOMIN
American
Development
Bank)
SECCI
BCIE
ARECA

Website
http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/where
/worldwide/environment/working
documents_en.htm
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/jrec
/energy_fund_en.htm

Focus/conditions
Environmentalprotection

Renewable energy; fund of


funds: no direct project
funding
Projectsupto50000US$

http://sgp.undp.org/

http://www.gefweb.org/interior_right. Projectsupto1millionUS$
aspx?id=16674
http://www.gefweb.org/interior_right. Projectsover1millionUS$
aspx?id=16674
www.worldbank.org/cif

http://go.worldbank.org/58OVAGT860
http://www.gvepinternational.org/fun
ding/
http://finesseafrica.org/

http://www.afdb.org/en/topics
sectors/sectors/environment/climate
changemitigation/
http://www.adb.org/Clean
Energy/fundspartnerships.asp
http://www.iadb.org/mif/We_fund.cf
m?lang=en
http://www.iadb.org//secci/
http://www.bcie.org/spanish/banca
inversiondesarrollo/desarrollo
competitividad/areca.php

SICA

AEA

http://www.sica.int/energia

UNEP

SEFI

http://www.sefi.unep.org/

UNIDO

Renewable and http://www.unido.org/index.php?id=o


RuralEnergy
24839

Seewebsite
FINancingEnergyServices
for
Small

ScaleEnergyUsers
Seewebsite

Variousfunds,seewebsite
Latin America, enterprise
development,
mixed
grants/loanspossible
LatinAmerica
Central
America,
AcelerandolasInversiones
enEnerga Renovableen
Centroamrica
Central America, grants up
to50000EUR
Organises funders; no
directprojectfunding
Seewebsite

18

ThematicProgrammeforEnvironmentandSustainableManagementofNaturalResources,including
Energy.

E1


E.2
Developmentorganisations
The following list gives an overview of development organizations (both private and public)
thathavefundinglinesforrenewableenergyprojectsinparticular.Developmentorganizations
generally provide grants. The project must have clear social objectives and innovative
elements (pilot project or demonstration project) in order to be successful. For large scale
replication, social venture capital may be a more appropriate source. The following gives an
overviewofsomeofthemanyfundingsources.

Agency
REEEP
UNFoundation
Senternovem(The
Netherlands)
DutchMinistryof
ForeignAffairs
ShellFoundation
EnergyFoundation
BlueMoonFund
Rockefeller
BrothersFund

NameProgram

CleanEnergy
Development
DaeyOuwensFund

Website
http://www.reeep.org/
http://www.unfoundation.org

Focus/conditions
Seewebsite
Seewebsite

http://www.senternovem.nl/daeyo
uwensfund/index.asp

PrivateSector
InvestmentProgram
(PSI)

RethinkingConsumption
andEnergy
CrossProgrammatic
Initiative:Energy

http://www.evd.nl

SmallscaleREprojectsin
LDCs.100,0002,500
000.Max50%ofcosts
Investmentsubsidy(50
60%)forinvestmentsin
developingcountries
Seewebsite
OnlyChina(andUSA).
AsiaandLatinAmerica

http://www.shellfoundation.org
http://www.ef.org
http://www.bluemoonfund.org
http://www.rbf.org

OnlySouthAfricaand
China(andUSA)

Many development organizations that do not have a particular focus on renewable energy
projects,havefundedsuchprojectsinthepast.

E.3
SocialVentureCapital
Thepastyearthenumberofprivatefundinginstitutionsthatinvestinsustainableandsocially
responsible enterprises in developing countries has increased. Some focus specifically on
renewable energy, such as E+Co, Triodos Renewable Energy for Development Fund and the
African BioEnergy Fund. Other finance a broader range of entrepreneurial activities. Large
energy companies, pension funds etc. are also known to have coinvested in Jatropha
undertakings in developing countries, as part of their Corporate Social Responsibility. These
institutions do generally not provide grants but shareholder capital or loans. The list of
organizations providing social venture capital is long and growing. For an updated list of
organizations with a special focus on sustainable energy, see the Sustainable Energy Finance
Directory(http://www.sefdirectory.net/).ForamemberlistoftheEuropeanEuropeanSocial
InvestmentForum(Eurosif),see:
http://www.eurosif.org/member_affiliates/list_of_member_affiliates.

UsefulLinks:
TheSustainableEnergyFinance Directoryisafreeofchargeonlinedatabaseoflendersand
investors who actively provide finance to the sustainable energy (renewable energy and
energyefficiency)sectorworldwide.Freeregistrationisrequired.
http://www.sefdirectory.net/

For a list of bilateral development banks and agencies that deal with Renewable Energy
projects,see:http://go.worldbank.org/X33QHLOH70

E2


ForalistofEthicalBanksthatmaybeinterestedininvestmentsinecologicallysustainableand
sociallyjustenterprises:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Investment_Forum

TheWorldBankRenewableEnergyToolkit(REToolkit)providesabroadsetoftoolstoimprove
thedesignandimplementationofrenewableenergy(RE)projects.
http://go.worldbank.org/Y20OGSRGH0

Natural Resources Canada provides theRETScreen Clean Energy Project Analysis Software.
This free software that can be used to evaluate the energy production and savings, costs,
emission reductions, financial viability and risk for various types of Renewableenergy and
EnergyefficientTechnologies(RETs).Freeregistrationisrequired.
http://www.retscreen.net/ang/home.php

PresentationofFundraisingforrenewableenergyprojectsbyJudySiegel,President,Energy&
SecurityGroup,April19,2006.
http://www.abanet.org/environ/committees/renewableenergy/teleconarchives/041906/Siege
l_Presentation.pdf

OverviewofexistingfundingschemesforrenewableenergiesbyDr.ChristineWrlen,Head
ofRenewableEnergyDepartment,GermanEnergyAgency(DENA).ConferenceonRenewable
EnergiesforEmbassiesinGermany,Berlin,June26,2007.
http://www.dena.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Download/Veranstaltungen/2007/07/2.3._Overvi
ew_of_existing_funding_schemes_dena_Dr._Ch_Woerlen.pdf

InnovativeFinancingMechanismsforRenewableEnergySystemsinDevelopingCountries,
NorberthWolgemuth,UNEPCollaboratingCentreonEnergyandEnvironment,Denmark
http://www.earthscape.org/r2/ES14477/won01.pdf

E.4
TechnicalAssistance
Wehopethatthismanualcontributestothedisseminationofrealisticandreliableinformation
onhowtodesignandrunaJatrophaproject.Ifyouwishmoreinformationonspecificsubjects,
the FACT website (www.factfoundation.com) contains a large and wellselected literature
sectiononmanyspecificsubjectsrelatedtothejatrophaproductionchain.Thewiderinternet
isofcoursealsoapowerfulinformationsource,butbewarefor(oftencommercial)websites
thatstateunrealisticyieldsandoversimplifieddescriptionsofthebiofuelchain.However,even
withallthisinformationavailable,thestepfromknowingtodoingisoftenbigtomakealone.

Commercialenterprisesengagedinestablishmentofjatrophaplantationsmaybeinteresting
asasourceofinformation,marketforseedsorsourceoffinance(especiallyownershipmodels
BandC).Thefivelargestare19:

Enterprise
D1BPFuelcrops
MissionBiofuels
Sunbiofuels
ESVBioAfricaLda
GEMBiofuels

Website

www.d1bpfuelcrops.com
www.missionnewenergy.com
www.sunbiofuels.co.uk
www.esvgroup.com
www.gembiofuels.com

Geographicalfocus
AsiaandAfrica
Asia
Ethiopia,Tanzania
Mozambique
Madagascar

19

Source:http://www.jatrophaplatform.org/documents/GEXSI_GlobalJatrophaStudy_FULLREPORT.pdf

E3


The following development organizations may be able to provide free or lowcost technical
assistancetoinitiativeswhichinvolvesmallfarmers.Formoreinformation,pleaseconsulttheir
websitesand,ifexisting,theirrepresentativeinyourcountry.

Organization
DED(Germany)

Areaofexpertise
Jatrophacultivation,
PPOtechnology
GTZ(Germany) Jatrophacultivation,
PPOtechnology
Engineers
Soapmaking,engine
withoutborders adaptation,oilfiltration
(Intl)
FullBelly
ManualJatropha
project(USA)
dehullers
STRO(The
Allstagesfromproject
Netherlands)
formulationto
evaluation
PracticalAction Technicaladvisory

Website
www.ded.de

Jatrophapilotprojects
Honduras,Peru,Sudan

www.gtz.de

AfricaandLat.Am.

www.ewbinternational.org/

Mali,Uganda,Tanzania,

www.fullbellyproject.org

www.strocaorg
www.gotaverde.org

Honduras,Mali

http://practicalaction.org/practic
alanswers/technical_enquiry_ser
vice.php

CentralAmerica

Freeonlinetechnical
enquiryservice

GovernmentpromotedNationalJatrophaPrograms
The largest jatropha initiatives at this moment are actually government promoted poverty
reduction schemes that generally promote outgrowing schemes target among small farmers
selling to regional (public or privately owned) processing firms. The Indian and Chinese
schemesare,duetothesizeoftheirpopulation,thelargestinabsoluteterms.Someofthese
schemes are highly controversial due to the foodfuel conflict that rises when planting vast
areaswithJatrophaasamonocrop.Someprogramsalsohaveverylittlefundingincomparison
to their ambitious targets and have to be considered rather as political statement than as a
realdrivingforce.PleaseinformwithyourMinistryofAgricultureorMinistryofEnergyifsuch
ajatrophaprogramexistsinyourcountryandwhatfacilitiesitoffers.

E.5

SustainabilityofJatrophaprojects

MainauthorMaraWijnker

WhenlookingatthesustainabilityofJatrophaprojects,mostoftheissuesmentionedwithin
thesustainabilitycriteriaoftheCramercommissionandRSBareimportant.Theissuescanalso
be arranged according to the fields that are most commonly used to define sustainability,
namelyenvironmental,socialandeconomicissues.Someoftheissuesbelongtotwooreven
threeofthe fields,butarementionedinonlyone. Insteadofaconceptualisationascriteria,
theissuesareherediscussedinviewofthepotentialimpactonJatrophaprojects.

Environmental
Social
Economic
Biodiversity
Workersrights
Wages
GHGemission
Workingrelationships
Improvementofincome
Landuse
Communityinvolvement
Commercialinterests
Impactonsoil,water,air
Landrights
Foodvs.Fuel/Transport
Table:sustainabilityaspectsofJatrophaprojects

E4

Jatrophaprojectsneedtobeexplainedbetter.Whenconsideringsustainability,adistinction
between small scale (up to for ex. 1500 hectares of Jatropha plantations) and large scale,
monoculture plantations should be made. Large scale plantations imply making use of
economiesofscalewithhigherlevelofmechanisationandthereforeemployingfewerpeople,
actingoutofcommercialinterest.

As the impacts of large scale, monoculture plantations are much larger, these are discussed
here.Attheendacomparisonismadebetweentheimpactscausedbylargeandsmallscale
plantations

Nexttotheareaoftheplantations,therearemanyothercharacteristicsthatshouldbetaken
intoaccountwhenlookingintodetailatJatrophaprojects,likethetechnologiesused,number
of(local)peopleinvolved,organisationalsystem(ownplantation,outgrowersorcooperation)
etc. This paragraph will give a brief overview of general applicable sustainability aspects of
Jatrophaprojects,asmentionedinthetableabove.

E.5.1 Environmentalaspects

1.Biodiversityandconservationareas
Biodiversityisanimportantissueinallplantationsmadeforproductionofbiofuelsasusually
this is done in monoculture and after clearing of the land. Therefore, the impact on the
biodiversity depends on previous land use and intensity of production. If the land was
previously covered with primary natural vegetation it is different as when it was recently
cropped before or left some time as bad land. The impact on biodiversity can for most
countries be mapped out. In most countries all sort of maps have been prepared with areas
with high biodiversity potential. Often this coincides with the countries protection of areas
withspecialnatureconservationvalues,thatcannotbeused.Infact,oftenitrequiresallthese
highvalueandprotectedareastobeprojectedononemap.Asaresultthezonesleftoutof
thebiodiversity/conservation/protectionareasmightbeconsideredforproduction.

In some cases some of the protected areas however allow for planting of trees for the local
population,foranimalprotectionandsoon.AcaseofTanzaniaprojectingalltheclaimedareas
showedthatmostareaofthecountrywasnotavailableforJatrophaplantations.

A good example is the study of Pro Forest ltd. that looked at savannah woodland, miombo
woodland,mopanewoodlandordrylandforestbiodiversity[3].

Biodiversity can be changed positively or negatively when wasteland only covered with little
vegetationisreplacedbyJatropha.(RefKumaronJatrophaworkshopofFACT).TheJatropha
plants might improve soil structure over time providing a habitat for some species, reducing
some others. Biodiversity is about the variety of species in a habitat. In some cases it is
difficulttoassessthebalance.

2.GHGemissions
GHGemissionsofJatrophacanbeintheplantproductionarea,intheconversiontoafuel,in
the distribution to the end user in the form of electricity, soap, biofertilizer , or other end
products.SomeoftheendproductsresultonmoreGHGemissionsasothers.Eg.90%ofthe
lifecycleGHGemissionsofJatrophabiodieselarearesultoftheenduse.

E5


Ineachoftheseproductionpartsofthechain,differentconditionscanruleperproject.Itis
therefore not possible to refer to one Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) outcome for Jatropha. Each
project will have to be done using the typical conditions of the project. In order to compare
the different effects of different Jatropha planting projects it is important that one LCA
methodology is arrived at over time. This will help the Jatropha practitioners community to
choosethebestoptionsbalancingeconomicsandGHGemissionreductions.AnumberofLCAs
andCO2emissionestimationmethodshavebeendevelopedbydifferentresearchinstitutions.
Such as University of Leuven, Belgium, EMPA20, which is an interdisciplinary research and
servicesinstitutionformaterialsciencesandtechnology,Switzerland,ChiangMaiUniversity21,
Thailand,etc..

WhenlookingattheLCAssomefactorsseemtobemoreprominentasothers.Herundersome
willbediscussed.
GHGemissionsofchanginglanduseforJatrophaproductionshouldalsobetakeninto
account,asthesiteisclearedofitsoriginalgrowth.Magnitudeofcontributiontothe
carbonemissionsdependsverysharplyonthekindoforiginalland.Itcanbeexpected
thatwhenchangingwasteland,thecarbonsequestrationinthesoilwillbeimproved,
whilechangingwoodlandintoJatrophaplantations,GHGemissionsarecaused.
Plantnutrientsneedstobeusedinsomeamountasthesoilwillbecomepoorerfrom
productionofJatrophaplants.ItispossibletousetheJatrophapresscakeasanorganic
fertilizer,butthenthecakewillhavetobebroughtbackfromtheprocessingunittothe
landwhereJatrophawasproduced.Dependingontheorganisationoftheproject,thisis
possibleornot,withtransportationcostsasanimportantparameter.Froma
sustainabilitypointofviewthisisagoodoption.Iforganicfertilizercanbeused,or
fertilizationwithNfixingleguminouscovercropscanbeapplied,thisistobepreferred
abovechemicalfertilizer,asespeciallytheproductionofchemicalNfertilizerrequiresa
lotofenergy,whichtodayismostfossilbased.
BiodieselproductionincreasestheamountofGHGemissionscomparedtotheproduction
ofoilasanadditionalstepisadded,inwhichchemicalsandmoreenergyisused.
Furthermore,thisisalsoanexpensivestepintheprocessandslightlycomplicatedas
someprocessingequipmentneedstobeused.Forthesereasonssmallscaleprojectsin
ruralareasusuallyproduceonlybiooil.Whenlookingattheenergybalance,the
productionofbiodieseldoesnotgainasmuchinenergyasisusedduringitsproduction.
So,fromtheenergybalancepointofview,itslessbeneficialtoaddthisstep.

3.Impactonsoil,water,air
In marginal land Jatropha will have a positive influence on the state of the soil as it will
improve the vegetative structure and biodiversity and the roots will provide a structure
protecting against soil erosion. The reverse can be expected when woodlands or savannah
landsarechangedintoJatrophaplantationsthough.

Furthermore,whennonutrientsarebroughtbacktotheplantationsafterharvesting,thesoil
will become poorer. So Jatrophas impact on the soil will be depending on what was the
previousvegetation,whatarethecultivationtechniquesofJatropha,etc.

20

SimonGmnder(EMPA)M.Classen,R.ZahP.Mukherjee,S.Bhattacharjee(WinrockIndia)LifeCycleAssessment

(LCA)ofJatrophabasedRuralElectrificationCaseStudy:VillageRanidhera,Chhattisgarh
21

Life Cycle Management of Jatropha BioDiesel Production in Thailand, Sate Sampattagul1, Chonticha Suttibut,

SadamichiYuchoandTanongkiatKiatsiriroat,FacultyofEngineering,ChiangMaiUniversity
ThermalSystemLaboratory,DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,FacultyofEngineering,ChiangMaiUniversity,
Thailand50200CorrespondingAuthor:sate@eng.cmu.ac.th

E6


Jatrophacansurviveinclimateswithasteadyrainfallofatleast600..Tobearfruitsmorerain
isneededthough.Dependingontheclimatenoirrigationmightbenecessaryalthoughyields
can be improved much through sufficient water supply. Use of water can be limited for
Jatropha,itwillthensheditsleaves,andcanresistdrought.Howeverwithnoleavesnoserious
photosynthesistakesplace.

Jatrophaplantationscanbeusedtointroducewatercatchmentmethodsaswell,suchasearth
boundaries and small dams on sloping terrain, contributing to a raise in ground water level
withallbeneficialresults.ThiswasacommonuseofJatrophainsomeSahelcountries.

Most important impact on air has been discussed in previous the section, but here there
relationistobemadewithnotonlytheemissionsoftheagriculturalandtransportactivities
forJatrophaestablishmentandoperation,butalsointheareaofcombustionofJatrophaPPO
in engines and the processing in Biodiesel and its use as well as in the biogas use from the
Jatrophapresscake.
E.5.2 Socialaspects
Because of the labourintensive way of harvesting Jatropha, jobs can be created for
communities. Large scale plantations create work for local inhabitants. When harvesting will
bedonemechanicallythough,inthenearfuture,lessemploymentcreationcanbeexpected,
buthigherwages.Inthelongerrunmechanisedharvestingisaconditionforsocialprogress.
Harvestinglabourcostisthesingle mostimportant costiteminjatrophaoilproduction.The
low labour productivity in harvesting makes that profitable jatropha production is currently
onlyfeasibleinverylowincomecountries(<2,50US$perday).Thisisinsufficienttoprovide
decentlivingstandards.Moreover,labourshortagesaretobeforeseenifplantationsexpand
andother(moreproductive)economicsectorsdevelop.

Job creation does of course not necessarily imply that working conditions are good. If the
numberofpeoplewithintheareawillingtoworkwithintheplantationsexceedsthenecessary
number of people, management of the plantation will have a strong position and doesnt
necessarily have to take care well of his/her personnel in terms of wages, labour conditions
etc.

Settingup processing facilities by investors, local or foreign, also can create jobs for
communities, and if there is a long term involvement of communities it would ensure long
termstability.

FACTs project in Mali is a good example of this as production of Jatropha, production of oil
andelectricityproductionanduseareintegratedinthevillageareaofGaralo,wherebyproject
ownershiphasbeenestablishedinthevillage.AnotherexampleisBYSA,theHonduranbiofuel
processingenterprisethatisowned49%bysupplyingfarmersand51%byanonprofitrural
enterprise development institution (FUNDER). Within small scale projects community
ownership and continuous involvement is necessary to make a project sustainable. In large
scale projects, the relations with farmers might be less tight, e.g. in the case of seasonal
contractingofworkersinvolvementofthecommunitymightbeminimal.

Landrights
Because of the large commercial interests of foreign companies influencing governments of
Southerncountries,sometimesrightsofpeoplelivinginremoteareasareignored.Oftenthe
governmentownsthelandandrentsitouttoforeigncompanieswhomightbepayingmore

E7


than sufficiently. People originally living or working at these lands might then evicted.
Thereforemostsustainabilitycriteriaaddthelandrightissue,statingthatthelocallandrights
andownership(formalandinformal)shouldberespected.

E.5.3 Economicissues
MostimportantisthefinancialsusatainablityofaJatrophaproject.Thisdependsonanumber
of issues as the worldmarket price of petrol oil, government policy (e.g. fuel subsidies), the
localwageleveltobepaidtoeitherfarmersorseedpickers,costsoftransportforseedsand
oil/diesel, investment costs of equipment and their efficiency, whether land needs to be
cleared, whether irrigation is necessary etc. Furthermore, a reliable and not overoptimistic
prediction of the yield is important. Further reference is made to Chapter Economic and
Financialaspects(peter)

WagescannotbehighasmarginstomakeaprofitoutofJatrophaoilaresmall.Smallfarmers
areusuallypaidperkilogramofdeliveredseed.IffarmersdecidetocultivateJatrophanextto
their normal crops an increase in income can be expected, creating possibilities for
development.Iflocalpeopleareworkingforlargescaleplantations,theirbenefitwillmostly
likelybereducedtotheirdailywage.

BecauseofthelargeinterestforuseofbiofuelsingeneralandJatrophacurcasL.specifically,it
is likely that politics will be influenced. Furthermore, if large commercial investors are
interested in using for example areas that can be used for foodcrops as well, commercial
interestscanbecomemoreimportantthansocial/environmentalimpacts.

1.FoodvsFuel
For farmers it is a decision based on economic reasoning whether they will produce food or
fuels.Foracountryasawhole,oreventheworlditcanbecomeanissuetostimulatefarmers
togrowfoodinsteadoffuelsifalackoffoodcropsexists,seeref[9]

Onthecontroversyoffuelandfood,itiscleartheissuecanplayinwronglydesignedprojects
that are focussing on large scale production of biofuels which are often geared to export.
However, if in projects of biofuels production and use the local population is served, and
attention is paid on combining food and fuels including intercropping, improved food seeds,
recycling of nutrients, improved agricultural practices, the same acre can deliver more food
and also biofuels as in most current low productivity conditions. In e.g. the FACT projects in
Honduras, Mozambique and Mali; the Gota Verde, ADDP Mozambique, and with Mali
biocarburantcompanyandMFCagriculturalextensionistsarepromotingthisapproach.

Wheresuccessfulintercroppingcanbedeveloped,Jatrophaproductionwillbeabletogohand
inhandwithfoodproduction.Furthermore,Jatrophacangrowonmarginallandwhichisnot
used for food production. Often there are other, more important barriers to (efficient) food
production,thanjusttheavailabilityofland.Accesstocreditisknowntobesuchabarrierin
the case of small farmers. In chapter 6 an example is given of how jatropha plantations of
small farmers can be used as a collateral in a staple crop financing scheme, even without
involvementoffinancialinstitutions.

Thefoodversusfueldiscussionisnotveryrelevantwhenfarmersdecidetouselandthatwas
not in use before for food production and specifically if this is land that cannot be used
properly for food production because of its poor soil. Very small scale plantations as well as
useofJatrophainhedgesdoesnotconfinetothisdiscussionaswell.

E8


The discussion becomes relevant when a large amount of fertile land is used and especially
whenthislandusedtobecultivatedforfoodproduction.

IntheviewofFACTitshouldbelefttothefarmerstodecidewhattofarm,basedoninformed
choices and their balancing of returns and risks. In some cases farmers might use even a
strategytoproduceacropthatcanbeusedforboth

2.Transport
In general more transport during each of the steps in the production phase contributes to
moreGHGemissionsaswellastoadditionalcosts.Itdependsverymuchonthemagnitudeof
the area that is covered within a project and whether seeds are processed solely central or
also decentralised/mobile. For large scale production careful planning on the logistics is
needed. For smaller plantation activities small, manual dehullers (separating the seeds form
therestofthefruit)arecheapandhavealargecapacity(seesection3).Theypermitfarmers
to add extra value to their product, while at the same time reducing transport costs. Here
againabalanceistobefound.

3.Impactscompared
The Table above provides in short an overview of the impact of small scale and large scale
plantationsonthedifferentfieldsthatdefinesustainability.Normallybiglargescaleprojects
have proportional big impacts, but many small activities might also have a big impact when
countingalltogether.Asclearfromtheabove,itisnoteasytomakegeneraljudgementson
effectsofonebigprojectormanysmallprojectsthatareproducingthesame.Normallyone
largescaleproductionofJatrophashouldhavepositivescaleeffects,butthismightbelostdue
tolessmotivatedstaff,bureaucraticinefficiencies,etc.. Many smallprojectswithmotivated
small entrepreneurs might also gain benefits of scale effects when buying through e.g. a
producersassociation.

ThelargescaleprojectsthatwanttobedeliveringbiofuelstotheEUmarket,willhavetoabide
bythesustainabilitycriteria.Thiswillmoreorlessaimtobringthemunderstrict

Frame work similar to EU. The extra costs might be compensated by the higher price for
sustainanblebiofuel.Producersforothermarkets,localorotherregionalmarkets,mightnot
have to abide. Also small farmers might also understand less of the criteria and take wrong
decisions,likecuttingdownforestsorenterinconservationareas,tocultivateJatrophaasis
wassuggestedaprofitcrop.

The Round Table on Sustainable Biofuels: This initiative is initiated by the EPFL (cole
Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne and has both businesses as R&D and practitioners
amongst its participants. The principles tough the following aspects of activities in biomass
legality, Consultation, Planning and Monitoring, Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas, Rural
and social development, Food security, Conservation, Soil, Water, Air, Economic efficiency/
technology/ and continuous improvement, and Land Rights. Details of the criteria can be
foundintheannex.

TheWNFhasaspartoftheRSBaimedtosetupaworkinggrouponJatropha.In2008afirst
workshop was held in Brussels on this special Jatropha production and convesion
sustainability.Reportsthatarestronglyrecommendedtolookatare:Sustainabilitystandards
forbioenergyofWWF.

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RoundtableonSustainableBiomass:CcriteriaonSustainableBiomass,sourceWIKK,2008
Legality
1. Biofuelproductionshallfollowallapplicablelawsofthecountryinwhichtheyoccur,and
shallendeavortofollowallinternationaltreatiesrelevanttobiofuelsproductiontowhich
therelevantcountryisaparty.
Key guidance: Includes laws and treaties relating to air quality, water resources, soil
conservation, protected areas, biodiversity, labor conditions, agricultural practices, and
land rights, including for instance ILO, CBD, UNFCCC, and the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights. This standard can go beyond national law, but cannot contradict or
contravenenationallaw.
Consultation,PlanningandMonitoring
2. Biofuels projects shall be designed and operated under appropriate, comprehensive,
transparent, consultative, and participatory processes that involve all relevant
stakeholders.
Key guidance: Biofuel projects refers to farms and factories producing biofuels. The
intent of this principle is to diffuse conflict situations through an open, transparent
process of stakeholder consultation and acceptance, with the scale of consultation
proportionate to the scale, scope, and stage of the project, and any potential conflicts.
TheRSBwilldevelopascopingprocesstohelpdeterminetheextentofthestakeholder
consultationbasedonkeycriteria.Wheremanyfarmersareengaginginthesameactivity
inthesamearea,thereshouldbeflexibilityforagroupoffarmerstocombinetheirwork.
ClimateChangeandGreenhouseGas
3. Biofuels shall contribute to climate change mitigation by significantly reducing GHG
emissionsascomparedtofossilfuels.
Key guidance: The aim of this principle is to establish an acceptable standard
methodology for comparing the GHG benefits of different biofuels in a way that can be
written into regulations and enforced in standards. The overriding requirement is
therefore a methodology that is not susceptible to subjective assumptions or
manipulation.Thefossilfuelreferenceshallbeglobal,basedonIEAprojectionsoffossil
fuelmixes.
Humanandlaborrights
4. Biofuelproductionshallnotviolatehumanrightsorlaborrights,andshallensuredecent
workandthewellbeingofworkers.
5. Keyguidance:KeyinternationalconventionssuchastheILOscorelaborconventionsand
the UN Declaration on Human Rights shall form the basis for this principle. Employees,
contractedlabour,smalloutgrowers,andemployeesofoutgrowersshallallbeaccorded
therightsdescribedbelow.Decentwork,asdefinedbytheILO,willbetheaspirational
goalforthisprinciple.
Ruralandsocialdevelopment
6. Biofuelproductionshallcontributetothesocialandeconomicdevelopmentoflocal,rural
andindigenouspeoplesandcommunities.
Foodsecurity
7. Biofuelproductionshallnotimpairfoodsecurity.
Conservation
8. Biofuelproductionshallavoidnegativeimpactsonbiodiversity,ecosystems,andareasof
HighConservationValue.
Keyguidance:HCVareas, nativeecosystems,ecologicalcorridors andpublicandprivate
biologicalconservationareascanonlybeexploitedasfarasconservationvaluesareleft
intactandcaninnocasebeconverted.Definitionsofthesetermsandanappropriatecut
offdatewillbedevelopedbytheRSB.

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Soil
9. Biofuelproductionshallpromotepracticesthatseektoimprovesoilhealthandminimize
degradation.
Water
10. Biofuel production shall optimize surface and groundwater resource use, including
minimizing contamination or depletion of these resources, and shall not violate existing
formalandcustomarywaterrights.
Air
11. Airpollutionfrombiofuelproductionandprocessingshallbeminimizedalongthesupply
chain.
Economicefficiency,technology,andcontinuousimprovement
12. Biofuels shall be produced in the most costeffective way. The use of technology must
improveproductionefficiencyandsocialandenvironmentalperformanceinallstagesof
thebiofuelvaluechain.
LandRights
13. Biofuelproductionshallnotviolatelandrights.

TheCramercommissionhasin2007producedareportonthetopicofbiomasssustainability
thatatthetimewasconsideredstateoftheart.[ref;;;;;]Theirreporthasusedsustainability
criteriapreparedfordifferentbiomasssources.Forthediscussionsomeessentialpartsofthe
reportcanbehighlighted,itbecomesclearthat:
The commission has searched to link to existing criteria for sustainable development,
ratherthaninventingthewheelagain.
Manyofthecriteriastillneedtobeelaboratedtooperationalindicators.
Greenhousegasbalance;netemissionreductioncomparedwithfossilreference,inclusive
ofapplication,isatleast30%fornow,andupo50%from2011.
In the competition with food and other basic needs, the commission assumes that the
biomass will be exported rather than used locally. There should be insight into the
availabilityofbiomassforfood,localenergysupply,buildingmaterialsormedicine.
Biodiversity is now focussed on plantations not being located close to protected areas;
otheraspectsstilltobeelaborated.
Economicprosperitycriteriaarelimitedtoensurethatnonegativeeffectsaregenerated
bybiomassproductionbusiness,buttheyarenotfocusedonthecontributiontothelocal
economy.
Wellbeingismuchmoreelaboratedin5subpoints,
o Aspectsonworkingconditions,
o Humanrights,
o Propertyrights,
o Socialeffectsofthebiomasscultivation,
o Integrityiscounteringbribery.

Theenvironmentpointsrelatetotheinputs(integratedcropmanagement)appropriateuseof
fertilizers,soilconservationandconservationofwater(groundandsurfacewater).

SotheCramercommissioncriteriaareapplicabletolargescalecroppingsystems,butnoton
the processing, and not on the effects of market changes or applications due to such large
scale biomass production. These points should be included if one wants to consider a chain
concept.i.efromabiomasscroptoaendproductwithamarket.

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Based on the Cramer criteria a workgroup of parties in the netherlands including Standards
institutes, Power comapnies, Environmental and Development NGOs have produced a NTA
8080whichisamorespecificelaborationoftheCramercriteria.Amazinglythedocumentisin
Dutch language. It is well defined but in some cases presumes the existence of data and
institutes
that
are
not
commonly
found
in
developing
countries.
http://www2.nen.nl/nen/servlet/dispatcher.Dispatcher?id=274031&parentid=000009

References
14. Perspective:Jatrophabiodieselfuelingsustainability,WMJAchtenandothers,Biofuels,
bioproducts&biorefining,ISSN:1932104X,2007
15. Smallscale Production and Use of Liquid biofuels in SubSharan Africa: Perspectives for
Sustainabledevelopment,Backgroundpaperno.2,UNDESA,CommissiononSustainable
Development,NewYork,2007
16. Jatropha literature and perspectives review: Main potential social and environmental
impactsarisingfromlargescaleplantations,May2008,Proforestltd.
17. Beleidsnotitiemilieuenhernieuwbareenergieinontwikkelingssamenwerking,Ministryof
ForeignAffairs,November2008
18. FACT reactie op Heldergroene Biomassa, Stichting Natuur en Milieu, www.fact
fuels.org,30januari2008
19. Empowering rural communities by planting energy, Roundtable on bioenergy enterprise
indevelopingregions,backgroundpaper,UNEP,2008
20. RoundtableonSustainableBiofuels,Globalprinciplesandcriteriaforsustainablebiofuels
production,versionzero,colepolytechniquefdraledeLausanne,EnergyCenter,2008.
Title: Version Zero Principles for sustainable biofuels Version 0.0 (August 2008) RSB
SteeringBoard(http://cgse.epfl.ch/Jahia/site/cgse/op/edit/lang/en/pid/70341)
21. Thestateoffoodandagriculture,biofuels:prospects,risksandopportunities,FAO,2008,
ISSN00814539
22. Discussion Note: Sustainable Biomass for Poverty Reduction etc, 19/07/07 tbv Food en
EnergyWorkshopWR
23. 2productphilosofyprof.KeesDaeyOuwens
24. FACTpositioningpaper

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