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DISEO DE EQUIPOS E INSTALACIONES

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Tablas.1

DISEO DE EQUIPOS E INSTALACIONES

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Tablas.18

TABLE 28-2

General Corrosion Properties of Some Metals and Alloys*

Materials

Cast iron, flake graphite, plain or lowalloy


Ductile iron (higher strength and
hardness may be attained by
composition and heat treatment or
both)
Ni-Resist corrosion-resistant cast
irons

Nonoxidizing or reducing media


Acid
Neutral
Alakine solutions
Oxidizing media
solutions
solutions
excluding
Neutral or
many
Caustic and
hydrochloric
Pitting
alkaline
nonoxidizin
mild
e.g.,
media^,
Amonium
Acid
solutions
g salt
alkalies,
phosphoric,
acid ferric
hydroxide solutions
e.g.
solutions,
excluding
sulfuric,
and amines e.g. nitric persulfates, chloride
chlorides, ammonium
most
peroxides, solutions
sulfates
hydroxide
conditions,
chromates
many

Liquids
Natural waters
Freshwater supplies

Seawater

Static or
Static or
slow
Turbulent
slow
Turbulent
moving
moving

Durion-14% silicon iron

Mild steel, also low-alloy irons and


steels

Stainless steel, ferritic 17%, Cr type

Stainless steel, austenitic 18 Cr; 8 Ni


type

Stainless steel, austenitic 18 Cr; 12


Ni; 2.5 Mo type

Inconel 600 (78 Ni; 15 Cr; 7 Fe)

Copper-nickel alloys up to 30% nickel

Monel 400 nickel-copper alloy (66 Ni;


30 Cu; 2 Fe)

Nickel 200 commercial (99.4 Ni)

Copper and silicon bronze

Aluminum brass (76 Cu; 22 Zn; 2 Al)

Aluminum and its alloys

0-5

0-4

0-5

Lead, chemical or antimonial

Silver

Titanium

Zirconium

Stainless steel, austenitic 20 Cr; 29


Ni; 2.5 Mo; 3.5 Cu type
Incoloy 825 nickel-iron-chromium
alloy (40 Ni; 21 Cr; 3 Mo; 1.5 Cu;
balance Fe)
Hastelloy alloy C-276 (55 Ni; 17 Mo;
16 Cr;6 Fe; 4 W)
Hastelloy alloy B-2 (61 Ni; 28 Mo; 6
Fe)

Nickel-aluminum bronze (80 Cu; 10


Al; 5 Ni; 5 Fe)
Bronze, type A (88 Cu; 5 Sn; 5 Ni; 2
Zn)

Ratings:
0: Unsuitable. Not available in form required or not suitable for fabrication requirements or not suitable for corrosion conditions.
1: Poor to fair.
2: Fair. For mild conditions or when periodic replacement is possible. Restricted use.
3: Fair to good.
4: Good. Suitable when superior alternatives are uneconomic.
5: Good to excellent.
6: Normally excellent.

TABLE 28-2

General Corrosion Properties of Some Metals and Alloys*


Gases
Common Industrial media
Steam

Materials

Halogens and derivatives

Halide
acids,
moist, e.g.,
Moist, e.g., Dry, e.g.,
hydrochloric
Oxidizing, Ambient air,
chlorine
fluorine
hydrolysis
e.g., flue
city or
below dew above dew
products of
gases
industrial
point
point
organic
halides

Furnace gases with

Dry at high Reducing


temperature e.g., heatMoist
, promoting treatment
condensate
slight
furnace
dissociation
gases

Halogens

Hydrogen
halides, dry,
e.g., dry
hydrogen
chloride, F

2<400
1<750

2<400
1<750

3<400
2>750

Durion-14% silicon iron

1<400

Mild steel, also low-alloy irons and


steels

3<400
1<750

Stainless steel, ferritic 17%, Cr type

2<400

Stainless steel, austenitic 18 Cr; 8 Ni


type

3<400

Stainless steel, austenitic 18 Cr; 12


Ni; 2.5 Mo type

4<400

4<400

4<400
3<750

4<750

Inconel 600 (78 Ni; 15 Cr; 7 Fe)

Copper-nickel alloys up to 30% nickel

Monel 400 nickel-copper alloy (66 Ni;


30 Cu; 2 Fe)

6<400
3<750

Nickel 200 commercial (99.4 Ni)

6<400

Copper and silicon bronze

3<400

Aluminum brass (76 Cu; 22 Zn; 2 Al)

2<400

3<400

3<400

Aluminum and its alloys

3<400

Lead, chemical or antimonial

Silver

4<400

Titanium

Zirconium

Cast iron, flake graphite, plain or lowalloy


Ductile iron (higher strength and
hardness may be attained by
composition and heat treatment or
both)
Ni-Resist corrosion-resistant cast
irons

Stainless steel, austenitic 20 Cr; 29


Ni; 2.5 Mo; 3.5 Cu type
Incoloy 825 nickel-iron-chromium
alloy (40 Ni; 21 Cr; 3 Mo; 1.5 Cu;
balance Fe)
Hastelloy alloy C-276 (55 Ni; 17 Mo;
16 Cr;6 Fe; 4 W)
Hastelloy alloy B-2 (61 Ni; 28 Mo; 6
Fe)

Nickel-aluminum bronze (80 Cu; 10


Al; 5 Ni; 5 Fe)
Bronze, type A (88 Cu; 5 Sn; 5 Ni; 2
Zn)

4<750
3<900
5<400
4<900
4<400
3<750

TABLE 28-2

General Corrosion Properties of Some Metals and Alloys*

Materials

Cast iron, flake graphite, plain or lowalloy


Ductile iron (higher strength and
hardness may be attained by
composition and heat treatment or
both)
Ni-Resist corrosion-resistant cast
irons

Available forms

Maximum Coefficient
Cold
strength
of thernal
formability
annealed expansion,
in wrought Weldability
Remarks
condition * millionths
and clad
1000lb./in.in per F, 70form
.
212 F

Cast

No

Fair

45

6.7

Cast

No

Good

67

7.5

Cast

No

Good

22-31

10.3

Cast

No

No

22

7.4

Wrought, cast

Good

Good

67

6.7

Stainless steel, ferritic 17%, Cr type

Wrought,
cast, clad

Good

Good

78

6.0

Stainless steel, austenitic 18 Cr; 8 Ni


type

Wrought,
cast, clad

Good

Good

90

9.6

Wrought, cast,
clad

Good

Good

90

8.9

Wrought, cast

Good

Good

90

9.4

Wrought, cast,
clad

Good

Good

100

7.3

Special alloy with good resistance to sulfuric, phosphoric, and


fatty acids; resistant to chlorides in some environments

Fair

Good

145

6.3

Excellent resistance to wet chlorine gas and sodium


hypochlorite solutions

Fair

Good

135

5.6

Resistant to solutions of hydrochloric and sulfuric acids


Wide application in food and pharmaceutical industries

Durion-14% silicon iron


Mild steel, also low-alloy irons and
steels

Stainless steel, austenitic 18 Cr; 12


Ni; 2.5 Mo type
Stainless steel, austenitic 20 Cr; 29
Ni; 2.5 Mo; 3.5 Cu type
Incoloy 825 nickel-iron-chromium
alloy (40 Ni; 21 Cr; 3 Mo; 1.5 Cu;
balance Fe)
Hastelloy alloy C-276 (55 Ni; 17 Mo;
16 Cr;6 Fe; 4 W)
Hastelloy alloy B-2 (61 Ni; 28 Mo; 6
Fe)

Wrought, cast,
clad
Wrought, cast,
clad

Very brittle, susceptible to cracking by mechanical and thermal


shock
High strengths obtainable by alloying, also improved
atmospheric corrosion resistence. See ASTM specifications for
particular grade
AISI type 430
ASTM corrosion- and heat-resisting steels
AISI type 304
ASTM corrosion- and heat-resisting steels; stabilized or LC
types used for welding
AISI type 316
ASTM corrosion- and heat-resisting steel; LC type used for
welding
ACI CH-7M; good resistance to sulfuric, phosphoric, and fatty
acids at elevated temperatures

Inconel 600 (78 Ni; 15 Cr; 7 Fe)

Wrought, cast,
clad

Good

Good

90

8.9

Copper-nickel alloys up to 30% nickel

Wrought, cast,
clad

Good

Good

38-62

9.3-8.5

Monel 400 nickel-copper alloy (66 Ni;


30 Cu; 2 Fe)

Wrought, cast,
clad

Good

Good

77

7.5

Good

Good

54

6.6

Excellent

Fair

29

9.3-9.5

Wrought, cast

Good

Fair

60

10.3

Possibility of developing localized corrosion in seawater

Wrought, cast

Good

Fair

60-80

9.4

Ship propellers an excellent application

Cast

No

45

11.0

High strengths obtained by heat treatment; not susceptible to

Wrought, cast,
clad

Good

Good

9-90

11.5-13.7

Extent of corrosion dependent upon type and concentration of


acidic ions; wide range of mechanical properties obtainable by
acidic ions; wide range of mechanical properties obtainable by
alloying and heat treatment

Excellent

Good

Excellent

Good

21

10.6

Used as a lining

6-90

5.0

Possibility of red fuming HNO3 initiating explosions; good


resistance to solutions containing chlorides

Nickel 200 commercial (99.4 Ni)


Copper and silicon bronze
Aluminum brass (76 Cu; 22 Zn; 2 Al)
Nickel-aluminum bronze (80 Cu; 10
Al; 5 Ni; 5 Fe)
Bronze, type A (88 Cu; 5 Sn; 5 Ni; 2
Zn)
Aluminum and its alloys

Lead, chemical or antimonial


Silver

Wrought, cast,
clad
Wrought, cast,
clad

Wrought, cast,
clad
Wrought, cast,
clad

Titanium

Wrought, cast

Fair

Good

Zirconium

Wrought, cast

Fair

Good

High-iron types excellent for resisting high-velocity effects in


condenser tubes
Widely used for sulfuric acid pickling equipment; also for
propeller shafts in motor boats; precautions needed to avoid
sulfur attack during fabrication
Widely used for hot concentrated caustic solutions;
precautions needed to avoid sulfur attack during fabrication
Unsuitable for hot concentrated mineral acids or for highvelocity HF

16.4-15.1 High purity "chemical lead" preferred for most applications