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Int. J. Environmental Technology and Management, Vol. 16, Nos.

1/2, 2013

129

Characterisation of LD slag of Bokaro Steel Plant and


its feasibility study of manufacturing commercial fly
ashLD slag bricks
Rajeev Singh
Abhijeet Group,
Ranchi 834001, Jharkhand, India
Email: rajeev_singh2008@yahoo.co.in

A.K. Gorai*
Environmental Science & Engineering Group,
Birla Institute of Technology,
Mesra, Ranchi 835215,
Jharkhand, India
Email: amit_gorai@yahoo.co.uk
*Corresponding author

R.G. Segaran
Bokaro Steel Plant, SAIL,
Bokaro Steel City 827001,
Jharkhand, India
Email: segaranrg@gmail.com
Abstract: The aim of this study is to couple several analytical techniques in order
to carefully undertake physical, chemical and mineralogical characterisations
of LD steel slag to determine its feasible utilisation in commercial brick
manufacturing. The characterisation results of LD slag showed that the pH and
electrical conductivity of the samples were very high indicating high percentage
of lime presence and presence of ionic form of various salts, respectively. The
specific gravity and bulk density of LD slag samples were found to be high in
comparison to fly ash samples. The EDS X-ray micro analysis showed that
major elemental compositions of LD slag samples are O and Ca by weight. The
XRF analysis showed that the major components of the LD slag samples are
CaO, FeO and SiO2. The differential thermal analysis result showed that an
endothermic peak at 450.7C in the DTA curve was found. The compressive
strength of the brick samples type A (Fly ash 35% + LD slag 30% +
Gypsum 5% + Quarry dust 20% + Lime 9.75% + CaCl2 0.25%) was
found to be more than 100 kg/cm2 after 14 days of curing which is sufficiently
higher than that of the strength of a normal red clay bricks (5070 kg/cm2) and
may be its feasible replacement for commercial purposes in civil jobs.
Keywords: LD slag; brick; fly ash; waste management; characterisation.
Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Singh, R., Gorai, A.K. and
Segaran, R.G. (2013) Characterisation of LD slag of Bokaro steel plant and its
feasibility study of manufacturing commercial fly ashLD slag bricks, Int. J.
Environmental Technology and Management, Vol. 16, Nos. 1/2, pp.129145.
Copyright 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

130

R. Singh, A.K. Gorai and R.G. Segaran


Biographical notes: Rajeev Singh is Engineer (Environment) at Abhijeet
Group, Ranchi, India.
A.K. Gorai is Assistant Professor at Environmental Science & Engineering
Group of Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, India.
R.G. Segaran is AGM of ECD Bokaro Steel Plant of Steel Authority of India
Ltd. (SAIL) at Jharkhand, India.

Introduction

Steel is an indispensable part of our everyday lives. Integrated steel plant utilises
primarily raw materials like iron ore, limestone, air, water, fuel and power to produce
steel. During production of steel, considerable amount of different types of solid wastes
(blast furnace slag, blast furnace flue dust, LD slag, coke breeze, tar sludge, etc.) are
generated. The composition of these materials varies widely depending on the source of
generation, the quality of raw materials and the metallurgical operations. The wastes
produced in steel plants are generally disposed by dumping in a haphazard method which
causes many environmental problems. Nowadays, environmental legislations and
economics force steel industry to minimise generation of wastes and maximise its
recycling or utilisation. Recycling or utilisation of waste has become necessary today
because of shortage of space, fast depletion of natural resources, associated health
hazards and for economic advantages. Due to increasing awareness of the environment,
disposal, recycling or reuse of wastes without harming the environment has became a
prime concern for the industry.
LD converter steel slags are industrial by-products resulting from a steelmaking
process in oxygen converters (LinzDonawitz process). Their interesting mechanical
properties made it possible to use them as natural aggregates replacement in road
construction (Xue, 2006; Wu, 2007; Shen, 2009). This use is beneficial because it helps
save natural resources (Motz, 2001) and reduces the tonnage of slag grains that are
stocked every year. However, only a small part of these slags can actually be used in road
construction because their hydraulic reactivity is not very efficient (Shi, 2000; Srinivasa,
2006; Kourounis, 2007; Mahieux, 2009).
According to previous studies, this instability is mainly due to the presence of lime
and magnesia in slag grains (Geiseler, 1996; Auriol, 2004). These compounds, resulting
from variable additions of lime, dolostone and pure magnesia into oxygen converters
during LinzDonawitz process, are hydrated and carbonated with ageing leading to
dimensional damage. Nevertheless, there is no a clear correlation between free lime and
free magnesia contents of LD steel slags and the swelling of the roads. It is then
necessary to improve the understanding of the mechanisms that lead to dimensional
damage.
The aim of this study covers characterisation of LD slag of Bokaro Steel Plant and its
feasible utilisation for commercial brick manufacturing. There may be a good scope for
production of such bricks on commercial scale with sufficient load bearing especially in
those areas where good clay is not available for manufacturing of burnt clay bricks. This
would also help in boosting the rural economy and rural housing.

Characterisation of LD slag of Bokaro Steel Plant

131

Characterisation of LD slag

2.1 Physical properties


2.1.1 pH
The instrument mainly used for pH measurement was a glass electrode pH meter (DPM)
with camel reference electrode including salt bridge. The pH of the LD slag sample was
observed to be 11.35.

2.1.2 Electrical conductivity


Ions are the carrier of electricity, thus the electrical conductivity of the LD slag water
system rises according to the content of soluble salt in the LD slag, giving rise to more
ions or dissociation as it happens in case of a dilute solution. The electrical conductivity
of the LD slag sample was observed to be 6.7.

2.1.3 Specific gravity


Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the weight of a given volume of solids to the
weight of an equivalent volume of water at 4C. This test is done to determine the specific
gravity of LD slag sample by density bottle method as per IS: 2720 (Part III/Sec 1) 1980.
The LD slag sample (50 g) initially passes through a 2 mm IS sieve for determining
specific gravity. The specific gravity of LD slag sample was found to be 3.099.

2.1.4 Bulk density


Bulk density is the measurement of the weight of the solid (such as soil) per unit volume
(g/cc), usually given on an oven-dry (110C) basis. The bulk density of the LD slag
sample was observed to be 1.89 gm/cc.

2.1.5 Particle size distribution analysis


Particle size distribution analysis of LD slag was carried out by the sieve analysis. The
gradation analysis was done in accordance with ASTM 422 standards. The percentage
passing of sample vs. the sieve size used to plot the graph is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1

Particle size distribution from sieve analysis for LD slag (see online version for colours)

132

R. Singh, A.K. Gorai and R.G. Segaran

The uniformity of a sample is reflected by the grain size distribution curve. For example
a steep curve indicates a more or less uniform size whereas an S-shaped curve represents
a well graded size. The uniformity coefficient (Cu = D60/D10) and coefficient of gradation
(Ck = D30/D60 D10) of the sample were 7.55 and 0.67, respectively. These values indicate
that the LD slag sample was a well graded sample.

2.2 Morphological and mineralogical study


2.2.1 SEM-EDX study
In order to investigate the morphology of the slag LD slag sample was examined by
scanning electron microscopy (Jeol, JSM-6390 LV, Japan) at Central Instrumentation
Facility, BIT Mesra. The accelerating voltage of the instrument was fixed at 20 kV. The
detector type of the SEM was secondary image detector and it was working in high
vacuum condition. LD slag which was examined at the magnification of X1500, X5000
and X12,000.
The SEM study of the sample shown in Figures 24 reveals that LD slag is rough
textured, cubical and angular in external appearance. Internally, each particle was
vesicular in nature with many non-interconnected cells. The cellular structure was
formed by the gases entrapped in the hot slag at the time of cooling and solidification.
Since these cells did not form connecting passages, the term cellular or vesicle was
more applicable to steel slag than that of the term porous.
Figure 2

SEM of LD slag: sample at magnification X1500

Figure 3

SEM of F LD slag: sample at magnification X5000

Figure 4

SEM of LD slag: sample at magnification X12,000

Characterisation of LD slag of Bokaro Steel Plant

133

The electron image of LD slag sample in EDS X-ray micro analysis is shown in Figure 5
and its corresponding graph showing the elemental peaks is shown in Figure 6. Elemental
composition of LD slag sample analysed by EDS is shown in Table 1.
Spectrum label: Spectrum 1
Total spectrum counts:

194853

Acquisition geometry (degrees):

Tilt = 0.0, Azimuth = 0.0, Elevation = 33.0

Figure 5

EDS image of LD slag Sample A

Figure 6

EDS analysis of fresh LD slag Sample A

2.2.2 Chemical analysis by XRF study


X-ray spectrometry is a non-destructive technique used to determine the percent of
element in a substance. A beam of X-ray is directed on the sample causing secondary
X-ray to be emitted which contains characteristic wavelength of each element present
in the sample. This characteristic radiation was analysed by crystal detector and was
processed in an electronic circuit and computer for determining the concentration of
element.

134

R. Singh, A.K. Gorai and R.G. Segaran

The chemical composition of the LD slag samples generated at two steel melting
shops, namely SMS-I and SMS-II of Bokaro Steel Plant is shown in Table 2.
Table 1

Elemental composition of fresh LD slag Sample A by EDS

Element

Approximate
Concentration

Intensity
Correction

Weight%

Weight%
Deviation

Atomic%

4.93

0.6006

3.13

0.32

5.84

57.89

0.4491

49.15

0.56

68.84

Mg

1.64

0.6299

0.99

0.08

0.91

Al

1.85

0.7462

0.95

0.07

0.79

Si

10.91

0.8504

4.89

0.11

3.90

0.00

1.2039

0.00

0.10

0.00

0.30

0.8663

0.13

0.08

0.09

Ca

82.06

1.0052

31.13

0.37

17.40

Ti

0.22

0.7616

0.11

0.06

0.05

Fe

8.15

0.8225

3.78

0.14

1.52

Au

11.70

0.7777

5.74

0.44

0.65

Total
Table 2
Components
Average

100.00
Chemical composition of LD slag (%)
FeO

SiO2

Al2O3

CaO

MgO

MnO

P2O5

24.05
2.20

14.05
1.24

4.34
1.53

45.41
2.24

8.17
0.60

0.84
0.60

1.53
0.14

TiO2

0.76 0.24
0.06 0.04

Based on the characterisation test of the samples by XRF, it was observed that the main
components of LD slag were CaO, FeO and SiO2.

2.2.3 Thermal analysis of LD slag


Differential thermal analysis is a technique for recording the difference in temperature
between a substance and a reference material against either time or temperature as the
two specimens are subjected to identical temperature regimes in an environment heated
or cooled at a controlled rate.
In order to investigate thermal stability of the slag LD slag sample was examined by
Thermo Gravimetric Analyser (Shimadzu, Japan, DTG-60) at Central Instrumentation
Facility, BIT Mesra. The sample was performed under nitrogen atmosphere and in the
temperature range of ambient to 800C. The heating rate of sample was 10C/min.
The result of TGA for Fresh LD slag sample A is shown in Figure 7. The weight loss
percent of LD slag was analysed in four stages in the temperature range of 30270C,
270430C, 430620C and 620685C, respectively. The weight loss rates in four
stages were found to be 1.3%, 2.44%, 2.36% and 1.09%, respectively.

Characterisation of LD slag of Bokaro Steel Plant


Figure 7

135

TGA curve of LD slag (see online version for colours)


Thermal Analysis Result

TGA
%
100.00

A.tad

Start

30.00

End

270.00

Start

270.00

Weight Loss

-0.105

mg

End

430.00

-1.300

Weight Loss

-0.197

mg

-2.440

TGA

90.00

Start

430.00

Start

620.00

Start

30.00

End

480.00

End

685.00

End

800.00

Weight Loss

-0.191

mg

Weight Loss

-0.088

mg

Weight Loss

-0.700

C
mg

-2.366

-1.090

-8.670

80.00

0.00

200.00

400.00
Temp

600.00

800.00

[C]

The differential thermal analysis result is shown in Figure 8. From the graph, it is evident
that an endothermic peak at 450.7C in the DTA curve was observed.
Figure 8

DTA curve of LD slag (see online version for colours)


Thermal Analysis Result

DTA
uV

A.tad

DTA

0.00

-50.00
Peak

450.78

Onset

422.52

Endset

469.03

Heat

-74.66

-9.25

C
C

kJ/g

-100.00

0.00

200.00

400.00
Temp

600.00

800.00

[C]

Feasibility study of commercial LD slagfly ash brick manufacturing

3.1 Materials and methodology


The raw materials required for the bricks were fly ash, LD slag, quarry dust, lime,
gypsum and calcium chloride. The characteristics of lime, gypsum and calcium chloride
are given below.
Lime: Lime is a very important ingredient for manufacturing bricks, and hence it should
satisfy the following minimum requirements:

Lime, while slaking should not attain less than 60C temperatures and slaking time
should not be more than 15 min.

136

R. Singh, A.K. Gorai and R.G. Segaran

CaO content in lime should be minimum 60%.

MgO content should be maximum 5%.

Gypsum: It is added to the mixture in order to accelerate hardening process and acquiring
the early strength. It should have minimum 35% of purity.
Calcium chloride: Calcium chloride plays the role of an activator in the mixture and it
particularly activates LD slag as well as helps in silicate formation after drying.

3.2 Brick sample preparation


The samples were prepared with five different composition of LD slag (Sample type A,
Sample type B, Sample type C, Sample type D and Sample type E) in brick
manufacturing for the study. All types of samples are prepared with the different
compositions of fly ash, LD slag, gypsum, quarry dust, lime and calcium chloride. The
percentage compositions of different raw materials in different types of samples are
shown in Table 3.
Table 3

Composition of different samples of fly ashLD slag brick

S. No. Sample Type

Material (in %)
Fly ash

LD slag

Gypsum

Quarry dust

Lime

CaCl2

35

30

20

9.75

0.25

40

50

30

40

15

10

30

50

10

20

60

10

3.3 Sample preparation


The pan mixture of brick making machine can hold 200 kg of mixture of raw material for
sample preparation.
Sample type A: The calcium chloride was mixed in water while the appropriate amounts
of other raw materials were added in pan mixture. After few minutes the water containing
calcium chloride solution was poured in the pan mixture with regular intervals. Hence,
70 kg of fly ash, 60 kg of LD slag, 10 kg of gypsum, 40 kg of quarry dust, 19.50 kg of
lime and 0.5 kg of calcium chloride were weighted for the preparation of Sample type A.
The consumption of LD slag in the sample type A was 30%.
Sample type B: Similarly, Sample B was prepared with 80 kg of fly ash, 100 kg of LD
slag, 10 kg of gypsum and10 kg of quarry dust.
Sample type C: Sample C was prepared with 60 kg of fly ash, 80 kg of LD slag, 10 kg of
gypsum, 30 kg of quarry dust and 20 kg of lime.
Sample type D: Sample D was prepared with 60 kg of fly ash, 100 kg of LD slag, 10 kg
of gypsum and 20 kg of quarry dust and 10 kg of lime.

Characterisation of LD slag of Bokaro Steel Plant

137

Sample type E: Sample E was prepared with 40 kg of fly ash, 120 kg of LD slag, 10 kg of
gypsum and 20 kg of quarry dust and 10 kg of lime.
The fly ashLD slag brick samples for different sample types are shown in Figures 9ae.
Figure 9

Fly ash: (a) LD slag Sample A; (b) LD slag Sample B; (c) LD slag Sample C; (d) LD
slag Sample D and (e) LD slag Sample E (see online version for colours)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

3.3 Manufacturing process


The process of manufacturing fly ashLD slag brick is based on the reaction of CaO
present in LD slag as well as lime with silica of fly ash and quarry dust or sand. The
quality of bricks obtained is highly dependent on the quality of raw materials. The

138

R. Singh, A.K. Gorai and R.G. Segaran

manufacturing process of bricks broadly consists of three operations viz. mixing the
ingredients, pressing the mixture in machine and curing the bricks for stipulated period.
The manufacturing system of bricks in site is shown in Figure 10.
Figure 10 Brick manufacturing system (see online version for colours)

3.3.1 Mixing the ingredients in pan mixture


Gypsum was added to the pan mixture and the grinding process was started. Secondly,
lime was added into the mixture then LD slag was added for grinding. Thirdly, the quarry
dust was fed into the mixture for grinding. Finally, the fly ash was added in the pan for
mixing. The mixtures were then mixed in pan mixer for 3 min and meanwhile the water
was poured in the mixture for proper mixing. In case, we want to add calcium chloride in
the sample, it has to be mixed with water to be poured into the pan mixture. The water
should be optimum so that the mixture could bind properly.

3.3.2 Pressing the mixture in brick manufacturing machine


After mixing the raw materials in the pan mixture, it will discharge the materials into the
hopper. Conveyor belt was situated below the hopper having capacity to transport
the material of two times of pan mixture capacity. The material was then discharged from
the hopper into belt conveyor which transported the raw material mixture up to the brick
manufacturing machine and was discharged into it. The raw materials mixture was
compressed in brick manufacturing with 40 tonne pressure operated hydraulically. Now
the moulded bricks came out from the machines brick sized framed plates automatically.
The moulded bricks were then lifted manually and kept on pallet. The technical
specification of brick manufacturing machine and its operating principles are given
below.
Technical specifications
1

Type of the press:Low-stroke.

Capacity: 30 tonne.

Day light gap: 350 mm.

Mode of operation: Auto.

Production speed: 6 bricks per cycle.

Production capacity: 1000 bricks per hour.

Characterisation of LD slag of Bokaro Steel Plant

139

3.3.3 Operating principle


Brick making machine is hydraulically operated, fully automatic system and controlled
by Programmable Logic Control (PLC). This machine produces 1000 bricks per hour.
Newly designed component of hydraulic system develops the compressive force of
40 tonnes so that the material would be compressed fully and good quality of bricks is
maintained. Adjusting the relief valve system can vary force.

3.3.4 Method of curing


The moulded bricks were hauled from the hydraulic trolley in the drying yards. After
drying for 48 h it was cured by adding water for 1421 days.

Results and discussion

4.1 Uni-axial compressive strength


It is the strength of the brick that can sustain without failure, when the load applied in
one direction (parallel to the axis) only. Compressive strength is a vital parameter to
judge the durability/stability of the brick.

F
kg cm2
A

where, F = load applied in kg and A = area in cm2.


The uni-axial compression tests were conducted for different composition of the fly
ashLD slag brick samples on 7th day, 14th day, 21st day and 28th day from the date of
manufacturing. The brick sample was prepared on 12 February 2010, and hence the tests
were conducted on 19 February 2010, 26 February 2010, 05 March 2010 and 12 March
2010. The compressive strength tests of the samples were carried out as per standard
practices. The results of compressive strength of various samples are given in Table 4. The
trends of compressive strength of different sample A, B and C are shown in Figure 11,
Figure 12 and Figure 13, respectively. The sample types D and E were not tested as
cracks were developed within 7 day from the date of manufacturing.
Figure 11 Compressive strength of fly ashLD slag brick Sample type A (see online version
for colours)

140

R. Singh, A.K. Gorai and R.G. Segaran

Figure 12 Compressive strength of fly ashLD slag brick Sample type B (see online version
for colours)

Figure 13 Compressive strength of fly ashLD slag brick Sample type C (see online version
for colours)

Table 4

Compressive strength of fly ashLD slag brick samples

S. No. Sample type Sample CODE


1

7th day

Compressive strength (Kg/cm2)


14th day
21st day
28th day

A1
A2
A3
Average S.D
B1
B2
B3
Average S.D

19/2/10
65.1
58.9
52.7
58.9 6.2
42.7
48.6
38.3
43.2 5.1

26/2/10
109.7
107.8
105.4
107.6 2.1
96
101.9
91
96.4 5.3

5/3/10
133.2
127.4
125.3
128 4.0
107.8
119.5
102.7
110 8.6

12/3/10
134.4
129.6
128.1
130.7 3.2
92.5
107
87.9
95.8 9.9

C1

39.2

88.2

117.6

103.8

C2
C3
Average S.D

41.3
43.2
41.2 2.0

90.1
92.3
90.2 2.0

111.7
119.9
118.4 4.2

103.8
108.8
105.4 2.8

Characterisation of LD slag of Bokaro Steel Plant

141

Figure 11 shows the changing behaviour of compressive strength with passage of days
for Sample type A. The average values of compressive strength of Sample type A was
found to be 58.9 kg/cm2, 107.6 kg/cm2, 128 kg/cm2 and 130.7 kg/cm2 after 7th day,
14th day, 21st day and 28th day from the date of manufacturing, respectively. It is
evident from Figure 11 that the compressive strength of the sample increases rapidly up
to 21st day and then it is more or less stabilised with a constant value.
Figure 12 shows the changing behaviour of compressive strength with passage of
days for Sample type B. The average values of compressive strength of Sample type B
was found to be 43.2 kg/cm2, 96.4 kg/cm2, 110 kg/cm2 and 95.8 kg/cm2 after 7th day,
14th day, 21st day and 28th day from the date of manufacturing, respectively. It is
evident from Figure 12 that the compressive strength of the sample increases up to
21st day and then it starts declining. From the trend of the compressive strength, it can be
inferred that the samples of this composition type will not sustain or provide good results
in long run. The reason may be that the higher percentage of LD slag (consists of high
percentage of lime) in the sample leads to internal cracks formation in the brick during
drying.
Figure 13 shows the changing behaviour of compressive strength with passage of
days for Sample type C. The average values of compressive strength of Sample type C
was found to be 41.2 kg/cm2, 90.2 kg/cm2, 118.4 kg/cm2 and 105.4 kg/cm2 after 7th day,
14th day, 21st day and 28th day from the date of manufacturing, respectively. It is
evident from Figure 13 that the compressive strength of the sample increases up to
21st day and then it starts declining. From the trend of the compressive strength, it can be
inferred that the samples of this composition type will not sustain or provide good results
in long run. The reason may be that the higher percentage of LD slag (consists of high
percentage of lime) in the sample leads to cracks formation in the brick during drying.
The comparative trends for compressive strength of three different types of samples
A, B and C for their average value are shown in Figure 14. From the above graph, it is
evident that the compressive strength is continuously increasing for Sample type A
whereas the compressive strength for Sample type B and C are of decreasing trend after
21st days. This may be due to the lower percentage of LD slag in sample type A.
Figure 14 Comparison of compressive strength of different fly ashLD slag brick samples
(see online version for colours)

142

R. Singh, A.K. Gorai and R.G. Segaran

4.2 Water absorption


The amount of water absorbed by a composite material when immersed in water for a
stipulated period of time is defined as water absorption capacity. As per IS, water
absorption capacity for lime bricks should be within 20%. It is the ratio of the weight of
water absorbed by a material to the weight of the dry materials.
The water absorption capacity of the tested brick samples are given in Table 5. From
Table 5 it can be observed that the water absorption capacity was found to be less than
25% which showed that the fly ashLD slag brick had less water absorption capacity
than the conventional red clay brick. The fly ashLD slag brick Sample type A had
average water absorption of 20.35%. Similarly, Sample type B had average water
absorption of 21.75% and Sample type C had water absorption of 22.5%. Hence among
the three samples which were taken for water absorption, the Sample Type A had less
water absorption of 20.35% which is good for the civil work.
Table 5

Water absorption (%) of fly ashLD slag brick


Water absorption (%)

S. No.

Sample type

7th day

14th day

21st day

28th day

19/2/10

26/2/10

5/3/10

12/3/10

20.2

20.6

20.7

19.9

21.7

22.8

21.8

20.7

21.1

19.5

25

24.4

4.3 Bulk density


The bulk density is defined as the weight of material present in a sample per unit volume.
Bulk density (gm/cm3) = Weight of material/Volume of material
The bulk density of fly ashLD slag brick which is placed for water absorption test was
given in Table 6 and it was found in the range of 1.471.79 gm/cm3.
Table 6

Bulk density of fly ashLD slag brick


Bulk density (gm/cm3)

S. No.

Sample type

7th day

14th day

21st day

28th day

19/2/10

25/2/10

4/3/10

15/3/10

1.67

1.60

1.64

1.66

1.61

1.56

1.78

1.79

1.58

1.67

1.47

1.49

4.4 Fly ashLD slag brick dimensions


The average length, breadth and height of the bricks were 23.11, 11.06 and 7.53,
respectively. Table 7 shows that the dimensions of the tested sample of fly ashLD slag
brick. The dimensions of the brick samples were uniform which is very good for civil
work.

Characterisation of LD slag of Bokaro Steel Plant


Table 7

143

Dimension of fly ashLD slag brick

S. No.

Sample code

Length (cm)

Breath (cm)

Height (cm)

Volume (cm3)

A1

23.2

11.0

7.5

1914

A2

23.1

11.0

7.5

1905.7

A3

23.2

11.1

7.6

1939.5

B1

23.0

11.1

7.5

1897.5

B2

23.2

11.0

7.5

1914

B3

23.1

11.0

7.5

1905.7

C1

23.1

11.1

7.6

1948.7

C2

23.0

11.2

7.6

1922.8

C3

23.0

11.0

7.5

1914

4.5 Comparative study of fly ash-LD slag bricks with other types of bricks
The comparative characteristics values of fly ashLD slag bricks, fly ashlime-sand
brick and normal red clay bricks are reported in Table 8. The comparative strength of fly
ashLD slag bricks is higher than that of the fly ashlime-sand brick and normal red clay
bricks. The water absorption capacity of fly ashLD slag bricks is within the range of
20% and higher than that of the fly ashlime-sand bricks but lower than that of the
normal red clay bricks.
Table 8

Comparative characteristics of various types of bricks


Items

Normal red
clay bricks

Fly ashlime-sand
brick

Fly ashLD slag bricks


(Sample type A after
28 days of curing)

Compressive strength

around 35 Kg/cm2

around 100 kg/cm2

130.7 3.2 kg/cm2

Thermal conductivity

1.251.35 W/m2 C

0.901.05 W/m2 C

Not studied

2025%

612%

19.9%

Higher than fly ash


bricks

Lower than normal


clay bricks

1.66

Water absorption
Bulk density

Source: http://flyashbricksinfo.com/fly-ash-brick-vs-normal-clay-bricks.html#

The bulk density of fly ashlime-sand bricks is lower than that of the normal red clay
bricks. The bulk density of fly ash bricks as in the range of 1.1721.223 gm/cm3 (Kumar,
2002) and thus from Table 8 it can be observed that the bulk density of fly ashlime-sand
bricks is lower than that of the fly ashLD slag bricks.

Conclusion

The characterisation results of LD slag showed that the pH and electrical conductivity of
the samples were very high indicating high percentage of lime presence and presence of

144

R. Singh, A.K. Gorai and R.G. Segaran

ionic form of various salts, respectively. The specific gravity and bulk density of sample
was found to be high in comparison to fly ash and due to these characteristics the LD slag
bricks are heavier than that of the fly-ash brick.
Uniformity Coefficient (Cu) and Coefficient of gradation (Ck) values in particle size
analysis indicate that the LD slag sample used for the brick manufacturing was a well
graded sample.
The SEM study of LD slag results showed that the sample was rough textured,
cubical and angular in external appearance. Internally, each particle was vesicular in
nature with many non-interconnected cells. The cellular structure was formed by the
gases entrapped in the hot slag at the time of cooling and solidification. Since these cells
did not form connecting passages, the term cellular or vesicle was more applicable to
steel slag than that of the term porous.
The EDS X-ray micro analysis of LD slag sample showed that the elemental
compositions of the sample are C, O, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Ti, Fe and Au. Among the
above elements, O and Ca share the major percentage by weight in the LD slag sample.
The XRF analysis showed that the major components of the LD slag samples are
CaO, FeO and SiO2.
Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) of LD slag Sample A showed that the weight
loss rates in four stages (in the temperature range of 30270C, 270430C, 430620C
and 620685C) were found to be 1.3%, 2.44%, 2.36% and 1.09%, respectively. The
differential thermal analysis result showed that an endothermic peak at 450.7C in the
DTA curve was observed.
Five different composition of fly ashLD slag samples were prepared and tested for
uni-axial compressive strength test and water absorption. The average values of
compressive strength of Sample type A were found to be 58.9 kg/cm2, 107.6 kg/cm2,
128 kg/cm2 and 130.7 kg/cm2 after 7th day, 14th day, 21st day and 28th day from the
date of manufacturing, respectively. The compressive strength of the sample increases up
to 21st day and then it was more or less stable. But the other samples were not sustained
or provide good results in long run. The reason may be that the higher percentage of LD
slag (consists of high percentage of lime) in the sample leads to cracks development in
the brick during drying.
The cost of fly ashLD slag brick depends upon the electricity cost, water cost,
maintenance cost, labour cost and the cost of raw material used in brick making. The cost
of raw material depends upon the market value and the transportation cost of the
material. While other additional expenditure for brick making were electricity cost, water
cost, maintenance cost and labour cost which is Rs.0.61/brick. Considering all the above
costs, the manufacturing cost of fly ashLD slag brick was estimated to be of
Rs.2.72/brick. The above cost is little bit higher than that of the cost of conventional red
clay bricks (approximately Rs.2.50). But some indirect benefit (environmental) can be
achieved with the manufacturing of fly ashLD slag brick.
The compressive strength of the fly ashLD slag brick Sample type A (above
100 kg/cm2) was sufficiently higher than that of the normal red clay bricks (5070 kg/cm2)
and can be a feasible replacement for the commercial purposes in civil jobs. This will not
only solve the industrys waste disposal problem but also protects environment and save
energy (capacity of coal saving 37 t/lakhs of bricks).

Characterisation of LD slag of Bokaro Steel Plant

145

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