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Header Ligament Crack Detection and Sizing

UT Techniques

by Jimmy Ellis

718-757-9464

utgeek@earthlink.net

associated with
Rick Pfannenstiel, PfiNDE, LLC

860-830-4990 www.PfiNDE.com

PfiNDE, LLC
Pfannenstiel Innovative Non Destructive Examinations, LLC
166 Ingham Hill Road, Old Saybrook, CT 06475
www.PFiNDE.com - 860.830.4990 - rick@PFiNDE.com

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 2 of 65

Header Ligament Crack Detection and Sizing


UT Techniques
The following describes some ultrasonic testing techniques for the
detection and sizing of ligament cracks in headers. These techniques can also be
used for other applications in flat plate or cylindrical sections.

Contents
Objective / Scope
Radial and Axial Crack Illustrations
Radial Cracks
FAST-UT
Pitch-Catch
Manual TOFD on flat plate
Flat Plate TOFD Spreadsheet Illustrated
Flat Plate TOFD Calculating Spreadsheets
Axial Cracks
Through Transmission
Illustrations 6% to 66% deep
Through-Transmission Calculations
Trough-Transmission Spreadsheet
Manual TOFD on cylindrical sections
Base Distance vs. Depth Illustrations
Circumferential TOFD arc/chord/depth
Spreadsheet
Circumferential TOFD simulator

by Jimmy Ellis

718-757-9464

Page 3
Page 4
Page 9
Page 9
Page 9
Page 15
Page 16
Page 17
Page 31
Page 31
Page 33
Page 43
Page 50
Page 51
Page 52
Page 61
Page 62

utgeek@earthlink.net

associated with
Rick Pfannenstiel, PfiNDE, LLC

860-830-4990 www.PfiNDE.com

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 3 of 65

Header Ligament Crack Detection and Sizing


Objective
The objective of this series of examinations is to detect ligament cracks
and then determine the depth of the ligament cracking between penetrations in
headers.
Scope
The types of headers these methods are intended for are power boiler
headers with thick pipe walls and numerous closely spaced penetrations such as
found in superheater headers.
Cracks in headers are most often detected by remote visual inspection
from inside the header. Sometimes there are hand holes in the header ends,
and sometimes pipe penetrations are cut off to make an access for a fibercam or
other remote visual device. Even with a confirmed visual detection, the depth
sizing can be difficult.
Some headers with extra heavy wall thickness are difficult to inspect with
conventional shear wave techniques. Due to the angles usually used, and the
thickness and curvature of the header, shear waves often wont reach the ID
(inside diameter) of the header. Other drawbacks of shear waves are the
difficulty in detecting crack tip signals and the high response to corner reflectors
The methods described here are also applicable to other product forms
with flat plate or cylindrical type shapes.
Two crack orientations are considered; axial and radial.
Techniques
Radial Cracks
Radial cracks are circumferentially oriented in the header pipe and go
from one penetration to the adjacent penetration in the circumferential direction.
Three UT techniques are described:
FAST-UT
Pitch-Catch
Manual TOFD (for flat plate type geometries)
Axial Cracks
Axial cracks are parallel to the axis of the header pipe and go from one
penetration to the adjacent penetration in the header pipe axial direction. Two
UT techniques are described:
Through-Transmission
Manual TOFD (circumferentially oriented in cylindrical sections)
Illustrations of radial and axial cracks in headers follow.

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

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Header Pipe

Penetrations on the
near side. There are
mirror image
pentrations on the
far side. Pendant
piping not shown.

Side view of Header

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

A'

B'

Page 5 of 65

Header Pipe

penetrations

Side view of Header


header pipe OD
header pipe ID

Section B-B'
Radial Section,
Sectioned between penetrations

Section A-A'
Radial Section,
Sectioned through
penetrations

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004
C

Page 6 of 65

Header Pipe

C'

penetrations

D'

Side view of Header


C

C'
D'

header pipe OD

penetrations
Section C-C'
Axial Section
Sectioned through
penetrations
(only the near side header
pipe wall and penetrations
are shown)

header pipe ID

Section D-D'
Axial Section
Sectioned between
penetrations
(only the near side header
pipe wall is shown)

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

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Header Pipe

B
C

penetrations

C'

B'

Side view of Header


Axial Ligament
Crack

header pipe OD
Axial Ligament
Crack

penetrations
Section C-C'
Axial Section

header pipe ID

Section B-B'
Radial Section

The Same Axial Ligament Crack Shown in all 3 Views


Above

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004
A

Page 8 of 65

Radial
Ligament
Crack

Header Pipe
penetrations

A'
D

D'

Side view of Header

Section A-A'
Radial Section

Radial
Ligament
Crack

header pipe OD

header pipe ID

Section D-D'
Axial Section

The Same Radial Ligament Crack Shown in all 3 Views


Above

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

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Radial Ligament Crack Detection and Sizing


Three methods are considered for the detection and sizing of radial
header ligament cracking:
1____FAST-UT
2____Pitch-Catch
3____Manual TOFD
FAST-UT
FAST-UT is a proprietary multipurpose ultrasonic inspection technique.
FAST-UT predominantly uses high angle L-waves, but low angle shear waves, and ID
and OD creeper modes of sound propagation are also present and useful.
A detailed description of the technique is beyond the scope of this
presentation. More details can be found through www.PfiNDE.com .
For most in-service ultrasonic inspection, FAST-UT can perform most
ultrasonic inspections with the highest reliability of detection, the lowest rate of
false calls, and in the hands of experienced examiners, detection and sizing can
often be performed together. Most power plant piping can have reliable inservice ultrasonic inspection with FAST-UT alone. FAST-UT has been thoroughly
tested and proved through the EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) PDI
(Performance Demonstration Initiative) Program.
The geometry of radial cracks is similar to flat plate, as shown in the
previous section D-D. Due to the similarity in geometry of radial cracks to
cracks in flat plate, it is possible that many radial cracks may be detected and
sized with FAST-UT alone.
Pitch-Catch
The following sketches show the set-up for measuring the depth of
cracking for ID connected radial cracks. These pitch-catch transducers are shear
wave transducers set up in an axial orientation on the header. The geometry of
radial cracks is similar to flat plate, as shown in the previous section D-D.

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

pitch-catch set-up
45 degree shear wave transducers
surface distance = depth

100% transmision, no interfering cracks

similar to geometry of Section D-D'

Page 10 of 65

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

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50% transmission, 25% deep crack

surface distance = 2 X depth of crack

50% transmission, 25% deep crack

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

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50% transmission, 50% deep crack

surface distance = 2 X depth of crack

50% transmission, 50% deep crack

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

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50% transmission, 75% deep crack

surface distance = 2 X depth of crack

50% transmission, 75% deep crack

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

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50% transmission, 100% deep crack

surface distance = 2 X depth of crack

50% transmission, 100% deep crack

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

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Manual TOFD
Manual TOFD of radial cracks uses axially oriented transducers in pitchcatch pairs. The transducer pair can scan axially, or circumferentially.
TOFD (Time of Flight Tip Diffraction Testing) is almost universally
performed as an automated ultrasonic test where the scans are electronically
recorded for later display in an image. Special scanners, detectors, hardware
and software is required. The manual technique shown here is somewhat
unique in that it allows TOFD to be performed in real time at a clients
convenience and schedule, with only a normal ultrasonic flaw detector.
This manual TOFD technique compliments the FAST-UT technique. The
FAST-UT technique predominantly uses a high angle L-wave at 70 degrees. This
results in a long surface distance, about 2.75 of surface distance for each inch
of depth. The manual TOFD technique compliments the FAST-UT because it
needs only short surface distances. For example a flaw 6 inches deep can be
sized with only 1.5 of surface distance on each side of the flaw centerline.
Radial cracks in headers have a geometry similar to flat plate as shown in
the previous section D-D. The following sketches and Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet show the geometric relations which make up the manual TOFD setup in flat plate. Then additional spreadsheet derived tables are shown for a
series of increasing base distances in round numbers for examples. The Excel
spreadsheet can calculate a precise table for any chosen base distance.

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

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For use with a machine that has only a 'dual' setting and no 'pitch-catch such as USN52L.
Set the L-wave X-ducers to the needed base distance, then input this distance in this spreadsheet.
Set up the screen with the Direct L-wave at 1, the Backwall L-wave at 5 and the Backwall Mode-converted shearwave at 10.
Set the Backwall L-wave echo in the gate and use 'Zero' to calibrate. (L-Dist. is read from S-path displayed)
Measure flaws in the gate to measure L-Distances and refer to the table for depth determination.
For sensitivity setting, set SDH nearest maximum depth of interest at 50%FSH.
receive

send

depth
L-Dist.

flaw

Base Distance
Input Base Distance:
1.0
inches
depth

L-Dist.

(or thickness)

angle

X-ducer angle

beam spreads at
5MHz
30 45
60

Direct
Lwave

17-43 32-58 47-73

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

0.51
0.54
0.58
0.64
0.71
0.78
0.86
0.94
1.03
1.12
1.21
1.30
1.39
1.49
1.58
1.68
1.77
1.87
1.96
2.06
2.16
2.26
2.35
2.45
2.55
2.65
2.75
2.84
2.94
3.04
3.14
3.24
3.34
3.44
3.54

11.31
21.80
30.96
38.66
45.00
50.19
54.46
57.99
60.95
63.43
65.56
67.38
68.96
70.35
71.57
72.65
73.61
74.48
75.26
75.96
76.61
77.20
77.74
78.23
78.69
79.11
79.51
79.88
80.22
80.54
80.84
81.12
81.38
81.63
81.87

78.69
68.20
59.04
51.34
45.00
39.81
35.54
32.01
29.05
26.57
24.44
22.62
21.04
19.65
18.43
17.35
16.39
15.52
14.74
14.04
13.39
12.80
12.26
11.77
11.31
10.89
10.49
10.12
9.78
9.46
9.16
8.88
8.62
8.37
8.13

OD
Backwall
L-wave

backwall
mode
converted
shearwave

ID

Screen Set-up on Unflawed Material

mode
converted
flaw echo
L-wave - flaw

OD

ID

Screen Set-up on Flawed Material

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 17 of 65

Input Base Distance:


0.25 inches
depth

L-Dist.

angle

X-ducer angle

(or thickness)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

0.16
0.24
0.33
0.42
0.52
0.61
0.71
0.81
0.91
1.01
1.11
1.21
1.31
1.41
1.51
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.10
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
3.00
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50

38.66
57.99
67.38
72.65
75.96
78.23
79.88
81.12
82.09
82.87
83.52
84.05
84.51
84.90
85.24
85.53
85.79
86.03
86.24
86.42
86.59
86.75
86.89
87.02
87.14
87.25
87.35
87.44
87.53
87.61
87.69
87.76
87.83
87.89
87.95

51.34
32.01
22.62
17.35
14.04
11.77
10.12
8.88
7.91
7.13
6.48
5.95
5.49
5.10
4.76
4.47
4.21
3.97
3.76
3.58
3.41
3.25
3.11
2.98
2.86
2.75
2.65
2.56
2.47
2.39
2.31
2.24
2.17
2.11
2.05

30

45

60

17-43

32-58

47-73

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 18 of 65

Input Base Distance:


0.50 inches
depth

L-Dist.

angle

X-ducer angle

(or thickness)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

0.27
0.32
0.39
0.47
0.56
0.65
0.74
0.84
0.93
1.03
1.13
1.23
1.32
1.42
1.52
1.62
1.72
1.82
1.92
2.02
2.11
2.21
2.31
2.41
2.51
2.61
2.71
2.81
2.91
3.01
3.11
3.21
3.31
3.41
3.51

21.80
38.66
50.19
57.99
63.43
67.38
70.35
72.65
74.48
75.96
77.20
78.23
79.11
79.88
80.54
81.12
81.63
82.09
82.50
82.87
83.21
83.52
83.80
84.05
84.29
84.51
84.71
84.90
85.07
85.24
85.39
85.53
85.67
85.79
85.91

68.20
51.34
39.81
32.01
26.57
22.62
19.65
17.35
15.52
14.04
12.80
11.77
10.89
10.12
9.46
8.88
8.37
7.91
7.50
7.13
6.79
6.48
6.20
5.95
5.71
5.49
5.29
5.10
4.93
4.76
4.61
4.47
4.33
4.21
4.09

30

45

60

17-43

32-58

47-73

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 19 of 65

Input Base Distance:


0.75 inches
depth

L-Dist.

angle

X-ducer angle

(or thickness)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

0.39
0.43
0.48
0.55
0.63
0.71
0.79
0.88
0.98
1.07
1.16
1.26
1.35
1.45
1.55
1.64
1.74
1.84
1.94
2.03
2.13
2.23
2.33
2.43
2.53
2.63
2.73
2.83
2.92
3.02
3.12
3.22
3.32
3.42
3.52

14.93
28.07
38.66
46.85
53.13
57.99
61.82
64.89
67.38
69.44
71.18
72.65
73.91
75.00
75.96
76.81
77.56
78.23
78.84
79.38
79.88
80.33
80.74
81.12
81.47
81.79
82.09
82.37
82.63
82.87
83.10
83.32
83.52
83.71
83.88

75.07
61.93
51.34
43.15
36.87
32.01
28.18
25.11
22.62
20.56
18.82
17.35
16.09
15.00
14.04
13.19
12.44
11.77
11.16
10.62
10.12
9.67
9.26
8.88
8.53
8.21
7.91
7.63
7.37
7.13
6.90
6.68
6.48
6.29
6.12

30

45

60

17-43

32-58

47-73

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 20 of 65

Input Base Distance:


1.00 inches
depth

L-Dist.

angle

X-ducer angle

(or thickness)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

0.51
0.54
0.58
0.64
0.71
0.78
0.86
0.94
1.03
1.12
1.21
1.30
1.39
1.49
1.58
1.68
1.77
1.87
1.96
2.06
2.16
2.26
2.35
2.45
2.55
2.65
2.75
2.84
2.94
3.04
3.14
3.24
3.34
3.44
3.54

11.31
21.80
30.96
38.66
45.00
50.19
54.46
57.99
60.95
63.43
65.56
67.38
68.96
70.35
71.57
72.65
73.61
74.48
75.26
75.96
76.61
77.20
77.74
78.23
78.69
79.11
79.51
79.88
80.22
80.54
80.84
81.12
81.38
81.63
81.87

78.69
68.20
59.04
51.34
45.00
39.81
35.54
32.01
29.05
26.57
24.44
22.62
21.04
19.65
18.43
17.35
16.39
15.52
14.74
14.04
13.39
12.80
12.26
11.77
11.31
10.89
10.49
10.12
9.78
9.46
9.16
8.88
8.62
8.37
8.13

30

45

60

17-43

32-58

47-73

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 21 of 65

Input Base Distance:


1.50 inches
depth

L-Dist.

angle

X-ducer angle

(or thickness)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

0.76
0.78
0.81
0.85
0.90
0.96
1.03
1.10
1.17
1.25
1.33
1.42
1.50
1.59
1.68
1.77
1.86
1.95
2.04
2.14
2.23
2.32
2.42
2.51
2.61
2.71
2.80
2.90
3.00
3.09
3.19
3.29
3.38
3.48
3.58

7.59
14.93
21.80
28.07
33.69
38.66
43.03
46.85
50.19
53.13
55.71
57.99
60.02
61.82
63.43
64.89
66.19
67.38
68.46
69.44
70.35
71.18
71.94
72.65
73.30
73.91
74.48
75.00
75.50
75.96
76.40
76.81
77.20
77.56
77.91

82.41
75.07
68.20
61.93
56.31
51.34
46.97
43.15
39.81
36.87
34.29
32.01
29.98
28.18
26.57
25.11
23.81
22.62
21.54
20.56
19.65
18.82
18.06
17.35
16.70
16.09
15.52
15.00
14.50
14.04
13.60
13.19
12.80
12.44
12.09

30

45

60

17-43

32-58

47-73

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 22 of 65

Input Base Distance:


2.0 inches
depth

L-Dist.

angle

X-ducer angle

(or thickness)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

1.00
1.02
1.04
1.08
1.12
1.17
1.22
1.28
1.35
1.41
1.49
1.56
1.64
1.72
1.80
1.89
1.97
2.06
2.15
2.24
2.33
2.42
2.51
2.60
2.69
2.79
2.88
2.97
3.07
3.16
3.26
3.35
3.45
3.54
3.64

5.71
11.31
16.70
21.80
26.57
30.96
34.99
38.66
41.99
45.00
47.73
50.19
52.43
54.46
56.31
57.99
59.53
60.95
62.24
63.43
64.54
65.56
66.50
67.38
68.20
68.96
69.68
70.35
70.97
71.57
72.12
72.65
73.14
73.61
74.05

84.29
78.69
73.30
68.20
63.43
59.04
55.01
51.34
48.01
45.00
42.27
39.81
37.57
35.54
33.69
32.01
30.47
29.05
27.76
26.57
25.46
24.44
23.50
22.62
21.80
21.04
20.32
19.65
19.03
18.43
17.88
17.35
16.86
16.39
15.95

30

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47-73

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 23 of 65

Input Base Distance:


2.5 inches
depth

L-Dist.

angle

X-ducer angle

(or thickness)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5

1.25
1.27
1.29
1.31
1.35
1.39
1.43
1.48
1.54
1.60
1.67
1.73
1.80
1.88
1.95
2.03
2.11
2.19
2.27
2.36
2.44
2.53
2.62
2.71
2.80
2.88
2.98
3.07
3.16
3.25
3.34
3.44
3.53
3.62
3.72
3.81
3.91
4.00
4.10
4.19
4.29
4.38
4.48
4.57
4.67
4.77
4.86
4.96
5.06
5.15

4.57
9.09
13.50
17.74
21.80
25.64
29.25
32.62
35.75
38.66
41.35
43.83
46.12
48.24
50.19
52.00
53.67
55.22
56.66
57.99
59.24
60.40
61.48
62.49
63.43
64.32
65.16
65.94
66.68
67.38
68.04
68.66
69.25
69.81
70.35
70.85
71.33
71.79
72.23
72.65
73.04
73.43
73.79
74.14
74.48
74.80
75.11
75.40
75.69
75.96

85.43
80.91
76.50
72.26
68.20
64.36
60.75
57.38
54.25
51.34
48.65
46.17
43.88
41.76
39.81
38.00
36.33
34.78
33.34
32.01
30.76
29.60
28.52
27.51
26.57
25.68
24.84
24.06
23.32
22.62
21.96
21.34
20.75
20.19
19.65
19.15
18.67
18.21
17.77
17.35
16.96
16.57
16.21
15.86
15.52
15.20
14.89
14.60
14.31
14.04

30

45

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47-73

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 24 of 65

Input Base Distance:


3.0 inches
depth

L-Dist.

angle

X-ducer angle

(or thickness)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5

1.50
1.51
1.53
1.55
1.58
1.62
1.66
1.70
1.75
1.80
1.86
1.92
1.98
2.05
2.12
2.19
2.27
2.34
2.42
2.50
2.58
2.66
2.75
2.83
2.92
3.00
3.09
3.18
3.26
3.35
3.44
3.53
3.62
3.72
3.81
3.90
3.99
4.09
4.18
4.27
4.37
4.46
4.55
4.65
4.74
4.84
4.93
5.03
5.12
5.22

3.81
7.59
11.31
14.93
18.43
21.80
25.02
28.07
30.96
33.69
36.25
38.66
40.91
43.03
45.00
46.85
48.58
50.19
51.71
53.13
54.46
55.71
56.89
57.99
59.04
60.02
60.95
61.82
62.65
63.43
64.18
64.89
65.56
66.19
66.80
67.38
67.93
68.46
68.96
69.44
69.90
70.35
70.77
71.18
71.57
71.94
72.30
72.65
72.98
73.30

86.19
82.41
78.69
75.07
71.57
68.20
64.98
61.93
59.04
56.31
53.75
51.34
49.09
46.97
45.00
43.15
41.42
39.81
38.29
36.87
35.54
34.29
33.11
32.01
30.96
29.98
29.05
28.18
27.35
26.57
25.82
25.11
24.44
23.81
23.20
22.62
22.07
21.54
21.04
20.56
20.10
19.65
19.23
18.82
18.43
18.06
17.70
17.35
17.02
16.70

30

45

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47-73

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 25 of 65

Input Base Distance:


3.5 inches
depth

L-Dist.

angle

X-ducer angle

(or thickness)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5

1.75
1.76
1.78
1.80
1.82
1.85
1.88
1.92
1.97
2.02
2.07
2.12
2.18
2.24
2.30
2.37
2.44
2.51
2.58
2.66
2.73
2.81
2.89
2.97
3.05
3.13
3.22
3.30
3.39
3.47
3.56
3.65
3.74
3.82
3.91
4.00
4.09
4.18
4.27
4.37
4.46
4.55
4.64
4.74
4.83
4.92
5.02
5.11
5.20
5.30

3.27
6.52
9.73
12.88
15.95
18.92
21.80
24.57
27.22
29.74
32.15
34.44
36.61
38.66
40.60
42.44
44.17
45.81
47.35
48.81
50.19
51.50
52.73
53.90
55.01
56.06
57.05
57.99
58.89
59.74
60.55
61.33
62.06
62.76
63.43
64.08
64.69
65.27
65.83
66.37
66.89
67.38
67.85
68.31
68.75
69.17
69.58
69.97
70.35
70.71

86.73
83.48
80.27
77.12
74.05
71.08
68.20
65.43
62.78
60.26
57.85
55.56
53.39
51.34
49.40
47.56
45.83
44.19
42.65
41.19
39.81
38.50
37.27
36.10
34.99
33.94
32.95
32.01
31.11
30.26
29.45
28.67
27.94
27.24
26.57
25.92
25.31
24.73
24.17
23.63
23.11
22.62
22.15
21.69
21.25
20.83
20.42
20.03
19.65
19.29

30

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47-73

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 26 of 65

Input Base Distance:


4.0 inches
depth

L-Dist.

angle

X-ducer angle

(or thickness)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5

2.00
2.01
2.02
2.04
2.06
2.09
2.12
2.15
2.19
2.24
2.28
2.33
2.39
2.44
2.50
2.56
2.62
2.69
2.76
2.83
2.90
2.97
3.05
3.12
3.20
3.28
3.36
3.44
3.52
3.61
3.69
3.77
3.86
3.94
4.03
4.12
4.21
4.29
4.38
4.47
4.56
4.65
4.74
4.83
4.92
5.02
5.11
5.20
5.29
5.39

2.86
5.71
8.53
11.31
14.04
16.70
19.29
21.80
24.23
26.57
28.81
30.96
33.02
34.99
36.87
38.66
40.36
41.99
43.53
45.00
46.40
47.73
48.99
50.19
51.34
52.43
53.47
54.46
55.41
56.31
57.17
57.99
58.78
59.53
60.26
60.95
61.61
62.24
62.85
63.43
64.00
64.54
65.06
65.56
66.04
66.50
66.95
67.38
67.80
68.20

87.14
84.29
81.47
78.69
75.96
73.30
70.71
68.20
65.77
63.43
61.19
59.04
56.98
55.01
53.13
51.34
49.64
48.01
46.47
45.00
43.60
42.27
41.01
39.81
38.66
37.57
36.53
35.54
34.59
33.69
32.83
32.01
31.22
30.47
29.74
29.05
28.39
27.76
27.15
26.57
26.00
25.46
24.94
24.44
23.96
23.50
23.05
22.62
22.20
21.80

30

45

60

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32-58

47-73

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 27 of 65

Input Base Distance:


4.5 inches
depth

L-Dist.

angle

X-ducer angle

(or thickness)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5

2.25
2.26
2.27
2.29
2.30
2.33
2.36
2.39
2.42
2.46
2.50
2.55
2.60
2.65
2.70
2.76
2.82
2.88
2.94
3.01
3.08
3.15
3.22
3.29
3.36
3.44
3.51
3.59
3.67
3.75
3.83
3.91
3.99
4.08
4.16
4.25
4.33
4.42
4.50
4.59
4.68
4.76
4.85
4.94
5.03
5.12
5.21
5.30
5.39
5.48

2.54
5.08
7.59
10.08
12.53
14.93
17.28
19.57
21.80
23.96
26.05
28.07
30.02
31.89
33.69
35.42
37.07
38.66
40.18
41.63
43.03
44.36
45.63
46.85
48.01
49.13
50.19
51.22
52.19
53.13
54.03
54.89
55.71
56.50
57.26
57.99
58.70
59.37
60.02
60.64
61.24
61.82
62.38
62.92
63.43
63.94
64.42
64.89
65.34
65.77

87.46
84.92
82.41
79.92
77.47
75.07
72.72
70.43
68.20
66.04
63.95
61.93
59.98
58.11
56.31
54.58
52.93
51.34
49.82
48.37
46.97
45.64
44.37
43.15
41.99
40.87
39.81
38.78
37.81
36.87
35.97
35.11
34.29
33.50
32.74
32.01
31.30
30.63
29.98
29.36
28.76
28.18
27.62
27.08
26.57
26.06
25.58
25.11
24.66
24.23

30

45

60

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32-58

47-73

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 28 of 65

Input Base Distance:


5.0 inches
depth

L-Dist.

angle

X-ducer angle

(or thickness)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5

2.50
2.51
2.52
2.53
2.55
2.57
2.60
2.62
2.66
2.69
2.73
2.77
2.82
2.87
2.92
2.97
3.02
3.08
3.14
3.20
3.26
3.33
3.40
3.47
3.54
3.61
3.68
3.75
3.83
3.91
3.98
4.06
4.14
4.22
4.30
4.38
4.47
4.55
4.63
4.72
4.80
4.89
4.97
5.06
5.15
5.24
5.32
5.41
5.50
5.59

2.29
4.57
6.84
9.09
11.31
13.50
15.64
17.74
19.80
21.80
23.75
25.64
27.47
29.25
30.96
32.62
34.22
35.75
37.23
38.66
40.03
41.35
42.61
43.83
45.00
46.12
47.20
48.24
49.24
50.19
51.12
52.00
52.85
53.67
54.46
55.22
55.95
56.66
57.34
57.99
58.63
59.24
59.83
60.40
60.95
61.48
61.99
62.49
62.97
63.43

87.71
85.43
83.16
80.91
78.69
76.50
74.36
72.26
70.20
68.20
66.25
64.36
62.53
60.75
59.04
57.38
55.78
54.25
52.77
51.34
49.97
48.65
47.39
46.17
45.00
43.88
42.80
41.76
40.76
39.81
38.88
38.00
37.15
36.33
35.54
34.78
34.05
33.34
32.66
32.01
31.37
30.76
30.17
29.60
29.05
28.52
28.01
27.51
27.03
26.57

30

45

60

17-43

32-58

47-73

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 29 of 65

Input Base Distance:


5.5 inches
depth

L-Dist.

angle

X-ducer angle

(or thickness)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5

2.75
2.76
2.77
2.78
2.80
2.81
2.84
2.86
2.89
2.93
2.96
3.00
3.04
3.09
3.13
3.18
3.23
3.29
3.34
3.40
3.46
3.52
3.59
3.65
3.72
3.78
3.85
3.92
4.00
4.07
4.14
4.22
4.30
4.37
4.45
4.53
4.61
4.69
4.77
4.85
4.94
5.02
5.10
5.19
5.27
5.36
5.45
5.53
5.62
5.71

2.08
4.16
6.23
8.28
10.30
12.31
14.28
16.22
18.12
19.98
21.80
23.57
25.30
26.98
28.61
30.19
31.72
33.21
34.64
36.03
37.37
38.66
39.91
41.11
42.27
43.39
44.47
45.52
46.52
47.49
48.42
49.33
50.19
51.03
51.84
52.62
53.38
54.11
54.81
55.49
56.15
56.78
57.40
57.99
58.57
59.13
59.67
60.19
60.70
61.19

87.92
85.84
83.77
81.72
79.70
77.69
75.72
73.78
71.88
70.02
68.20
66.43
64.70
63.02
61.39
59.81
58.28
56.79
55.36
53.97
52.63
51.34
50.09
48.89
47.73
46.61
45.53
44.48
43.48
42.51
41.58
40.67
39.81
38.97
38.16
37.38
36.62
35.89
35.19
34.51
33.85
33.22
32.60
32.01
31.43
30.87
30.33
29.81
29.30
28.81

30

45

60

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32-58

47-73

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 30 of 65

Input Base Distance:


6.0 inches
depth

L-Dist.

angle

X-ducer angle

(or thickness)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5

3.00
3.01
3.01
3.03
3.04
3.06
3.08
3.10
3.13
3.16
3.20
3.23
3.27
3.31
3.35
3.40
3.45
3.50
3.55
3.61
3.66
3.72
3.78
3.84
3.91
3.97
4.04
4.10
4.17
4.24
4.31
4.39
4.46
4.53
4.61
4.69
4.76
4.84
4.92
5.00
5.08
5.16
5.24
5.33
5.41
5.49
5.58
5.66
5.75
5.83

1.91
3.81
5.71
7.59
9.46
11.31
13.13
14.93
16.70
18.43
20.14
21.80
23.43
25.02
26.57
28.07
29.54
30.96
32.35
33.69
34.99
36.25
37.48
38.66
39.81
40.91
41.99
43.03
44.03
45.00
45.94
46.85
47.73
48.58
49.40
50.19
50.96
51.71
52.43
53.13
53.81
54.46
55.10
55.71
56.31
56.89
57.45
57.99
58.52
59.04

88.09
86.19
84.29
82.41
80.54
78.69
76.87
75.07
73.30
71.57
69.86
68.20
66.57
64.98
63.43
61.93
60.46
59.04
57.65
56.31
55.01
53.75
52.52
51.34
50.19
49.09
48.01
46.97
45.97
45.00
44.06
43.15
42.27
41.42
40.60
39.81
39.04
38.29
37.57
36.87
36.19
35.54
34.90
34.29
33.69
33.11
32.55
32.01
31.48
30.96

30

45

60

17-43

32-58

47-73

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 31 of 65

Axial Ligament Crack Detection & Sizing


Two techniques for detection and sizing of axial header ligament cracking:
1_____Through-Transmission
2_____Manual TOFD
Through-Transmission
The orientations of axial ligament cracks as shown in the previous section
B-B are used as the basis of the Through-Transmission ultrasonic set up. The
following sketches show a series of transducer positions for ThroughTransmission set ups for a series of progressively smaller transducer sound
angles for a header. Only the OD of the header is shown. As an example, a
header with an outside diameter of 20 is shown.

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June 2004

Page 32 of 65

depth = 0.6"
70 degree sending
transducer

70 degree receiving
transducer

soundpath

Example header is 20" diameter

D = 20"

10" radius
transducer angle shown
depth as a fraction of the radius
depth, d, in inches

R = 10"
70 degree, shear
= 0.060
d = 0.6"

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 33 of 65

depth = 0.94"
65 degree sending
transducer

65 degree receiving
transducer

Example header is 20" diameter

D = 20"

10" radius
transducer angle shown
depth as a fraction of the radius
depth, d, in inches

R = 10"
65 degree, shear
= 0.094
d = 0.94"

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 34 of 65

depth = 1.34"
60 degree sending
transducer

60 degree receiving
transducer

Example header is 20" diameter

D = 20"

10" radius
transducer angle shown
depth as a fraction of the radius
depth, d, in inches

R = 10"
60 degree, shear
= 0.134
d = 1.34"

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 35 of 65

depth = 1.81"
55 degree sending
transducer

55 degree receiving
transducer

Example header is 20" diameter

D = 20"

10" radius
transducer angle shown
depth as a fraction of the radius
depth, d, in inches

R = 10"
55 degree, shear
= 0.181
d = 1.81"

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 36 of 65

depth = 2.34"
50 degree sending
transducer

50 degree receiving
transducer

Example header is 20" diameter

D = 20"

10" radius
transducer angle shown
depth as a fraction of the radius
depth, d, in inches

R = 10"
50 degree, shear
= 0.234
d = 2.34"

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 37 of 65

depth = 2.93"
45 degree sending
transducer

45 degree receiving
transducer

Example header is 20" diameter

D = 20"

10" radius
transducer angle shown
depth as a fraction of the radius
depth, d, in inches

R = 10"
45 degree, shear
= 0.293
d = 2.93"

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 38 of 65

depth = 3.57"
40 degree sending
transducer

40 degree receiving
transducer

Example header is 20" diameter

D = 20"

10" radius
transducer angle shown
depth as a fraction of the radius
depth, d, in inches

R = 10"
40 degree, L-wave
= 0.357
d = 3.57"

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 39 of 65

depth = 4.26"
35 degree sending
transducer

35 degree receiving
transducer

Example header is 20" diameter

D = 20"

10" radius
transducer angle shown
depth as a fraction of the radius
depth, d, in inches

R = 10"
35 degree, L-wave
= 0.426
d = 4.26"

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 40 of 65

depth = 5.00"
30 degree sending
transducer

30 degree receiving
transducer

Example header is 20" diameter

D = 20"

10" radius
transducer angle shown
depth as a fraction of the radius
depth, d, in inches

R = 10"
30 degree, L-wave
= 0.500
d = 5.00"

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 41 of 65

depth = 5.77"
25 degree sending
transducer

25 degree receiving
transducer

Example header is 20" diameter

D = 20"

10" radius
transducer angle shown
depth as a fraction of the radius
depth, d, in inches

R = 10"
25 degree, L-wave
= 0.577
d = 5.77"

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 42 of 65

depth = 6.58"
20 degree sending
transducer

20 degree receiving
transducer

Example header is 20" diameter

D = 20"

10" radius
transducer angle shown
depth as a fraction of the radius
depth, d, in inches

R = 10"
20 degree, L-wave
= 0.658
d = 6.58"

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 43 of 65

Through-Transmission Ultrasonic Calculations


Following sketches and equations show the calculations used to make a
Through-Transmission set up.
For each header the initial data known would be the header outside
diameter (OD) and inside diameter (ID). This is the only data needed to
calculate the set up. A drawing of the header would be needed to confirm that
the preparations for the penetrations do not have unusual geometries, and to
confirm the distance between the penetrations in the header.
What needs to be calculated is the circumferential distance between the
transducers on the outside diameter of the header.
For detection of the ligament crack, the transducer angle is chosen that is
deepest in the header without being blocked by the ID of the header.

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 44 of 65

R=1
R = hypotenuse

Construct 2 right triangles with a common equal side


and both hypotenuse equal to the radius of the
circle, which is equal to one. The resulting
horizontal line is the soundpath for the ThroughTransmission set-up, or can be the used as the
'Base Distance' for manual TOFD.

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 45 of 65

= 90 -
= transducer angle

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 46 of 65

Circumferential Distance between transducers (arc distance)

included angle =

The circumference of a circle, C = D

D = Diameter = (R O.D.) X 2

Circumferential Distance (arc distance) between transducers =

C X

2
360

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 47 of 65

Maximum depth to Through-Transmission Soundpath


or
Depth of material not examined by TOFD

adj
hyp.

RO.D. = 1 = hyp

cos = adj
hyp
(hyp = RO.D = 1)
cos = adj
1
cos = adj
adj

= RO.D. - depth

depth = 1 - cos

(This is the depth of the material not examined by TOFD,


or the maximum depth to the Through-Transmission Soundpath.)

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 48 of 65

adj.

opp.

hyp.
( =1 )

cos =

adj.
hyp.
hyp.

cos =

adj.

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 49 of 65

Through-Transmission
Soundpath
or
Manual TOFD 'Base Distance'
(chord length)
adj.

opp.
hyp.
( =1 )

cos =

adj.
hyp.
hyp.

cos =

adj.

manual TOFD 'Base Distance' (chord length)


or
Through-Transmission Soundpath

= 2 cos (times the radius to the outer diameter)

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 50 of 65

Through-Transmission Set-Up Spreadsheet

Outside Diameter
(OD)=
20
Circumference
(inches)=
62.83

sound
transducer angle mode

70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20

(insert the outside diameter in inches)

included
angle

2
shear
shear
shear
shear
shear
shear
L-wave
L-wave
L-wave
L-wave
L-wave

40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140

20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70

Arc distance
Depth
Circumferential
Circumferential
Distance (as a
Distance
Depth, as a fraction of the
fraction of C)
(inches)
radius
= C X 2
/ 360
= 1 - COS

0.111
0.139
0.167
0.194
0.222
0.250
0.278
0.306
0.333
0.361
0.389

6.98
8.73
10.47
12.22
13.96
15.71
17.45
19.20
20.94
22.69
24.43

(This is the distance measured


between the transducers on the
outside surface of the cyinder)

0.060
0.094
0.134
0.181
0.234
0.293
0.357
0.426
0.500
0.577
0.658

Chord
Depth
(inches)
= 2 COS X (RO.D.)
0.60
0.94
1.34
1.81
2.34
2.93
3.57
4.26
5.00
5.77
6.58

(This is the deepest point of the sound


beam centerline in the part)

6.84
8.45
10.00
11.47
12.86
14.14
15.32
16.38
17.32
18.13
18.79

= 1 X RO.D.

= 1.414 X RO.D.

= 1.732 X RO.D.

(This is the soundpath length in inches


through the material)

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 51 of 65

Manual TOFD
Manual TOFD of axial cracks uses radial oriented transducers in pitchcatch pairs. The transducer pair can scan axially, or circumferentially.
The previous set-up shown for TOFD on flat surfaces is adapted for
cylindrical shaped scanning surfaces. The only difference being that the Base
Distance lies on a chord within the volume of the material. The same Excel
spreadsheets previously shown for flat plate are adapted for sizing of axial
cracks.
The following sketches show some of the relations of Base Distance, LDistance, chord length and arc or circumferential length.
Then the basis for calculations of Base-Distance and circumferential
distance are shown.
The final spreadsheet is the spreadsheet used for set-up of manual TOFD
on cylindrical scanning surfaces.

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 52 of 65

arc distance

chord distance

R-O.D.

R-I.D.

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 53 of 65

TOFD - Base Distance

R-I.D.
R-O.D.

R-O.D. = Radius to the Outer Diameter of the pipe, header or cylinder


R-I.D. = Radius to the Inner Diameter of the pipe, header or cylinder

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 54 of 65

2
R- I.D.
R- O.D.

= base-to-radial angle (this was the transducer angle for thru-transmission testing)
2

= included angle

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 55 of 65

TOFD - Base Distance

direct L-wave
Backwall
L-wave

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 56 of 65

flaw
Backwall
L-wave

L-Distance as
read from UT
machine as
Soundpath

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 57 of 65

Depth of
material not
examined by
TOFD.

flaw
Depth as read
from TOFD tables
for a given Base
Distance, for the
L-Distance
measured.

Backwall
L-wave

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 58 of 65

Circumferential Distance between transducers (arc distance)

included angle =

The circumference of a circle, C = D

D = Diameter = 2 X RO.D .

Circumferential Distance (arc distance) between transducers =

C X

2
360

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 59 of 65

Depth of material not


examined by TOFD

adj
hyp.

RO.D. = 1 = hyp

cos = adj
hyp
(hyp = RO.D = 1)
cos = adj
1
cos = adj
adj

= RO.D. - depth

depth = 1 - cos

(This is the depth of the material not examined by TOFD.)

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 60 of 65

Manual TOFD
'Base Distance'
(chord length)
adj.

opp.
hyp.
( =1 )

cos =

adj.
hyp.
hyp.

cos =

adj.

manual TOFD 'Base Distance' (chord length)= 2 cos (times the radius to the outer diameter)

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 61 of 65

Radial TOFD Set-Up Spreadsheet for Pipe, Headers or Cylinders

Base Distance =

Outside Diameter
(OD)=
20
Inside Diameter
(OD)=
16
circumference
(inches)=
62.83

(insert the Base Distance or chord, inches)

(insert the outside diameter in inches)

RO.D. = 10

(insert the inside diameter in inches)

RI.D. = 8

Arc distance

base to radial
angle (degrees)

78.46

included
angle
(degrees)

23.07

Circumferential
Distance (as a
fraction of C)
= 2
/ 360

11.54

0.064

Depth

Circumferential Depth, as a fraction of the


Distance (inches) radius
= C X 2
/ 360
= 1 - COS

4.03

0.020

Depth
(inches)

Depth to ID
of the TOFD
'Backwall Lwave'

0.20

1.80

(This is the distance measured between


the transducers on the outside surface (This is the depth of material not examined
of the cyinder)
by TOFD)

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

Page 62 of 65

Circumferentially Oriented Manual TOFD Simulators


Three Excel spreadsheets have been made which can simulate TOFD setups with various base distances for an infinite variety of pipe OD and ID
combinations. The beam-spreads of 30 degree L-wave, 45 degree L-wave, and
60 degree L-wave are shown on separate spreadsheets.
Three print-screens of the spreadsheets follow as examples of what they
look like.

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June 2004

Page 63 of 65

Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

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Header Ligament Cracks -- UT Techniques


June 2004

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