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SHIPBUILDING TECHNOLOGY FOR Section 2

ECONOMIC PRODUCTION (Design &


LCD 22102 Construction)

WHAT IS DESIGN?
It is the activity that integrates the existing bodies of knowledge, to
achieve a given outcome.
Design is a highly manipulative activity in which the designer has to
continuously and simultaneously pay attention to and balance many
factors that influence the design outcome.

WHAT IS DESIGN ACTIVITY?


a goal oriented, constrained, decision-making, exploration and
learning activity which operates within a context which depends on the
designers perception of the context

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DESIGN AND


ENGINEERING
Design decides all technical matters. This includes the analyses
necessary to validate these design decisions. Engineering develops
and documents the design to enable its manufacture.

Ship Design Spiral

SHIP DESIGN AND ENGINEERING


Within ship design and engineering, there are design process
employed by the shipyards, using group technology that can be
categorized as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Design statement
Concept Design
Preliminary Design
Detail Design

DESIGN SPIRAL

Design Statement

Designers need to understand the


functional requirements of a design to
create alternatives and successful
products. That is why, in the product
planning stage, a product idea must be
generated
and
the
functional
requirements must be understood.

Design Statement

The product idea generally stems from


market research, good sense of a director or
a member, or systematic procedures for
finding new product ideas, such as
brainstorming and analogy In case of a
clients product request, finding product ideas
can be skipped since the customer has the
product idea and the clarification of the idea
is the only challenge for the designers.
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Market Demands

Proper understanding of customer


needs and wishes is a prerequisite of
developing a good design
Concept of customer: Who are the
customers?

Users, i.e. crew and passengers


Owner, who is going to profit

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Concept Design(1)

Shipbuilder, who also wishes to profit

The very first effort concept design, translates the


mission requirements into naval architectural and
engineering
characteristics.
Essentially,
it
embodies technical feasibility studies to determine
such fundamental elements of the proposed ship
as length, beam, draft, fullness, power, or
alternative sets of characteristics, all of which
meet the required speed, range, cargo cubic, and
deadweight
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Concept Design(2)

In the conceptual design stage of the


method, a systematic and step-by step
approach is taken. First of all, an
identification of the essential problems
through abstraction is considered. In
this step, the idea is to remove
prejudices and enable creativity to
generate different alternatives for a
design problem.
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Concept Design(3)

In the second step, working principles


(means of solving a design problem)
are searched in line with the
combination of the working principles to
form a set of working structures. In the
last step, the basic solution path is
found through elaborations to the
chosen final solution. Conceptual design
determines the principle of the solution.
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Concept Design(4)

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Technology Push

Development of new concepts based on


advances in technology
Examples: large cruise ships or highspeed craft developed new markets;
ferry market expanded due to the
introduction of ro-ro vessels (alternative
to road transport)
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Preliminary Design(1)

A ships preliminary design further refines


the major ship characteristics affecting the
cost and performance. Certain control
factors such as length, beam, horsepower,
and deadweight would not be expected to
change upon completion of this phase.

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Preliminary Design(2)

In the preliminary design stage, the designers


define the overall layout of the design (general
arrangement), the preliminary form designs
(component shapes and materials) and the
production processes with respect to technical
and economical considerations. This stage
involves many iterations and change of focus for
deliberating and verifying the solution principle to
fulfil the given functional requirements.
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Preliminary Design(3)

There are also basic rules and principles to be


followed in the preliminary design in order to
consider various factors. The basic rules of the
preliminary design are given as
clarity (reliable prediction of the performance of
the end product, unambiguous relationship),
simplicity (quick and guaranteed economic
feasibility)
safety (accident prevention, structural and
individual and environmental considerations)
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Preliminary Design(4)

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Detail Design(1)

In the detailed design stage, the final instructions


about the layout, forms, dimensions and surface
properties of all individual components, the
definitive selection of materials and a final scrutiny
of the production methods, operating procedures
and costs are laid out. The detailed drawings of
the parts and materials are produced according to
in-house standards, and production scheduling
could be commenced or planned at this stage of
the design process.
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Detail Design(1)

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DESIGN PHASES

NEXT WEEK LESSON


Design Approaches

Ship Construction
Production Engineering

DESIGN APPROACHES
Design Spiral

Design Bounding Approach


Set-based Design

DESIGN SPIRAL
The design spiral, originated by Professor J. Harvey Evans,has been
used to describe the preferred ship design process for many years. It
is focused on a series of activities that converge, as efficiently as
possible, on a single solution to the design requirements of a specific
project. This approach often involves making decisions based on
incomplete information and/or compromise. Thus, it either requires
significant rework (iterations) to reach an acceptable design or
acceptance of a design that is not the best.

DESIGN BOUNDING APPROACH


The Design Bounding approach is an alternative design process that
uses the option space. It considers a number of ships within a range of
values for all dimensions and coefficients, which bracket or bound the
domain space that contains all the solutions. While it involves
performing the design calculations for every design combination it
avoids the need for iteration, and with the use of computers many
calculations can be made very quickly.

SET-BASED DESIGN
Set-based design is an alternative approach to the common single
design approach where a design is iterated and improved until an
acceptable solution is developed. This single iterative design
approach was named as point-to-point design. The problem with this
approach is that it is often believed to result in the optimum design,
whereas experience has shown that this is not the case. Most design
synthesis programs follow this same approach and attempt to
converge on an acceptable design.
Set-based design deliberately considers a set of designs that will
meet the requirements until all unknowns are determined and then the
best alternative is selected. It is basically a weeding-out process.

ADVANTAGES
1.

Traditional design develops one solution to the design


requirements and it has no way of knowing if it is a good solution
other than experience.

2.

Traditional design optimization evaluates one solution after


another in a standard search routine. This approach can be
expensive in the number of single designs it evaluates to find the
optimum solution.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
Traditional Building Processes

Modern Building Processes

1. Design plans

1. Design plans

2. Construction Data:
Table of offsets

2. Construction Data:
Computer generated + lofting

3. Lofting Timber model

3. CNC Machining

4. Lay keel

4. Modular Welding

5. Build up from keel with


support, scaffolding etc.

5. Construction on
workshop/slipway

6. Launch

6. Launching semi fit-out

7. Internal fit-out

7. Final fit-out

* S = Superstructure
* M = Module

MODULAR CONSTRUCTION

YouTube - royal navy new type 45 destroyer.flv

PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
What is to be done?

How will it be done?


When is it to be done?
Where is it to be done?
With what resources?

WHAT IS TO BE DONE?
Products

The ship are the tasks resulting after they have been allocated to
work orders. The ship is based upon manufacturing and assembly
processes as identified in the work breakdown structure.

HOW WILL IT BE DONE?


Ship are assembled on a work stage.

3 main types:

Hull construction
Outfitting
Painting

Fabrication & Assembly


Preparation & Application

WHEN IS IT TO BE DONE?
Planning Tools

Helps you to lay out all tasks that must be completed as part of a
project. They act as the basis both for preparation of a schedule, and
of resource planning. During management of a project, these tools
allow you to monitor the achievement of project goals.
The most successful way of representing a project plan is in a graphic
form.
a bar or Gantt chart

EXAMPLE

WHERE IS IT TO BE DONE?
Workstation
Stockyard
Parts making area
Panel fabrication area
Unit assembly area
Module construction area
Slipway

WITH WHAT RESOURCES?


Materials, i.e. those physical items consumed or converted by the system, e.g.
raw materials, fuel, indirect materials, etc.
Machines, i.e. those physical items utilized by the system, e.g. plant, tools,
vehicles, etc.

Space, i.e. the actual physical buildings and areas used in production e.g.
wharfs, slipways, machine shops, warehouses etc.
Labour, i.e. those persons who provide / contribute to the operation of the
system, without whom neither machines nor materials are effectively used.

University Kuala Lumpur MIMET

THANK YOU FOR


YOUR ATTENTION