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MV Power Capacitors Power Factor Correction

Installation and Maintenance instructions for MV-Power Capacitors

Ordering Code :



Feb 2009


EPCOS AG 2008, Reproduction, Publication and dissemination of this data sheet, enclosures hereto and the
information contained therein without EPCOS prior consent is prohibited

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Installation and maintenance instructions for MV Power Capacitors

Preliminary data
Installation and Maintenance Instructions
Read This First :

Read the following >> Installation and maintenance instructions << carefully
before installing a Capacitor into your application.

About this manual

The information stated in this manual applies to typical, approved usage. Please
refer to our product specifications, or request our approval for your own individual
specifications, before installing Capacitor

For your safety!

Disregarding the guidelines in this manual can result in operational failure bursting
and fire. In case of doubt, contact your local EPCOS sales organization or
distributor for assistance.

General safety notes for Ensure you are using the right Capacitor for your application, please refer to
installation and operation the EPCOS product catalogue and application notes for proper selection of
Capacitor and its configuration.
Maintain good and effective grounding for Capacitor
Provide the means to isolate any faulty units/ banks in the system
Follow proper engineering practices
Storage and operation

Donot use or keep Capacitor in corrosive atmosphere, especially where

as, sulphide gas, acid, alkali, salt or similar substances are present. In a dusty
environment, regular maintenance and cleaning, especially of the contacts, is
required to avoid a conductive path between phases and /or phases and ground.

Ambient temperature

The panel has to be stored with outer packing intact in a covered area under
protection from rain. The panel should stand in vertical position as indicated
in the packing crate.

: The ambient temperature category for most standard types is -40D. This means
a max. temperature of 55DegC, an average temperature over 24 hours of
45DegC, and the average temperature in one year should not exceed 35 Deg C.

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Installation and maintenance instructions for MV Power Capacitors

Preliminary data


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Installation and maintenance instructions for MV Power Capacitors

Preliminary data
Unpacking & Inspection While taking the delivery of capacitors, check for any
visual damage to the boxes/crates and for any trace of oil
on the cases. In case of damage or leakage insist on open
delivery and obtain open delivery certificate.
Open the cases carefully and check whether the ratings of
capacitors are in line with the order, packing list or bill of
Check for any damage especially for
a) Any breakage of bushings or insulators
b) Leakage of oil from the bushing top/base or from
capacitor container and
c) Any denting or damage to terminal cover, bank frames,
bus bars and other accessories.
In case capacitor units/other material found damaged
insurance claim must be lodged. If insurance is done by
EPCOS, intimation should be sent within 10 days giving
details of damage. Open delivery certificate should
accompany if the cases were damaged. If the cases were
intact and damage was found subsequently after opening
the cases it should be mentioned in the letter and the
cases should be kept in safe custody for inspection and
further advice from insurer.
If the bushings are broken or lot of oil has leaked out from
the capacitor making it un-repairable at site, such
capacitors should be sent back to EPCOS for possible
repairs after taking consent of EPCOS.
Minor leakage can be repaired at site by applying EPCOS
recommended adhesive.
If site for installation is not ready, capacitors should be
stored at a proper place with bushing in upward position.
Any hair crack developed during handling may not show
the leakage at the time of storing the capacitor and may
show up afterwards; hence it is advisable to check once
again after a week. Store in a place where capacitors are
not required to be handled for removing or keeping other

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equipments in the Store. Do not keep anything on the

capacitors to avoid damage to the bushing.

Install capacitors in cool dry place, which should also be

free from excessive dust and chemical fumes. Capacitors
should be installed away from the heat generating bodies.
Clean the bushings of capacitors with cloth for dust and oil
Tighten all electrical and mechanical connections. Avoid
over tightening of capacitor bushing terminals. Also take
care while connecting bus bars so that no stress comes on
capacitor bushing.
Ensure that the ambient temperature at capacitor location
does not exceed beyond the limits specified in the table

Upper limit of
category in C,

Maximum ambient temperature in C

Mean over
1 hour

Mean over
24 hours

Mean over
1 Year




EPCOS Capacitors are made as per 50C upper limit of

temperature category. Ambient temperature at capacitor
location should be measured 1 to 2 meters away from
Ensure free circulation of air around the capacitors.
Adequate clearance (minimum 300 mm) should be
provided between walls and capacitors for heat radiation.
Cooling temperature should not be more than 5C above
ambient measured at the hottest point in the bank i.e.
mid way between two capacitor units or at 30 cm away
from a capacitor at its 3/4 height in case one capacitor is
The site work such as banking of capacitor units,
connections of bus bars / fuses should be done as per the
drawings provided. Adequate clearances should be
maintained. Minimum clearance required as per BS: 162
are given below for guidance.

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Up to 6.6

Phase to

Clearance in mm.
Out door
Phase to
Phase to
Phase to
When capacitors are mounted on an open structure
of angles and channels, their live parts are exposed
and accessible. Such banks are required to be
elevated to minimum 2.5 mtrs from ground level
by providing elevating structures or fencing is
erected all round the capacitor bank keeping
adequate clearances as given above to eliminate
the possibility of any one touching the live parts of
the bank. Elevating structure or the fencing should
be earthed as per IS:3043.
When capacitor has an external fuse protection it
should be ensured that fuse is connected to
individual capacitor unit. Do not connect one fuse
to more than one capacitor unit.
It should be ascertained that the breaker used for
capacitor switching is restrike free, if on-load
isolators are used for pole mounted capacitors or
for small banks, it should be ensured that they are
suitable for capacitor duty. Whenever off-load
isolator is connected between capacitors and the
breaker, it is advisable to interlock the isolator with
the breaker in such a way that the isolator can be
opened or closed only when the breaker is in open
When capacitors are directly connected to the
motors, it is advised that the capacitor current is
not more than 90% of the no load motor current.
Motor draws lesser current from the source when
connected with the capacitors. Hence its over
current setting should be reduced accordingly.
Unless specifically agreed capacitors are provided
with discharge resistors to discharge the capacitors
within 600 seconds to safe voltage. When
capacitors are required to be reswitched earlier
than 600 seconds PT/RVT can be provided for quick
discharge. PTs/RVTs have secondary winding which
can be connected to indicating lamps to show that
capacitors have discharged. When capacitors are
required to be reswitched within couple of seconds

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an interlock through secondary winding of PT/RVT

can be provided to ensure that at the time of
reswitching capacitors have discharged to safe
Capacitor units and the bank should be earthed at
earth points provided. Capacitors with live
containers and banking structure should not be
earthed. All auxiliary equipments should also be
earthed at earthing points provided.

Before energizing the bank check all the

equipments as per the checks mentioned in
commissioning report format given at the end.
Megger the capacitor bank between phases and
earth. The megger reading for individual capacitor
should not be less than 50 Mega ohms, for more
than one unit in parallel minimum acceptable
megger value can be derived by dividing 50 Mega
ohms by the number of units connected in parallel.
Complete installation with all the equipments
connected to capacitors should be meggered
between shorted phases and earth and should be
in line with acceptable capacitor megger value.
Now the capacitor bank is ready for energization.
Before switching on capacitor bus voltage, system
incoming load current and power factor (if meter
available) can be noted.
After energizing check that capacitor draws
almost balance current in all the 3 phases and is
near to its rated value. Note the change in bus
voltage, load current and system power factor.
Normally after capacitors are energised, there will
be little rise in the bus voltage and some reduction
in the system load current and naturally
improvement in power factor. In case load current
increases instead or reducing, it shows that
capacitors connected are more than required for
the load and in this case the power factor shall be
When PT/RVT is used for unbalance
protection, measure open delta voltage, which
should be negligible. In case capacitors are
connected in double star with neutral CT, the
current on the secondary side of neutral CT can be
measured, which should also be negligible.

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After a few hours (12 to 24 hrs.) of

continuous operation capacitor bank can be
switched off and the capacitor units should be
checked for any leakage, excess temperature rise
of the container and of other equipments. Series
Reactors if provided should have temperature rise
within prescribed limit. In an event everything is in
order then capacitor bank can be re-energized and
kept in operation.

Voltage on the capacitors should be near to

its rated voltage. It should be ensured that the
voltage including fluctuations in the system do not
exceed 110% of the capacitor name plate voltage.
Variation in currents in the three phases
should be within 5% and rating should be within
5 to +10% of rated current. If there are
harmonics present in the system, it may increase
the current in capacitor. However, this current
should not exceed 13O% of rating mentioned on
the name plate.
Temperature of capacitor container can be
measured by fixing a thermometer on the wall of
the container, its bulb being at one fourth of the
height of capacitor down from the top.
Hourly readings of capacitor current,
voltage should be maintained. Open delta voltage
of RVT or current of neutral CT can be measured
once in a day and logged. If capacitors installed are
for indoor applications, their ambient temperature
should be logged at least three times a day,
morning, noon time and in the evening. If exhaust
fans or air circulators are provided to maintain
ambient, it should be ensured that they are always
ON, when capacitors are in operation.
Internal discharge resistances are fitted
across capacitor terminals to reduce the voltage on
switching off to less than 50 volts within 10
minutes. Capacitor should not be handled during
this period. For human safety it is advisable to
ground the capacitor bank with grounding rod
before handling.

Preventive Maintenance

Capacitors should be maintained periodically,

preferably once a month. Capacitors including
bushings should be cleaned of dust etc. All
connections should be checked for its proper

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Any rusty portion should be cleaned and

then given a coat of paint.
Capacitor units should be checked for any leakage.
Other associated equipments specially breakers
should be maintained as per manufacturers
recommended practice.
Oil of series reactor and RVT should be checked for
its breakdown strength periodically.
Normally capacitors once installed and
operated as recommended practice should give
long and trouble free service. However, in the
event of encountering any trouble, users may refer
to the table below which gives some of the
common troubles encountered with its causes and
remedies to take appropriate action.

1. Leakage of oil from
capacitor bushing
or welded joints.

a) Minor transit damage
which remained

b) Due to tension coming

on bushing.
c) Due to overheating of
2. Over heating of

3. Capacitor drawing
high current

Remedial action
a) For minor leakage apply
adhesive or solder on leaky
welded joints. if leakage does
not stop replace the unit and
refer to manufacturer for
possible repairs. (Refer Note 1)
b) Check & tighten the
connections to avoid tension
coming on bushing, repair
capacitor as stated above.
c) Refer Serial No. 2 for

a) Poor ventilation,

a) Provide free circulation of

cooling air.

b) Excessive ambient.

b) Arrange forced ventilation

c) Drawing excessive

c) Refer Sr. No. 3 for action

d) None of the above

a) High voltage,

d) Refer to the manufacturer

a) Reduce voltage by changing
transformer taps or switch off
the bank.

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4. Capacitors drawing
less current.

5. Expulsion fuses
blowing too
frequently but unit
is healthy.

6. Expulsion fuse not

blowing but unit
has failed.

7. Abnormal
8. Abnormal sound
and black marks
noticed on bushing

b) Harmonic current

b) It current beyond
permissible limit, switch-off
capacitor bank
and take remedial measures
to reduce harmonics flowing
in capacitors.

a) Low voltage,

a) Current directly proportional

to voltage No repairs

b) Failure of capacitor unit

with blown fuses.

b) If one or more units have

failed and it has not been
detected by neutral unbalance
relay, check whether unit has
failed or fuse has spuriously
blown. If unit fails replace the
unit. Refer Note 2.

c) Partial failure of unit.

c) In case of internal fused

capacitors sometimes partial
failure in various units may
occur which cannot be detected
by neutral unbalance relay.
Check the whole bank for
capacitance and regroup them.
Remove units having
capacitance less than 95% of
the rated value. Also check if
neutral unbalance limit is set
Correctly. Refer Note 2.

a) Expulsion fuse rating

may not be of adequate

a) Check expulsion fuse rating.

Consult manufacturer by
providing complete bank
details. Refer Note 3(a).

b) Expulsion fuse for one

unit connected to more
than one unit.
a) Expulsion fuse rating
may be high.

b) Connect one fuse with one


a) Gas formation due to

internal arcing Causing
unit to bulge or burst.
a) External earth fault
between terminal and

a) Replace the unit and refer to

the manufacturer.

a) Check expulsion fuse rating.

Consult manufacturer by
providing complete bank &
system details. Refer Note

a) Clean the bushings and

check installation for any short

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and near by.

b) High voltage surges

due to lightning or due to
restriking of breaker.

b) Consult the manufacturers

application engineer. Refer
Note 3(b).

9. Terminal overheated or melted

a) Loose contact.

a) Tighten the connections.

Replace the damaged

10. Capacitor bank

tripping on
protection but
expulsion fuse not

a) Co-ordination of
expulsion fuse blowing
with neutral protection is
not proper.

a) Check and consult with

manufacturers application


Minor leakage from bushing can be repaired as follows:

Turn the unit and place in such a way that the
leaky portion will remain on the top. Clean the area by
carbon tetra chloride and wipe of with a clean cloth. Apply
Araldite and then allow it to cure in that position for 8
hours. Put the unit back in to the circuit after 24 hours.
For minor leakages on the welded joints or metal
terminals turn the unit to keep the leaky portion on the
top. Clean the surface with carbon tetra chloride and wipe
the area with clean cloth. Solder the leaky portion using
soldering iron of suitable wattage. Avoid using excess
solder. Wipe/ clean the soldered area for any residual flux.
Keep the unit for 10 minutes in that position and then put
the unit back in to the service.


Following methods can be adopted to check failure of a capacitor unit:

(a) Capacitor with external fuse:
Megger with 500V megger between 2 terminals of
capacitors. Completely failed unit will show zero megger
value and healthy unit will show megger value of a few
M.ohms, which corresponds the value of internal resistors.
(b) Capacitor with internal element fuse:
In case of capacitors with internal element fuse,
megger will always show a few M. ohms corresponding to
internal discharge resistors value, whether unit is healthy
or partially/completely failed. However, if the terminals
are shorted immediately by shorting link, the spark can be
noticed in case of healthy or partially failed unit. To
distinguish between healthy and partially failed unit,

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capacitance can be measured. If Capacitance Bridge is not

available at site then 440 volts supply can be given across
the two terminals and current drawn by the unit can be
measured, which should be in direct proportion to the
voltage applied. For example a 200 KVAR 7300 volts, 1Phase capacitor has rated current of 27.39 Amps. When
tested at 440 volts the current will reduce in the ratio of
440/7300 to 1.65 Amps. Current drawn lower than this
will show partial failure.


While referring to the manufacturer, provide the

details of complete capacitor bank rating, individual unit
rating, expulsion fuse rating whether series reactor used
or not, if not cable length from breaker to capacitor, bank
details of any parallel connected bank on the same bus,
actual system fault level or incoming transformer rating
with % impedance. Also arrange to furnish the single line
diagram of the power system along with harmonic details
if available.
Please furnish full particulars of capacitor bank as well as
the breaker used. Provide the complete details of lightning
arrestors and its location with respect to capacitor if used
for surge protection. If lightning arrestors are not used,
state so.

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Important Notes :
The following applies to all products named in this publication:
1. Some parts of this publication contain statements about the suitability of our products for
certain areas of application. These statements are based on our knowledge of typical
requirements that are often placed on our products in the areas of application concerned. We
nevertheless expressly point out that such statements cannot be regarded as binding
statements about the suitability of our products for a particular customer application. As a
rule, EPCOS is either unfamiliar with individual customer applications or less familiar with them than
the customers themselves. For these reasons, it is always ultimately incumbent on the customer to
check and decide whether an EPCOS product with the properties described in the product
specification is suitable for use in a particular customer application.
2. We also point out that in individual cases, a malfunction of electronic components or failure
before the end of their usual service life cannot be completely ruled out in the current state
of the art, even if they are operated as specified. In customer applications requiring a very high
level of operational safety and especially in customer applications in which the malfunction or failure
of an electronic component could endanger human life or health (e.g. in accident prevention or lifesaving systems), it must therefore be ensured by means of suitable design of the customer
application or other action taken by the customer (e.g. installation of protective circuitry or
redundancy) that no injury or damage is sustained by third parties in the event of malfunction or
failure of an electronic component.
3. The warnings, cautions and product-specific notes must be observed.
4. In order to satisfy certain technical requirements, some of the products described in this
publication may contain substances subject to restrictions in certain jurisdictions (e.g.
because they are classed as hazardous). Useful information on this will be found in our Material
Data Sheets on the Internet (www.epcos.com/material). Should you have any more detailed
questions, please contact our sales offices.
5. We constantly strive to improve our products. Consequently, the products described in this
publication may change from time to time. The same is true of the corresponding product
specifications. Please check therefore to what extent product descriptions and specifications
contained in this publication are still applicable before or when you place an order.
We also reserve the right to discontinue production and delivery of products. Consequently,
we cannot guarantee that all products named in this publication will always be available. The
aforementioned does not apply in the case of individual agreements deviating from the foregoing for
customer-specific products.
6. Unless otherwise agreed in individual contracts, all orders are subject to the current version
of the General Terms of Delivery for Products and Services in the Electrical Industry
published by the German Electrical and Electronics Industry Association (ZVEI).
7. The trade names EPCOS, BAOKE, Alu-X, CeraDiode, CSSP, CTVS, DSSP, MiniBlue, MKK,
MLSC, MotorCap, PCC, PhaseCap, PhaseMod, SIFERRIT, SIFI, SIKOREL, SilverCap, SIMDAD,
SIMID, SineFormer, SIOV, SIP5D, SIP5K, ThermoFuse, WindCap are trademarks registered or
pending in Europe and in other countries. Further information will be found on the Internet at

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