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HSC Physics

Module 8.3
Electrical
Energy in the
Home

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home (30 indicative hours)


Contextual Outline
Electricity is an essential energy source for modern living. Disruption to supply or isolation can lead to the
development of alternative methods of obtaining this essential energy resource. For electrical energy to be
useful it must be harnessed through the use of an electrical circuit and an energy-converting appliance.
As electricity became increasingly used as the main power supply in homes and electrical appliances
became an integral part of daily life for many Australians, the dangers associated with electricity became
more prominent. Voltages as low as 20 volts can be dangerous to the human body depending on the health
of the person and length of time of contact with the current. Safety devices in household appliances and
within the electric circuits in the home can prevent electrical injury or assist in reducing the potential for
electric shock.
This module increases students understanding of the history, nature and practice of physics and the
applications and uses of physics.

Assumed Knowledge
Domain: knowledge and understanding:
Refer to the Science Stages 45 Syllabus for the following:
5.6.3a design, construct and draw circuits containing a number of components
5.6.3b describe voltage, resistance and current using analogies
5.6.3c describe qualitatively, the relationship between voltage, resistance and current
5.6.3d compare advantages and disadvantages of series and parallel circuits

Skills
Skill development focuses on:
Developing scientific research and communication skills in extracting information, drawing and writing
effectively.
Planning and carrying out procedures to obtain first hand data.
Developing skills in manipulating a variety of electrical components and measuring devices.
Developing skills in analysing information to identify patterns and trends and to use models to explain
phenomena or to make predictions.

Values and Attitudes


During this module, teaching/learning activities should allow students to reflect on personal and societal
choices and responsibilities about energy production and consumption. There should be an enhanced
understanding of the impacts of the provision of electrical energy on the environments from which the
necessary resources are obtained and those environments in which electrical generation and transmission
occur. Often the decisions Governments make are compromises e.g. coal mining is allowed if associated
with conservation projects and these issues could provide opportunities for class debate.
Students should be provided with opportunities to develop a better understanding of the need to provide a
balance between the electrical energy needs of people and limited resources available to produce that
energy. The importance of research into renewable, low impact sources of energy should be raised. They
should also appreciate the imbalance that occurs across and between societies in the availability and
consumption of electrical energy.
Open class discussions centred round Gospel values should challenge the students to formulate their own
opinions about equity, conservation and respect for the opinions of others.

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Concept Map
CHARGE

STATIC
ELECTRICITY

ELECTRIC
FIELDS

HISTORICAL
DEVELOPMENT

POTENTIAL
DIFFERENCE

CURRENT
ELECTRICITY
AC/DC

RESISTANCE
SOURCES
OF PD

CIRCUITS
APPLICATIONS &
TECHNOLOGY

SAFETY
HOUSEHOLD
ELECTRICITY

ENERGY
CONSUMPTION

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Electrical Energy in the Home Module Plan


Module Length: 7 weeks
Focus Area

Time

1. Society has
become
increasingly
dependent on
electricity over
the last 200 years

2. One of the main


advantages of
electricity is that
is can be moved
with comparative
ease from one
place to another
through electric
circuits

Concept

Resourc
es

Practical

discuss how the main


sources of domestic power
have changed over time
2 assess some of the
impacts of changes in, and
increased access to,
sources of power for a
community
3
discuss some of the ways
in which electricity can be
provided in remote
locations
1 describe the behaviour of
electrostatic charges and the
properties of the fields
associated with them
2 define the unit of electric
charge as the coulomb
3 define the electric field as a
field of force with a field
strength equal to the force
per unit charge
at that point
r

UP: 149
NS: The EM
link
Contexts I:
pp. 257-277

(Act 1) identify data sources,


gather, process and analyse
secondary information about the
differing views of Volta and Galvani
about animal and chemical electricity
and discuss whether their different
views contributed to increased
understanding of electricity.

UP: 149-159
Contexts I:
pp. 211-221
Dyett: 90-116
Humphreys
Set 36

(Exp 2) present diagrammatic


information to describe the electric
field strength and direction:
between charged parallel plates.
about and between a positive and
negative point charge
(Act 3) solve problems and analyse
information using E = F /q

4 define electric current as the


rate at which charge flows
(coulombs/second or
amperes)
5 identify that current can be
either direct with the net flow
of charge carriers moving in
one direction or alternating
with the charge carriers
moving backwards and
forwards periodically
6 describe electric potential
difference (voltage) between
two points as the change in
potential energy per unit
charge moving from one point
to the other (joules/coulomb or
volts)
7 discuss how potential
difference changes at different
points around a DC circuit

UP: 173-182
Contexts I:
pp. 211-221
Dyett: 117119
Humphreys
Sets 37-38

(Exp 4) plan, choose equipment for


and perform a first-hand investigation
to gather data and use the available
evidence to show the relationship
between voltage across and current in
a DC circuit.

UP: 159-173
Contexts I:
pp. 211-221
Dyett: 126133

(Exp 5) plan, choose equipment for


and perform a first-hand investigation
to gather data and use the available
evidence to show the variations in
and potential difference between
different points around a circuit

r
F
E
q

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Focus Area

Time
2

Concept

Resourc
es

8 describe the difference


between conductors and
insulators
9 Define resistance as the ratio
of voltage to current for a
particular conductor

UP: 185-7
Contexts I:
pp. 229-233

(Act 6) gather and process secondary


information to identify materials that
are commonly used as conductors to
provide household electricity

UP: 187-199
Contexts I:
pp. 234-240
Dyett: 120138
Humphrey
Sets 39-40

(Exp 7) plan, choose equipment or


resources for and perform first-hand
investigations to gather data and use
available evidence to compare
measurements of current and voltage
in series and parallel circuits in
computer simulations or hands-on
equipment
(Exp 8) plan, choose equipment or
resources for process information and
perform a first hand investigation to
construct a simple model household
circuits using electrical components

3. Series and
parallel circuits
serve different
purposes
in households

4. The amount of
energy
transformed in an
appliance is
related to the
power rating of
an appliance and
the length of time
it is used

V
I

10 explain qualitatively and


quantitatively that resistance is
related to potential difference
11 describe qualitatively how
each of the following affects
the movement of electricity
through a conductor:

length

cross sectional area

temperature

material
1 identify the difference between
series and parallel circuits.
2 compare parallel and series
circuits in terms of voltage
across components and
current through them
3 identify the uses of ammeters
and voltmeters
4 explain why ammeters and
voltmeters are connected
differently in a circuit
5 explain why there are different
circuits for lighting, heating
and other appliances in a
house
1

Practical

explain that power is the


rate at which energy
is transformed from one
form to another
identify the relationship
between power dissipated,
potential difference and
current
identify that the total
amount of energy used
depends on the length of
time the current is flowing
and can be calculated
using: Energy = VIt
explain why the kilowatthour is used to measure
domestic electricity
consumption rather than
the joule

UP: 193-99
Contexts I:
pp. 262-266
Humphrey
Set 42

(Exp 9) perform a first-hand


investigation, gather information and
use available evidence to
demonstrate the relationship between
current, voltage and power for a model
6V to 12V electric heating coil
(Act 10) solve problems and analyse
information using
P=VI and Energy = VIt

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Focus Area
5. Electric currents
also produce
magnetic fields
and these fields
are used in
different devices
in the home

Time
3

Concept
1

6. Safety devices
are important in
household
circuits

Resourc
es

describe the behaviour of


the magnetic poles of bar
magnets when they are
brought close together
define the direction of the
magnetic field at a point as
the direction of force on a
very small north magnetic
pole when placed at that
point
describe the magnetic field
around pairs of magnetic
poles

UP: 201-211
Contexts I:
pp. 241-249
Dyett: 139140

describe the production of


a magnetic field by an
electric current in a straight
current-carrying conductor
and describe how the right
hand grip rule can
determine the direction of
current and field lines
compare the nature and
generation of magnetic
fields by solenoids and a bar
magnet

UP: 207-211
Dyett: 146-53
Humphrey
Set 45

discuss the dangers of an


electric shock from both a
240 volt AC mains supply
and various DC voltages,
from appliances, on the
muscles of the body
describe the functions of
circuit breakers, fuses,
earthing, double insulation
and other safety devices in
the home

Contexts I:
pp. 278-283

Practical
1

(Exp 11) plan, choose equipment or


resources for, and perform a firsthand investigation build an
electromagnet
(Exp 12) perform a first-hand
investigation to observe magnetic
fields by mapping lines of force:
around a bar magnet
surrounding a straight
DC current-carrying
conductor
a solenoid
present information using and
to show the direction of a current and
direction of a magnetic field.
(Act 13) identify data sources, gather,
process and analyse information to
explain one application of magnetic
fields in household appliances.

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Preliminary Physics C2: Electrical Energy in the Home Activity 1: History of Electricity
Aim: To identify data sources, gather, process and analyse secondary information
about the differing views of Volta and Galvani about animal and chemical
electricity and discuss whether their different views contributed to increased
understanding of electricity.
Outcomes Assessed
accessing information from a range of resources, including popular scientific journals, digital
technologies and the Internet (12.3a)
o practising efficient data collection techniques to identify useful information in secondary sources (12.3b)
o summarising and collating information from a range of resources (12.3d)
o identifying practising male and female Australian scientists, and the areas in which they are currently
working and in formation about their research (12.3e)
o evaluate the validity of first-hand and secondary information and data in relation to the area of
investigation (12.4d)
o assess the reliability of first-hand and secondary information and data by considering information from
various sources (12.4e)
o selecting and using appropriate text types or combinations thereof, for oral and written presentations
(13.1a)
o selecting and using appropriate methods to acknowledge sources of information (13.1c)
o

Write a 400 word report on this dot point.


Preliminary Physics C2: Electrical Energy in the Home Experiment 2: Mapping Equipotential
Lines
Aim: To present diagrammatic information to describe the electric field strength and direction
between charged parallel plates and about and between a positive and negative charge.

Outcomes Assessed
o
o
o

using symbols and formulae to express relationships and using appropriate units for physical
quantities (13.1d)
using a variety of pictorial representations to show relationships and present information clearly and
succinctly (13.1e)
selecting and drawing appropriate graphs to convey information and relationships clearly and
accurately (13.1f)

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Method

1. The diagram on the right is set up.


2. Using the probe, trace a line along the paper where the voltage remains the same. Mark
this line using a lead pencil. ENSURE THAT THE PAPER STAYS WET AT ALL TIMES!
3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until several equipotential lines (8) are drawn. Record the voltage
of each line.
4. Repeat steps 1-3 for the electrodes shown below:

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Discussion
(1) How can we find the electric field from the equipotential lines? Draw the electric field
for each pair of electrodes.
(2) What is the purpose of the salt solution?
(3) Suggest what happens on the inside of the circle in electrode pairs 3 & 5
(4) What does your answer to (3) tell you about how charge is conducted?
(5) What industrial applications could there be for your answers to questions (3) and (4)?
(6) Calculate the value of the electric field in each case that you studied.
(7) What is charge? (No textbook definitions please, just your own ideas about what
charge is.)

Preliminary Physics C2: Electrical Energy in the Home Activity 3: Electric Fields
Aim: To solve problems and analyse information using E = F /q
Outcomes Assessed
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

identify trends, patterns and relationships as well as contradictions in data and information (14.1a)
identify and explain how data supports or refutes an hypothesis, a prediction or a proposed solution to
a problem (14.1c)
use models, including mathematical ones, to explain phenomena and/or make predictions (14.1f)
design and produce creative solutions to problems (14.3a)
propose ideas that demonstrate coherence and logical progression and include correct use of
scientific principles and ideas (14.3b)
apply critical thinking in the consideration of predictions, hypotheses and the results of investigations
(14.3c)
Formulate cause and effect relationships (14.3d)

Do Humphreys Set 36

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Preliminary Physics C2: Electrical Energy in the Home Experiment 4: DC Circuits.


Aim: To plan, choose equipment for and perform a first-hand investigation to gather data
and use the available evidence to show the relationship between voltage across and
current in a DC circuit.
Outcomes Assessed
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

demonstrate the use of the terms dependent and independent to describe variables involved in the
investigation (11.2a)
identify variables that needed to be kept constant, develop strategies to ensure that these variables
are kept constant, and demonstrate the use of a control (11.2b)
design investigations that allow valid and reliable data and information to be collected (11.2c)
describe and trial procedures to undertake investigations and explain why a procedure, a sequence of
procedures or the repetition of procedures is appropriate (11.2d)
identifying and/or setting up the most appropriate equipment or combination of equipment needed to
undertake the investigation (11.3a)
carrying out a risk assessment of intended experimental procedures and identifying and addressing
potential hazards (11.3b)
carrying out the planned procedure, recognising where and when modifications are needed and
analysing the effect of these adjustments (12.1a)
identifying and using safe work practices during investigations (12.1d

Part A: CRO
Both types of current will be displayed on the CRO.
Part B: Circuit
1. Set up the circuit on the right. Set the power supply to 12V DC.

1. Measure the voltage and current through the resistor at several different settings of the
rheostat.
Discussion
(1) Does a resistor treat AC different from DC? Explain your answer.
(2) Why is DC more useful for circuits?
(3) Explain the following terms: transformer, rectifier, bridge circuit.

10

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

11

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Preliminary Physics C2: Electrical Energy in the Home Experiment 5: Voltage


Aim: To plan, choose equipment for and perform a first-hand investigation to gather data
and use the available evidence to show the variations in and potential difference
between different points around a circuit
Outcomes Assessed
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

demonstrate the use of the terms dependent and independent to describe variables involved in the
investigation (11.2a)
identify variables that needed to be kept constant, develop strategies to ensure that these variables
are kept constant, and demonstrate the use of a control (11.2b)
design investigations that allow valid and reliable data and information to be collected (11.2c)
describe and trial procedures to undertake investigations and explain why a procedure, a sequence of
procedures or the repetition of procedures is appropriate (11.2d)
identifying and/or setting up the most appropriate equipment or combination of equipment needed to
undertake the investigation (11.3a)
carrying out a risk assessment of intended experimental procedures and identifying and addressing
potential hazards (11.3b)
carrying out the planned procedure, recognising where and when modifications are needed and
analysing the effect of these adjustments (12.1a)
identifying and using safe work practices during investigations (12.1d

Method
1. Set up the following circuit:

2. Measure the voltage between different points as given in the results table.
Results Table
Voltage
a
betwee
n
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

Discussion
(1) Is there more than 12V in the circuit? Why ? why not?
(2) Why is there no potential difference between points a and c?
12

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

(3) What is the voltage across the switch when it is open? Explain your answer.

13

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Preliminary Physics C2: Electrical Energy in the Home Activity 6: Conductors


Aim: To gather and process secondary information to identify materials that are commonly
used as conductors to provide household electricity
Outcomes Assessed
o accessing information from a range of resources, including popular scientific journals, digital technologies
and the Internet (12.3a)
o extracting information from numerical data in graphs and tables as well as written and spoken material in
all its forms (12.3c)
o summarising and collating information from a range of resources (12.3d)
o identifying practising male and female Australian scientists, and the areas in which they are currently
working and in formation about their research (12.3e)
o identify and apply appropriate mathematical formulae and concepts (12.4b)
o evaluate the validity of first-hand and secondary information and data in relation to the area of
investigation (12.4d)
o assess the reliability of first-hand and secondary information and data by considering information from
various sources (12.4e)
o assess the accuracy of scientific information presented in mass media by comparison with similar
information presented in scientific journals (12.4f)
o selecting and using appropriate methods to acknowledge sources of information (13.1c)

Write a 300 word report identifying commonly used conductors for household electricity.

14

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Preliminary Physics C2: Electrical Energy in the Home Experiment 7: Series & Parallel.
Aim: To plan, choose equipment or resources for and perform first-hand investigations to gather data and use
available evidence to compare measurements of current and voltage in series and parallel circuits in
computer simulations or hands-on equipment

Outcomes Assessed
You must devise a method using equipment listed below and/or any other reasonable
equipment.
Equipment Available
Ammeters & voltmeters
Resistors, wires
Power supply
Computer with Crocodile Clips installed.
You should consider the following points:
Does the experiment satisfy the aim above?
The safety of the experiment. Any safety notes need to be explicit.
Design your own result table. Have you repeated the experiment several times to
validate the results and to calculate a mean?
Did you show your working?
What are some possible sources of error? How could these errors be minimised or
eliminated?

15

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Preliminary Physics C2: Electrical Energy in the Home Experiment 8: Modelling Household
Circuits.
Aim: To plan, choose equipment or resources for process information and perform a first hand
investigation to construct model household circuits using electrical components

Outcomes Assessed
o
o
o
o
o

describe and trial procedures to undertake investigations and explain why a procedure, a sequence of
procedures or the repetition of procedures is appropriate (11.2d)
identifying and/or setting up the most appropriate equipment or combination of equipment needed to
undertake the investigation (11.3a)
carrying out a risk assessment of intended experimental procedures and identifying and addressing
potential hazards (11.3b)
carrying out the planned procedure, recognising where and when modifications are needed and
analysing the effect of these adjustments (12.1a)
identifying and using safe work practices during investigations (12.1d)

You must devise a method using equipment listed below and/or any other reasonable
equipment.
Make circuits that represent the following:
Double pole light switch
Electric kettle
Electric blanket (with three heat settings)
For each situation, construct and draw a circuit that satisfies the situation. Put at least
one resistor in series with the power supply.
Equipment Available
Ammeters & voltmeters
Resistors, wires
Power supply
You should consider the following points:
Does the experiment satisfy the aim above?
The safety of the experiment. Any safety notes need to be explicit.
Design your own result table. Have you repeated the experiment several times to
validate the results and to calculate a mean?
Did you show your working?
What are some possible sources of error? How could these errors be minimised or
eliminated?

16

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Preliminary Physics C2: Electrical Energy in the Home Experiment 9: Heating Coils
Aim: To perform a first-hand investigation, gather information and use available evidence
to demonstrate the relationship between current, voltage and power for a model 6V
to 12V electric heating coil
Outcomes Assessed
o
o
o
o
o

carrying out the planned procedure, recognising where and when modifications are needed and
analysing the effect of these adjustments (12.1a)
identifying and using safe work practices during investigations (12.1d)
using symbols and formulae to express relationships and using appropriate units for physical
quantities (13.1d)
using a variety of pictorial representations to show relationships and present information clearly and
succinctly (13.1e)
selecting and drawing appropriate graphs to convey information and relationships clearly and
accurately (13.1f

Method
1. Set up the circuit shown below:

12V

Heating Coil

A
2.
3.
4.
5.

Measure the mass of water in a beaker. (the coil may already have a container)
Immerse the heating coil in the beaker of water
Measure the initial temperature of the water.
Turn the power on and measure the time it takes for the water heat up by 10C.

Discussion
1. Calculate the power rating of the heating coil.
2. Calculate the energy delivered to the coil.
3. Using the equation H=mc.T where c 4.182 J/g/K for water, calculate the heat
energy given to the water.
Preliminary Physics C2: Electrical Energy in the Home Activity 10: Power and Energy
Aim: To solve problems and analyse information using P=VI and Energy = VIt for a variety of
situations

Outcomes Assessed
o
o
o
o
o

identify trends, patterns and relationships as well as contradictions in data and information (14.1a)
identify and explain how data supports or refutes an hypothesis, a prediction or a proposed solution to
a problem (14.1c)
use models, including mathematical ones, to explain phenomena and/or make predictions (14.1f)
design and produce creative solutions to problems (14.3a)
propose ideas that demonstrate coherence and logical progression and include correct use of
scientific principles and ideas (14.3b)

17

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

o
o

apply critical thinking in the consideration of predictions, hypotheses and the results of investigations
(14.3c)
formulate cause and effect relationships (14.3d)

Do Humphreys Set 42

18

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Preliminary Physics C2: Electrical Energy in the Home Experiment 11: Electromagnets
Aim: To plan, choose equipment or resources for, and perform a first-hand investigation to
build an electromagnet
Outcomes Assessed
o
o

carrying out the planned procedure, recognising where and when modifications are needed and
analysing the effect of these adjustments (12.1a)
identifying and using safe work practices during investigations (12.1d)

You must devise a method using equipment available in the laboratory.


consider the following points:

You should

Does the experiment satisfy the aim above?


The safety of the experiment. Any safety notes need to be explicit.
Design your own result table. Have you repeated the experiment several times to
validate the results and to calculate a mean?
Did you show your working?
What are some possible sources of error? How could these errors be minimised or
eliminated?
Do you have a conclusion?
After your results, you should provide a detailed discussion of the implications of the
experiment.

19

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Preliminary Physics C2: Electrical Energy in the Home Experiment 12: Mapping Magnetic
Fields
Aim: To perform a first-hand investigation to observe magnetic fields by mapping lines of force
around a bar magnet; surrounding a straight DC current-carrying conductor; and of a solenoid
and present information using or to show the direction of a current and strength and
direction of a magnetic field.

Outcomes Assessed
o
o

carrying out the planned procedure, recognising where and when modifications are needed and
analysing the effect of these adjustments (12.1a)
identifying and using safe work practices during investigations (12.1d)

Method
Part A: Mapping Magnetic Fields Around a Bar Magnet
1. Obtain two bar magnets, a plastic sheet and some iron filings.
2. Arrange the bar magnets such that two opposite poles are facing each other and are
seperated by about 1 cm. Lay the plastic sheet over the magnets and gently sprinkle the
iron filings over the magnets.
3. Record the pattern produced in your prac books.
4. Reverse the pole on one of the magnets. Repeat the procedure.
Part B: Mapping Magnetic Fields Around a Current-Carrying Conductor
1. Wrap a wire in a plastic bag.
2. Pierce a hole in the middle of a large piece of cardboard.
3. Thread the wire through the hole in the cardboard.
4. Suspend the wire vertically so that the cardboard is horizontal.
5. Connect the wire to a power supply.
6. Sprinkle the iron filings around the cardboard.
7. Draw the pattern observed.
Part C: Mapping Magnetic Fields Around a Solenoid
Repeat part A using a single solenoid instead of the bar magnets.
Discussion
(1) What are some examples of magnetic materials? What do they have in common?
(2) On the molecular level, what is a ferromagnet? How is this different to diamagnetism?
(3) What is anti-ferromagnetism? Explain using diagrams.
(4) What is the convention for the direction of magnetic fields?
(5) How are magnetic fields and electric fields related?

20

Physics Preliminary Module 8.3 Electrical Energy in the Home Teaching Program

Preliminary Physics C2: Electrical Energy in the Home Activity 13: Household Appliances
Aim: To identify data sources, gather, process and analyse information to explain one application of
magnetic fields in household appliance.

Outcomes Assessed
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

accessing information from a range of resources, including popular scientific journals, digital
technologies and the Internet (12.3a)
extracting information from numerical data in graphs and tables as well as written and spoken
material in all its forms (12.3c)
summarising and collating information from a range of resources (12.3d)
identifying practising male and female Australian scientists, and the areas in which they are currently
working and in formation about their research (12.3e)
identify and apply appropriate mathematical formulae and concepts (12.4b)
evaluate the validity of first-hand and secondary information and data in relation to the area of
investigation (12.4d)
assess the reliability of first-hand and secondary information and data by considering information from
various sources (12.4e)
assess the accuracy of scientific information presented in mass media by comparison with similar
information presented in scientific journals (12.4f)
selecting and using appropriate methods to acknowledge sources of information (13.1c)

Write a 400 word report on this issue.

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