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This chapter presents the background of the study, the statement of problem,
objectives of the study, scope and limitation of the study, significance of the study and the
definition of key terms.
1.1 Background of the Study
As social creature which always needs each other, it is very important for human
being communicated. Language is one kind of human main tool uses for being
communicated. According to OGrady (1996: 1), language is many things a system of
communication, a medium for thought, a vehicle for literary expression, a social institution, a
matter for political controversy, a catalyst for nation building. It can be conclude, although
there are a lot of languages in the world, they have the same main use, which is to express
ideas in the main of human being, so they can reach their wants.
Sociolinguistic is one of the linguistic branches which study the relationship between
society and language uses. As social creature also which uses language for communication, it
can not deny will be happen a language variation. That is the difference/the phenomenon the
using of languages in human being such as dialect, register, jargon etc.
As the running of the time, peoples build a community in order to fulfill what their
want, such as job, hobby, religion etc. Sometimes the member of community wants to show
their ability or say something in quick time with specific vocabulary which only knows by
the member of the community only. In sociolinguistic study, this phenomenon called register.
Nowadays, many communities shows in movie, there are much register that unknown
for the public when they make a conversation between them, of course it will makes what the

author wants to say can not be conveyed. Moreover for the rare (scarce) community as like
cave divers community that the researcher choose.
Cave divers itself doesnt like just cave explorer community nor diver community.
There are many steps which makes this community are so interesting. First they must found
the cave that has the big unexplored cave system, then they must explore and find that hidden
pathway that caused by a million years of rainwater dissolving way down through the rock
then they also must find the way from the cave to the sea. Of course it is really difficult and
expensive adventures than the others.
In fact, this Sanctum movie itself written by Australian cave divers, Andrew Wight
according to his experience in 1988, when his cave divers team expedition in Australia
resulted 13 cavers becoming trapped in one of the world's largest underwater cave systems in
Nullarbor Plain Australia after a freak storm collapsed the entrance and only him the one who
save from that accident.
Then, how those vocabularies being appeared? Sometimes peoples do not know how
the new vocabulary appears; this is will be the problem both in meaning and writing.
Resolving it, the researcher put one kind of theory from morphology branch, which is word
formation process. Morphology theory, study about the internal construction about word.
Then the process of creating new word which influenced the meaning of its new word called
word formation process. This word-formation process theory will be the focus of the
researcher to analyze register by cave divers in Sanctum movie.
As like thesis from Choirun Nisa (2011), she is student of Airlangga University, and
she studies the Indonesian register words used in Traffic Police Officers in Surabaya. While
as the main theory, she took ten categories of word formation processes by Laurie Bauer
(2000), George Yule (2010), and Harimurti Kridalakasana (2007) to categorize the data. From

her research she found that there are eight strategies of word formation process, which are
undergone by Indonesian register words used by The Traffic Police Officers. Based on the
findings, there are 125 register that are used by the Traffic Police officers. She found two
different type of register that is word and number. The word register was dominating 99
register from 125 amount of register, or it can percentage 76% of 125 register.
This research will analyze word formation process of register also, but the object will
be different, the focus of founding too. In her founding, she focuses only how register appears
also what is the word-formation process used. But in this research the researcher will be
analyze register based on the word-formation process in order to clearly convey the author
wants to say to the audience.
1.2 Statement of Problem
From the background of the study, the research problems of the study are:
1. How are the word-formation processes of the register used by Cave Divers in
Sanctum movie?
2. What is the most kind of the word-formation that used by Cave Divers in Sanctum
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Based on the problems above, the objective of the study are:
1. To describe, classifying and analyzing word-formation processes of the register used
by Cave Divers in Sanctum movie.
2. To find out the most kind of the word-formation used by Cave Divers in Sanctum
1.4 Significant of Study

The writer hopes this thesis will be lifting up the unexcitable group register. Actually
this movie is inspired by the real experienced of the author. Accompanying by wordformation theory that used to analyze the ways in which new words are made. The writers
hopes this thesis will be help the author convey his story clearly by explain also analyze the
register words that are often found in this movie conversation.
1.5 Scope and Limitation
Language as a universal thing that is used in communication has a lot of different
varieties. Some of them are jargon, pidgin, creole etc. In this research, the writer will focus on
register to be analyzed, especially in its word formation processes. It is since a good research
is a research which focuses in specific problem. By limiting the problem, the writer hopes
this research can be done in detail.
1.6 Definition Key Terms

: In general, sociolinguistic is the study of relationship between

language and society or in limited word it is study about interaction of peoples in


: It is the study of the internal construction of words.

Language Variation

: A variation of using languages which uses depend on the

purpose and situation of the user.


: Specific sets of vocabulary used by specific group.

Word Formation

: The ways in which new words are made on the basis of other

words or morphemes.

According to Alison Wray & Aileen Bloomer (2006: 10), theory is as similar as an
important role (root) while doing a research and a way to do something research. In this
chapter the writer will explain about related and relevant theories that apply in this research.
2.1 Mimetic theory
The mimetic theories judge a literary work of art in terms of imitation. This is the
earliest way of judging any work of art in relation to reality whether the representation is
accurate (verisimilitude) or not. For this purpose, all these theories treat a work of art as
photographic reproduction i.e. arts truth to life, poetic truth and so forth. Rene Giards
mimetic theory is based on the principle that human beings are mimetic creatures. We imitate
what we see in others that are explaining the point imitation is the fundamental mechanism
of human behavior.
2.2. Sociolinguistic
The term language can not be separated from society because they have relation each
other. Language is a medium for communication, whereas society is the people who use it, or
we can say the user of language. In linguistics, the relation between language and society
referred to the science that we knew as sociolinguistics. Some linguists have the same
definition of sociolinguistics, such as Janet Holmes (1992: 1), He said that sociolinguistics is
the study of the relationship between language and society.
Different sociolinguistics gave different explanation. Trudgill (1974), he said that
sociolinguistics is that part of linguistics which is connected with language as a social and
cultural phenomenon. It means that language is not only social phenomenon but also cultural
phenomenon; each society has their own culture. Then, we though that society as the user of
language has local custom and culture in their life. In this case, language is a part of culture
(language in culture), language can stand alone (language and culture). Whatever the linguists

said about the definition above, sociolinguistics includes three important points; language,
society and the relation between language and society.
2.3. Language Variety
Variety is therefore broad term which includes different accents, different linguistics
styles, different dialect even different languages high contrast with each other for social
reasons (Holmes: 1995). Language variety itself that has a relation with my analysis is.
2.3.1 Register
Register is the language used in situation associated with particular groups (Holmes,
1992). In using register, people tend to use language which has characteristics and can be
clearly distinguished. Holmes (1992, p.227) states that the most obvious distinguishing
feature is generally the vocabulary. In sports announcer talk, for instance, terms like silly mid
on, square leg, the covers, and gully are used to describe positions. Meanwhile, off-break,
googly, and leg break are used to describe deliveries. Those vocabularies show that register of
sports announcer talk has distinguishing features or characteristics in the vocabularies.
2.4. Word Formation Process
According to the Dictionary of applied Linguistics, word formation is the creation of a
new word. In this research, the researcher quotes the theories from the expert of language in
morphology word-formation process in order to deeply analyze the subject also following the
recent theory that appears that are Hatch and Brown (1995), OGrady and Guzman (1996),
Laurie Bauer (2000), and George Yule (2010) to analyze the data. Here are the word
formation processes:

1. Compounding

According to George Yule (2010: 55), Compounding is a process of joining two separate
words to produce a single form. Compounding also divide into two types:
a. Endocentric, compound that identifies the general class which the meaning of the entire
word belongs. E.g.: a cave man is a type of man.
b. Exocentric, the meaning of compound does not follow from the meaning of its parts.
E.g.: greenbottle is not type of bottle; rather, it is a fly of the genus lucilla
2. Borrowing
It is all language-borrowed word from other language (Hatch and Brown, 1995:170). The
forms of borrowed words are usually adapted to the phonology of the borrowing language.
E.g.: Billabong, adapted from Australian aboriginal language, it is names from
topographical features.
3. Coinage
A word may be produced by hand writing or by computer that is called word manufacture
or coinage. This phenomenon can be found generally in industrial field that needs a latest
and eye-catching name for goods (OGrady and Guzman, 1996:60). E.g.: Honda mark for
4. Blending
Blending are two words in which their non-morphemic components are mixed into one
(OGrady and Guzman, 1996:158). It is taking only the beginning of one word and joining
it to the end of the other word. E.g.: brunch, from breakfast and lunch.
5. Clipping
Clipping refers to the process whereby a lexeme (simplex or complex) is shortened, while
still retaining the same meaning and still being a member of the same form class (Laurie
Bauer, 2000: 233). Three categories of clipping are:

a. Fore clipping, are those with the first part of the original word cut off. E.g.: burger for
b. Back clipping, where the tail end of the original has been shorn off. E.g.: lab for
c. Fore-back clipping, where the first part and the tailend of the original has been cut off.
E.g.: flue for influenza.
6. Back Formation
Back formation is a process that creates new word by removing a real or supposed affix
from another word in language (OGrady and Guzman, 1996:158). E.g.: Entertainment
(noun) becomes entertain (verb).
7. Conversion
According to George Yule (2010: 55) Conversion is a change in the function of a word, as
for example, when a noun comes to be used as a verb (without any reduction). E.g.: Noun
that comes from verb: a permit, a report.
8. Inflection
Inflection is a word formation by adding affixes so that it can create a new form without
changing the word class or meaning (Hatch and Brown, 1995:285). E.g.: key+-s= keys.
9. Derivation
Derivation is the process when a word is created where its meaning and or its category is
different from its base by adding an affix (OGrady and Guzman, 1996:144). E.g.: vaccine
+ ate= vaccinate
10. Citilization
Some words are enabling to stand alone as independent forms for phonological reasons.
Such elements, called clitics, must be attached to another word in the sentence. Citilization

occurs, attaching these elements to the preceding word (OGrady and Guzman, 1996:139140). E.g.: Iam leaving now.
11. Reduplication
Reduplication duplicates all or part of the base to which it applies to mark a grammatical
or semantic contrast (OGrady and Guzman, 1996:143). One person (man) more than one
12. Abbreviation
According to Kridalaksana (2007a:159) abbreviation is a process of putting off one or
some parts of lexeme or a combination of lexemes so it becomes a new word form. There
are two kinds of abbreviation, they are:
a. Initialism
Intialism is a type of abbreviation formed by the initial letters of the words and read them
by spelling each word. E.g.: U.N for United Nations.
b. Acronym
Acronym is formed by taking the initial letters of some or all of the words in a phrase or
title and reading them as a word. NATO for North Atlantic Treaty Organization
2.5. Previous Study
Before the writer continues this research, he has collected some data and much
information which related to the discussion. There were some analyses discussing register
and word formation. In review of literature, the writer finds out a previous study which has
similar topic that the writer intends to have a research, those are conducted by Stasch (2008),
Horrie (2000), Nisa (2011), Lestari (2012), Jassem (2012), and Cavanaugh (2012).
The research journal from Lestari analyze the language use in the community of
Street Children , another journal on creating speech register is in Thai conversation by Horrie

(2000), also in politics by Cavanaugh (2012) that has almost same result that is language
variation in their community cannot be separated from the multicultural background that
gather in one community. Deeper research was the research journal of Jassem (2012), he
analyzes the Islamic English register in UK, KSA, Malaysia, and Africa, his result is indicate
that Islamic English is not only real as much as Biblical English is, but it is also a continuum
with several varieties ranging from the light to the heavy. It has certain universal features
which expresses their social and cultural identity one of them is register, he stated also the
register can be distinguished by five criteria; topic, lexis, grammar, style and audience.
The last thesis is from Choirun Nisa (2011), she is student of Airlangga University,
and she studies the Indonesian register words used in Traffic Police Officers in Surabaya. In
her research, she used descriptive qualitative method to analyze the data. While as the main
theory, she took ten categories of word formation processes by Laurie Bauer (2000), George
Yule (2010), and Harimurti Kridalakasana (2007) to categorize the data. From her research
she found that there are eight strategies of word formation process, which are undergone by
Indonesian register words used by The Traffic Police Officers. They are borrowing, coinage,
compounding, initialization and acronym, blending, clipping, inflection, and derivation.
Based on the findings, there are 125 register that are used by the Traffic Police officers. She
found two different type of register that is word and number. The word register was
dominating 99 register from 125 amount of register, or it can percentage 76% of 125 register.
Therefore, the writer is interested in studying about the register words used by cave
divers itself. Moreover, the writer focuses on the word formation process of register word
used by cave divers in Sanctum movie in order to clearly the authors message in this movie.


In this chapter, the researcher developed in detail the methods of research that will be
used in collecting and analyzing data. This chapter consists of seven sections. These sections
are research design, data and data source, instrument of the study, data collection, data
analysis, triangulation and the research time frame.
3.1 Research Design
The researcher will use descriptive qualitative approach concerning the focus of the
studys observation that is register used by cave divers in Sanctum movie. Qualitative
approach is a process of research and understanding based on the methodology which
investigates social phenomena and humans problems.
In this approach, the researcher is the key instrument. The researchers have to equip
themselves with theory and broad knowledge which enables them to ask, analyze and
construct the research object. This kind of research emphasizes on the meaning and values
and is used to describe problems which are still unclear or ambiguous, to find hidden
meanings, to comprehend social interaction to develop a theory, to prove the data validity and
investigate the problems as Bogdan and Biklen (1992:29-32) explained. In this study, the
descriptive qualitative method was used to obtain a comprehensive description on the word
formation processes of Cave Divers register used in Sanctum movie.
Some theories obtained from library research in order to emphasize on description,
introduction grounded theory, and people understands on the topic of the study. The collected
data are collected then reduced into certain patterns of categories to analyze particular
phenomena found in the analysis.


3.2 Data and Data Sources.

This research will focus on the word formation process analysis of register which used by
cave divers in Sanctum movie. Therefore, the data of this research are their utterance when
they interact in every situation and context, by getting; in a way observe, listen, and
3.3. Instrument of the Study
The main instrument of this study is the researcher self because his study is a
qualitative one in which the appropriate instrument is human. The approach instrument is also
human or the researcher with concerns the process and human can simply observe the
process. Moreover, the researcher becomes a passive participant in collecting and observing
the process because he does not mixed up with cave divers conversation.
3.4. Data Collection
In collecting data the researcher will does several steps; firstly he listen carefully the
spoken conversation in every situation, and context by the subject in Sanctum movie. After
getting various words he transcribed all the data, than he underline words predicted as cave
divers register words. The words are predicted as cave divers register words if the sounds are
uncommon for the researcher but it has a meaning also familiar for this cave diver.
3.5 Data Analysis
In doing this analyzes, the researcher will does several steps; first, he will tabulate all
of the transcribed utterances data having words predicted as register words. Second, he also
identifies the original words and the meaning of register words in English. The table can be
seen below:


Table I
Table of Collection


Register Word


Third, the researcher derives all of the register words from data collection
alphabetically, in order to avoid collecting the same words. The researcher also separates the
original word according to the original language (English, Australian Aborigines, and other
language). Fourth, the researcher analyze the type of word formation processes of all the
register words and classified them based on the theory of word formation processes that
consist of coinage, borrowing, compounding, blending, clipping, backformation, conversion,
acronyms, derivation, clipping, reduplication and abbreviation. In order to know the number
of register words that are formed, he put the classified words in a table of analysis (table II).
Ultimately, the researcher made one final table that represents the overall table of findings.
This table consists of all the register words from the data analysis and counted to find the
most frequent pattern of word formation processes in register words produced by the object
of investigation.
Table II
Table of Analysis
N Register


Original Word



Word Formation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1
0 1 2


Note: 1. Coinage, 2. Borrowing, 3. Compounding, 4. Blending, 5. Clipping, 6. Backformation, 7. Conversion, 8. Acronym, 9. Derivation, 10. Abbreviation, 11. Inflection, 12.
Table III
Table of Findings
Word formation Register words



Total number of Total number in

register words

percentage m/n
x 100%

m = the total number of register words in each word formation processes
n = the total number all register words that emerge in data analysis.
3.6 Triangulation
Triangulation is a powerful technique that facilitates validation of data through cross
verification from two or more sources. In particular, it refers to the application and
combination of several research methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon
(Bogdan, R. C. & Biklen, S. K. 1992).

Base on Denzin (1970) there are 4 types of

triangulation: Data triangulation, Investigator triangulation, Theoretical triangulation,

Methodological triangulation. Here the researcher only uses methodological triangulation.
a. Methodological triangulation : This refers to the use of more than one method for
gathering data. It means we use qualitative and quantitative methods, but here the

researcher uses qualitative method because has describe the phenomenon found out in
the data, then continued with general conclusion. This research will analyze word
formation process of register that used by cave divers in Sanctum movie.
3.7. Research Time Frame
This research proposal will be done on October November 2014.



Fixing the proposal

Reviewing literature

Trying out instruments

Data collection

Data analysis




Writing the report

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