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Lesson Six

Economic and Social Challenges in Housing

Housing shortage largely on financial nature
1. Lack of savings
2. Governments income
3. Direct construction units
4. Meager and prohibitive housing credits
5. Lack of access to housing finance
The gap between the income of the poor and the costs of land and house
construction and in terms of housing finance
Provision for the poor took the form of:
Slum upgrading
Zonal improvement


Insecurity of land tenure

NGO and PO based on self-reliance
Philippine National Shelter Strategy (1986) collaborative roles
Community Mortgage Program (CMP)
Lack of comprehensive policy and institutional framework
Tax and risk free features
Incentives for contractors and developers
Government regulations

Populations and Urbanization

Population refers to the number of persons occupying a certain geographic
Democracy is the study of size, distribution, composition, and chance in
The consequences of overpopulation are:
Climatological changes
Coastal flooding
Alteration of the patterns of diseases
Water shortage
Consequential poverty
Lowering standard of the quality of life



Soil Erosion
Loss of soil nutrients
Endangered Human and animal life
The consequences of population growth are:
1. High fertility societies
2. Slow process of industrialization
3. Technology is costly and uncertain
4. Consumption patterns destroy the ecosystem
5. Social inequality
6. Reduces the countrys ability to solve problems peacefully
Three variables involved in population change:
1. Fertility actual number of children born to woman
2. Mortality number of deaths per 1,000 of mid-year population in a particular
place at a specified time
3. Life expectancy average number of years a person is expected to live from
time of birth
Urbanization in the Philippines
What is Urbanization?
The process of concentrating people within a relatively small geographic area
and related to social change and growth
Factors for Urbanization:
Attractiveness of urban life
Existence of social networks in the migrants destination
Natural increase
Housing and Urbanization
Key components of an Urban Area:
Central Business
Transport Junctions
Residential Areas
Economic Issues
Economic Development and Housing
Economic Development

Accelerated concentration of capital

Increase in utilization of existing labor force
Increase in productivity
Increase in specialization of territorial areas

Mobilizes private capital
Absorbs rural migrants responding to labor demand
Supports economic structural change
Allows labor mobility
Improves social indicators that contribute increase in productivity
Has a multiplier effect

Lesson Seven
Relationship between Housing and Economic Development

Housing Projects have a general multiplier effect of 17x, meaning every 1.00
peso invested, translates to 17.00 worth of economic transactions

Social Issues
Indicators of imbalance/breakdown in the social order:
Declining health
Low productivity
Inefficiency of services
Social/Cultural Issues
The Freedom to Build Approach
The freedom to build Inc (F to B) various aspects of the need for housing
and offers a response which blends various aspects of the problem into a
project approach.
1. A democratic nation is neither healthy nor safe if the majority of its people do
not have access to affordable decent housing.
2. A combination of high land costs/high interest rates/complicated bureaucratic
processing and a nationwide pattern of low wages.
F to B provides fully legally pedestrian oriented, projects using starter-house
strategies in order to lower costs and make housing affordable to higher
percentages of Filipino families.

Words of English Architect John Turner:

If dwellers participates in the design, construction and management of their
housing, the process and environment thus created, stimulate individual and

social well-being. If not, the project may become a barrier to personal

fulfillment and a burden to the economy.
The Filipino House
House is a Filipino if it is sensitive to, reflective of the physical realities in the
Philippines, its peoples cultural values, their social traditions and their aesthetics
sense as a people.
1. Philippine strategic locations a crossroad in the exchange of goods and
2. Archipelagic nature of the Philippines formation of its heterogeneous and
multi-cultural civilization
3. As a tropical Environment
What Makes a Livable House?
Definition of Terms:
House = shelter
Livable = able to give life (to its occupant)
Social = relationships (interface interaction)
Cultural = set of values as reflected in behavior/way of life
A livable house is:
Full of life, Environment-friendly
Functional, Practical, Logical, Versatile
A life-size Portrait Home
Sweet Home:
Conclusion: Your house tells on you
Community Development Aspect of Housing
Includes Environmental Protection and Sanitary Services
Data Gathering
Organize Data in tables, chart, maps, etc.
Situation Analysis
Assessment of existing situation
Identify problems/needs
Formulation of Goal/Objective/Strategies/Policy Formulation
Identification of Programs and Projects
Community Participation
Active and Direct
Engagement Process (discussion of programs and issues)
Making choices and decisions (Community discussions or alternative housing)
Taking Action