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2-D Resistivity and Induced Polarization

(IP) Methods for Iron Ore Exploration


Rosli Saad
Senior Lecturer (Dr.), Geophysics Section, School of Physics, Universiti Sains
Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; email: rosli@usm.my

Ahmad Sayful Mohamad


Undergraduate Student, Geophysics Section, School of Physics, Universiti Sains
Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; e-mail: sayful@ymail.com

Imran Adli
Undergraduate Student, Geophysics Section, School of Physics, Universiti Sains
Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; email: im23world@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
2-D Resistivity and Induced Polarization (IP) methods are some of the few geophysical
methods applied in subsurface study to assess the potential of iron ore exploration. Four
survey lines with a total length of 4km were conducted using Pole-dipole array with minimum
5m electrode spacing. Results are presented in resistivity and chargeability inversion models
form. The results of the study showed that the area is underlain by thick colluviums with
resistivity and chargeability values of 10-300m and 0.1-3msec respectively. The result also
suggests that the colluviums were expected to cover a depth of up to 150m.

KEYWORDS:

2-D Resistivity; Induced Polarization; Iron ore; Chargeability

I NTRODUCTI ON
In general, the study area covered by colluvium of Jurrasic - Triasic age with arenaceous and
argillaceous beds predominates. According to Bashforth (1973), a deposit of iron ore can be
defined as a mineral body with sufficient size, iron content, chemical composition, physical and
economic characteristic that will allow it to be a source of iron, either immediately or potentially.
Iron ore can only be considered to be an iron ore if the total cost of extracting iron from it is
comparable with the cost of extracting iron from other ores. This will be governed by many
factors, such as iron content, the nature of the impurities and the location of the deposit (Hussain,
1985).

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THEORY OF 2D RESI STI VI TY


The resistivity method is used in the study of horizontal and vertical discontinuities in the
electrical properties of the ground, and also in the detection of three-dimensional bodies of
anomalous electrical conductivity. It is routinely used in engineering and hydrogeological
investigations to investigate the shallow subsurface geology (Kearey, 2002). The resistivity value
for each type of rocks are different for example, igneous rocks tend to have highest resistivity
value while sedimentary rock tend to have highest conductive value due to high porosity content.
On the other hand, metamorphic rocks have intermediate but overlapping resistivity value. Table
1 shows the resistivity values of some of the typical rocks and soil materials (Keller and
Frischknecht, 1996).
Table 1: Resistivity values for common rocks and soil mineral
(Keller and Frischknecht, 1996).
Resistivity (ohm-m)
Material
10 to 800
Alluvium
60 to 1000
Sand
1 to 100
Clay
10 to 100
Groundwater (fresh)
8 - 4 x 103
Sandstone
20 - 2 x 103
Shale
50 4 x 103
Limestone
5000 to 1,000,000
Granite
There are many configuration uses in resistivity method such as Wenner, Schlumberger and
Pole-dipole configuration. Theoretically, Pole-dipole configuration is an interesting configuration
since it ability to providing a large scale of reading. However, the noise that accumulates from the
large numbers of reading are also large which make it difficult in processing. Figure 1 shows the
configuration for Pole-dipole array (Milsom, 2003).

Figure 1: Pole-dipole configuration (Milsom, 2003).

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THEORY OF I NDUCED POLARI ZATI ON ( I P)


IP surveys are perhaps the most useful of all geophysical methods in mineral exploration,
being the only ones responsive to low-grade disseminated mineralization. There are two main
mechanisms of rock polarization and three main ways in which polarization effects can be
measured. The results obtained by the different techniques are equivalent, but there are practical
differences (Milsom, 2003). IP equipment is similar to resistivity, but uses a current about 10
times that of a resistivity spread; it is also rather more bulky and elaborate. Theoretically, any
standard electrode spread may be employed but in practice the Dipole-dipole, Poledipole and
Schlumberger configurations are the most effective. Electrode spacing may vary from 3 to 300m
with the larger spacing used in reconnaissance surveys. To reduce the moving current electrodes
and generator, several pairs of current electrodes may be used, all connected via a switching
device to the generator. Traverses are made over the area of interest plotting the IP reading at the
mid-point of the electrode array (Kearey, 2002). The most commonly measured parameters use in
IP method is chargeability. Table 2 shows the chargeability of common minerals and rocks
(Telford et al., 1976).

Table 2: Charging and integration times of 3 sec and 0.02 - 1.0 sec, respectively
(Telford et al., 1976).
Material Type
Pyrite
Chalcocite
Copper
Graphite
Chalcopyrite
Bornite
Galena
Magnetite
Malachite
Hematite

Chargeability (ms)
13.4
13.2
12.3
11.2
9.4
6.3
3.7
2.2
0.2
0.0

STUDY AREA
The study area is located at north peninsular Malaysia with latitude of 5o 40 08.31 and
longitude 100o 34 17.69. Most of the area is planted with oil palm and rubber plantation. A total
of four survey lines were carried out on the survey area with the total length of 4000m (Figure 2).
Lines L1 - L3, were carried out with the orientation of north-west to south east and line L4 was
carried out with the orientation of north to south.

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Figure 2: 2-D
2 resistivity and IP sur
urveys at studdy area.

METH
HODOLO
OGY
The
T study waas carried ou
ut with two electrical meethods whichh were 2-D resistivity annd
Inducced Polarization (IP) methods. The surv
veys were ussed Pole-dipole array withh 5m minimum
m
electrrode spacing. A total of 41
1 electrodes were
w
used. Thhe survey useed four smarrt cables whicch
100m
m length each
h, ABEM SA
AS4000 systeem and ES100-64. Processsing was performed usinng
Res2D
Dinv softwaree.

RESU
ULTS AN
ND DI S CUSSI O
ON
The
T resistivity
y result of L1L L4, Figurre 3-6 (top) suggest the area is undeerlain by thicck
colluv
viums with reesistivity valu
ue of 10-300 m.
The colluuviums can bbe expected too cover a deptth
of up to 150m. The colluviums can be divid
ded into two zzones. The firrst zone is haard layer whicch
the reesistivity valu
ue of 800-1500m while the second zone is boullders or hardd material witth
resistiivity value >1500m.
>
Th
he bedrock lies
l
between 30-150m deepth with reesistivity valuue
of >80
00 m.
The
T IP result of
o L1- L4, Fig
gure 3-6 (bottom) suggest tthe area is unnderlain by thick colluvium
ms
with chargeability
c
value of 0.1--3msec. The colluviums aare covering a depth of upp to 150m. Thhe
bedro
ock lies betweeen 30-150m depth
d
with ch
hargeability v alue of >5mssec.

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Fiigure 3: Pseudosection of
o L1; top is resistivity ssection and bbottom is chaargeability
section.

Fiigure 4: Pseudosection of
o L2; top is resistivity ssection and bbottom is chaargeability
section.

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Fiigure 5: Pseudosection of
o L3; top is resistivity ssection and bbottom is chaargeability
section.

Fiigure 6: Pseudosection of
o L4; top is resistivity ssection and bbottom is chaargeability
section.

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CONCLUSI ON
As conclusion, the IP result suggests the area is dominated with colluviums with chargeability
rate of <5msec which high potential for iron ore mining. The chargeability values of 3-5msec
could indicate an average grade of 10 -20% and 0.1-3msec could indicate an average grade of 2040% of iron ore.

REFERENCES
1. Asrarullah and Hussain. A. (1985) "Marble Deposits of North West Frontier Province",
Pakistan: Geological Survey of Pakistan Information Release, No. 128.
2. Bashforth, G.R. (1973) "The Manufacture of Iron and Steel", Vol. 1, Bbmbay, B. I.
Publishers, pp 137.
3. Keller G.V. and Frischknecht F.C. (1996) "Electrical Methods in Geophysical
Prospecting", Pergamon Press Inc., Oxford.
4. Kearey P., Brooks M. and Hill I. (2002) "An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration",
Third Edition, Blackwell Science Ltd., pp 183-204.
5. Milsom J. (2003) "Field Geophysics", Third Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., pp 83-126.
6. Reynolds J.M. (1997) "An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics", John
Wiley & Sons Ltd., pp 415-522.
7. Telford, W.M., Geldart, L.P., Sheriff. R.E, and Keys, D.A. (1976) "Applied Geophysics",
Cambridge University Press.

2012 ejge