DIRECT CURRENT CIRCUITS
ELECTRIC POWER
Consider the circuit shown in the Figure where a battery is connected to a resistor R. A positive charge dq will gain potential energy as it moves from point a to point b through the battery. The charge loses the same amount of potential energy as it moves from point c to point d through the resistor. This amount is given by
dU = dqe _{=} dqV
Now P =
dU
dt
= V
dq
dt
= VI
Using the formula V= IR
ﬁ
P
=
IV
=
I
2
R
=
V
2
R
I
Example 27.7 You are given an electric heater made of nichrome wire of resistance 8 W. Find the current carried by the wire and the power of the heater if it is connected to 120 V source. Solution
I
=
V
120
=
R
8.0
= 15A
The power can be found using
P = I
2
R =
(15) (8.0)
2
=
1.8 KW
ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE
Consider the circuit shown in the figure. Current will be established through the resistor R if a potential difference is maintained across its ends. If the end b is at higher potential than the end a, then charge will move through the resistor from b to a. For the current
I
to circulate around a closed circuit, the charge must jump from a to b. This means that we need a device that capable of pumping charge from lower potential to higher potential. The function of such a device is called electromotive force, abbreviated emf, and denoted by the symbol e. The battery and the generator are common emf devices. A source of emf can be considered as a charge pump that pumps charges in a direction opposite to the electrostatic force inside the source. It is exactly like a water pump that pushes water from lower to a higher level opposite to the gravitational force. The resistance r is called the internal resistance of the battery, and R is called the load resistor. We shall assume that the connecting wire have no resistance. Any positive charge moving from a to b will gain a potential e as it passes from the negative terminal to the positive terminal of the battery. However,
it will lose a potential Ir as it passes through the internal resistor, where I is the
V =V V , is given
current in the circuit. Thus, the terminal voltage of the battery, by
b
a
_{V} _{=} _{e} _{} _{I}_{r}
28.1
From this Equation it is clear that the emf is equal to the terminal voltage of a battery in an open circuit, that is when the current is zero. As the connecting wires have no resistance we conclude that the voltage V must also equal the potential across the load resistor R, that is
V
= IR
From the above two Equations we get
I
= ^{e}
R
+
r
28.2
Example 28.1
W. Its terminals are connected to a load resistance of 3.0 W.
A battery has an emf 0f 12.0 V and an internal resistance of 0.05
a) Find I and the terminal voltage of the battery.
b) Calculate the power delivered to R, r, and by the battery.
Solution: a)
I
e 12.0
^{=} R
+
r
3.0
+
0.05
=
3.93A
_{=}
V = e  Ir =12.0  (3.93¥ 0.05) =11.8 V
b)
Note that
P
R
P
e
2
= I R=
(3.93) (3.0)
2
46.3W
=
P
r
= I
2
r =
(3.93) (0.05) 0.772 W
2
=
P
e
=
e =3.93¥12.0 = 47.1W
I
= P
R
+ P
r
RESISTORS IN SERIES AND IN PARALLEL
When two resistors are connected together as shown we said that they are connected in series. As it is clear from the figure, any charge that flows through R _{1} must equal the charge that flows through R _{2} , that is the current is the same in each resistor. Since the potential difference between a and b equals the sum of the potential drop across each resistor we have
V _{e}_{q}
=
IR
1
+
IR
2
=
I
(
R
1
+
R
2
)
28.3
where V _{e}_{q} is the potential drop across the equivalent resistor. Therefore we conclude that
R R
_{e}_{q}
=
1
+
R
2
28.4
The equivalent resistor of more than two resistors connected in series is then
Now consider the two resistors connected as shown in the Figure. The potential drops across R _{1} and R _{2} are equal and must equal to the potential drop across any equivalent resistor connected between a and b, that is
V V
_{e}_{q}
=
1
=
V
2
28.6
R 1
b
If I _{1} and I _{2} are the currents passing through R _{1} and R _{2} , respectively, then the net current of the circuit is
I = I
1
+ I
2
28.7
Using Ohm’s law and Equation 28.6, we get
1 1
1
=
+
R
eq
R
1
R
2
28.8
In general if more that two resistors are connected in parallel, then we have
1 
1 
1 
1 

= 
+ 
+ 

R 
eq 
R 
1 
R 
2 
R 
3 
+L
28.9
Example 28.4 Four resistors are connected as shown in. (a) What is the equivalent resistance between points a & c.? (b) What is the current in each resistor if a potential difference of 42 V is maintained between a & c.?
Solution: (a) The circuit can be reduced, step by step, to a single equivalent resistance as shown in the Figure. The 8.0W and the 4.0W are connected in series , and so they can be replaced by an equivalent resistor of 12 W. The 6.0W and the 3.0W are connected in parallel , and so they can be replaced by an equivalent resistor of 2.0 W. The equivalents are connected in series. The equivalent resistance of the circuit is then
R eq
= 12 + 2.0 = 14 W
(b) Since the 12W and the 2.0W are connected in series, they have the same current I _{e}_{q} , which must equal to the current of the 14W resistor. Using Ohm’s law we get
I
eq
=
R
eq
48
=
_{R}
eq
14
= 3.0A
Now the potential difference across the 2.0W is
V
bc
= I
eq
R = 3.0(2.0) = 6.0V
This potential difference is the same across the 6.0W and the 3.0W resistors due the parallel connection between them. So, we can find the current I passing through the 3.0W resistor as
I =
6.0
3.0
= 2.0A
and the current I through the 6.0W resistor as
I
6.0
=
6.0
= 1.0A
The current passing through the 4.0W and the 8.0W is the same as that passing through the 12W (3.0 A) due the series connection between them.
Example 28.5 
What is equivalent resistance between a and b in the Figure 
shown? 
a
d
5 W
0.5 W
Solution There are no series or parallel connections in the system given. Now consider a current entering the junction a. Because of the symmetry in the circuit, the current in branches ac & ad must be equal, and hence the points c & d have the same potential (V _{c}_{d} = 0), that is the circuit can be reduced as in the figure.
Example 28.6 Three resistors are connected in parallel as shown. A
potential difference of 18 V is applied across points a and b.
a) Find the current in each resistor.
b) Calculate the power delivered to each resistor and the total power delivered to the combination.
Solution: a) Since the resistors are connected in parallel, the potential difference across each one is the same and equal to 18 V. Now
V 1
18
=
R
1 3
V 2
18
=
R
2 6
V 3
18
=
R
3 9
=
I _{1} =
I _{2}
I _{3} =
= 6A
= 3A
= 2A
I
b) For the power delivered to each resistor we apply
2
1
1
2
2
2
3
I
R
R
2
eq
2
3
R
_{e}_{q} =
P
1
(6) (3)
2
=
(3) (6)
(2) (9)
2
2
=
=
=
2
+
P
2
+
3
P
1
P
2
P
3
= I
= I
= I
=
P
R =
=
=
eq
108 W
54 W
36 W
(11) (1.64)
P
P
eq
Note that
= 198 W
28.3 KIRCHHOFF’S RULES
I The sum of the currents entering any junction must equal the sum of the currents leaving that junction. (A junction is any point in a circuit where a current can split)
II The algebraic sum of the potential differences across all the elements around any loop must be zero.
The first rule is an application of the conservation of charge principle, while the second rule is an application of the conservation of energy principle.
To apply the second rule we should know the following two remarks:
1 The change in potential through any resistor is negative for a move in the direction of the current and positive for a move opposite to the direction of the current. This is because the current through a resistor moves from the end of higher potential to that of lower potential. 2 The change in potential through an ideal battery is positive for a move from the negative to the positive terminal of the battery and negative for a move in the opposite direction.
Strategy for solving problems using Kirchhoff’s rules:
1 Draw a circuit diagram and label all quantities, known and unknown. 2 Assign a direction for the current in each part of the circuit. Do not bother if your guess of current direction is incorrect; the result will have a negative value. 3 Apply the first Kirchhoff’s rule to any junction in the circuit. In general this rule is used one time fewer than the number of junctions in the circuit. 4 Choose any closed loop in the network, and designate a direction (clockwise or counterclockwise) to traverse the loop. 5 Starting from one point in the loop, go around the loop in the designated direction. Sum the potential differences across all the elements of the chosen loop to zero. In doing so you should note the two remarks discussed above, that is, the potential difference across an emf is +e if it is traversed from the negative to the positive terminal and e if traversed in the opposite direction. The potential
difference across any resistor is IR if this resistor is traversed in the direction of the assumed current and +IR if traversed in the opposite direction. 6 Choose another loop and repeat the fifth step to get a different equation relating the unknown quantities. Continue until you have as many equations as unknowns. 7 Solve these equations simultaneously for the unknowns.
Example 28.8 In the circuit shown, find the current in the circuit and the power delivered to each resistor and the power delivered by the 12V battery.
R _{2} = 10 W
e _{1} =6V
R _{1} = 8 W
Solution
Figure. As it clear from the circuit there is one loop with no junctions. Now, we apply Kirchhoff’s second rule to the loop and traverse the loop in the clockwise direction, obtaining
The directions of the currents are assigned arbitrary as shown in the
ε
1
 IR
1
 ε
2
 IR
2
= 0
6  8I 12 10I = 0
ﬁ
I = 
6 
 
12 
= 
 
6 
= 
0.33A 
8 
+ 
10 
18 
The minus sign indicates that the direction of I is opposite the assumed direction.
To find the power delivered to each resistor, we use
P 1 = I R = 0.87 W
P
2
1
2
= I
2
R = 1.1 W
2
And for the power delivered by the battery we have
P = Ie
2
0.33
=
¥
12
=
4 W
Note that
That is half of the power supplied by the 12Vbattery is delivered to the resistors and the other half is delivered to the 6Vbattery
P
1
+ P
2
=
0.87
+
1.1
=
2 W
Example 12.4
each resistor in the figure shown. b) Calculate the potential difference
a)
Find
the
current
V
b
V .
a
in
Solution a) If we apply Kirchhoff’s first rule to the junction b we get
I
1
+ I
2
= I
3
(1)
Now applying Kirchhoff’s second rule to the upper loop traversing it clockwise we get

14 6
+
I
1

10

4
I
2
=
0
a
14V
(2)
For the bottom loop traversing it in the clockwise direction gives
10 
 6 I  
2 
I 
= 
0 
(3) 

1 3 Substituting for I _{3} from Eq. (1) into Eq.(3) ﬁ 

10 
 2( 6 I 1  I 
1 
+ I 
2 ) 
= 
0 
ﬁ 

10 
 2 8 I  
I 
= 
0 
(4) 

1 2 Dividing Eq.(2) by 2 ﬁ 

 
12 + 3 I 1 
 
2 
I 
2 
= 0 
(5) 

Subtracting Eqs. (4) & (5) 
ﬁ 

22 
 11 I 1 
= 
0 
ﬁ 

or 
I 
1 
= 2.0A 
From Eq. (4) we get
or
I
2 = 
3.0A
and from Eq. (1) we get
or
I
3 = 
1.0A
The minus sign indicates that I _{2} & I _{3} should be reversed
b) Starting at point a, we follow a path toward point b, adding potential differences across all the elements we encounter. If we follow the path through the middle battery we obtain
V
b
V
a
=
10

6
I
1
=
10

6
¥
2
= 
2V
The minus sign here means that V _{a} > V _{b} . Try to follow another paths from a to b to verify that they also give the same result.
The RC CIRCUITS
Charging Process
The figure shows a capacitor, initially uncharged, connected in series with a resistor. If the switch S is thrown at point 1
at t =0 , the capacitor will begin to
charge, creating a current in the circuit. Let I be the current in the circuit at some instant during the charging process, and q be the charge on the capacitor at the same instant. Applying Kirchhoff’s second rule to the circuit, we obtain
e

IR

q
C
= 0
28.10
Substituting for I with I = dq dt , in Equation 28.10, and rearranging we obtain
dq
dt
_{=}
e
C

q
RC
28.11
Noting that the charge on the capacitor is initially zero, i.e., _{q} _{=} 0 at _{t} _{=} 0 , we can integrate both sides of Equation 28.11 as
q 
dq 
t 
dt 

Ú 
0 
e C 
 
q = Ú 0 
RC 

Ê ln Á e C  ˆ ^{q} _{˜} =  t 

Ë 
e 
C 
¯ 
RC 

Ê 
t ˆ 

= Á eC 1 Á  
 
˜ RC 
28.12 

q 
e 
˜ 

Ë 
¯ 
where e is the base of the natural logarithm. To find the current as a function of time, we differentiate Equation 28.12 with respect to time to get
I
= ^{e}
R

e
t
RC
28.13
The quantity RC is called the time constant, t, which defined as the time required for the current to decrease to 1 e of its initial value. Equations 28.12 and 28.13, which are plotted in the following Figure, tell the following:
1 At t = 0 , the charge q is zero, as required, and the initial current I _{o} is
Q
m
q
(a)
t
I
o
I
(b)
t
Figure 12.8 (a) The charge versus time in a charging process for RC circuit. (b) The current versus time in a charging process for the same RC circuit.
I
e
=
o R
28.14
that is, the capacitor acts as if it were a wire with negligible resistance (short circuit).
2 As _{t} _{Æ} _{•} (after a long time), the charge has its maximum equilibrium value, Q _{m}
Q
_{m} = e
C
28.15
and the current is zero, that is the capacitor acts as it were an open switch (open circuit).
Discharging Process
Suppose that the capacitor is now fully charged such that its potential difference is
equal to the emf e. If the switch is thrown to point 2 at a new time _{t} _{=} _{0} , the
capacitor begin to discharge through the resistor. Let I be the current in the circuit at some instant during this process, and q be the charge on the capacitor at the same instant. Applying Kirchhoff’s rule to the loop, we get
q
C
 IR = 0
28.16
Substituting for I with I =  dq dt (explain the negative sign), and rearrange we obtain
dq
q
= 
1
RC
dt
28.17
Using the initial condition,
obtain
q
=
Q
m
at t = 0
we can integrate the last equation to
q 
1 t 

Ú 
=  
Ú 0 
dt 

Q max 
RC 

ln 
q dq q =  
1 t 

Q m 
RC 

q 
= Q 
m 
 t e 
RC 
28.18 
The current is the rate of decrease of the charge on the capacitor, that is
I 
=  
dq dt 
= 
I 
o 
e 
 t 
RC 
28.19 

where 

I _{o} = 
Q 
28.20 

RC 
Example 28.12 A 8×10 ^{5} kW resistor and a 5mF capacitor are connected, in series, with a 12V battery as shown. The capacitor is initially uncharged, and the switch S is closed at t=0.
a) Find the time constant of the circuit, and the
maximum charge on the capacitor.
b) What is the time required for the current to
drop to half its initial value?
c) After being closed for a long time, the switch
is now opened at t=0, what is the time required for the charge and for the energy to decrease to onefourth their maximum value.
Solution a)
t
=
RC
The time constant is
=
(8.0
¥
10 )(5.0
5
¥
10

6
)
=
4.0s
The maximum charge is,
Q
m
= e
C =
(12)(5.0 10
¥

6
)
=
60
m
C
And the maximum current is
^{I} o
e
=
12
R
8
¥
10
=
5 ^{=} 15 m A
b) Now we have

I
=
I
o
e
t
RC
To find the time required for the current to drop to half its value, we substitute
I =
1 2 I
o into this equation:
1
2
I
o
=
I
o
e

t
RC
Taking the logarithm of both sides, we have
or
ln
1
2
=

t
RC
t =  RC
(ln
1
2
)
= 2.8s
c) In the discharging process, the charge varies with time according to
q
=
Q
m
e ^{}
t
Substituting for
RC
q
=
1
4
Q
m , and taking the logarithm of both sides we get
or
ln
1
4
=

t
RC
t
=  RC
ln
1
4
=
5.5 s
For the energy we have
U =
q
2
2
C
=
Substituting for
Q
2
e

2 C
U
=
2
1
4
t
RC
=
U
m
e

2 t RC
U
m
, and taking the logarithm of both sides we get
or
ln ^{1} _{4} = 
2t
RC
t = 
RC
2
ln
1
4
=
2.8 s
Example (Extra) In the circuit
shown, the capacitor is initially empty and the switch S is closed at t=0.
a) Find the current in each branch
of the circuit at t=0.
b) Calculate the maximum charge
on the capacitor.
32V
Solution a) At t=0, the capacitor is treated as if it were a wire with negligible resistance. This means that the capacitor makes a short circuit across the 4W resistor. Therefore, we have
I
2
=
0
and
I
1
= I
3
=
32
6.0
=
5.3A
b) The maximum charge is attained after a long time ( _{t} _{Æ} _{•} ). At this time the
capacitor is treated as if it were an open switch. So,
I
3
=
0
and
I
1
= I
2
=
32 3.2A
=
(6.0
+
4.0)
.
To calculate the charge on the capacitor, we first want to find the potential difference across it. Applying Kirchhoff’s second rule to right loop we find that the potential difference V across the capacitor is
V = I
2
R
2
=
(3.2)(4.0)
=
12 V
Now the maximum charge is
Q
=
CV
=
(
12
¥
10

6
)(
12.8
)
=
1.5
¥
10

4
mC
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