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Introduction To Training & Development

Training is process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is the application


of knowledge. It gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their
behaviors. It attempts to improve their performance on the current job and prepares them
for an intended job.
Need for training :
Specifically, the need for training arises due to the following reasons: To match the
employee specifications with the Job requirements and organizational Needs:
Management finds deviations between employees present specifications and the job
requirements and organizational needs. Training is needed to fill these gaps by
developing and molding the employee skills, knowledge, attitude, behavior, etc to the
tune of the job requirements and organizational needs as felt Glaxo India, ICICI
Organizational Viability and the Transformation Process: The primary goal of most of the
organizations is that their viability is continuously influenced by environmental pressure.
If the organization desires to adapt to these changes, first it has to train the employees to
impart specific skills and knowledge in order to enable them to contribute to
organizational efficiency and to cope with training in order to ensure a smooth
transformation process.
Technological Advance: Every organization to survive and to be effective should adopt
the latest technology i.e. mechanization, computerization and automation. So, the
organization should train the employees train the employees to enrich them in the areas
of changing technical skills and knowledge from time to time.
Organizational Complexity: With the emergence of increased mechanization and
automation, manufacturing of multiple products and by-products or dealing in services of
diversified lines, extension of operations to various regions of the country or in overseas
countries, organization of most of the companies has become complex: This creates the
complex problems of co-ordination and integration of activities adaptable for and
adaptable to the expanding and diversifying situations. This situation calls for training in
the skills of co-ordination, integration and adaptability to the requirements of growth,
diversification and expansion.

Human relations: Trends in approach towards personnel management has changed from
the commodity approach to partnership approach, crossing the human relations besides
maintaining sound industrial relations although hitherto the managers are not accustomed
to deal with the workers accordingly. Training in human relations is necessary to deal
with human problems.
Change in the job assignment: Training is also necessary when the existing employee is
promoted to the higher level in the organization and when there is some new job or
occupation due to transfer. Training is also necessary to equip employees with advanced
displaces, techniques or technology. Training also becomes essential when an
organization has plans for modernization.
The need for training also arises to:

Increased Productivity.

Improved quality of the product/service.

Help a company to fulfill its future personnel needs.

Improved organizational climate.

Improved health and safety.

Prevent obsolescence.

Effect personal growth.

Minimize the resistance to change and

To act as mentor.

Training objectives
The personnel manager formulates the following training objectives in keeping with the
companys goals and objectives:
To prepare the employees, both new and old to meet the present as well as the
changing requirement6s of the job and the organization.
To prevent obsolescence.
To impart the new entrants the basic knowledge and skills they need for an
intelligent performance of a definite job.
To prepare employees for higher-level tasks.

To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by


exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing
the skills they will need in their particular fields.
To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them top occupy
more responsible positions.
To broaden the minds of senior managers by providing them with opportunities
for an interchange of experiences within and outside with a view to correcting the
narrown3ess of outlook that may arise from over-specialization.
To develop the potentialities of people for the next level job.
To ensure smooth and efficient working of a department.
To ensure economical output of required quality.
To promote individual and collective morale, a sense of responsibility, cooperative attitudes and good relationships

Introduction to HRM
Need for the Study :
Shortage of skills.
Skills and knowledge people are always on short supply. Alternatively they are too costly
to hire from outside. The best alternative is to improve skill and knowledge of existing
employees.
Technological Obsolescence.
Growth of technology takes places very fast. This will render current technology obsolete
in the future. There is a great need to upgrade technology. This needs suitable training.
Personal Obsolescence.
At the time recruitment employees possess certain of knowledge and skill. As time passes
knowledge becomes obsolete, unless it is updated by proper training. This happens
because of changes taking place in product technology, production methods, procurement
of better machines, setting up of modern production lines, introduction of modern method
of supervision and information processing through MIS and EDO..
Organization Obsolescence.

Modern management has introduced a number of innovative steps in functions of


management like planning, organizing, controlling, coordinating and directing.
Organization which is impervious to such changes is bound to fail and become obsolete.
Upgrading Ability of Threshold workers.
Public policy provides reservation to disadvantaged sections of the society like
handicapped, minorities and dependents of deceased workers etc. All these are threshold
workers having less than minimum prescribed level of knowledge and skill. They require
extensive training to bring them up to the minimum level of performance standard.
Coercive training by government.
In order to provide better employability chances of unemployed youth, certain
governments taken initiative to mobilize resources available at pubic/government and
private sectors to outside candidates. One such example is the Apprentice Training
conducted by govt. of India. A part of expenditure incurred for this by private sectors are
reimbursed by government.
Human capital
The latest thinking is to treat employees as human capital. The expenditure involved is
training and developments are now being considered as an investment.
Environmental Influences on HRM: Since 1930s, certain developments took place,
which greatly contributed, to the evolution and growth of Human Resources Management
(HRM). These developments are given below:
Scientific Management
Labour Movements
Government Regulations.
Evolution of HRM
Personnel functions: Till 1930s, it was not felt necessary to have a separate discipline
of management called Personnel management. In fact, this job was assigned as part of
the factory manager. Adam Smiths concept of factory was that it consists of three
resources, land, labour and capital. This factory manager is expected to procure,
Process and peddle labour as one of the resources. The first time when such a specialist
person was used; it was to maintain a buffer between employer and employee to
meet the legitimate need of employees. However, it is the employer who decided what

is legitimate need of employees. In fact, the specialist person was more needed to
prevent unionization of employees. This was the case before 1930-s all over the world.
Earlier references: In western countries HRM had its primitive beginning in 1930s. Not
much thought was given on this subject in particular and no written records or documents
interesting to note HRM concepts was available, in ancient philosophies of Greek, Indian
and Chinese. This is not to suggest that industrial establishment and factories system, as it
is known today, existed in ancient Greece, India or china. The philosophy of managing.

BACKGROUND SCENARIO TRAINING:William


James of Harvard University estimated that employees could retain their jobs by working
at a mere 20-30 percent of their potential. His research led him to believe that if these
same employees were properly motivated, they could work at 80-90% of their
capabilities. Behavioral science concepts like motivation and enhanced productivity
could well be used for such improvements in employee output. Training could be one of
the means used to achieve such improvements through the effective and efficient use of
learning resources.
Training and development has been considered an integral part of any organization since
the industrial revolution era. From training imparted to improve mass production to now
training employees on soft skills and attitudinal change, training industry has come a long
way today. In fact most training companies are expecting the market to double by the
year 2007, which just means that the Indian training industry seems to have come of age.
Organization and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for the their
survival and attainment of mutual goals. So, every modern management has to develop
the organization through human resource development. Employee training is the most
important sub-system of human resources development. Training is a specialized function
and one of the fundamental operative functions for human resources management.
The market is unofficially estimated to be anywhere between Rs 3000 crores and Rs
6000 crores. What is surprising is that the Indian companies. Perception regarding
corporate training seems to have undergone a sea-change in the past two years, with most
companies realizing it to be an integral part of enhancing productivity of its personnel.
While MNC.s with their global standards of training are the harbingers of corporate

training culture in India, the bug seems to have bitten most companies aiming at
increasing their efficiency.
According to Ms Pallavi Jha, Managing Director, Walchand Capital and Dale Carnegi
Training India, "The Indian training industry is estimated at approximately Rs 3,000
crores per annum. The NFO study states that over a third of this is in the area of behavior
and soft skills development. With the exponential boom in the services sector and the
emergence of a full-fledged consumer-driven market, human resources have become the
key assets, which organizations cannot ignore. With soft skills training gaining so much
momentum, it.s imperative to understand if it serving the right purpose or not. With this
background, I plan to research if training indeed is proving to be effective in the
behavioral area.
The following steps must form the basis of any training activity:
Determine the training needs and objectives.
Translate them into programs that meet the needs of the selected trainees.
Evaluate the results.
There are few generalizations about training that can help the practitioner. Training
should be seen as a long term investment in human resources using the equation given
below:
Performance = ability (x) motivation
Training can have an impact on both these factors. It can heighten the skills and abilities
of the employees and their motivation by increasing their sense of commitment and
encouraging them to develop and use new skills. It is a powerful tool that can have a
major impact on both employee productivity and morale, if properly used.
Scope of Human Resource Management
The Scope of HRM is in deed fast. All major activities in the working life of
worker from time of his entry in an organization until he / she leaves, come under the
preview of HRM. Specifically, the activities included are Human Resource planning, Job
analysis and design, Recruitment, Selection, Orientation and placement, Training and
development, Performance appraisal and Job evaluation, employee and executive
remuneration and communication, employee welfare, safety and health, industrial
relations and the like.

HRM is becoming a specialized branch giving rise to a number of specialized areas like :
Staffing
Welfare and Safety
Wages and Salary Administration
Training and Development
Labour Relations
Objectives of the HRM are to secure the following: 1. Industrial peace: This is secured by excellent union management relations, healthy
inter-personal relationships, and promoting participative management style and good
industrial and labour relations.
2. Achieve High Productivity: The underlying objective brings to increase the quantity
or volume of the product or service for a given input, productivity improvement
programme is very significant in a competitive environment.
3. Better quality of working life of employees: This involves both intrinsic and extrinsic
factors connected with work.
4. Obtain and sustain competitive advantage through empowerment : continuous
improvement and innovative steps being the two essential ingredients to achieve and
sustain competitive advantage, todays industries
are knowledge based and skill intensive.
5. Cordial relationship between the employer and employees.
6. Personnel research functions.
7. Proper orientation and introduction to the new employees.
What is Training?
Training is the act of increasing the knowledge of an employee for doing a particular
job.

-Edwin B Flippo

Training is process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is the application


of knowledge. It gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their
behaviors. It attempts to improve their performance on the current job and prepares them
for an intended job.
What is Development?

Development is a related process. It covers not only those activities which improve
job performance but also those which bring about growth of the personality.
Training a person for a bigger and higher job is development, this process includes
not only imparting skills but also certain mental and personality attributes.
Need for training :
Specifically, the need for training arises due to the following reasons: To
match the employee specifications with the Job requirements and
organizational Needs: Management finds deviations between employees
present specifications and the job requirements and organizational needs.
Training is needed to fill these gaps by developing and molding the
employee skills, knowledge, attitude, behavior, etc to the tune of the job
requirements and organizational needs as felt Glaxo India, ICICI
Organizational Viability and the Transformation Process: The primary goal
of most of the organizations is that their viability is continuously
influenced by environmental pressure. If the organization desires to adapt
to these changes, first it has to train the employees to impart specific skills
and knowledge in order to enable them to contribute to organizational
efficiency and to cope with training in order to ensure a smooth
transformation process.
Technological Advance: Every organization to survive and to be effective
should adopt the latest technology i.e. mechanization, computerization and
automation. So, the organization should train the employees train the
employees to enrich them in the areas of changing technical skills and
knowledge from time to time.
Organizational Complexity: With the emergence of increased
mechanization and automation, manufacturing of multiple products and
by-products or dealing in services of diversified lines, extension of
operations to various regions of the country or in overseas countries,
organization of most of the companies has become complex: This creates
the complex problems of co-ordination and integration of activities
adaptable for and adaptable to the expanding and diversifying situations.

This situation calls for training in the skills of co-ordination, integration


and adaptability to the requirements of growth, diversification and
expansion.
Human relations: Trends in approach towards personnel management has
changed from the commodity approach to partnership approach, crossing
the human relations besides maintaining sound industrial relations
although hitherto the managers are not accustomed to deal with the
workers accordingly. Training in human relations is necessary to deal with
human problems.
Change in the job assignment: Training is also necessary when the existing
employee is promoted to the higher level in the organization and when
there is some new job or occupation due to transfer. Training is also
necessary to equip employees with advanced displaces, techniques or
technology. Training also becomes essential when an organization has
plans for modernization.
The need for training also arises to:

Increased Productivity.

Improved quality of the product/service.

Help a company to fulfill its future personnel needs.

Improved organizational climate.

Improved health and safety.

Prevent obsolescence.

Effect personal growth.

Minimize the resistance to change and

To act as mentor.

Classification of Training :There are a number of training methods


available. Use of particular methods depends on the trainees viz., worker, supervisor, and
manager. Basically these methods can be classified into following broad categories:
On the job training

Off the job training


In regard to employees, other than managers (executives following are the methods of
training:
On the job training
1. Apprenticeship training.
2. Job instruction training (JIT).
Off the job training
1. Class room lectures.
2. Conferences/seminars.
3. Group discussions/case study analysis.
4. Audio visual/film shows.
5. Simulation/Computer modeling.
6. Vestibule training.
7. Programmed instructions (PI).
8. Games and Role-playing.
On The Job Training:
Apprenticeship Training:
Skilled worker and apprenticeship training. The duration of the course/training depends
on the nature of trade and desired skill level. Apprenticeship training is normally given to
artisans, electricians, plumbers, bricklayers and the like. The duration normally varies
from 2 to 5 years. This should not mix up with government sponsored Apprenticeship
Training for unemployed youth certain underdeveloped nations like India.
Apprenticeship training is carried out under the guidance and intimate supervision of a
master craftsmans/expert worker/supervisor. During apprenticeship training period, the
trainee is paid less than that of a qualified worker.
Job Instruction Training(JIT):
During Second World War, Allied Forces experienced acute shortage of skilled craftsmen
and able supervisors. Special training programme was initiated on warfootings. Special
training. Training within industry(TWI) was one such programme. JIT was part of TWI.

JIT was intended for developing efficient supervisiors. JIT proved very effective and
extremely popular.
Off The Job Training:
Class Room Lectures:
This is the simplest form of training. This is a best form of instruction when the intention
is to convey information on rules, regulations, policies, and procedures. This form so also
suited on imparting knowledge on theory and concepts. Lecture form has limited success
when the objective is to improve the skill level of trainees. Another advantage is that it
can be used effectively even when numbers of trainees. Another advantage is that it can
be used effectively even when numbers of trainees are more. It also saves time. Major
disadvantage is that it involves passive participants of trainees and depends on ability of
teacher to a great extent.
Conferences, Seminars and Workshops:
This is a formal method of arranging meeting in which in which individuals confer to
discuss points of common interest for enriching their knowledge and skill. This is a group
activity. It encourages group discussion and participation of individuals for seeking
clarifications and offering explanatations and own experiences. It is a planned activity
with a leader/ moderator to guide the proceedings, which is focused on agreed agenda
points prefixed during planning of such conferences. There are 3 variations nearly
Directed conferences, Training conference and seminar/workshops.
Audio/Visual and film shows:
In order to improve understanding, audio-visual aids considered very useful and
sometimes inescapable to demonstrate operation of a machine or explain a process.
Audio visual and film shows can supplement the efforts of lecturing and improve its
effectiveness.
Group Discussions and Case study analysis:
Christopher Langdell initially introduced case study method at Harvard Law School in
1880s. The principle used is experience is the best teacher. Here several empirical
studies are examined in details to find out commonalities to derive general principles.
This method has, however, limited use for workers but better use for supervisiors. In
case of workers , one area of importance in this method is that of quality control .

The case study is based upon the belief that managerial competence can best attained
through the study, contemplation and discussion of concrete cases.
Simulation/Computer Modelling:
Any training activity in which actual working environment is artificially created as near
and realistic as possible, is called simulation training. Case study analysis experimenting
exercises, game playing, computer modeling and vestibule training etc. come under this
category. When using computer-programming method artificially creates work
environment, we call it computer modeling.
Vestibule Training :
In vestibule training, employees are trained on the equipment they are employed, but the
training is conducted away from the place of work. For training a machineshop operator,
a vestibule or separate room is arranged for training in which all necessary equipment and
machines required in an actual machineshop are duplicated.
Programmed instruction:
Programmed instruction is a structured method of instruction aided through texts,
handouts, books, and computer aided instructions(CAI) . In this case the instruction
material and information is broken down in meaningful units and arranged in a proper
sequence to form a logical method of learning package, the learning ability is tested and
evaluated in real time basis.
Retraining:
Technology is advancing at a very rapid pace. Hence obsolescence is a major problem
fixed by individual workers. Second problem faced by the workers are the introduction of
automation. Loyal workers of long service, suddenly find themselves useless to the
company. There are many instances of protests and fear by many workers in various
fields like railways, posts and telegraphs, LIC, Banking etc..
Phases of training:
The various steps involved in the design and development of training programme
particularly for the employees are:
1) Identification of training needs of employees
2) Planning of training programme
3) Preparation of trainees

4) Implementation
5) Evaluation
The last stage in the training programme process is the evaluation of results this is the
main part to know the effectiveness/determines the results of the training programme.
Benefits of training
How Training Benefits the Organization :
Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes toward profits
orientation
Improve the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization
Improve the morale of the workforce
Helps people identify with organizational goals
Helps create a better corporate image
Fosters authenticity, openness and trust
Improves the relationship between boss and subordinate
Aids in organizational development
Learns from the trainee
Helps prepares in guidelines for work
Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies
Provides information for future needs and all areas of the organization
Improves labor management relations
Helps prepare guidelines for work
Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving skills
Aids in development for promotion from within
Aids in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes and
others aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.
Helps keep costs in many areas, e.g. production, personnel distribution etc
Develops a sense of responsibility t the organization for being competent and
knowledgeable.
Benefits to the individual which in turn ultimately should benefit the organization:
Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving.

Through training and development, motivational variables of recognition,


achievement, growth, responsibility and advancement are internalized and
operationalised.
Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence.
Provides information for improving leadership, knowledge, communication skills
and attitudes.
Increases job satisfaction and recognition.
Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills.
Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future
Develops sense of growth in learning.
Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills: also writing skills when
exercises are required.
Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks.
Benefits in personnel and Human Relations, Intragroup and intergroup relations
and policy implementations:
Improves communication between groups and individuals.
Aids in orientation for new employees and those taking new jobs through transfer
or promotion.
IMPEDIMENTS TO EFFECTIVE TRAINING :
There are impediments which can make a training programme ineffective:
Management commitment is lacking and uneven: Most companies do not spend
money on training. Those that do tend to concentrate on managers, technicians
and professionals. The rank and file workers are ignored. This must change for as
a result of rapid technological change, combined with new approaches to
organizational design and production management, workers are required to learn
three types of new skills:
(I)the ability to use technology.
(ii) the ability to maintain it.
(iii) the ability to diagnose system problems.
In an increasingly competitive environment, the ability to implement

rapid changes in product and technologies is often essential for economic


viability.
Aggregate spending on training is inadequate: companies spend misuscule of
their revenues on training. Worse still, budget allocation to training is the first
item to be cut when a company faces financial crunch.
Educational institutions award degrees but graduates lack skills: This is the
reason why business must spend vast sums of money to train workers in basic
skills. Organizations also need to train employees in multiple skills. Managers,
particularly at the middle level, need to be retrained in team-playing skills,
entrepreneurship skills, leadership skills and customer oriented skills.
Large scale poaching of trained workers: Trained workforce is in great demand.
Unlike Germany, where local business groups pressure companies not to poach
companys employees there is no such system in our country. Companies in our
country, however insist on employees to sign bongs of tenure before sending
them for training, particularly before deputing them to undergo training in foreign
countries. Such bonds are not effective as the employees or the poachers are to
pay the stipulated amounts as compensation when the bounds are breached.
No help to workers displaced because of downsizing: Organizations are
downsizing and de-layering in order to trim their workforces. The govt should set
apart certain fund from the national renewal fund for the purpose of retraining and
rehabilitating displaced workers.
Employers and B schools must develop closer ties: B schools are often seen as
not responding to labour-market demands. Business is seen as not communicating
its demand in B schools. This must change.
Organised labour can help: organized labour can play a positive role in imparting
trainng to workers. Major trade unions in our country seem to be busy in attending to
mundane issues such as bonus, wages, settlement of disputes and the like. They have little
time in imparting training to their members