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MinistryofFoodandDisasterManagement

DisasterManagementandReliefDivision
ComprehensiveDisasterManagementProgramme

Think Spatially

ArcGIS Advance

ArcGISAdvance

CoverImage:
A segment of Dhaka City
showingplanned(Gulshan)and
unplanned
(Badda)
area
capturedfromGoogleEarth.

CoverDesign:
Md. Shahidul Islam with the
help of MS Office Cover Page
Template

LayoutDesign:
Md.ShahidulIslam

Contribution:
Md.KhyerAli

ManualDevelopment:
Md.ShahidulIslam

Version1.0

October2011

ComprehensiveDisasterManagementProgramme(CDMPII),DMRD,MoFDM

ArcGISAdvance

TableofContents

ModuleI:ArcGISBasicRevisit....................................................................................................................................4
ModuleII:CreatingNewFeatures..............................................................................................................................27
ModuleIII:Editing.......................................................................................................................................................45
ModuleIV:Geoprocessing..........................................................................................................................................65
ModuleV:Metadata...................................................................................................................................................85
ModuleVI:DistributedGIS.........................................................................................................................................93
ModuleVII:NetworkAnalysis.....................................................................................................................................97
ModuleVIII:Geodatabase.........................................................................................................................................133
ModuleIX:SpatialAnalysis.......................................................................................................................................136

ComprehensiveDisasterManagementProgramme(CDMPII),DMRD,MoFDM

ArcGISAdvance

ModuleI

ArcGISBasicRevisit

Inthismodule:
Symbology
Labeling
Table
Layout
Georeferencing
PrimarydatacapturingfromRSdatasets

ComprehensiveDisasterManagementProgramme(CDMPII),DMRD,MoFDM

ArcGISAdvance

Identifyingfeaturesbypointingatthem

1.ClicktheIdentifybuttonontheTools
toolbar.
2.Clickthemousepointeroverthemap
featureyouwanttoidentify.

Thefeaturesinallvisiblelayersunderthe
pointerwillbeidentified.

Viewingalayersattributetable

1.Inthetableofcontents,rightclickthelayer
forwhichyouwanttodisplaytheattribute
table.
2.ClickOpenAttributeTable.

ComprehensiveDisasterManagementProgramme(CDMPII),DMRD,MoFDM

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1.Inthetableofcontents,rightclickthelayer
andclickProperties.
2.ClicktheDefinitionQuerytab.
3.TypeanexpressionorclickQueryBuilder.

TheQueryBuilderletsyoucreatean
expressiontoidentifytheparticularfeatures
inthelayeryouwanttodisplay.For
example,youmightchoosetodisplayonly
thosecitieswithapopulationgreaterthan
1,000,000.

4.ClickOK.

DisplayingaSubsetoftheFeatures

Displayingdatawithapredefinedcoordinatesystem

1.Rightclickthedataframethatyouwantto
setthecoordinatesystemofandclick
Properties.
2.ClicktheCoordinateSystemtab.
3.DoubleclickPredefined.
4.Navigatethroughthefoldersuntilyoufind
thecoordinatesystemyouwantandclickit.
5.ClickOK.

Alllayersinthedataframewillnowbe
displayedwiththatcoordinatesystem.

ComprehensiveDisasterManagementProgramme(CDMPII),DMRD,MoFDM

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Repairingbrokendatasourcelinks

1.Locatethelayerwiththebrokenlinkinthe
tableofcontents.Itwillhaveared
exclamationmarknexttoit.
2.Rightclickthelayer,pointtoData,andclick
RepairDataSource.
3.ClicktheLookindropdownarrowand
navigatetothelocationofthedatasource.
4.Clickthedatasource.
5.ClicktheAddbutton.Thelinktothedata
sourceisnowupdated.

Drawingalayershowinguniquevalues

1.Inthetableofcontents,rightclickthelayer
youwanttodrawshowinguniquevaluesand
clickProperties.
2.ClicktheSymbologytab.
3.ClickCategories.
ArcMapautomaticallyselectstheUnique
valuesoption.
4.ClicktheValueFielddropdownarrowand
clickthefieldthatcontainsthevaluesyou
wanttomap.
5.ClicktheColorSchemedropdownarrowand
clickacolorscheme.
6.ClickAddAllValues.
Thisaddsalluniquevaluestothelist.
Alternatively,clicktheAddValuesbuttonto

ComprehensiveDisasterManagementProgramme(CDMPII),DMRD,MoFDM

ArcGISAdvance

choosewhichuniquevaluestodisplay.
7.Ifyouwanttoeditthedefaultlabelsomore
descriptivelabelsappearinyourlegendand
thetableofcontents,clickalabelinthe
Labelcolumnandtypethelabelyouwant.
8.ClickOK.

Symbolizingdatawithgraduatedcolors

1.Inthetableofcontents,rightclickthelayer
youwanttodrawshowingaquantitative
valueandclickProperties.
2.ClicktheSymbologytab.
3.ClickQuantities.
ArcMapautomaticallyselectsGraduated
colors.
4.ClicktheValuedropdownarrowandclickthe
fieldthatcontainsthequantitativevalueyou
wanttomap.
5.Tonormalizethedata,clickthe
Normalizationdropdownarrowandclicka
field.
ArcMapdividesthisfieldintotheValueto
createaratio.
6.ClickClassify.
7.ClicktheMethoddropdownarrowandclick
theclassificationmethodyouwant.
8.ClicktheClassesdropdownarrowandclick
thenumberofclassesyouwanttodisplay.
9.ClickOKontheClassificationdialogbox.
10.ClicktheColorRampdropdownarrowand
clickaramptodisplaythedatawith.
11.ClickOKontheLayerPropertiesdialogbox.

ComprehensiveDisasterManagementProgramme(CDMPII),DMRD,MoFDM

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Representingquantitywithgraduatedsymbols

1.Inthetableofcontents,rightclickthelayer

youwanttodrawshowingaquantitative
valueandclickProperties.
2.ClicktheSymbologytab.
3.ClickQuantitiesandclickGraduatedsymbols.
4.ClicktheValuedropdownarrowandclickthe
fieldthatcontainsthequantitativevalueyou
wanttomap.
5.Tonormalizethedata,clickthe
Normalizationdropdownarrowandclicka
field.ArcMapdividesthisfieldintotheValue
tocreatearatio.
6.Typetheminimumandmaximumsymbol
sizes.
7.ClickClassify.
8.ClicktheMethoddropdownarrowandclick
theclassificationmethodyouwant.
9.ClicktheClassesdropdownarrowandclick
thenumberofclassesyouwant.
10.Optionally,clickExclusiontoremove
unwantedvaluesfromtheclassification(for
example,nullvaluesorextremeoutliers).
11.ClickOKontheClassificationdialogbox.
12.ClickOKontheLayerPropertiesdialogbox.

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Labelingbasedonasingleattributefield

1.OpentheLabelManager.
2.ClickalabelclassintheLabelClasseslist.
3.ClicktheLabelFielddropdownarrowand
clickthefieldyouwanttouseasalabel.
4.ClickOK.

Labelingbasedonmultipleattributefields

1.OpentheLabelManager.
2.ClickalabelclassinLabelClasseslist.
3.ClickExpression.
4.ClickalabelfieldandclickAppendtousethe
textofthatfieldinyourlabels.
5.Optionally,usetheExpressionboxtoadd
additionalcharactersyouwanttoappearin
yourlabelsoraddVBScriptorJScript
functionstoformatyourlabels.
6.ClickVerifytomakesurethatthereareno
syntaxerrorsandtopreviewyourlabel
string.ClosetheLabelExpression
Verificationdialogbox.
7.ClickOK.
8.ClickOK.

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Openingalayersattributetable

1.Inthetableofcontents,rightclickthelayer
forwhichyouwanttodisplayatable.
2.ClickOpenAttributeTable.Thelayers
attributetableopens.

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Movingtoaspecificrecordnumber

1.Openthetable.
2.Typethenumberoftherecordyouwantto
movetoandpressEnter.
Thetablescrollstotherecord

Viewingalloronlytheselectedrecords

1.Openthetable.
2.ClickShowAlltoviewallrecordsorclick
ShowSelectedtoviewonlytheselected
ones.

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Selectingrecordsbyattributes

1.ClickOptionsinthetableyouwanttoquery
andclickSelectByAttributes.
2.ClicktheMethoddropdownarrowandclick
theselectionprocedureyouwanttouse.
3.Doubleclickthefieldfromwhichyouwant
toselect.
4.Clickthelogicaloperatoryouwanttouse.
5.ClicktheGetUniqueValuesbutton,then
scrolltoanddoubleclickthevalueinthe
UniqueValueslistyouwanttoselect.
Alternatively,youcantypeavaluedirectly
intothetextbox.
6.ClickVerifytoverifyyourselection.
7.ClickClose.
Yourselectionishighlightedinthetable.
UseApplyifyouintendtorunmorethan
onequeryorifyouwanttocheckyour
resultsbeforeclosingtheSelectBy
Attributesdialogbox.

Selectingallrecords

1.ClickOptionsinthetableandclickSelectAll.

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Clearingtheselectedset

1.ClickOptionsinthetableandclickClear
Selection.

Switchingtheselectedset

1.ClickOptionsinthetableandclickSwitch
Selection.

Addingatablewithx,ycoordinates

1.ClickToolsontheMainmenuandclickAdd
XYData.
2.Clickthetabledropdownarrowandclicka
tablethatcontainsx,ycoordinatedata.If
thetableisnotonthemap,clickthe
Browsebuttontoaccessitfromdisk.
3.ClicktheXFielddropdownarrowandclick
thefieldcontainingxcoordinatevalues.
4.ClicktheYFielddropdownarrowandclick
thefieldcontainingycoordinatevalues.
5.ClickEdittodefinethecoordinatesystem
andunitsrepresentedinthexandyfields.
Thex,ycoordinateswillbeautomatically
transformedtomatchthecoordinate
systemofthedataframe.
6.ClickOK.

Addingafieldtoatable

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1.ClickOptionsinthetableyouwanttoadda
fieldto.
2.ClickAddField.
3.Typeanameforthefield.
4.ClicktheTypedropdownarrowandclickthe
fieldtype.
5.Setanyotherfieldproperties,suchasafield
alias,asnecessary.
6.ClickOK.

Deletingafieldfromatable

1.Inthetablewindow,rightclickoverthefield
headerofthefieldyouwanttodelete.
2.ClickDeleteField.
3.ClickYestoconfirmthedeletion.

Deletingafieldcannotbeundone.

Makingsimplefieldcalculations

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1.Ifyouhaventstartedaneditsession,click

theEditormenuontheEditortoolbarand
clickStartEditing.

Youcanmakecalculationswithoutbeingin
aneditsession;however,inthatcase,there
isnowaytoundotheresults.

2.Openthetableyouwanttoedit.
3.Selecttherecordsyouwanttoupdate.Ifyou
dontselectany,thecalculationwillbe
appliedtoallrecords.
4.Rightclickthefieldheadingforwhichyou
wanttomakeacalculationandclick
CalculateValues.
5.UsetheFieldslistandFunctionstobuilda
calculationexpression.Youcanalsoeditthe
expressioninthetextareabelow.
Alternatively,youcanjusttypeinavalueto
setthefieldto.Inthisexample,thestring
SingleFamilyisused.

NOTE:Usedoublequoteswhencalculating
strings.

6.ClickOK.
7.Dontforgettoendyoureditsession.Click
theEditormenuandclickStopEditing.

Joiningtheattributesinonetabletoanother

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1.Rightclickthelayerortableyouwantto
join,pointtoJoinsandRelates,andclickJoin.
2.ClickthefirstdropdownarrowandclickJoin
attributesfromatable.
3.Clicktheseconddropdownarrowandclick
thefieldnameinthelayerthatthejoinwill
bebasedon.
4.Clickthethirddropdownarrowtochoose
thetabletojointothelayer.Ifthetableis
notcurrentlypartofthemap,clickthe
Browsebuttontosearchforitondisk.
5.Clickthefourthdropdownarrowandclick
thefieldinthetabletobasethejoinon.
6.ClickOK.

Theattributesofthetableareappendedto
thelayersattributetable

Removingajoinedtable

1.Rightclickthelayercontainingajoinyou

wanttoremoveandpointtoJoinsand
Relates.
2.PointtoRemoveJoin(s)andclickthejoinyou
wanttoremove

Switchingtolayoutview

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1.ClickViewandclickLayoutView.
OR
ClicktheLayoutViewbuttononthebottom
leftcornerofthemapdisplayarea.

Settingthepageorientation

1.OnthePageandPrintSetupdialogbox,click
aPaperorPageOrientation(Landscapeor
Portrait)tosetthepageorientation.
2.ClickOK.

AddingaNortharrow

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1.ClickInsertandclickNorthArrow.

2.ClickaNortharrow.
3.ClickOK.
4.ClickanddragtheNortharrowintoplaceon
yourmap.
5.Optionally,resizetheNortharrowbyclicking
anddraggingaselectionhandle.

Addingascalebar

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1.ClickInsertandclickScaleBar.
2.Clickascalebar.
3.Optionally,clickPropertiestomodifythe
scalebarsproperties.
4.ClickOK.
5.Clickanddragthescalebarintoplaceon
yourmap.
6.Optionally,resizetheScalebarbyclicking
anddraggingaselectionhandle.

Ifyouresizethewidth,thedistance
measuresalongthescalebarare
recalculated.Ifyouresizetheheight,the
heightofthebarisalteredandthetextsize
isalteredaccordingly.

Addingalegend

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1.ClickInsertandclickLegend.

TheLegendWizardappears.Ifyoudontsee
it,enabletheLegendWizardasdescribedin
thetiptotheleft.

2.Bydefault,allthelayersonthemapwill
appearaslegenditemsinthelegend.

Toremovealegenditem,clickit,andthen
clicktheleftarrowbutton.

3.Usetheupanddownarrowbuttonstoorder
thelegenditems.
4.ClickNext.

5.Typeatitleforthelegend.
6.Setthetextcolor,size,andfontasdesired.
7.ClickNext.

8.ClicktheBorderdropdownarrowandclicka
border.

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9.ClicktheBackgrounddropdownarrowand
clickabackground.
10.ClicktheDropShadowdropdownarrow
andclickadropshadow.
11.ClickNext

12.ClickaLegendIteminthelisttomodifythe
symbolpatch.
13.SetthePatchpropertiesasdesired.
14.ClickNext.
15.SettheSpacingbetweenlegendelements
bytypingavalueintotheappropriatebox.
16.ClickFinish.

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AboutGeoreferencing

Rasterdataiscommonlyobtainedbyscanningmapsorcollectingaerialphotographsandsatelliteimages.
Scannedmapdatasetsdon'tnormallycontainspatialreferenceinformation(eitherembeddedinthefile
orasaseparatefile).Withaerialphotographyandsatelliteimagery,sometimesthelocationalinformation
deliveredwiththemisinadequateandthedatadoesnot alignproperlywithotherdatayoumayhave.
Thus,tousesomerasterdatasetsinconjunctionwithyourotherspatialdata,youmayneedtoalign,or
georeference,toamapcoordinatesystem.Amapcoordinatesystemisdefinedusingamapprojection(a
methodbywhichthecurvedsurfaceoftheearthisportrayedonaflatsurface).
Whenyougeoreferenceyourrasterdataset,youdefineitslocationusingmapcoordinatesandassigna
coordinatesystem.Georeferencingrasterdataallowsittobeviewed,queried,andanalyzedwithother
geographicdata
Thegeneralstepsforgeoreferencingarasterdatasetare:
1. AddtherasterdatasetthatyouwanttoalignwithyourprojecteddatainArcMap.
2. Addcontrolpointsthatlinkknownrasterdatasetpositionstoknownpositionsinmapcoordinates.
3. Savethegeoreferencinginformationwhenyouresatisfiedwiththealignment(alsoreferredtoas
registration).
4. Optionally,permanentlytransformtherasterdataset.

MethodA:UsingSpecificX,YMapCoordinates

1. ClickViewLinkTable

ontheGeoreferencingtoolbar.

2. ClicktheAddControlPointstool
.
3. Clickthemouseovertheknownlocationintheunreferencedimagetoaddthefirstcoordinatein
thelink.
4. RightclicktheimageandclickInputXandY.
5. EnterthereferencecoordinatesontheEnterCoordinatesdialogbox.
6. ClickOK.

HandsonexerciseusingmethodA

CollectionofSatelliteImage

GoogleEarth(GE)isaverygoodsourceforhighresolutionimage.Itisfreesofar.Forthisgeoreferncing
exercise,aportionofDhakaCityissavedfromGEandthenfourdistinctlocationsareidentifiedforcontrol
points.Thesecontrolpoints(CP)canalsobemanagedfromGPSfieldsurvey.ForExample,thefollowing
imageisshowingfourcontrolpointslikeGCP1GCP4.Butyouareadvisedtoselectbyyourownchoice.
NowopenanexcelfileandputtheforCPtoconvertDegreeMinuteSecondtoDegreeDecimal

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GCP

1
2
3
4

X
M
21
22
22
21

D
90
90
90
90

S
40.69
14.19
24.81
47.66

D
23
23
23
23

Y
M
48
48
48
48

90.3613
90.37061
90.37356
90.36324

S
41.2
50.92
24.68
16.63

23.81144
23.81414
23.80686
23.80462

GCP2
90.37061E

GCP1
90.3613E

GCP3
GCP4
90.37356E
90.36324E

If you want to do georeferencing for images other than Google Earth, which you have purchased or
collectedfromRSdatasetsproviders,youcouldalsogetCPfromGE.OthersourcesofCPareGPSsurvey
oralreadygeoreferencedvectororrasterdatasets.

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1. Now open the image to be georeferenced


inArcGISusingAddDatabutton.
2. Identify at least four control points on the
image
3. FindcorrespondinglocationsonGEandget
Lat/Lon for those locations; if Lat/Lon is in
DMS, convert it to degree decimal with
excel spreadsheet [follow the example
given in previous page. The Lat/Lon of
thoseCPscanalsobetakenfromGPSfield
Survey or from already georeferenced
Vector/Rasterdataofthesamearea.
4. Open georeferencing tool bar if it is not
already there by clicking view toolbars
georeferencing
5. Click Add Control Points button from
GeoreferencingToolBar
6. ClicktheCrossHairatthefirstCPandthen
right click first and then left click on the
optionInputXandYtoenterthevalueof
X(lon)andY(lat),whichyouhavegotfrom
GEorGPSfieldsurvey.
7. Followstep56fortherestoftheCPs.
8. After entering the values of all CPs, click
View Link Table button to open table of
entered CPs and check Residual and RRMS
error to ensure the quality of CPs and
adjust accordingly, if needed by deleting
andenteringnewCPs.
9. ClickGeoreferencingcomboboxandselect
UpdateGeoreferencingtoassociatelat/lon
informationwiththeimage.
10. Georeferencingisdone.

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NewDataCapturing

CreatinganewShapefile

1.Selectafolderorfolderconnectioninthe
Catalogtree.
2.ClicktheFilemenu,pointtoNew,andclick
Shapefile.
3.ClickintheNametextboxandtypeaname
forthenewshapefile.
4.ClicktheFeatureTypedropdownarrowand
clickthetypeoffeaturetheshapefilewill
contain.
5.ClickEdittodefinetheshapefilescoordinate
system.
6.IntheSpatialReferencePropertiesdialog
box,clickSelectandchooseapredefined
coordinatesystem.OrclickImportand
choosethedatasourcewhosecoordinate
systemyouwanttocopy.OrclickNewand
defineanew,customcoordinatesystem.
7.ClickOK.

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ModuleI
ModuleII

CreatingNewFeatures
ArcGISBasicRevisit

Inthismodule:
Inthismodule:
Symbology
Howtocreatenewfeatures
Labeling
Table
Midpointtool
Layout
Georeferencing
Arctool
PrimarydatacapturingfromRSdatasets

Trimming

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CreatingNewFeatures

Howtocreateanewfeature

TocreateanewfeatureusingArcMap,youcreateaneditsketch.Asketchisashapethatyoudrawby
digitizing vertices. A sketch is composed of vertices the points at which the sketch changes direction,
suchascornersandsegmentsthelinesthatconnectthevertices.YoucreateasketchusingtheSketch
toollocatedonthetoolpalette.ThetypeoffeatureyoucreateisdeterminedbythesettingoftheTarget
layer dropdown list. The list contains the names of all the layers in the datasets with which youre
working.Choosethelayertowhichyouwanttoaddnewfeaturesbeforeyoustarttocreatethem.

Tocratepointfeatures,clickonceonthemap.Tocreatelineorpolygonfeatures,usetheSketchtoolto
clickonthemaptodigitizetheverticesthatmakeupthatfeature.Tocreatethelastvertexandfinishthe
sketch, doubleclick with the mouse. After you finish the sketch, ArcMap adds the final segment of the
sketchandthesketchturnsintoafeature.

1.ClicktheCurrentTaskdropdownarrowand
clickCreateNewFeature.
2.ClicktheTargetLayerdropdownlistandclick
apointlayer.
3.Clickthetoolpalettedropdownarrowand
clicktheSketchtool.
4.Clickonthemaptocreatethepoint.

Thepointiscreatedonyourmapand
markedasselected.

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CreatingapointorvertexusingtheMidpointtool

1.Clickthetoolpalettedropdownarrowand

clicktheMidpointtool.
2.Clickoncetoestablishthefirstoftwopoints.
Thenewvertexwillbecreatedbetweenthis
pointandthenextpointyouclick.
3.Clickthesecondpoint.

Avertexorpointisplacedatthemidpointof
thelinebetweenthetwopointsyouclicked.

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CreatingapointorvertexusingtheIntersection tool

1.Clickthetoolpalettedropdownarrowand

clicktheIntersectiontool.
Thepointerturnsintocrosshairs.
2.Positionthecrosshairsoverthefirstsegment
andclick.
3.Positionthecrosshairsoverthesecond
segmentandclick.

Avertexorpointisaddedattheimplied
intersectionofthetwosegments.

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Creatingalineorpolygonfeaturebydigitizing

1.ClicktheTaskdropdownarrowandclick
CreateNewFeature.
2.ClicktheTargetlayerdropdownarrowand
clickalineorpolygonlayer.
3.Clickthetoolpalettedropdownarrowand
clicktheSketchtool.
4.Clickthemaptodigitizethefeatures
vertices.
5.Rightclickanywhereonthemapwhen
finishedandclickFinishSketch.

Thelineorpolygoniscreatedonyourmap.

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1.Createalineorpolygonfeature.

2.Rightclickanywhereonthemapwhenyou
havefinishedcreatingthefirstpartofthe
featureandclickFinishPart.
3.Createthenextpartofthefeature.
4.Rightclickanywhereonthemapwhenyou
havefinishedthelastpartofthefeatureand
clickFinishSketch

Nowwhenyouclickonepartofthefeature
toselectit,allpartsareautomatically
selectedbecausetheyallbelongtoone
multipartfeature.

Creatingamultipartlineorpolygon

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CreatingasegmentthatisacirculararcusingtheArctool

1.Clickthetoolpalettedropdownarrowand
clicktheArctool.
2.Clickoncetoestablishthestartingpointof
thearc.Avertexiscreated.
3.Clickoncetoestablishtheaxisofthearc.
Thisistheinvisiblepointthroughwhichthe
curvepasses.
4.Clickonceagaintoestablishtheendpointof
thearc.
Asegmentthatisatruecurveis
created.

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CreatingasegmentthatisacirculararcusingtheEndpointArcsketchtool

1.Clickthetoolpalettedropdownarrowand

clicktheEndpointArctool.
2.Clickthestartingpointofthearc.
3.Clicktheendpointofthearc.
4.Movethepointertogettheapproximate
radiusforthecurve.

PresstheRkeyandtypetheradiusforthe
curve.Youcanalsoclickagainonthemapto
settheradius.

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CreatingasegmentthatisacirculararcusingtheTangentCurvetool

1.Clickthetoolpalettedropdownarrowand
clicktheTangentCurvetoolonceasegment
hasbeencreatedusingoneoftheother
sketchtools.
Asthecursorismoved,thearcwillbendand
changelengthtoremaintangenttothe
previoussegment.
2.Clickagaintoplacetheendpointofthearc.

Creatingasegmentparalleltoanothersegment

1.Clickthetoolpalettedropdownarrowand
clicktheSketchtoolaftercreatingatleast
onevertex.
2.Positionthepointeroverthesegmentto
whichthenewsegmentwillbeparalleland
rightclick.
3.ClickParallel.
Thesegmentisconstrainedtobeparallelto
thespecifiedsegment.
4.Clickoncetodigitizetheendpointofthe
segmentorchooseLengthfromtheSketch
toolcontextmenu.

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DuplicatingfeatureswiththeCopy Featuretool

1.ClicktheEdittool.
2.Selectthefeaturesthatyouwanttocopy.
3.ClicktheCopyFeatureTool.
4.Clicktheplacewhereyouwantacopyofthe
featuretobeplaced.

Acopyofthegeometryoftheselected
featureiscreatedatthelocationyouclicked.
ThefeatureiscreatedintheEditorscurrent
Targetlayer.

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ArcGISAdvance

Creatingafilletcurvebetweentwolines

1.ClicktheFillettool.

2.Clickfirstonelinethentheothertospecify
whichlinesyouwanttoconstructthefillet
between.
Theradiusofthefilletcurvewillchangeas
youdragthepointerawayfromthefirstline
youclicked.
Whenthecurvelookslikeithastheright
radius,youcanclicktofinishthecurve.If
youwantthecurvetohaveaspecificradius,
youcansettheradiusfromtheFillet
Optionswindow.
3.PresstheRkeytosettheFilletOptions.
4.Optionally,checkTrimexistingsegmentsif
youwanttoremovethesegmentsoutsideof
thecurvesradius.
5.Optionally,checkFixedradiusifyouwantto
specifyaradiusforthecurve.
6.TypearadiusforthecurveandpressEnter,
orclickOK.
7.Clickthemaptoindicatethequadrantofthe
intersectionofthelineswherethefilletwill
becreated.
Anewfilletcurvejoinsthetwoselectedlines.
Theextralinesegmentsoutsidethecurve
aretrimmedoff,ifyoucheckedTrimexisting
segments.

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Extendingaline

1.ClicktheEdittool.

2.Selectthelinesegmenttowhichyouwantto
extendaline.
3.ClicktheExtendtool.
4.Clicktheendofthefeaturethatyouwantto
extend.

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Trimmingaline

1.ClicktheEdittool.

2.Selectthelinesegmentatwhichyouwantto
trimaline.
3.ClicktheTrimtool.
4.Clicktheendofthefeaturethatyouwantto
trim.

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Explodingmultipartfeature

1.ClicktheEdittool.

2.Selectthemultipartfeaturethatyouwantto
Explode.
3.ClicktheExplodetool.

Thepartsofthemultipartfeaturebecome
independentfeatures.

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Generalizingafeature

1.ClicktheEdittool.
2.Selectthefeaturethatyouwantto
Generalize.
3.ClicktheGeneralizetool.
4.TypetheMaximumallowableoffset.

TheMaximumallowableoffsetisthe
maximumdistanceanypartoftheoutput
geometrycanbefromtheinputgeometry,
inmapunits.
5.ClickOK.

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Smoothingafeature

1.ClicktheEdittool.
2.SelectthefeaturethatyouwanttoSmooth.
3.ClicktheSmoothtool.
4.TypetheMaximumallowableoffset.

TheMaximumallowableoffsetisthe
maximumdistanceanypartoftheoutput
geometrycanbefromtheinputgeometry,
inmapunits.
5.ClickOK

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SnappingEnvironmentwindow

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Typesofsnappingproperties

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ModuleIII

Editing

Inthismodule:
Editingtoolbar
Slittinglineandpolygon
Extending
Flipping
Reshaping
InsertingVertex

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EditingToolBar

IfeditingtoolbarbelowisnotalreadydockedinyourArcMaptoolbar,thenclickEditorToolbaricon
fromArcMapStandardToolBarorfromViewmenu,selectToolbars>>Standard.

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EditingAttributes

Attributescanbecreatedoreditedintheattributesdialogbox.Afterselectingthefeatureswhose
attributesyouwanttoedit,clicktheattributesbuttontoseethedialogbox.

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AdvanceEditingToolBar

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AddingtheEditortoolbar

1.StartArcMap
2.ClicktheEditorToolbarbuttontodisplaytheEditor
toolbar..
3.Clickthetoolbarstitlebaranddragittothetopof
theArcMapapplicationwindow

Addingothereditingtoolbars

1.ClickEditor,pointtoMore
EditingTools,andclickthe
toolbarthatyouwanttoadd

SelectingfeaturesusingtheEdittool

1.ClicktheEdittool.
2.Movethepointeroverafeatureandclick.

Theselectedfeatureishighlighted.

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Draggingafeature

1.ClicktheEdittool.
2.Clickthefeatureorfeaturesyouwanttomove.
3.Clickanddragthefeatureorfeaturestothedesired
Location.

Rotatingafeature

1.ClicktheEdittool.
2.Clickthefeatureorfeaturesyouwanttorotate.
3.ClicktheRotatetool.
4.Clickanywhereonthemapanddragthepointerto
rotatethefeaturetothedesiredposition.

Thefeatureorfeaturesrotatearoundtheselection
anchor.Youcandragtheselectionanchortoanew
locationtochangethecenterofrotation.

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Copyingandpastingfeatures

1.ClicktheTargetlayerdropdownarrowandclickthe
layercontainingthetypeoffeaturesyouwantthe
newfeaturestobe.
2.ClicktheEdittool.
3.Clickthefeatureorfeaturesyouwanttocopy.
4.ClicktheCopybutton.
5.ClickthePastebutton.

Thefeatureispastedontopoftheoriginalfeature.

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Deletingfeatures

1.ClicktheEdittool.
2.Clickthefeatureorfeaturesyouwanttodelete.
3.ClicktheDeletebutton.

Theselectedfeaturesaredeleted.

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EditingExistingFeatures

SplittingaLineorPolygonFeatures

1.ClicktheEdittool.
2.Clickthelineyouwanttosplit.
3.ClicktheSplittool.
4.Clickthespotonthelinewhereyouwantittosplit.

Thelineissplitintotwofeatures.

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1.ClicktheEdittool.
2.Clickthepolygonyouwanttosplit.
3.ClicktheTaskdropdownarrowandclickCut
PolygonFeatures.
4.Clickthetoolpalettedropdownarrowandclickthe
Sketchtool.
5.Constructalineorpolygonsketchthatcutsthe
originalpolygonasdesired.
6.RightclickanywhereonthemapandclickFinish
Sketch.

Thepolygonissplitintotwofeatures.

SplittingaPolygon

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Trimmingaspecificlengthfromthelastpoint

1.ClicktheTaskdropdownarrowandclickModify
Feature.
2.ClicktheEdittool.
3.Clickthelinethatyouwanttotrim.
Thelineappearsasasketchwithvertices.
4.RightclickoveranypartofthelineandclickTrim.
5.TypethelengthtotrimthelinetoandpressEnter.
If you type a positive value it trims the line to the
specified length. If you type a negative value it
removes that much from the length of the line,
startingfromthelastvertex.Thelineistrimmed.
6. When finished modifying the line, rightclick over
anypartofthesketchandclickFinisSketch.

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Trimmingbasedonalineyoudraw

1.ClicktheTaskdropdownarrowandclick

Extend/TrimFeatures.
2.ClicktheEdittool.
3.Clickthelineorlinesyouwanttotrim.
4.Clickthetoolpalettedropdownarrowandclickthe
Sketchtool.
5.Constructalinethattrimstheselectedlineorlines
asdesired.Thedirectionofthesketchline
determinesthepartofthefeaturestoberemoved.
Theportionoftheselectedfeaturestotherightof
thesketchistrimmed.
6.RightclickanywhereonthemapandclickFinish
Sketch.

Thelinesaretrimmedontherightsideoftheline
youconstructed.

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ExtendingaLine

1.ClicktheTaskdropdownarrowandclick
Extend/TrimFeatures.
2.ClicktheEdittool.
3.Clickthelineorlinesyouwanttoextend.
4.Clickthetoolpalettedropdownarrowandclickthe
Sketchtool.
5.Constructalinetowhichyouwanttoextendthe
selectedlineorlines.
6.RightclickanywhereonthemapandclickFinish
Sketch.
Thelinesareextendedtothelineyouconstructed.

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FlippingaLine

1.ClicktheTaskdropdownarrowandclickModify
Feature.
2.ClicktheEdittool.
3.Clickthelinewhosedirectionyouwanttochange.
4.RightclickoveranypartothesketchandclickFlip.
The sketch becomes inverted (the first vertex
becomesthelast,markedinred).
5. When finished modifying the line, rightclick over
anypartofthesketchandclickFinishSketch.

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1.ClicktheEdittool.
2.Clickthelineyouwanttodivide.
3.ClicktheTargetlayerdropdownarrowandclickthe
pointlayercontainingthetypeofpointsyou want
toplacealongtheline.
4.ClickEditorandclickDivide.
5.Clickthefirstoptionandtypeanumbertoplacea
specificnumberofpointsevenlyalongtheline.
Or click the second option and type a number to
placethepointsataspecificintervalinmapunits.
If the data has M values, you can click the third
optionandtypeanumbertoplacethepointsata
specificintervalofmeasureunits
6.ClickOK.

Thelineisdividedbypointsplacedalongthelineas
specified.

PlacingaPointalongaline

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1. Click the Task dropdown arrow and click Reshape


Feature.
2.ClicktheEdittool.
3.Clickthefeatureyouwanttoreshape.
4.Clickthetoolpalettedropdownarrowandclickthe
Sketchtool.
5. Create a line according to the way you want the
featurereshaped.
6. Rightclick anywhere on the map and click Finish
Sketch.

Thefeatureisreshaped.

ReshapingalineorPolygon

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1.ClicktheTaskdropdownarrowandclickModify
Feature.
2. Click the Edit tool and click the line or polygon to
whichyouwanttoaddavertex.
3. Move the pointer to where you want the vertex
insertedandrightclick.
4.ClickInsertVertex.
Avertexisaddedtothesketch.
5. When finished modifying the line, rightclick over
anypartofthesketchandclickFinishSketch.

Addingavertextoasketch

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Deletingavertexfromasketch

1.ClicktheTaskdropdownarrowandclickModify
Feature.
2.ClicktheEdittool.
3.Clickthelineorpolygonfromwhichyouwantto
deleteavertex.
4.Positionthepointeroverthevertexyouwantto
delete.
Thepointerwillchangeappearancetohavefour
smallarrowssurroundingacircle.
5.RightclickandclickDeleteVertex.
Thevertexisdeletedfromthesketch.
6.Rightclickoveranypartofthesketchandclick
FinishSketch.

Thefeatureisreshaped

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Draggingavertex

1.ClicktheTaskdropdownarrowandclickModify
Feature.
2.ClicktheEdittoolandclickthelineorpolygon
whosevertexyouwanttomove.
3.Positionthepointeroverthevertexyouwantto
move.
Thepointerwillchangeappearancetohavefour
smallarrowssurroundingacircle.
4.Clickanddragthevertextothedesiredlocation.
5.Rightclickoveranypartofthesketchandclick
FinishSketch.

Thefeatureisreshaped

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Insertingavertexatthemidpointofasegment

1.Rightclickoverasegmentoftheeditsketchand
clickProperties.
2.Selectthevertexbeforewhichyouwishtoinserta
newvertex.
3.RightclicktheselectedvertexandclickInsert
Before.

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ModuleIV

Geoprocessing

Inthismodule:
AboutGeoprocessing
MapProjections
GeoprocessingTools:
Clip
Append
Merge
Eliminate
Dissolve
Identity
Intersect
Split
Buffer
SelectionbyLocation

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WhatisGeoprocessing?

The fundamental purpose of geoprocessing is to allow you to automate your GIS tasks. Almost all uses of
GIS involve the repetition of work, and this creates the need for methods to automate, document, and share
multiple-step procedures known as workflows. Geoprocessing supports the automation of workflows by
providing a rich set of tools and a mechanism to combine a series of tools in a sequence of operations using
models and scripts.

The kinds of tasks to be automated can be ordinaryfor example, to convert data from one format to
another. Or the tasks can be quite creative, using a sequence of operations to model and analyze complex
spatial relationshipsfor example, calculating optimum paths through a transportation network, predicting
the path of wildfire, analyzing and finding patterns in crime locations, predicting which areas are prone to
landslides, or predicting flooding effects of a storm event.
Geoprocessing is based on a framework of data transformation. A typical geoprocessing tool performs an
operation on an ArcGIS dataset (such as a feature class, raster, or table) and produces a new dataset as the
result of the tool. Each geoprocessing tool performs a small yet essential operation on geographic data, such
as projecting a dataset from one map projection to another, adding a field to a table, or creating a buffer
zone around features. ArcGIS includes hundreds of such geoprocessing tools.

InputDataset

GeopeocessingTool

NewDataset

Geoprocessing allows you to chain together sequences of tools, feeding the output of one tool into another.
You can use this ability to compose an infinite of geoprocessing models (tool sequences) that help you
automate your work and solve complex problems.

ProjectandClip

Theexampleworkflowbelowusestwogeoprocessingtools,ProjectandClip.Thisisbutoneexampleof
aninfinitenumberofworkflowsyoucouldautomatewithgeoprocessing.

Suppose you've received 20 shapefiles from a colleague, and they're in different map projections and
contain lots of features that are outside your study area. Your task is to change the map projection of
eachofthe20datasets,removetheextraneousfeatures("clip"thedatasets).

By far the easiest way to accomplish this task is to use geoprocessing. First, you would use the
geoprocessing Project tool, which applies a new projection to an input feature class to create a new
output feature class. The illustration below shows the Project tool dialog box with its input features
shownintheupperleftandtheprojectedfeaturesintheupperright.

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ThesecondstepistousethegeoprocessingCliptooltoclipthedatathatfallsoutsideyourstudyarea.
TheCliptooltakestwoinputs,afeatureclassofanytype(point,polyline,polygon)andapolygonfeature
class(theclipfeatureclass),andcreatesanewfeatureclassofjustthosefeaturesthatfallinsidetheclip
polygons.

Both the Project and Clip tool can be used in Batch mode, which lets you, input the list of your 20 feature
classes, and the tools automatically execute once for each of the feature classes. You can create the list by
dragging and dropping the feature classes from ArcCatalog onto the tool dialog box.
Or better yet, you can quickly create a geoprocessing model that chains together the Project and Clip tools,
feeding the output of Project into the input of Clip, and use the model in Batch mode. The model you create
becomes a new tool in your geoprocessing environment.

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MapProjections

WithinArcGIS,everydatasethasacoordinatesystem,whichisusedtointegrateitwithothergeographic
data layers within a common coordinate framework such as a map. Coordinate systems enable you to
integrate datasets within maps as well as to perform various integrated analytical operations such as
overlayingdatalayersfromdisparatesourcesandcoordinatesystems.

Whatisacoordinatesystem?
Coordinate systems enable geographic datasets to use common locations for integration. A coordinate
system is a reference system used to represent the locations of geographic features, imagery, and
observationssuchasGPSlocationswithinacommongeographicframework.Eachcoordinatesystemis
definedby:

Itsmeasurementframeworkwhichiseithergeographic(inwhichsphericalcoordinatesaremeasured
from the earth's center) or planimetric (in which the earth's coordinates are projected onto a two

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dimensionalplanarsurface).

Unitofmeasurement(typicallyfeetormetersforprojectedcoordinatesystemsordecimaldegreesfor
latitudelongitude).

Thedefinitionofthemapprojectionforprojectedcoordinatesystems.

Other measurement system properties such as a spheroid of reference, a datum, and projection
parameterslikeoneormorestandardparallels,acentralmeridian,andpossibleshiftsinthexandy
directions.

Typesofcoordinatesystems
TherearetwocommontypesofcoordinatesystemsusedinGIS:

A global or spherical coordinate system such as latitudelongitude. These are often referred to as
geographiccoordinatesystems.

AprojectedcoordinatesystembasedonamapprojectionsuchastransverseMercator,Albersequal
area,orRobinson,allofwhich(alongwithnumerousothermapprojectionmodels)providevarious
mechanisms to project maps of the earth's spherical surface onto a twodimensional Cartesian
coordinateplane.Projectedcoordinatesystemsaresometimesreferredtoasmapprojections.

Coordinate systems (either geographic or projected) provide a framework for defining realworld
locations. In ArcGIS, the coordinate system is used as the method to automatically integrate the
geographic locations from different datasets into a common coordinate framework for display and
analysis.

ArcGISautomaticallyintegratesdatasetswhosecoordinatesystemsareknown
AllgeographicdatasetsusedinArcGISareassumedtohaveawelldefinedcoordinatesystemthatenables
themtobelocatedinrelationtotheearth'ssurface.
If your datasets have a welldefined coordinate system, then ArcGIS can automatically integrate your
datasetswithothersbyprojectingyourdataontheflyintotheappropriateframeworkformapping,3D
visualization,analysis,andsoforth.
Ifyourdatasetsdonothaveaspatialreference,theycannotbeeasilyintegrated.Youneedtodefineone
beforeyoucanuseyourdataeffectivelyinArcGIS.

WhatisaspatialreferenceinArcGIS?
AspatialreferenceinArcGISisaseriesofparametersthatdefinethecoordinatesystemandotherspatial
propertiesforeachdatasetinthegeodatabase.Itistypicalthatalldatasetsforthesamearea(andinthe
samegeodatabase)useacommonspatialreferencedefinition.
AnArcGISspatialreferenceincludessettingsfor:

Thecoordinatesystem

Thecoordinateprecisionwithwhichcoordinatesarestored(oftenreferredtoasthe"coordinate
resolution")

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Processingtolerances(suchastheclustertolerance)

Thespatialormapextentcoveredbythedataset(oftenreferredtoasthe"spatialdomain")

Clip(AnalysisTool)

Use Clip when you want to cut out a piece of one feature class using one or more of the features in
anotherfeatureclassasa"cookiecutter".Thisisparticularlyusefulforcreatinganewfeatureclassthat
containsageographicsubsetofthefeaturesinanother,largerfeatureclass.

Forexample,supposeyouarestudyingthetransportationneedsofaparticularcounty.Youwouldliketo
work with a feature class that contains only the roads or segments of roads that fall inside this county
boundary,butallyouhaveisafeatureclasscontainingroadsforthewholestate.Youcancliptheroadsin
the state roads feature class using the county polygon as the cookie cutter to create a new feature
containingjusttheroadsinthecounty.

Featureclasses
Thefeatureclassthatishavingitsfeaturesclippedcancontainpoints,lines,orpolygons.Theclipfeature
class,however,mustbeapolygonfeatureclass.

Polygonfeaturesclippedbypolygonfeatures

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4
5

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

OpenArcToolbox,andGotoAnalysisTools>>Extract
PressCliptoolandgettheabovedialogbox
PressopenbuttontoselectInputfeatures
PressopenbuttontoselectClipfeature
PressopenbuttontonameOutputfeature
PressOKbuttontocarryoutclipping

Append(DataManagement)

UseAppendwhenyouhaveanexistingdatasetintowhichyouwanttoappendnewdata.Input
datasetscanbepoint,lineorpolygonfeatureclasses,tables,rasters.
Whentheinputsarefeatures,allinputfeaturesmustbeofthesamefeaturetypeasthefeatures
ofthetargetdataset.Forexample,ifthetargetfeatureclasscontainspolygonfeatures,theinput
featurestypesmustbepolygonaswell.
Inputdatasetsmayoverlaponeanotherand/orthetargetdataset.
Inputdatasetsinadifferentcoordinatesystemfromthetargetfeatureclasswillbeprojectedinto
thecoordinatesystemofthetargetfeatureclass.

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

OpenArcToolbox,andGotoDataManagementTools>>Generaltab
PressAppendtoolandgettheabovedialogbox
Pressopenbuttontoselectinputdatasets
Pressopenbuttontoselecttargetdatasets
PressOKbuttontocarryoutappendfunction

Merge(DataManagement)

Combinesinputfeaturesfrommultipleinputsources(ofthesamedatatype)intoasingle,new,output
featureclass.Theinputdatasourcesmaybepoint,line,orpolygon.

UseMergewhentherearefeaturesfrommultipleinputsourcesthatneedtobecombinedinto

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onefeatureclass.
Inputdatasourcesneednotbeadjacent;overlapisallowed.
Thetypeofinputdata,suchaspolygonsortables,mustbethesameforallinputs.
IfnocoordinatesystemisspecifiedintheEnvironmentSettings,theoutputfeatureclasswillbe
inthecoordinatesystemofthefirstfeatureclassintheinputfeatureslist.
Mergecannotusemultipleinputlayersofthesamename.
Thedatatypeofanoutputfieldwilldefaulttothesameasthedatatypeofthefirstinputfield
(ofthatname)itencounters.Thedatatypemaybechangedmanuallyatanytimetoanyvalid
datatype.Allvaliddatatypeswillbelistedifthetoolsdialogboxisused.

5
2

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

OpenArcToolbox
OpenDataManagementTools
OpenGeneraltab
PressMergetoolandgettheabovedialogbox
Pressopenbuttontoselectinputdatasets
Pressopenbuttontonameoutputdatasets
PressOKbuttontocarryoutMergefunction

Eliminate(DataManagement)

Mergestheselectedpolygonswithneighboringpolygonswiththelargestsharedborderorthelargest
area

4
1

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

OpenArcToolbox,andGotoDataManagementTools>>Generalizationtab
PressEliminatetoolandgettheabovedialogbox
Pressopenbuttontoselectinputlayer
Pressopenbuttontonameoutputfeature
PressOkbuttontocarryoutEliminatefunction

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Dissolve(DataManagement)

Aggregatesfeaturesbasedonspecifiedattributes
The attributes of the features which become aggregated by dissolve can be summarized or
describedusingavarietyofstatistictype

4
1
2

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

OpenArcToolbox,andGotoDataManagementTools>>Generalizationtab
PressDissolvetoolandgettheabovedialogbox
Pressopenbuttontoselectinputfeature
Pressopenbuttontonameoutputfeature
PressOKbuttontocarryoutDissolvefunction

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Identity(AnalysisTool)

Computes a geometric intersection of the Input Features and Identity Features. The Input
FeaturesorportionsthereofthatoverlapIdentityFeatureswillgettheattributesofthoseIdentity
Features
TheInputFeaturesmustbepoint,multipoint,line,orpolygon.Theinputscannotbeannotation
features,dimensionfeatures,ornetworkfeatures.
TheIdentityFeaturesmustbepolygons.

3
2

4
5

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

OpenArcToolbox,andGotoAnalysisTools>>Overlay
PressIdentitytoolandgettheabovedialogbox
PressopenbuttontoselectInputfeatures
PressopenbuttontoselectIdentityfeatures
PressopenbuttontonameOutputfeature
PressOKbuttontocarryoutIdentityfunction

Intersect(AnalysisTool)

Computes a geometric intersection of the Input Features. Features or portions of features which
overlapinalllayersand/orfeatureclasseswillbewrittentotheOutputFeatureClass

1
3
2

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

OpenArcToolbox,andGotoAnalysisTools>>Overlay
PressIntersecttoolandgettheabovedialogbox
PressopenbuttontoselectInputfeatures
PressopenbuttontonameOutputfeature
PressOkbuttontocarryoutIdentityfunction

Split(AnalysisTool)


Splitcreatesnewfeatureclassesbyoverlayingtwosetsoffeatures.SplitperformsaseriesofClip

operations, one for each output feature class. Each output feature class contains only those
portionsofInputFeaturesthatareoverlappedbythespecifiedpolygonsoftheSplitFeatures.
InputFeaturescanbepolygons,lines,orpoints.SplitFeaturesmustbepolygons.TheSplitFieldis
used to determine which polygons of the split features will be used to split the Input Features.
Each unique value in the Split Field will identify the polygons that will be used to clip the Input
Featurestocreateoneoutputfeatureclass.Thesplitfield,therefore,mustbecharacterdatatype.
OutputfeatureclassfeaturesareofthesametypeastheInputFeatures.Theyareclippedtothe
boundariesofthesplitpolygons.Topologyisbuiltfortheoutputfeatureclasses.

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1
3
2
4
5
6

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

OpenArcToolbox,andGotoAnalysisTools>>Extract
PressSplittoolandgettheabovedialogbox
PressopenbuttontoselectInputfeatures
PressopenbuttontonameSplitfeature
PressdropdownarrowtoselectSplitField
Pressopenbuttontoselectworkspaceorfoldertostorenewsplitdata
PressOKbuttontocarryoutIdentityfunction

Buffer(AnalysisTool)

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3
2
1
5
5

1. OpenArcToolbox,andGotoAnalysisTools>>Proximity
2. PressBuffertoolandgettheabovedialogbox

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3.
4.
5.
6.

PressopenbuttontoselectInputfeatures
PressopenbuttontonameOutputfeature
Mentionbufferdistanceorfieldnamefromattributetable
PressOKbuttontocarryoutBuffering

SelectionbyLocation(SelectingFeaturesbytheirLocations)

Suppose you want to know how many homes were affected by a recent flood. Answering this
questionand others like itinvolves forming a spatial query. You want to find features based on
wheretheyareinrelationtootherfeatures.Forinstance,ifyoumappedthefloodboundary,youcould
then select all the homes that are within this area. By combining queries, you can perform more
complex searches. For example, suppose you want to find all the customers who live within a 1 Km
radiusofyourOverheadwatertankandwhopaidbilluptodatesothatyoucansendthemanewyear
card. You would first select the customers within this radius (select by location), then refine the
selection by finding those customers who have cleared all the bills according to a defaulter attribute
(selectbyattribute).

1.ClickSelectionandclickSelectByLocation.
2.Clickthedropdownarrowandclickaselection
method.
3.Checkthelayerswhosefeaturesyouwouldliketo
select.
4.Clickthedropdownarrowandclickaselection
method.
5.Clickthedropdownarrowandclickthelayeryou
wanttousetosearchforthefeatures.
6.Checktouseonlytheselectedfeatures.
7.CheckApplyabuffertothefeaturesin<layer>and
setthedistancewithinwhichtosearchforfeatures.
8.ClickApply.ArcMapselectsthefeatures.
9.IfyourefinishedselectingfeaturesclickClose.

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ByLocationIntersect

ByLocation Contain

ByLocationCompletelyContain

ByLocation Within

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ByLocationCompletelyWithin

ByLocation WithinaDistance

PointDistance(Analysis)

Determines the distances between point features


in the Input Features to all points in the Near
Features,withintheSearchRadius.

The results are recorded in an Output Table


containingthefollowinginformation
o INPUT_FID:theinputfeature'sID
o NEAR_FID:thenearfeature'sID
o DISTANCE:thedistancefromtheinput
tothenearfeature
Both the Input and Near Features can be the
same dataset. In that case when the Input &
Near feature are the same record, that result
will be skipped so as not to report that each
featureis0unitsfromitself.
If no Search Radius is specified, all Near
Featureswillbeused.

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3
4
1

5
6
2

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

OpenArcToolbox,andGotoAnalysisTools>>Proximity
PressPointDistancetoolandgettheabovedialogbox
PressopenbuttontoselectInputfeatures
PressopenbuttontoselectNearfeature
PressopenbuttontonameOutputTable
InsertSearchRadius,ifneeded.
PressOKbuttontocarryoutPointDistancefunction

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ModuleV

MetaData

Metadataisinformationthatdescribesyourdatain
the same way a card in a librarys card catalog
describes a book. After you create new data, you
should create metadata to document its contents.
When detailed metadata has been created, it can
answer your questions and help you make
decisions. For example, how accurate the data is,
whatisthesourceofthedata,howmuchitcosts.
InthisModule:
ExploringMetadata
Stylesheet
Addingshapefiles
Metadatacreationandupdating
MetadataEditor
XML

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ExploringanItemsMetadata

1.ClicktheitemintheCatalogtreeforwhich
youwanttoseemetadata.
2.ClicktheMetadatatab.
3.Clickatabonthemetadatapagetoseea
differentgroupofmetadataelements.
4.Clickagroupheadingtohideitscontents

Clicktheheadingagaintoshowitscontents

Changing the Metadatas Appearance: A stylesheet is similar to a query, which selects data from a
database.Stylesheetsselectwhichmetadataelementstodisplayanddefinehowtheirvaluesappear.Each
stylesheet in the Catalog presents the same body of metadata using a different set of rules. Four
stylesheetsareprovided:ESRI,FGDC,FGDCFAQ,andXML.Youcanaddyourowncustomstylesheetstothe
list.ThemetadatasdefaultappearanceisdefinedbytheESRIstylesheet.Youcanchangeitsappearanceby
choosingadifferentstylesheetinthedropdownlistontheMetadatatoolbar.TheFGDCstylesheetshows
all metadata elements defined by the CSDGM. Authored by the U.S. FGDC, this book refers to it as the
FGDC standard. The FGDC stylesheet.s format will be familiar to you if you.ve worked with the FGDC
standard or searched for data using the National Spatial Data Institute (NSDI) Geospatial Data
Clearinghouse.TheFGDCFAQstylesheetpresentsasubsetoftheFGDCmetadataelementsinquestionand
answer format; it may be helpful if you.re new to metadata. These stylesheets emulate theHTML pages
thatyoucancreatewiththeFGDC.smetadataparserutility,mp.TheESRIstylesheetshowsmanyelements
definedintheFGDCstandard,inadditiontodetailedpropertiesofthedatawhicharedefinedbyESRI.The
XMLstylesheetshowstheentirecontentsofanitemsmetadata(oranyotherXMLdocument).Different
colors let you easily distinguish between an elements name and its value. XML data is hierarchical by

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nature; instead of a value, an element may contain other elements. The XML stylesheet shows plus or
minussignsnexttogroupelements;youcanclickthemtohideorshowtheelementstheycontain.Every
timeyoustartArcCatalog,metadataisinitiallypresentedwiththedefaultstylesheet.Tochangethedefault
stylesheet, use the Options dialog box. The next time you start ArcCatalog, metadata will initially be
presented with the stylesheet of your choice. Setting the default stylesheet doesnt prevent you from
changingthecurrentstylesheetusingthedropdownlistontheMetadatatoolbar.

1.ClicktheStylesheetdropdownarrowonthe
Metadatatoolbarandclickadifferent
stylesheet.

Themetadatasappearancechanges
accordingtotherulesofthenewstylesheet

Changingthecurrentstylesheet

Settingthedefaultstylesheet

1.ClicktheToolsmenuandclickOptions.
2.ClicktheMetadatatab.
3.ClicktheDefaultStylesheetdropdown
arrowandclickthestylesheetthatshould
bethedefault.
4.ClickOK.

ThenexttimeyoustartArcCatalog,the
stylesheetyouvechosenwillbeusedasthe
default.

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MetadatainArcCatalog

Metadata in ArcCatalog consists of properties and documentation. Properties, such as the extent of a
shapefilesfeatures,arederivedfromtheitemitself.Documentationisdescriptiveinformationsupplied
byaperson.

By default, when you attempt to view an items metadata, ArcCatalog will create it automatically if
metadata doesnt already exist; it will then add many of the items properties to it. Once created,
metadatabecomespartoftheitemitself.Itisautomaticallymoved,copied,anddeletedalongwiththe
item.

Everytimeyouviewthemetadata,theCatalogautomaticallyupdatesthepropertiesrecordedinitwith
current values. This ensures that the metadata is kept up to date with changes to the data source. For
example, the extent and count of a shapefiles features will be current when you look at its metadata,
evenifnewfeatureswererecentlyadded.

Ifyouwantmorecontroloverwhenmetadataiscreatedandupdated,youhaveafewchoices.Youcan
turnoffautomaticupdatesforindividualitemsforexample,aftertheyhavebeenpublished.Then,you
canchoosetocreateandupdatemetadatamanuallybyclickingtheCreate/UpdateMetadatabuttonon
theMetadatatoolbar.

Writingdocumentation

Documentingyourdataprotectsyourorganizationsinvestmentinthatdata.Withoutknowledgeofthe
datasaccuracy,provenance,andage,youcanthaveahighlevelofconfidenceindecisionsbasedonthat
data. Creating detailed metadata describing these qualities ensures that you can continue to use your
dataandmakedecisionsbasedonit.

Metadata documentation can be a few lines to a big document according to the needs of different
organizations. Fortunately, the International Standards Organization (ISO) is creating a unified content
standard.Withacommonstandarditwillbeeasierforthosewithinanorganization,aswellastheGIS
communityasawhole,tocreateandusemetadata.

Simply because so many different standards exist, metadata in ArcCatalog isnt required to meet any
specific one. However, standards can be enforced by a metadata editor. The metadata editor provided
withtheCatalogletsyoudocumentyourdatafollowingtheFGDCstandard

Howmetadataisstored

MetadatacreatedwithArcCatalogisstoredasXMLdataeitherinafilealongsidetheitemorwithinits
geodatabase. XML is a markup language similar to HTML. HTML defines both the data and how its
presented.XML,ontheotherhand,letsyoudefinedatausingtagsthataddmeaning.Stylesheetsdefine
how XML data is presented. They are created using XSL. XSL elements query andevaluate XML data. A

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stylesheetretrievesspecificvaluesfromanXMLdocument,formatsthem,andthendefineshowtheyare
presented.ArcCatalogstylesheetsgenerateHTMLpagesfromXMLdata.Therefore,youcaninteractwith
metadataasyouwouldinteractwithanyHTMLpageinabrowser.

Choosinghowmetadataiscreatedandupdated

Bydefault,metadataisautomaticallycreatedorupdatedwhenyouviewitintheMetadatatab.However,
you can choose to create and update all metadata manually. When you change these settings in the
Optionstab,itaffectshowmetadataishandledforallitemsintheCatalog.Youcanturnoffautomatic
updatesforspecificitemsusingtheMetadataPropertiesdialogbox.Youmightdothisaftercompleting
andpublishingtheirmetadatasoitisnotaccidentallychangedlater

1.ClicktheToolsmenuandclickOptions.
2.ClicktheMetadatatab.
3.Checktheappropriateboxestohavethe
Catalogautomaticallycreateorupdate
metadata.

Unchecktheappropriateboxesifyouprefer
tomanuallycreateorupdatemetadata.

4.ClickOK.

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Turningoffautomaticupdatesforindividualitems

1.IntheCatalogtree,clicktheitemforwhich
metadatashouldnotbeupdated
automatically.
2.ClicktheMetadatatab.
3.ClicktheMetadataPropertiesbuttononthe
Metadatatoolbar.
4.ClicktheOptionstab.
5.CheckDonotautomaticallyupdate
metadata.
6.ClickOK.

Addingdocumentation

1.Clicktheitemwhosemetadatayouwantto
editintheCatalogtree.
2.ClicktheMetadatatab.
3.ClicktheEditMetadatabuttononthe
Metadatatoolbar.
4.Documentyourdatausingthemetadata
editor.
5.Closethemetadataeditor

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Choosingametadataeditor

TheCatalogcomeswithanFGDCmetadataeditor.TostartusingtheFGDCmetadataeditor,clicktheEdit
Metadata button on the Metadata toolbar. If more thanone editor is available for example, if youve
createdacustomeditoryoucanchoosetohaveadifferentmetadataeditorappearwhenyouclickthe
EditMetadatabutton.TheavailablemetadataeditorsarelistedintheOptionsdialogbox.

1.ClicktheToolsmenuandclickOptions.
2.ClicktheMetadatatab.
3.ClicktheMetadataEditordropdownarrow
andclicktheeditoryouwanttouse.
4.ClickOK.

UsingtheFGDCmetadataeditor

TheFGDCmetadataeditorletsyoucreateFGDCcompliantmetadatafortheselecteditemintheCatalog
tree.ThisisthedefaultmetadataeditorinArcCatalog.

TheinformationinanFGDCmetadatadocumentisdividedintosevenmainsections:Identification,Data
Quality, Spatial Data Organization, Spatial Reference, Entity and Attribute, Distribution, and Metadata
Reference. The section titles across the top of the FGDC metadata editor correspond to these sections.
Information within each section is divided into subsections. When you click a section title, several tabs
appear,witheachtabrepresentingasubsection

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SampleXMLfile

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ModuleVI

DistributedGIS
(Internet/MobileGIS)

InthisModule:
GISevolution
WebGISArchitecture
Platform/Technology
Commercialvs.FreeSolution
MobileGIS
Example

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GISEvolution

SimpleWebGISArchitecture

Client Side

Server Side

Application Server
User1

Request
HTTP Request

Geographic
Feature

Response
HTML, Map

Web Server

Map Server

Spatial
Database

User2

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Client:ClientisaplaceforuserstointeractwithspatialobjectsandanalysisfunctionsinInternet
GIS.ItisalsoaplaceforInternetGISProgramstopresentoutputstotheusers.
Web Server: The Web Server is also called the HTTP Server; its major function is to respond to
requestsfromWebbrowsersviaHTTPbysendingexistingHTMLdocumentorreadymademap
imagestotheclients.
MapServer:Amapserverismajorworkhorsecomponentsthatfulfillsspatialqueries,conducts
spatialqueries,andgeneratesanddeliversmapstotheclientbasedontheusersrequest.
Data Server: A data server serves data, spatial and nonspatial in relational or nonrelational
databasestructure.AclientapplicationsuchasaWebclientoramapservergainsaccesstothe
databasethroughtheSQL

Platform/Technologyneeded

o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Linux/WindowsServer

WebServer(Apache/IIS)
MapServer(UMN/ArcGIS)
DatabasePostgreSQL/Oracle
ScriptingLanguage(PHP/Python/
.Net)
Framework (KaMap/Openlayers
etc)
AJAXTechnology

CommercialSolutionCostly

1.ArcGISServerfromESRI
2.MapGIudefromAutodesk
3.MapExtremefromMapInfo
4.GeoMediafromInterGraph

FreeandOpenSolutionNocostly

1.UMNMapserve
2.ClientInterface[KaMap,Openlayers]
3.Database[PostgreSQL/PostGIS/MySQL/MyGIS
4.Programminglangusge[PHP/Python/Javascript]
5.Vibrantuser/developerforum

MobileGIS

MobileGISreferstotheuseofGISthroughmobileandwirelessdevicessuchaslaptopcomputers,
PDAs,andcellularphones.ThearchitectureofmobileGISisverysimilartothewirelinebased
InternetGIS.Ithasthreemajorcomponents;theclient,theserver[Web,MapandDataserver]

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andthenetworkserviceproviders.Themajordifferencesaretheclientdeviceandthewireless
communicationsserviceproviders.Theserverfunctionsandstructuresaresimilarthosein
InternetGIS.

Example

WebsitebasedonArcGISServer

UMNMapserver

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ModuleVII

NetworkAnalysis:
A.FindingbestRoute
B.LinearReferencingan
DynamicSegmentatio

Inthismodule:
NetworkAnalystExtension
NetworkElement
BuildingNetworkDataset
FindingthebestRoute
LinearReferencing
DynamicSegmentation
Dissolve

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NetworkAnalysis

Network Analyst, an ArcGIS extension is used to perform network analysis. ArcGIS Network
Analystprovidesanintuitive,interactive,easytouse,standaloneinterfaceforcalculatingroutes
(shortestpathorigintodestination),findingtheclosestfacility,reportingtheresultsasdirections
and finding service areas. It solves network related problems with efficiency saving time and
money.Itallowsyoutoperformadvancedroutingandnetworkanalysis.Supports:

Drivetimeanalysis

Pointtopointrouting

Routedirections

Serviceareadefinition

Shortestpath

Optimumroute

Closestfacility

OriginDestination

HowtoenableNetworkAnalyst

1. ClicktheToolsmenuandclickExtensions.
2. ChecktheNetworkAnalystcheckbox.
3. ClickClose.

ThentobringtheNetworkAnalysttoolbarclickViewmenu>>Toolbars>>NetworkAnalyst.

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Three types of network sources that


participateinthecreationofanetwork
datasetare:
EdgefeaturesourcesLinefeature
classes participate as edge feature
sources.
Junction feature sources Point
feature classes participate as
junctionfeaturesources
TurnfeaturesourcesTurnfeature
classes participate as turn feature
sourcesinanetwork.
Aturnfeaturesourceexplicitlymodels
a subset of possible transitions
between edge elements during

NetworksElement

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navigation.

Creating a Shapefile-based network dataset [Tutorial-01]

DataPreparation

1.AddthefollowingfieldintheattributetableoffeaturestobeusedforNetworkAnalysis.You
canaddnewfieldinshapefileoryoucancreateinexcelfileandjoinitthefeatureattributetable.

L_F_ADD

L_T_ADD

R_F_ADD

R_T_ADD

CFCC

PREFIX

PRE_TYPE

NAME

TYPE

SUFFIX

Meters

Minutes

FT_Minutes

TF_Minutes

ShapeID

FNode

DISP_CODE

EDGE_ID

Oneway

F_ZLEV

T_ZLEV

2.Calculateallminutesfieldwiththefollowingformula

CalculateMinutes=([Miles]/[SPEED])*60[**SpeedUnitismile/houranddistance
ismile]

3.StartArcCatalog

4.Navigatetothefoldertoselectthedata.

5.Clickthefoldertoshowitscontents.

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6.IftheNetworkAnalystExtensionisnotenabled,ontheToolsmenu,clickExtensions,andinthe
Extensionsdialogbox,clickNetworkAnalystandclosetheExtensionsdialogbox.

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7.RightclicktheRd11601shapefileandchooseNewNetworkDataset.Thisshapefilecontains
Rd11601dataforUpazilaBagmara.

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8.ThenameofthenetworkdatasetissettoBagmara_Upazila_Rd_NDbydefault.ClickNextto
continue.

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NetworkConnectivitydefineshowfeaturesthatparticipateinanetworkconnecttoeachother.
The default connectivity for a network dataset places all sources in one connectivity group and
assigns all edge sources endpoint connectivity. In a shapefile based network there is only one
edgesource,hencethereisnoneedformultipleconnectivitygroups.

9.Toacceptthedefaultconnectivity,clickNexttocontinue.

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Each feature in a shapefile or coverage would be assigned two Zelevation values, one foreach
endpoint. If the endpoints of line features have the same Z elevation value, connectivity is
established. If the values are different, they do not connect (e.g., in the case of bridges or
tunnels).

Theelevationfieldcontainslogicalelevationvaluesforestablishingconnectivityonlyanddoesnot
provideheightinformationforthefeature.ArcGISNetworkAnalystcanuseZelevationvaluesto
furthermodifytheconnectivitysettingsestablishedinthepreviousstep.ArcGISNetworkAnalyst
automaticallysearchesandmapstherelevantfields.

10. Click Next to accept the default elevation fields settings. If ArcGIS Network Analyst finds
elevationfieldsdatainyourshapefile,itautomaticallychoosestheYesradiobuttonandassigns
theappropriatefields.

ArcGIS Network Analyst supports turns in a shapefile based network. Turn information (such as
turningrestrictionsanddelays)enhancethequalityofnetworkanalysis.Youwilluseturnfeatures
inExercise2.

Inaddition,bydefault,GlobalTurnsareselected.GlobalTurnsarerulesthatcanbeset,suchasall
rightturnshaveadelayof15seconds.Sucharulegivespreferencetoleftturningmovements.
TheadvantageofGlobalTurnsisthatyoudonotneedtocreateindividualturnfeaturesforrules
thatapplytoeveryturninthenetwork.

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11.ClickYestomodelturnsinthenetwork.

12.ClickNexttocontinue.

Network attributes are properties of the network that are used to control navigation. Common
examples are costs that function as impedances over the network. Restrictions like oneway
traversalarealsoexamplesofnetworkattributes.

The ArcGIS Network Analyst analyzes the source shapefile and looks for common fields like
Meters,Minutes(FT_MinutesandTF_Minutes,oneforeachdirection),andOneway.Onceitfinds
these fields, it automatically creates the corresponding network attributes and assigns the
respectivefieldstothem.(ThiscanbeviewedbyclickingtheEvaluatorsbutton.)

13.Sincetheattributesareautomaticallydefinedandassignedvalues,clickNexttocontinue

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Tousedrivingdirectionsinanetworkanalysis,theyshouldbesetinthenetworkdataset.

14. Select Yes to establish driving directions settings for this network dataset. The Network
Analyst automatically finds and maps the field in the streets source that will be used to report
streetnames.AdditionallyLengthandTimefieldsareautomaticallymappedaswell.

15.ClickNexttocontinue.

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16.Asummaryofallthesettingsthathavebeenchosenisdisplayedinthefollowingwindowfor
yourreview.ClickFinishtocreatethenewshapefilebasednetworkdataset.

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Oncecreated,thesystempromptsforthenetworktobebuilt.

17.ClickYestobuildthenetwork.

Thenetworkdatasethasbeenbuiltwhentheprogressbardisappears.

Theshapefilebasednetwork,Streets_ND,isaddedtoArcCatalogalongwiththesystemjunctions
shapefileStreets_ND_Junctions.

18.SelectStreets_NDandclickonthePreviewtabtoseethebuiltnetworkdataset.

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19.CloseArcCatalog.

Findingthebestrouteusinganetworkdataset [Tutorial02]

InthisExerciseyouwillfindthebestrouteforthegivenorderofstopsbasedontraveltime.

1.IftheNetworkAnalysttoolbarisnotalreadypresent,ontheMainmenu,clickView,pointto
Toolbars,andclickNetworkAnalyst.

Show/Hide
Network
A l t Wi d

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Directions

Select/Move
Network

Solve

RoadNetwork
Shape file

Network

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2.IftheNetworkAnalystWindowisnotalreadyopen,clicktheNetworkAnalystWindowbutton
ontheNetworkAnalysttoolbar.

ThisisadockablewindowwhichyoucandockwithintheArcMapwindoworleaveundocked.In
thisExercisethewindowisdockedbelowtheTableofContents.

CreatingtheRouteanalysislayer

1. On the Network Analyst toolbar, click the Network Analyst dropdown menu, and click
NewRoute.

TheNetworkAnalystWindownowcontainsemptylistsofStops,Routes,andBarrierscategories.

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Additionally,thetableofcontentscontainsanewRouteAnalysisLayer.

Addingastop

Next,youwilladdthestopsbetweenwhichyouwillbecreatingthebestroute.

1.ClickStops(0)ontheNetworkAnalystWindow.
2.OntheNetworkAnalystToolbar,clicktheCreateNetworkLocationtool.

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3.Clickanywhereonthestreetnetworkinthemaptodefineanewstoplocation.Theprogram
then calculates the nearest network location and symbolizes the stop with the located symbol.
Thestopwillremainselecteduntilanotherstopisplacedoruntilitisunselected.

Thelocatedstopalsodisplaysthenumber1.Thenumberrepresentstheorderinwhichthestops
willbevisitedbythecalculatedroute.YouwillalsonoticethattheStopscategoryontheNetwork
AnalystWindownowlists1stop.ExpandtheStopscategorytoseetheGraphicPick1listedthere.

4.Addtwomorestopsonthemap.Thestopsarenumbered2and3.Theorderofstopscanbe
changedontheNetworkAnalystWindow.Thefirststopistreatedastheoriginandthelast,as

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thedestination.

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Settinguptheparametersfortheanalysis

Next,youwillspecifythatyourroutewillbecalculatedbasedontime(minutes),thatUturnsare
allowedeverywhere,andthatonewayrestrictionsmustbefollowed.

1.ClicktheAnalysisLayerPropertiesbuttonnexttoRoutelayerontheNetworkAnalystWindow
tobringuptheLayerPropertiesdialogboxforRoute.

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2. In the Layer Properties dialog box, click the Analysis Settings tab. Make sure the impedance
selectedis
Minutes(Minutes).

3. Do not use time windows. (Leave the box unchecked.) Time windows are used when certain
stopscanonlybevisitedatcertaintimes.

4.Donotreorderstops.(Leavetheboxunchecked.)Thispreservestheorderofstopsasdecided
byyou,whenyoucreatedthestops.

5.ChooseEverywherefromtheAllowUturnsdropdownbox.

6.ChooseTrueShapefromtheOutputShapeTypedropdownbox.

7. Check the box labeled Ignore Invalid Locations. This will let you find the best route using
locatedstops.Stopsthatwerenotlocatedonthenetworkwillbeignored.

8.FindtheDirectionssection.

9.MakesuretheDistanceUnitsaresettoMiles,theUseTimeAttributeboxischeckedandthe

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timeattributeissettoMinutes.
10.ClickOK.

Runtheprocesstocomputethebestroute

1.ClicktheSolvebuttonontheNetworkAnalysttoolbar.

TheroutepolylineappearsinthemapandintheRoutecategoryoftheNetworkAnalystWindow.

2.Clicktheplus(+)signnexttoRoutesontheNetworkAnalystWindowtoshowtheRoute.

3.RightclickthenewroutecalledGraphicPick1GraphicPick3andclickDirectionsWindowto
displaydrivingdirections.

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4.TheDirectionsWindowcanalsobedisplayedwithturnbyturnmapsthatcanbeshownby
clickingontheMaplink.

5.ClosetheDirectionsWindow.

Addingabarrier

Inthissection,youwilladdabarrierontheroutethatrepresentsaroadblockandwillfindan
alternateroutetothedestinationavoidingtheroadblock.

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1.IntheWindowmenu,clickMagnifiertobringuptheMagnifierwindow.

2.ClickonthetitlebaroftheMagnifierwindowanddragtorepositiontheMagnifierwindow.

3.MovetheMagnifierwindowovertheroute,toapointwhereyouwanttoaddabarrier.The
Magnifierwindowshowsapartofthemapwhereyoucanaddabarrieratazoomof100percent.

4.OntheNetworkAnalystWindow,clickBarriers(0).

5.OntheNetworkAnalystToolbar,clicktheCreateNetworkLocationtool.

6.IntheMagnifierwindow,clickanywhereontheroute,toplaceabarrier.

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7. Click theSolve button on the Network Analyst toolbar. A new alternative route is computed,
avoidingthebarrier.

8.ClosetheMagnifierWindow.

Savingthebestroute

1.RightclickRoutes(1)ontheNetworkAnalystWindowandclickExportData.

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2.Giveanameandsavetherouteasshapefile

3.ClickOK.Thebestroutegeneratedissavedtothespecifiedshapefile.

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4.ClickYeswhenpromptedtoaddtheexporteddatatothemapasalayer.

Linear referencing is the method of


storing geographic locations by using
relative positions along a measured
linear feature. Distance measures are
usedtolocateeventsalongtheline:

Measurementsalongfeaturesareused
to locate point events and line events
using a number of conventions. Here
aresomecommonexamples.
Apointcanbelocatedalongthelinein
thegraphbelow:

WhatisLinearReferencing

4. Atmeasure12alongtheline
5. 4unitseastofmeasuremarker10
alongtheline
Linefeaturescanbereferencedina
fewways.Inthisexampleabove:

Thelinestartsatmeasurement
18andendsat26
Thelinestartsatmeasurement
28andcontinuesfor12units

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Why use linear referencing?

Linearreferencingisusedformany
reasons.Twoprimaryreasonsinclude:

Many locations are recorded as


events along linear features for
example, locations of traffic
accidents are recorded using a
convention such as 27 meters east
of the reference mile marker 35
along State Highway 287. Many
sensors record conditions along
linear features using measures of
distance or time along the lines
along pipelines, along roads, along
streams,etc.
Linear referencing is also used to
associatemultiplesetsofattributes
to portions of linear features
without requiring that underlying
lines be segmented (split) each
time that attribute values change.
For example, most road centerline
feature classes are segmented
where three or more road
segments intersect and where the
roadnameschange.

Users often want to record many


additional attributes about the
roads. Without the use of linear
referencing, this could require that
roads be split into many tiny
segments at each location where
attribute values change. As an
alternative, these situations can be
handled as linear referencing
events along the roads as in the
figure:

What is dynamic segmentation?

Dynamic segmentation is the process of computing the map locations of events stored and

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managedinaneventtableusingalinearreferencingmeasurementsystemanddisplayingthem
onamap.Theterm"dynamicsegmentation"isderivedfromtheconceptthatlinefeaturesneed
not be split (i.e.; "segmented") each time an attribute value changes you can "dynamically"
locatethesegment.
Usingdynamicsegmentation,multiplesetsofattributescanbeassociatedwithanyportionofan
existing linear feature independently of where it begins or ends. These attributes can be
displayed, queried, edited, and analyzed without affecting the underlying linear feature's
geometry.

LinearReferencing[Tutorial01]

1.Firstdonecessaryeditingtoyourdataandinsertappropriateattributeinformation.Editing
includesundershoot/overshoot/dissolve[tomakeacompleteroadfromitssegments]etc.If
youdontdissolveitfirst,createroutecommandalsodissolvethesegmentwithsimilarID.

2.Toseethestartandendpointofeachfeatures[hereitisindividualcompleteroad],symbolize
withArrowatEndandobserve,ifthereisanyanomaly,inthatcaseselecttheroadwithEditTool
[doubleclick]andrightclicktheselectedroadandclickFliptoconvertstartpointasendpointand
viceversa

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3.FromArcToolbox,selectLinearReferencingTools>>CreateRoutes.
a)Selectinputfeature
b)SelectRouteIdentifierfield[normallyIDofeachcompleteroad]
c)Giveoutputfeaturename.
d)ThenpressOkbutton
e)ThentheroutedatawillbecreatedandaddedintheTOCtoshowthemap

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4.NowrightclicktheroutelayerintheTOC,selectpropertiesandthenselectHatchTabandthen
pressHatchClasstogivehatchinterval.CheckHatchfeaturesinthislayeroption

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5.ThenclickHatchDefandselecthatchoptionaslineormarker.IfyouselectLineoptionthen
givevalueforhatchlinelengthoryoucanselectMarker,inthecaseyoucanspecifymarkersize
andcolor.CheckLabelthesehatchestoseetheintervalvalue.

6.Ifitisfoundthatthehatchvaluedoesnotcomplywiththedirectionthendoubleclickthe

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segmentwithEditToolandrightclickandthenselectRouteMeasureEditing>>SetFrom/To.
Thenswapthevalue.

HowtomakeDynamicSegmentation

Createatableforsegment(Road/Pipe)Information

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1.InMSAccesscreateadatabase
(.mdbformat)andtablewiththe
followingfield

InsertSegmentedInformation[Point]

1.Tomakeitsimpleinsertsegment
informationforoneortworoad
2.Sometimesitneedstoexportthe
tablecreatedto.dbfformattowork
properly

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2.Fromtoolmenu,selectAddRoute
Events..,togetthefollowingdialog
box
2.ChoosePointEventsandother
appropriateoptionsfromdifferent
dropdownlist
3.ClickOK
4.ThenaneventwillbeaddedtoTOC
5.Symbolizetheeventlayer

1.Eventpointisaddedaccordingtothe
informationinserted.
2.Nowaddsomeaccidentpoint
locationbyinsertingwordAccin
theeventfield.
3.Savethetableas.dbfif.mdbdoes
notworkinyourversionofwindows.
4.Fromtoolmenu,selectAddRoute
Eventsandsymbolizewithunique
valuesforeventfield.Removeother
pointsexceptaccidentpoint.

AddRouteEvents

DisplayingtheResults

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ShowAccidentPointsandupdateinformationdynamically

1.Nowchangetheaccidentlocation
anddisplayitdynamically
2.Changein.mdbtableor.dbftable
3.ClosetheArcGISandreloadit.
4.seethechange

InsertSegmentedInformation[Line]

1.Usethesamedatabasefile.
2.ChooseLineEvent.
3.ChooseFrommeasureandTo
measureforlineevent.
4.ClickOK.

Changethedatabaseandgetsegmentdynamically

1.Changetheinformationinbelow
eventtableanddisplaywillupdate
automatically

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ModuleVIII

Geodatabase
PersonalGeodatabase

InthisModule
PersonalGeodatabase
Howtocreatepersonalgeodatabase
Creatingnewgeodatabase
Populategeodatabasebyimport/export

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PersonalGeodatabase


AgeodatabasethatstoresdatainMicrosoftAccess.APersonalgeodatabasecanbereadsimultaneously
byseveralusers.Butonlyoneuseratatimecaneditthesamedata.

HowtocreatePersonalGeodatabase


AgeodatabaseisanobjectorientedgeographicdatabasethatprovidesServicesformanaginggeographic
data. These services include validation rules, relationships, and topological associations. A geodatabase
contains feature datasets as well as feature classes that can be stored inside a feature dataset or
maintained independently. A personal geodatabase is stored inside a relational database mamagement
system(RDBMS).

ArcCatalogisthemanagerforyourgeodatabase.WithArcCatalog,youcanviewandeditthecontentsof
yourgeodatabase.ArcCatalogcontainsafullsuiteofutilitiestocreateandmanageageodatabase.

Geodatabases are relational databases that contain geographic information. Geodatabases contain
feature classes and tables. Feature classes can be organized into a feature dataset; they can also exist
independentlyinthegeodatabase.Afeaturedatasetisacollectionoffeatureclassesthatsharethesame
spatialreference.

Featureclassesstoregeographicfeaturesrepresentedaspoints,lines,orpolygonsandtheir attributes;
they can also store annotation dimensions. All feature classes in a feature dataset share the same
coordinatesystem.Tablesmaycontainadditionalattributesfoeafeatureclassorgeographicinformation,
suchasaddressesandx,y,zcoordinates.

Many objects in a geodatabase can be related to each other. For example, tables containing customer
addressesandbillinginformationarerelated,justasstateandcountryfeatureclassesarerelated

CreatingaPersonalGeodatabase


Creatinganewpersonalgeodatabaseinvolvecreatinga.mdbfileondisk.Thisisasimple,straightforward
processthatisperformedbyusingArcCatalogorgeoprocessingtools.

CreatinganewpersonalgeodatabaseusingArcCatalog


1.RightclickthefilefolderintheArcCatalogtreewhereyouwanttocreatethenewpersonalgeo
database
2.PointtoNew
3.ClickPersonalGeodatabase

ArcCatalogcreatesanewpersonalgeodatabaseinthelocationyouselectedandsetsitsname

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toeditmode.

4.TypeanewnameforthispersonalgeodatabaseandpressEnter.

ImportingandExportingshapefiletoGeodatabase


1.RightclickoverGeodatabase>>Import>>Featureclass(Single)/Featureclass(Multiple)

2.Rightclickovershapefile>>Export>>ToGeodatabase(Single)/Geodatabase(Multiple)

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ModuleIX

SpatialAnalysis

InthisModule
AboutSpatialAnalyst
UnderstandingOverlayAnalysis
HowenableSpatialAnalyst
ConceptofEuclideanDistance
CalculatingEuclideanDistance
MakingSurface[FeaturetoRaster]
Overlay

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AboutSpatialAnalyst

ArcGISSpatialAnalystprovidesarichsetoftoolstoperformcellbased(raster)analysis.Ofthethreemain
types of GIS data (raster, vector, and TIN), the raster data structure provides the most comprehensive
modelingenvironmentforspatialanalysis.

Cellbased systems divide the world into discrete uniform units called cells, based on a grid structure.
Each cell represents a certain specified portion of the earth, such as a square kilometer, hectare, or
squaremeter.Cellsaregivenvaluesthatcorrespondtothefeaturesorcharacteristicsthatarelocatedat
ordescribethelocationstheyrepresent,suchasanelevationvalue,soiltype,orresidentialclassification.
In a cellbased system, geographic location is not defined as an attribute but is inherent in the storage
structure,knownasthelocationalperspective.

SpatialAnalystToolsets

The following table lists the available toolsets in ArcGIS Spatial Analyst and gives a brief description of
each.

Distance
There are two main ways to perform distance analysis in ArcGIS Spatial Analyst:
Euclidean distance and cost distance. The Euclidean distance functions measure
straightline distance from each cell to the closest source (the source identifies the
objectsofinterest,suchaswells,roads,oraschool).Thecostdistancefunctions(or
cost weighted distance) modify Euclidean distance by equating distance as a cost
factor, which is the cost to travel through any given cell. For example, it may be
shortertoclimboverthemountaintothedestination,butitisfastertowalkaround
it.
Overlay
A common spatial analysis query is to identify the suitability of each cell location
relative to specific criteria. The criteria can be relative costs, preferences, or risks.
Suitabilitymodelsanswerquestionssuchas,Whereisthebestlocationtoconstructa
house. What is the cheapest route to build a road? And Which areas should be
conservedfordeerhabitat?TheWeightedOverlaytoolallowsyoutoeasilyreclassify
yourdata,weightthedatasets,andcombinethemtocreateasuitabilitymap.
Reclass
Reclassifyingyourdatasimplymeansreplacinginputcellvalueswithnewoutputcell
values.Therearemanyreasonswhyyoumightwanttoreclassifyyourdata.Someof
themostcommonreasonsare:(1)toreplacevaluesbasedonnewinformation,(2)to
group certain values together, (3) to reclassify values to a common scale (for
example, for use in a suitability analysis or for creating a cost raster for use in the
CostDistancetool),and(4)tosetspecificvaluestoNoDataortosetNoDatacellstoa
value.Thereareseveralapproachestoreclassifyyourdata:byindividualvalues,by
ranges,byintervalsorarea,orthroughanalternativevalue.

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UnderstandingOverlayAnalysis

Weightedoverlayisatechniqueforapplyingacommonscaleofvaluestodiverseanddissimilarinputto
createanintegratedanalysis.

Geographicproblemsoftenrequiretheanalysisofmanydifferentfactors.Forinstance,choosingthesite
foranewhousingdevelopmentmeansassessingsuchthingsaslandcost,proximitytoexistingservices,
slope,andfloodfrequency.Thisinformationexistsindifferentrasterswithdifferentvaluescales:Taka,
distances,degrees,andsoon.Youcannotaddarasteroflandcost(Taka)toarasterofdistancetoutilities
(meters)andobtainameaningfulresult.

Additionally,thefactorsinyouranalysismaynotbeequallyimportant.Itmaybethatthecostoflandis
moreimportantinchoosingasitethanthedistancetoutilitylines.Howmuchmoreimportantisforyou
todecide.

The Weighted Overlay tool lets you take all these issues into consideration. It reclassifies values in the
inputrastersontoacommonevaluationscaleofsuitabilityorpreference,risk,orsomesimilarlyunifying
scale.Theinputrastersareweightedbyimportanceandaddedtogethertoproduceanoutputraster.The
stepsaresummarizedbelow.

1. Anumericevaluationscaleischosen.Thismaybe1to5,1to9,oranyotherscale.Valuesatone
endofthescalerepresentoneextremeofsuitability(orothercriterion);valuesattheotherend
representtheotherextreme.
2. Thecellvaluesforeachinputrasterintheanalysisareassignedvaluesfromtheevaluationscale
and reclassified to these values. This makes it possible to perform arithmetic operations on the
rastersthatoriginallyhelddissimilartypesofvalues.
3. Each input raster is weighted, or assigned a percent influence, based on its importance to the
model.Thetotalinfluenceforallrastersequals100percent.
4. Thecellvaluesofeachinputrasteraremultipliedbytherasters'weights.
5. Theresultingcellvaluesareaddedtogethertoproducetheoutputraster.
TheWeightedOverlaytoolacceptsonlydiscreterasters(integervalues)asinput.Continuousrastersmust
bereclassifiedtodiscreterastersbeforetheycanbeused.

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Thetwoinputrastersabovehavebeenreclassifiedtoanevaluationscaleof1to3.Eachrasterisassigned
apercentageinfluence.Theinfluenceofthefirstrasteris75percentandtheinfluenceofthesecondis25
percent.Thecellvaluesaremultipliedbytheirinfluencepercentages,thenaddedtogethertocreatethe
outputraster.Takethetopleftcellasanexample(2*.75)=1.5and(3*.25)=.75.Thesumof1.5and
.75is2.25.Becausetheoutputrasterisdiscrete,thevalueisroundedto2.

Aweightedoverlayexample
In the following example, a location for a new urban park is being chosen. Three factors will be
considered: land use, population density, and distance to existing parks. The goal is to find an area of
suitable land use, such as vacant land, in a neighborhood of high population density, to provide green
spaceincrowdedareasthatisnotalreadyservedbyanexistingpark.

Theinputrasterstotheweightedoverlayaredisplayedintheimageabove.Theyare(fromlefttoright):
landuse,populationdensity,anddistancetoparks.
TheweightedoverlaymodelisdisplayedintheimagebelowasaprocessinModelBuilder.

Eachvalueclassineachinputrasterisassigned
anew,reclassifiedvalueonanevaluationscale
of 1 to 5, where 1 represents the lowest
suitability and 5 the highest. For instance, in
the land use raster, vacant land is highly
suitable, while commercial land is not. In the
populationdensityraster,suitabilityvaluesare
high for highdensity areas and low for low
density areas. In the distance to parks raster,
suitabilityincreaseswithdistancefromexisting
parksbecauseareasfarfromexistingparksare

inadequatelyserved.
Any class can also be assigned a restricted
value, which means that the corresponding
area is unacceptable or cannot be used.
Restricted areas are excluded from the
analysis. In the land use raster, for example,
airportsandwaterbodiesarerestricted.
Each of the three input rasters is then

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weighted. In this weighted overlay, land use


has a 50 percent influence, population density
a15percentinfluence,anddistancefromparks
a35percentinfluence.
When the weighted overlay is run, a raster of
overallsuitabilityiscreated.

The most suitable areas are shown in red.


Orangeareasarenext,followedbygreen.Blue
and purple areas are least suitable, and white
areas are restricted. Modifying the suitability
values or the influence percentages will
producedifferentresults.

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HowtoenableSpatialAnalyst

HowtofindasuitablelocationforanewPumpStation [Tutorial]

1.StartanewArcGISdocument
2.LoadDPWPump,DStructure,DWaterbodyfromyourDatafolder
3.OpenToolboxwindowandcheckwhetherSpatialAnalystToolsareavailable,ifnotrightclickonblank
spaceofArcToolboxandselectAddToolboxesoptions.SelectthetoolsfromDrive/Program
files/ArcGIS/ArcToolbox/Toolboxes/SpatialAnalystTools.

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EuclideanDistance

Three output rasters are available from the Euclidean functions. These rasters describe each cell's
Euclideanrelationshiptoasourceortoasetofsourcecells.TheEuclideandistancerasteridentifiesthe
distancefromeachcelltotheclosestsourcecell;theEuclideandirectionrastergivesthedirectionfrom
eachcelltotheclosestsourcecell;andtheEuclideanallocationrasteridentifieswhichcellsareallocated
towhichsourcebasedonclosestproximity.

Eachrastercanbederivedseparatelybyrunningoneofthethreefunctions,oreachfunctioncanderive
all three rasters as output in Map Algebra. No prerequisites exist between functions, which can be run
independentlyatanytime.

Euclideandistanceiscalculatedfromthecenterofthesourcecelltothecenterofeachofthesurrounding
cells.TrueEuclideandistanceiscalculatedineachofthedistancefunctions.Conceptually,theEuclidean
algorithmworksasfollows:foreachcell,thedistancetoeachsourcecellisdeterminedbycalculatingthe
hypotenusewithx_maxandy_maxastheothertwolegsofthetriangle.Thiscalculationderivesthetrue
Euclideandistance,ratherthanthecelldistance.Theshortestdistancetoasourceisdetermined,andifit
islessthanthespecifiedmaximumdistance,thevalueisassignedtothecell.

The output values for the Euclidean raster are floatingpoint distance values. If a cell is at an equal

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distancefromtwoormoresources,itisassignedtothesourcethatisfirstencounteredinthescanning
process.

The above description is only a conceptual depiction of how values are derived. The actual algorithm
computes the information using a twoscan sequential process. This process makes the speed of the
function independent from the number of source cells, the distribution of the source cells, and the
maximumdistancespecified.Theonlyfactorthatinfluencesthespeedwithwhichthefunctionexecutes
isthesizeoftheraster.

Euclideandirectionassignsthedirectionofeachcellindegreestoitsnearestsource.A360degreecircle
or compass is used, with 360 being to the north and 1 to the east; the remaining values increase
clockwise.Thevalue0isreservedforthesourcecells.

Euclideanallocationproducesanoutputrasterthatrecordsforeachcelltheidentityoftheclosestsource
cell.Eachcellinanallocationreceivesthevalueofthezonetowhichitwillbeallocated.

CalculatingEuclideanDistance

1.ClickEuclideanDistancetoolunderDistancefolderofSpatialAnalystTool.Selectcellresolution5m.
surface

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2.ThenReclassifyupto5classandvalueitfrom15

MakeSurface(toraster)fromBuildingFootprintlayer

1.SelectonlyTinShedbuildingwhoseareais>300sqftusingQueryBuilder["STRUCTYPE"='TinShed'and
"Area">300]
2.SelectPolygontoRastertoolsfromToRasterfolderofConversionTools.MakeCellsize5m
3.Reclassifythevaluefrom15scale

CalculateDistanceforPumpStation

1.MakedistancesurfaceforDPWPumplayer.Assigncellsize5m.FollowthestepsforWaterbodylayer.

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2.Reclassifythesurfacefrom15range

OverlaythethreeSurfaces

1.Overlaythesurfacewithequalweight
2.SelectWeightedSumtoolunderOverlayfolderofSpatialAnalystTools.Reclassifythevaluewith13
rangevalue.
3.YouwillgetbestlocationforconstructingnewPumpStation[TheplotwithintheRedCircle]

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DistancefromexistingWaterbody

Distancefromexistingpump

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