Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

The full hiragana chart

The full katakana chart

Basic grammar
The Japanese grammar has lots of specific features, mostly because it is so scarcely related to other languages.
On the other hand it is very sensible, logically very well connected. Some of its features are:
1. in Japanese the predicate always stands at the end of the sentence
2. the verbs don't change depending on the person, gender or number
3. the nouns don't have plural or gender
4. the dependence between words in a sentence is expressed thru particles which follow the words affected.

Personal pronouns
First, the personal pronouns will be covered:
singular

plural

watashi

we

watashitachi

you

anata

you

anatatachi

he
she

kare
kanojo

they

karera

The columns are as follows: english, romaji, hiraganaand kanji.


There is no neuter gender ("it") in Japanese. There are other forms of personal pronouns too. For example, the
most polite form of "I" is "watakushi". Then there is the form that can only be used by men, "boku", and so on...
For "you" males can say "kimi", informally. But "kimi" is not dependent on the gender of the person to whom it
relates, but on the gender of the one who talks. Only men can say that! It's a very specific feature of the
Japanese language too.
For "they" there are different feminine and masculine forms too: "karetachi" and "kanojochi".

Particles
Particles are suffixes which follow promptly after the word that they relate to. They determine the function of
that word in the sentence. Some of the most common particles are:

WA

- determines the subject in a sentence.

Example:

Watashiwa Nihonjin desu.

I Japanese am.

Notice, that "wa" is written as "ha" in hiragana. This is one of the few exceptions in Japanese.

- pinpoints the direct object

Example:

Watashiwa kohio nomimasu.

Icoffee drink.
This is also an exception, because "wo" is written , but just "o" is read.

NI

- indirect object
- place marker
- time marker

Example:

jini okimasu .

(I) get up at 7 o'clock.

- marks the direction

Example:

Daigakue ikimasu.

(I am) going to the university.


Also an exception.

NO

- indicates possession

Example:

Korewa anatano hon desu .

This book is yours .


The main function of "no" is to mark possession, but it also has some other minor usages too.

MO

- inclusion, addition marker

Example:

Karemo gakusei desu .

He too is a student .
"mo" replaces "wa" and indicates that the word before it also has some property

Basic Japanese phrases


OK, so you've decided, that you'd like to learn some of the most common and well-known phrases in Japanese.
Or you already know some words, but are not quite sure about their meaning. This is the right section for you.

Greetings
English

Romaji

Kana

ice to meet you

hajime mash'te

good morning

ohayoo (gozaimas')

good afternoon

konnichiwa

good evening

konbanwa

oyasumi (nasai)

see you

jaa

goodbye

sayonara

good night

In the phrase "hajime mashite" the second "i" is not pronounced. In "ohayoo gozaimasu" the "u" is not
pronounced. In general, when "su" is at the end of a word, "u" is never pronounced. The double "o" in "ohayoo"
stands for prolongation of the sound, like in "door" in english. The words in brackets can be omitted.

Polite phrases
English

Romaji

Kana

How are you?

Ogenki desuka?

I'm fine, thanks.

Watashiwa genki desu.


Arigato.

Thank you

Arigato

Thank you very much

Domo arigato gozaimasu

Kudasai

Dozo

Please (requesting s'thing)


Please (offering s'thing)

Excuse me (to get attention) Sumimasen

Sorry (mistake)

Gomen nasai

Do you speak
english/japanese?

Anatawa eigo/nihongo o
hanashimasuka?

Yes/no/a little

Hai/iie/chotto

//

Do you understand?

Wakarimasuka?

I understand/I don't
understand

Wakarimasu/
wakarimasen

I don't know

Shirimasen