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BRITISH STANDARD

Railway applications
Gauges
Part 3: Structure gauges

ICS 45.020

NO COPYING WITHOUT BSI PERMISSION EXCEPT AS PERMITTED BY COPYRIGHT LAW

BS EN
15273-3:2009

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BS EN 15273-3:2009

National foreword
This British Standard is the UK implementation of EN 15273-3:2009.
The UK participation in its preparation was entrusted by Technical Committee
RAE/1, Railway applications, to Subcommittee RAE/001/-/12, Railway
applications Gauging.
A list of organizations represented on this committee can be obtained on
request to its secretary.
Gauging practices used in Great Britain are documented in Railway Group
Standards, published for the GB main line railway industry by Rail Safety and
Standards Board Limited (RSSB), www.rssb.co.uk. Railway Group Standards
are freely available from www.rgsonline.co.uk.
The gauging practices used in Great Britain diverge significantly from the
International Union of Railways (UIC) gauging practices used in much of the
rest of Europe. Although BS EN 15273 Railway applications Gauges defines a
number of different gauging methodologies and applications, the underlying
philosophy is that of the UIC method of gauging, which depends on the use of
reference profiles. It should be noted, therefore, that BS EN 15273 and Railway
Group Standards sometimes use the same terms, but with different meanings.
The terminology used in one cannot be used to interpret the requirements of the
other.
This part of BS EN 15273 includes a number of gauges specifically intended for
use in Great Britain. However, current UK definitions of standard vehicle
gauges specifically intended for use in Great Britain, with application rules for
infrastructure and rolling stock, are set out in the relevant Railway Group
Standard.
National Annex NA gives the definitions used in Great Britain for some of the
key terms used in BS EN 15273.
Mandatory European requirements relating to structure gauges are set out in
the High Speed Infrastructure Technical Specification for Infrastructure (HS
INF TSI), adopted in 2007, and the Conventional Rail Infrastructure Technical
Specification for Interoperability (CR INF TSI), expected to be adopted in 2011.
Both TSIs contain GB specific cases relating to structure gauge in the case of
renewal or upgrading of infrastructure. These should be read in conjunction
with BS EN 15273.
Except where a decision has been made to adopt standard European gauges,
and to use the associated gauging techniques documented in BS EN 15273, the
gauges and gauging practices used on the GB main line railway should continue
to be those documented in Railway Group Standards.
BS EN 15273 should be used where a decision has been made to adopt standard
European gauges, and to use the associated gauging techniques.
This publication does not purport to include all the necessary provisions
of a contract. Users are responsible for its correct application.
Compliance with a British Standard cannot confer immunity
from legal obligations.
This British Standard
was published under the
authority of the Standards
Policy and Strategy
Committee on 31 May 2010
BSI 2010

ISBN 978 0 580 55705 7

Amendments/corrigenda issued since publication


Date

Comments

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BS EN 15273-3:2009

EN 15273-3

EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPENNE
EUROPISCHE NORM

December 2009

ICS 45.020

English Version

Railway applications - Gauges - Part 3: Structure gauges


Applications ferroviaires - Gabarits - Partie 3: Gabarit des
obstacles

Bahnanwendungen - Begrenzungslinien - Teil 3:


Lichtraumprofile

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 3 October 2009.


CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.
This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the
official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMIT EUROPEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPISCHES KOMITEE FR NORMUNG

Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

2009 CEN

All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved


worldwide for CEN national Members.

Ref. No. EN 15273-3:2009: E

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Contents

Page

Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................7
Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................8
1

Scope ......................................................................................................................................................9

Normative references ............................................................................................................................9

Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................9

4
4.1
4.2
4.3

Symbols, abbreviations and subscripts............................................................................................12


Symbols and abbreviations ................................................................................................................12
Subscripts ............................................................................................................................................17
Notations ..............................................................................................................................................18

5
5.1
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.4
5.5
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3
5.6
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4

General information on all the gauging methods.............................................................................18


The reference profile and its associated rules .................................................................................18
Transverse widening ...........................................................................................................................18
Gauge variations depending on the local situation .........................................................................18
Random transverse phenomena ........................................................................................................19
Superelevation and lowering perpendicular to the running surface..............................................20
Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................20
Vertical superelevation or lowering for longitudinal profile transition curves .............................20
Vertical effect of the roll ......................................................................................................................21
Uplift ......................................................................................................................................................22
Vertical random phenomena ..............................................................................................................22
Additional allowances .........................................................................................................................22
Gauge types .........................................................................................................................................23
Gauge methodologies .........................................................................................................................23
Structure gauge types .........................................................................................................................23
Uniform gauge......................................................................................................................................24
Gauge choice .......................................................................................................................................24
Gauge and methodology choice ........................................................................................................24
Structure gauge choice .......................................................................................................................25
Taking account of the allowances .....................................................................................................25
Gauge catalogue ..................................................................................................................................25

6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2

Rules for determination of the static gauge .....................................................................................26


General..................................................................................................................................................26
Associated rules ..................................................................................................................................26
Determination of the sum of allowances ........................................................................................27
Transverse allowances .......................................................................................................................27
Vertical allowances for random phenomena ....................................................................................28

7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.4
7.4.1
7.4.2

Rules for determination of the kinematic gauge ..............................................................................29


General..................................................................................................................................................29
Associated rules ..................................................................................................................................29
Transverse allowances for random phenomena ..............................................................................30
Phenomena considered ......................................................................................................................30
Determination of the sum of transverse allowances j ...................................................................30
Vertical allowances for random phenomena ....................................................................................31
Phenomena considered ......................................................................................................................31
Determination of the sum of vertical allowances V ........................................................................31

8
8.1

Rules for determination of the dynamic gauge ................................................................................31


General..................................................................................................................................................31

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8.2
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.4
8.4.1
8.4.2

Associated rules..................................................................................................................................32
Transverse allowances for random phenomena..............................................................................32
Phenomena considered ......................................................................................................................32
Determination of the sum of allowances j ......................................................................................32
Vertical allowances for random phenomena ....................................................................................33
Phenomena considered ......................................................................................................................33
Determination of the sum of vertical allowances V ........................................................................33

9
9.1
9.2
9.2.1
9.2.2
9.2.3
9.2.4
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2

Distance between track centres.........................................................................................................34


General .................................................................................................................................................34
Determination of the limit distance between track centres ............................................................34
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................34
Effect of cant difference bD..............................................................................................................35
Allowances to take into account random phenomena ....................................................................36
Determination ......................................................................................................................................37
Determination of the nominal distance between track centres ......................................................38
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................38
Determination ......................................................................................................................................38

10
10.1
10.1.1
10.1.2
10.1.3
10.2
10.2.1
10.2.2
10.3
10.3.1
10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4

Elements of variable layout ................................................................................................................39


Introduction..........................................................................................................................................39
Calculation principle ...........................................................................................................................39
Characteristics of a layout transition ................................................................................................39
Gauge variations .................................................................................................................................40
Layout transition .................................................................................................................................40
Sudden change of curvature ..............................................................................................................40
Smooth transition of curvature ..........................................................................................................41
Crossing of a turnout ..........................................................................................................................42
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................42
Additional overthrow variations ........................................................................................................43
Quasi-static effect variations .............................................................................................................44
Result....................................................................................................................................................44

11
11.1
11.1.1
11.1.2
11.1.3
11.2
11.2.1
11.2.2
11.3
11.3.1
11.3.2
11.3.3
11.3.4
11.4

Determination of the pantograph free passage gauge....................................................................45


General .................................................................................................................................................45
Space to be cleared for electrified lines............................................................................................45
Particularities .......................................................................................................................................45
Basic principles ...................................................................................................................................45
Determination of the pantograph free passage mechanical gauge (in the case of the
kinematic gauge) .................................................................................................................................46
Determination of the mechanical gauge width.................................................................................46
Determination of the maximum height heff of the mechanical gauge ............................................49
Pantograph electrical gauge (in the case of the kinematic gauge) ................................................49
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................49
Pantograph electrical gauge width....................................................................................................49
Electrical gauge height .......................................................................................................................50
Insulating distance ..............................................................................................................................50
Determination of the pantograph gauge in the case of the dynamic gauge .................................50

12

Overhead contact wire ........................................................................................................................51

13
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.3.1
13.3.2
13.3.3
13.4

Rules for installation of platform edges............................................................................................52


General .................................................................................................................................................52
Gaps blac and hlac ...................................................................................................................................53
Installation dimensions.......................................................................................................................55
Installation relative to the running surface.......................................................................................55
Installation relative to the horizontal (xq, yq) .....................................................................................55
Installation tolerances.........................................................................................................................56
Verification and tolerances.................................................................................................................56

14
14.1

Tilting trains .........................................................................................................................................56


General .................................................................................................................................................56

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14.2
14.3

Transition curve ...................................................................................................................................57


Degraded modes..................................................................................................................................58

15

Rules for ferries ...................................................................................................................................58

16
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6

Track accessories................................................................................................................................58
Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................58
Contact ramps......................................................................................................................................59
Active check rails.................................................................................................................................59
Planking of level crossings ................................................................................................................59
Electric third rail...................................................................................................................................59
Rail brakes............................................................................................................................................59

17
17.1
17.2

Verification and maintenance of the gauge ......................................................................................60


Structure gauge ...................................................................................................................................60
Distance between centres...................................................................................................................60

18

Guide for determination of a new gauge from an existing infrastructure .....................................60

Annex A (normative) Calculation methodology for structure gauge allowances ......................................61


A.1
Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................61
A.2
Formulation in the case of the static or kinematic gauge ...............................................................61
A.2.1 For the installation nominal gauge ....................................................................................................61
A.2.2 For the installation limit gauge...........................................................................................................62
A.2.3 Limit gauge...........................................................................................................................................64
A.2.4 For the installation nominal distance between centres...................................................................64
A.2.5 For the installation limit distance between centres .........................................................................65
A.2.6 For the limit distance between centres .............................................................................................65
A.2.7 For the pantograph gauge ..................................................................................................................65
A.3
Formulation in the case of the dynamic gauge ................................................................................66
A.3.1 General..................................................................................................................................................66
A.3.2 For the installation nominal gauge ....................................................................................................66
A.3.3 For the installation limit gauge...........................................................................................................66
A.3.4 Limit gauge...........................................................................................................................................67
A.3.5 For the installation nominal distance between centres...................................................................68
A.3.6 For the installation limit distance between centres .........................................................................68
A.3.7 For the limit distance between centres .............................................................................................69
A.3.8 For the pantograph gauge ..................................................................................................................69
Annex B (informative) Recommended values for calculation of the structure gauge and
calculation examples...........................................................................................................................70
B.1
Recommendations for coefficients....................................................................................................70
B.2
Examples of kinematic calculation ....................................................................................................71
B.2.1 Limit gauge and installation limit gauge ...........................................................................................71
B.2.2 Nominal, installation limit and limit distances between centres ....................................................72
B.2.3 Pantograph gauge ...............................................................................................................................73
Annex C (normative) International gauges G1, GA, GB and GC ..................................................................80
C.1
General..................................................................................................................................................80
C.1.1 Application ...........................................................................................................................................80
C.1.2 Gauge types .........................................................................................................................................80
C.1.3 Parameters and common rules ..........................................................................................................80
C.1.4 Calculation of distance between centres ..........................................................................................81
C.1.5 Pantograph free passage gauge ........................................................................................................81
C.1.6 Gauge parts ..........................................................................................................................................81
C.2
Gauge for the upper parts (h > 400 mm)............................................................................................82
C.2.1 Gauge G1 ..............................................................................................................................................82
C.2.2 Gauges GA and GB..............................................................................................................................83
C.2.3 Gauge GC .............................................................................................................................................84
C.3
Lower parts (h 0,400 m) ....................................................................................................................85
C.3.1 Lower parts of GIC2 generally applicable ......................................................................................85
C.3.2 Lower parts of GIC1 Tracks for rail brake equipment...................................................................87
C.3.3 Lower parts for "rolling" roads GIC3 ..............................................................................................91

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C.3.4

Pantograph free passage gauge........................................................................................................93

Annex D (normative) Gauges for multilateral and national agreements.....................................................94


D.1
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................94
D.2
Kinematic gauges derived from international gauges ....................................................................94
D.2.1 Gauge G2..............................................................................................................................................94
D.2.2 Gauges GB1 and GB2 .........................................................................................................................96
D.3
Static gauges derived from international gauges ............................................................................99
D.3.1 Gauge G1..............................................................................................................................................99
D.3.2 Gauge G2............................................................................................................................................102
D.3.3 Gauges GA, GB and GC....................................................................................................................104
D.4
National application gauge...............................................................................................................106
D.4.1 Belgian gauges BE1, BE2 and BE3 .................................................................................................106
D.4.2 French gauges FR-3.3 .......................................................................................................................109
D.4.3 Portuguese gauges PTb, PTb+ and PTc .........................................................................................111
D.4.4 Finnish gauge FIN1 ...........................................................................................................................117
D.4.5 Swedish gauges SEa and SEc .........................................................................................................120
D.4.6 German gauge DE1 ...........................................................................................................................123
D.4.7 German gauge DE2 ...........................................................................................................................124
D.4.8 German gauge DE3 ...........................................................................................................................126
D.4.9 Czech gauge Z-GD ..........................................................................................................................128
D.4.10 UK gauge UK1....................................................................................................................................129
D.4.11 UK gauge UK1 [D]..............................................................................................................................132
D.4.12 UK gauge W6a ...................................................................................................................................133
Annex E (informative) Calculation example for determination of the gauge at a turnout .......................136
E.1
Introduction........................................................................................................................................136
E.2
Methodology ......................................................................................................................................137
E.3
Widening in the curve .......................................................................................................................137
E.3.1 Widening of the main line .................................................................................................................137
E.3.2 Widening in the turnout route ..........................................................................................................139
E.4
The quasi-static effect.......................................................................................................................140
E.5
Gauge width at a turnout ..................................................................................................................141
Annex F (normative) Determination of reference vehicle characteristics ................................................144
F.1
Introduction........................................................................................................................................144
F.2
Methodology ......................................................................................................................................144
F.3
Calculation example..........................................................................................................................145
F.3.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................................145
F.3.2 Vehicle no.1 (on the inside of the curve) ........................................................................................145
F.3.3 Vehicle no.2 (on the outside of the curve) ......................................................................................145
F.3.4 Vehicle no.3 (on the inside of the curve) ........................................................................................146
F.3.5 Vehicle no.4 (on the outside of the curve) ......................................................................................146
F.3.6 Summary ............................................................................................................................................146
F.3.7 International gauge reference vehicles...........................................................................................146
Annex G (normative) Uniform gauge ............................................................................................................149
G.1
Introduction........................................................................................................................................149
G.2
GU1 .....................................................................................................................................................149
G.2.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................149
G.2.2 Determination of the gauge ..............................................................................................................149
G.2.3 Equivalent kinematic gauge .............................................................................................................151
G.3
GU2 .....................................................................................................................................................151
G.3.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................151
G.3.2 Determination of the gauge ..............................................................................................................152
G.4
GUC.....................................................................................................................................................153
G.4.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................153
G.4.2 Determination of the gauge ..............................................................................................................154
Annex H (informative) Gauge maintenance guideline.................................................................................156
H.1
Introduction........................................................................................................................................156
H.2
Choice of gauge.................................................................................................................................156

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H.3
H.3.1
H.3.2
H.3.3
H.4
H.4.1
H.4.2
H.4.3
H.5
H.6

Installation rules ................................................................................................................................156


Guidelines for installation of equipment along the track ..............................................................156
Guidelines for the installation of tracks alongside structures .....................................................157
Guidelines for the installation of temporary structures ................................................................157
Managing and checking of structures .............................................................................................157
Management principles .....................................................................................................................157
Management of critical situations....................................................................................................157
Practical aspects for measuring the structures .............................................................................158
Effect of track maintenance..............................................................................................................158
Personnel training .............................................................................................................................158

Annex I (informative) A-deviations ................................................................................................................159


Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential
Requirements of the 2008/57/EC ......................................................................................................161
Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................170

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Foreword
This document (EN 15273-3:2009) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 Railway
applications, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2010, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at
the latest by June 2010.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. CEN and/or CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN/CENELEC/ETSI by the European
Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive
2008/57/EC.
For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document.
According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

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Introduction
This document is the third of a series of three parts of the European Standard covering gauges:

Part 1 covers general principles, phenomena shared by the infrastructure and by the rolling stock,
reference profiles and their associated rules;

Part 2 gives the rules for dimensioning the vehicles as a function of their specific characteristics for the
relevant gauge and for the related calculation method;

Part 3 gives the rules for dimensioning the infrastructure in order to allow vehicles built according to the
relevant gauge and taking account of the specific constraints to operate within it.

The aim of this standard is to define the space to be cleared and maintained to allow the running of rolling
stock, and the rules for calculation and verification intended for sizing the rolling stock to run on one or several
infrastructures without interference risk.
This standard defines the gauge as a one-to-one agreement between infrastructure and rolling stock.
This standard defines the responsibilities of the following parties:
a)

b)

for the infrastructure:


1)

gauge clearance,

2)

maintenance;

3)

infrastructure monitoring.

for the rolling stock:


1)

compliance of the operating rolling stock with the gauge concerned;

2)

maintenance of this compliance over time.

This standard includes a catalogue of various railway gauges implemented in Europe, some of which are
required to ensure the interoperability, while others are related to more specific applications not requiring the
interoperability of the rolling stock on other networks.

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Scope

This standard:

defines the various profiles needed to install, verify and maintain the various structures near the structure
gauge;

lists the various phenomena to be taken into account to determine the structure gauge;

defines a methodology that may be used to calculate the various profiles from these phenomena;

lists the rules to determine the distance between the track centres;

lists the rules to be complied with when building the platforms;

lists the rules to determine the pantograph gauge;

lists the formulae needed to calculate the structure gauges in the catalogue.

Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 13232-3, Railway applications Track Switches and crossings Part 3: Requirements for wheel/rail
interaction
EN 13232-9, Railway applications Track Switches and crossings Part 9: Layouts
EN 15273-1, Railway applications Gauges Part 1: General Common rules for infrastructure and
rolling stock
EN 15273-2, Railway applications Gauges Part 2: Rolling stock gauge
EN 50119, Railway applications Fixed installations Electric traction overhead contact lines
EN 50367, Railway applications Current collection systems Technical criteria for the interaction between
pantograph and overhead line (to achieve free access)

Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply:
3.1
structure gauge
defines the space, relative to the track used called the reference track, to be cleared of all objects or
structures and relative to the traffic on adjacent tracks in order to permit safe operation on this reference track.
The structure gauge is defined on the basis of the reference profile by applying the associated rules.
There are three types of structure gauge.

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3.2
structure limit gauge
space not to be encroached upon at any time and fixes the limit for normal operation. It is used to ensure that
structures allow free passage
Consequently, no structure is allowed to penetrate this space at any time.
3.3
structure installation limit gauge
space not to be encroached upon taking into account a maintenance allowance. It is to be used to define the
structure installation limit
Consequently, no structure shall be installed if free passage is desired following normal maintenance
operations.
3.4
structure installation nominal gauge
space to be cleared for all structures to permit train operation and track maintenance, including adequate
allowances. This space may include allowances for special consignments and other conditions
3.5
distance between track centres
distance between the centre points of the two tracks concerned, measured parallel to the running surface of
the track used, called the reference track, which is the track with the least cant
NOTE 1
On the track, the distance between centres is often determined on the basis of the space between centres
which is the distance between the two rails of the adjacent tracks. The exact measurement references (guideline, field
face, rail centrelines) differ from one network to another.
NOTE 2
The definition of distance between centres adopted in this standard may differ from those used in other
applications, such as installation for example. It is the responsibility of the infrastructure manager to determine the various
conversion rules.

Key
1 distance between track centres
2 space between centres measured between the running edges
3 space between centres measured between the rail centrelines
4 space between centres measured between the outside edges of the rails
Figure 1 Distance between track centres

10

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3.6
limit distance between centres
minimum distance to be maintained at all times between adjacent tracks to ensure completely safe passage of
traffic within the gauge used on the two tracks by avoiding any risk of interference between the vehicles. This
distance varies as a function of the local track parameters (e.g. cant, curve radius, etc.)
3.7
installation limit distance between centres
minimum distance between adjacent tracks to ensure completely safe passage of traffic within the gauge used
on the two tracks by avoiding any risk of interference between the vehicles. This distance varies as a function
of the local track parameters (e.g. cant, curve radius, etc.). It takes into account maintenance allowances
3.8
installation nominal distance between centres
distance between centres that generally has a suitable allowance to permit ease of design, laying, monitoring
and maintenance, the operation of special transport or any other aspect. Outside the small radius zones, the
nominal distance between centres is often invariable (determined with fixed parameters)

11

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4
4.1

Symbols, abbreviations and subscripts


Symbols and abbreviations
Table 1 Symbols and abbreviations
Symbol

Designation

Unit

Symbol
number

Distance between end axles of vehicles not fitted with bogies


or between bogie centres

1.001

Semi-width or distance parallel to the running surface, relative


to the track centreline or of the vehicle

1.007

Semi-width of the pantograph gauge

3.001

bq

Actual installation distance of the platforms, measured from the


rail running edge

1.008

bRP

Semi-width of the reference profile

3.002

belec

Electrical insulation distance

3.003

bgap

Standard width of the gap between the platform and the step

1.019

Distance parallel to the running surface between the structure


and the track centreline

3.004

bq

Semi-width of the platform installation

1.021

Variation in semi-width b

3.005

bveh

Semi-width of the vehicle

1.030

bw

Semi-width of the pantograph head

1.033

C0

(Reference) roll centre

3.006

cw

Semi-width of the pantograph head insulating horn

3.007

dg

Geometric overthrow

3.008

dga

Geometric overthrow of the vehicle on the outside of the curve

1.038

dgi

Geometric overthrow of the vehicle on the inside of the curve

1.041

Cant

1.044

D0

Fixed cant value taken into account by agreement between the


vehicle and the infrastructure

1.045

D0

Reference cant taken into account by the vehicle for the


pantograph gauge

3.009

3.010

1.050

bstructure

DL and D"L Limit cant values used in calculation of the total allowances
Dmax,0

12

Standard maximum cant to allow for enlargement of the


kinematic gauge

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BS EN 15273-3:2009
EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Table 1 (continued)
Symbol

Designation

Unit

Symbol
number

Cant difference (between two tracks)

3.011

ep

Offset of the pantograph due to the vehicle characteristics

1.067

epi

Offset of the pantograph due to the vehicle characteristics,


inside of the curve

3.012

epa

Offset of the pantograph due to the vehicle characteristics,


outside of the curve

3.013

epo

Offset of the pantograph at the upper verification point

1.068

e pu

Offset of the pantograph at the lower verification point

1.071

eV

Lowering of track components

1.073

EA

Distance between track centres

3.014

Allowance to take into account raising of the contact wire

1.079

fdyn

Allowance to take into account dynamic movement of the


contact wire

3.015

fwa

Allowance to take into account the overrun by the pantograph


head of the contact surface because of pantograph contact strip
wear

1.083

fws

Allowance to take into account the overrun by the pantograph


head of the contact surface because of pantograph skewing

1.084

Height in relation to the running surface

1.088

Reference height in the calculation of the pantograph gauge

3.016

ho

Maximum verification height of the pantograph gauge in a


raised position

1.089

hu

Minimum verification height of the pantograph gauge in a raised


position

1.090

hCo

Value of hc used for the agreement between the vehicle and the
infrastructure

1.092

hCo

(Reference) roll centre height for the pantograph gauge

3.017

fs

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Table 1 (continued)
Symbol

Unit

Symbol
number

hRP

Height of the reference profile

1.093

heff

Effective height of the raised pantograph

1.094

Effective height of the raised pantograph plus the electrical


insulation

1.095

Height of the contact wire

1.096

Minimum height of the lateral surface of the reference profile (at


platform level)

1.101

Height of the platform edge coping

1.102

Height of the structure above the running surface

3.018

hP

Height of point P

3.019

hq

Height of the platform above the running surface

1.103

Height variation h

3.020

Cant deficiency

1.107

IC

Maximum local cant deficiency to be considered for classic


trains

1.108

IP

Maximum local cant deficiency to be considered for tilting trains

1.109

IC

Maximum cant deficiency used by the infrastructure manager


for his routes

1.110

IL

Limit cant deficiency used in the kinematic calculation

3.021

I0

Fixed cant deficiency value taken into account by agreement


between the vehicle and the infrastructure with regard to the
kinematic gauge

1.116

I0

Reference cant deficiency taken into account by the vehicle for


the pantograph gauge

3.022

IP

Cant deficiency of tilting body vehicles

1.117

heff,elec
hf
hmin,RP

hec
hstructure

Security coefficient to take into account track irregularities

1.123

Amplification coefficient for calculation of allowances

3.023

Track gauge, distance between the rail running edges

1.126

Nominal track gauge

1.129

Standard distance between the centrelines of the rails of the


same track

1.134

Mj

(Horizontal) safety allowance for the structure gauge, covering


certain random phenomena (j = 1, 2 or 3)

3.024

MEAj

Safety allowance for the distance between centres, covering


certain random phenomena. (j = 1, 2 or 3)

3.025

k, k'

nom

14

Designation

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Table 1 (continued)
Symbol

Designation

Unit

Symbol
number

1.158

na

n for the sections outside the axles or bogie centres

Upper point of the reference profile lateral face which is the


determining factor for the distance between centres

Transverse clearance between wheelset and bogie frame, or


wheelset and body for vehicles not fitted with bogies

End lateral point of the reference profile upper face

qs

Quasi-static effect

3.028

qsa

Displacement due to the quasi-static roll taken into account by


the infrastructure outside the reference profile on the outside of
the curve.

1.174

qsi

Displacement due to the quasi-static roll taken into account by


the infrastructure outside the reference profile on the inside of
the curve

1.175

qsi

Quasi-static effect for the pantograph gauge on the inside of the


curve

3.029

qsa

Quasi-static effect for the pantograph gauge on the outside of


the curve

3.030

Horizontal curve radius

1.178

RV

Vertical transition radius in longitudinal section

1.185

s0

Flexibility coefficient taken into account in the agreement


between the vehicle and the infrastructure

1.188

s0

Flexibility coefficient taken into account in the agreement


between the vehicle and the infrastructure for the pantograph
gauge

1.189

Allowed additional overthrow

1.192

Sa

Allowed additional overthrow on the outside of the curve

1.197

Si

Allowed additional overthrow on the inside of the curve

1.204

1.212

3.026
m

1.172
3.027

Tload

Angle of dissymmetry, considered as in 0r for poor


distribution

TD

Track crosslevel errors between two maintenance periods

1.213

TN

Track vertical tolerance

1.214

Tosc

Crosslevel track irregularities causing random oscillations

1.215

Tsusp

Angle of dissymmetry, considered as in 0r for poor suspension


adjustment

1.217

Ttrack

Transverse displacement of the track between two periods of


maintenance

1.218

km/h

3.031

Vc

Maximum speed of classic vehicles

load

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Table 1 (continued)
Symbol

Unit

Symbol
number

VP

Maximum speed of tilting vehicles

km/h

3.032

Vc

Local speed of classic vehicles

km/h

1.221

VP

Local speed of tilting vehicles

km/h

1.222

Transverse clearance between bogie and body

1.228

xqi

Transverse clearance between bogie and body towards the


inside of the curve varying as a function of the track curve
radius

1.231

xqa

Horizontal coordinate of the platform edge on the outside of the


curve

3.033

Distance taken into account from the point of origin O for the
calculation of ev

1.233

Vertical coordinate

3.034

yqi

Vertical coordinate of the platform edge on the inside of the


curve

3.035

Part of the quasi-static roll taken into account by the vehicle

1.234

z0

Fixed value available to the vehicle on the outside of the static


reference profile to allow quasi-static roll of the vehicle

1.237

Additional angle of roll of the body due to the clearance to the


side bearers

1.242

Maximum angle of rotation around the roll centre for the upper
parts

3.036

"

Angle made by the gangway between the platform and the ferry

1.245

radian

1.246

16

Designation

Entry angle of turnouts

q,a

Value for the distance to the platform on the outside of the


curve in relation to the gauge for the structures in the inclined
position of value

1.256

Sum of the (horizontal) safety allowances for the structure


gauge covering certain random phenomena (j = 1, 2 or 3)

3.037

Sum of the allowances used in the calculation of the kinematic


limit (j = 1, 2 or 3)

3.038

"j

Sum of the allowances used in the calculation of the dynamic


limit (j = 1, 2 or 3)

3.039

EAj

Sum of the safety allowances for the distance between centres


covering certain random phenomena (j = 1, 2 or 3)

3.040

Sum of the values of the allowances taken into account by the


infrastructure in the vertical direction

1.278

Angle of dissymmetry of a vehicle due to construction


tolerances, to suspension adjustment and to unequal load
distributions

1.281

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Table 1 (continued)
Symbol
0r

4.2

Designation
Reference angle 0 taken into account in the agreement

Angle resulting from the suspension adjustment tolerances

Pantograph construction and installation tolerance

Unit

Symbol
number

1.283

radian

1.284

1.286

Subscripts

Subscript a:

refers to the outside of the curve

Subscript i:

refers to the inside of the curve

Subscript 0:

reference value, refers to the agreements made between the vehicle and the infrastructure

Subscript st:

refers to the static calculation rules. The subscript is often omitted when the context makes it
clear that it is a question of the static parameter

Subscript kin:

refers to the kinematic calculation rules. The subscript is often omitted when the context
makes it clear that it is a question of the kinematic parameter

Subscript dyn: refers to the dynamic calculation rules. The subscript is often omitted when the context makes
it clear that it is a question of the dynamic parameter
Subscript act:

refers to the actual local value, i. e. measured on the track

Subscript RP: refers to the reference profile


Subscript gap: refers to the gap at platform level
Subscript q:

refers to the platform installation dimensions

Subscript nom: refers to either the nominal or design value or to the installation nominal gauge
Subscript lim:

refers to the installation limit gauge

Subscript ver: refers to the limit gauge


Subscript max: refers to the maximum value that may appear as a function of the tolerances
Subscript o:

refers to the upper verification level of the pantograph gauge

Subscript u:

refers to the lower verification level of the pantograph

Subscript P:

refers to tilting trains

Subscript C:

refers to classic trains

Subscript veh: refers to the actual vehicle


Subscript elec: refers to the electrical insulation value

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4.3
[

Notations
means that this value is to be considered as long as it is positive. A negative value shall be
considered as zero

]>0 :

max( , ):

means that the maximum value of the terms in brackets shall be used

General information on all the gauging methods

5.1

The reference profile and its associated rules

This clause covers the main gauging rules. For more detailed information, see EN 15273-1.
A gauge is defined by a reference profile and its associated rules.
The reference profile is normally determined for a straight, flat, nominal gauge cant-free track. The profile
takes into account the vehicle envelope and certain displacements. The reference profile is an intermediate
profile that is part of the agreement but that shall not be confused with the structure gauge or the structure
gauge (on straight track or other).
Generally added to this profile is widening as a function of the line (radius, cant) and speed (cant deficiency)
and certain allowances to cover random phenomena and to ensure track maintenance. These are called the
associated rules.
This widening corresponds to the displacements of the reference vehicles that are the basis for defining the
gauge considered (see EN 15273-1 for more detailed explanations).
Horizontal and vertical widening at the running surface are often dealt with separately.

5.2

Transverse widening

5.2.1
5.2.1.1

Gauge variations depending on the local situation


Introduction

The gauge variations depend on the calculation method used and particularly on the gauge used. Generally,
there are two parts:

the additional overthrows that give the variability in a curve;

the quasi-static effect that gives the variability from the body roll.

5.2.1.2

Additional overthrows

The additional overthrows define the sum of the following phenomena:

the effect of the track widening;

the geometric effect in the curve of the reference vehicles.

The general formulations are given in EN 15273-1. The specific formulae to be applied for the gauge used
are given in the annex.

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5.2.1.3

Quasi-static effect

The quasi-static effect gives the reference vehicle body roll in a curve for the upper parts:

outside of the curve, under the cant deficiency effect;

inside of the curve, under the cant effect.

The first is at its maximum when the trains reach their maximum authorized speed.
The second is at its maximum when the train is stationary.
It should be noted that, depending on the type of gauge, the vehicle already takes part of this into account not
exceeding the values of I0 and D0. The infrastructure only takes into account the additional value.
The general formulations are given in EN 15273-1. The specific formulae to be applied for the gauge used
are given in the Annex.
For the lower parts, this phenomenon is taken into account by the vehicle.
5.2.2

Random transverse phenomena

Random phenomena to be considered depend on the gauge used.


The following phenomena are considered as the responsibility of the Infrastructure Manager.
5.2.2.1

Vehicle oscillations generated by track irregularities (Tosc)

Irregularities of ballasted track are the cause of the vehicle oscillations. The amplitude depends on the track
condition, suspension characteristics and speed. Insofar as these phenomena are taken into account by the
infrastructure, these oscillations are expressed in the form of equivalent crosslevel errors (Tosc). Depending on
the flexibility of the vehicle, they are located at the base of an inclination around the roll centre:

S0
Tosc (h hc 0 ) >0
L

(1)

NOTE
Other methods exist for taking this phenomenon into account. For example, in the case of the dynamic gauge,
this phenomenon is taken into account by the vehicle.

5.2.2.2

Track displacement (Ttrack)

The track position is likely to change between two track inspections owing to the traffic loads and to the track
maintenance. The maximum transverse displacement Ttrack depends on the maintenance guidelines in force
and the frequency of the operations.
When the track design does not allow any movement in relation to the structure, this allowance may be
neglected.
5.2.2.3

Cant deviation (TD)

Due to the maintenance tolerances and to the traffic, the cant of the track can vary in relation to its nominal
value. This cant variation TD has a double effect:

the gauge profile rotates around the track centreline at an angle corresponding to the maximum variation:

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S0

TD
(h hc 0 ) >0
L

(2)

Due to the flexibility of the suspension, the vehicle will tend to rotate around the roll centre.

b = s0 .

TD
.(h hc 0 )
L

(3)

these two phenomena have an effect towards the inside of the curve and the outside of the curve, but
also (to a lesser extent) on a straight track.

It shall be noted that the two phenomena are always present simultaneously and are therefore not
independent.
5.2.2.4

Dissymmetry (0)

A vehicle will never be perfectly symmetrical; the main reasons for this are as follows, depending on the type
of gauge:

poor suspension adjustment resulting in a body roll Tsusp;

loading dissymmetry which makes the vehicle body roll in its suspension gear and which results similarly
in a rotation of the vehicle Tload.

In both cases, the vehicle body rotates around its roll centre C0. The sum of the two angles corresponds to the
agreed reference angle 0:

Tdis = Tload + Tsusp


5.3
5.3.1

(4)

Superelevation and lowering perpendicular to the running surface


Introduction

In most cases, the vehicle takes into account vertical displacements (including tolerances) unless specified
otherwise. The following vertical displacements shall only be considered by the infrastructure manager.
5.3.2

Vertical superelevation or lowering for longitudinal profile transition curves

Track gradients are interconnected by vertical curves of radius RV. The reference profile is extended into the
upper and lower parts in order to take account of the vertical displacement of the mid-section or overhanging
section of the vehicle body relative to the track centreline.
As the vertical radii are relatively large compared to those in the horizontal plane, this phenomenon is only
considered for the highest and lowest profile points.
The general formulations are given in EN 15273-1. The specific formulae to be applied for the gauge used
are given in the annex. See also the following figure:

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Key
1

running surface

reference profile

infrastructure limit
Figure 2 Illustration of the vertical geometric overthrow

5.3.3
5.3.3.1

Vertical effect of the roll


Upper parts

For gauges with a sizable flat in the horizontal upper part, as is the case in gauges used for the transportation
of containers, the roll may generate vertical movement of this part. This results in superelevation of the vertical
part of the gauge.

Figure 3 Vertical effect of the roll

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The rotations resulting from the following phenomena shall be taken into consideration:

quasi-static effect (total or non depending on the gauge type) (see 5.2.1.3) ;

cant deviation TD (see 5.2.2.3);

oscillations due to track tolerances Tosc (see 5.2.2.1);

dissymmetry 0 (see 5.2.2.4).

The superelevation is determined by the following formula:

hQ = bQ . Q

bQ

h h
C0
Q

+1

(5)

where

is the rotation of the gauge due to the quasi-static effect

h Q, b Q:

are the coordinates of the point considered Q.

The angle of rotation taken into account depends on the gauge type.
The rotations due to the random parameters are to be considered when determining V.
5.3.3.2

Lower parts

The same principle can be used for the lower parts but it is taken into account by the vehicle.
5.3.4

Uplift

For the static gauge, the infrastructure shall take into account the uplift of the vehicle in the suspension. This
allowance is added only in the upper part of the gauge.
5.3.5

Vertical random phenomena

The infrastructure manager can add allowances to take into account the following phenomena:

lowering of the track due, amongst other things, to ballast settlement;

track raising during maintenance operations.

5.4

Additional allowances

In addition to allowances covering random phenomena, the infrastructure manager can decide to introduce
additional allowances to permit:

speed increases;

running of special consignments;

opening of doors and safety of train crew in certain situations (e.g. platforms, holding siding, etc.);

amendments to the layout or future gauge;

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the definition of an invariable gauge that can be easily managed by the maintenance and monitoring
services where the actual allowances are adequate;

consideration of aerodynamic effects and cross winds.

These allowances can be both vertical and transverse.

5.5

Gauge types

5.5.1

Gauge methodologies

The structure gauge is defined on the basis of a reference profile and its associated rules that form an
agreement between the infrastructure and the vehicle and are therefore inseparable. The agreement dictates
how the various possible displacements of a vehicle on the track are distributed and taken into account.
There are various calculation methodologies; details are given in EN 15273-1. It is essential to specify the
methodology used. The main methodologies used in Europe and which are specified in more detail in this
standard are:

the static method used for specific, non-interoperable applications;

the kinematic method used in Europe, essentially on interoperable networks;

the dynamic method used on certain networks with the aim of optimizing the space available for sizing
non-interoperable vehicles.

5.5.2

Structure gauge types

For each of the gauges (listed in the catalogue), there are different structure gauge types depending on the
required application (see also 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2):

the structure limit gauge only takes into account widening and certain allowances that ensure safety of
operations during control with the parameters measured on site. This group of allowances is called M1;

the structure installation limit gauge takes into account the structure limit gauge and all the
displacements and wear that may occur between two maintenance periods by means of an additional
allowance M2. Fitting this gauge ensures that clearance is maintained between the various maintenance
and checking operations;

the structure installation nominal gauge takes into account not only allowances M1 and M2, but also an
additional allowance M3 determined in 5.4. Fitting this gauge ensures that clearance is maintained in
practically all conditions and allows more possible uses such as for special consignments, even the
installation of temporary structures.

Allowance M1 corresponds to 1.
The sum of allowances M1 and M2 is determined by2.
The sum of allowances M1 to M3 is determined by 3.

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5.5.3

Uniform gauge

When the infrastructure manager has sufficient space available, he can define a non-variable gauge with a
design that permits easier management for the maintenance managers. This gauge, which generally
incorporates additional allowances, is a nominal type structure gauge called a uniform gauge.
Uniform gauges are often used in Europe by several networks. They are given in Annex G. Their application
rules may differ according to the networks.
Some examples are given below.
EXAMPLE 1
Infrastructure managers who have chosen to define a uniform gauge correspondiing to the worst case
situation, i.e. the smallest radius or the maximum cant or cant deficiency.
This gauge type is is often used in the metro when the tunnel cross-section is constant and determined for the worst case
situation.
EXAMPLE 2

Different infrastructure managers have chosen to define a gauge with two profiles:

one profile applicable on a straight or curved track with very large radii and no cant;

one profile on a curved track designed on the basis of the worst case cant and radius situation.

This method creates an additional allowance compared to the basic gauge used and is only possible if adequate space is
available on site.
The infrastructure manager shall always check the conditions on which this gauge is based and shall always return to the
basic gauge when these conditions are not met any longer.
It is necessary, therefore, not to forget the choice of gauge used and the conditions it has been based on.
NOTE
The uniform gauge may also be the gauge used. By subtracting all the allowances and widening/lowering from
the method used, a new reference profile can be determined, often larger than the original one which allows use by the
vehicle.

5.6

Gauge choice

5.6.1

Gauge and methodology choice

The gauge choice is up to the infrastructure managers. For this, the infrastructure manager takes into account:

the interoperability directives in force;

the bilateral or multilateral agreements;

international technical specifications in force;

the consignments authorized to travel on his infrastructure;

the space available on the lines concerned;

the specific restrictions imposed by the infrastructure.

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The gauge chosen is called the used gauge in the following.


The infrastructure manager is responsible for the maintenance of the used gauge over time.
The methodology choice is strongly linked to the gauge choices. For reasons of interoperability, only the
kinematic gauge is used.
5.6.2

Structure gauge choice

For this/these used gauge(s), the infrastructure manager may choose one or more of the structure gauges
listed in 5.5.2., according to his requirements.
When constructing new lines, it is necessary to clear the nominal gauge and in the case of major
reconstruction of installations, it is advised clearing it. In existing situations and when there is deemed to be
sufficient space, it can be cleared wherever it is thought necessary.
Depending on requirements or when the local situation is such that the nominal gauge cannot be cleared, a
structure installation limit gauge may be defined and cleared.
A limit gauge may need to be defined when he wants to verify the free running of the trains in a degraded
situation.
5.6.3
5.6.3.1

Taking account of the allowances


Structure limit gauge

The phenomena to be considered and the calculation methodology for the sums of the allowances 1 and 2
depend to a large extent on the methodology for the chosen gauge and are therefore defined later in the
standard.
The calculation methodology is often similar for the limit gauge and for the structure installation limit gauge.
Whereas the phenomena to be considered are always clearly defined in this standard, their determination
remains the responsibility of the infrastructure managers. For the infrastructure managers without any specific
rules, this standard gives a calculation methodology and recommended values.
5.6.3.2

Nominal gauge

There is no common methodology to allow the nominal gauge to be determined in view of the different
allowances to be included or not according to the choices of the infrastructure manager. The nominal gauge
will therefore be determined following a feasibility study based on the objectives laid down and the resulting
technical and economic consequences.
One way to obtain a larger safety allowance whose only aim is to facilitate the management of structures
approaching the structure gauge is to total all the random allowances together arithmetically instead of by a
root mean square. It shall be noted that this methodology is generally accepted, but rarely used on the various
networks.
5.6.4

Gauge catalogue

Technical interoperability conditions are defined in EN 15273-1. The application of international or reduced
interoperability gauges depends on international regulations or bilateral or multilateral agreements even. The
gauge choice is fixed by each network.
A distinction is made between:

gauges "interoperable internationally". They are listed in Annex C;

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and other gauges for bilateral or multilateral agreements or national applications. They are listed in
Annex D.

Rules for determination of the static gauge

6.1

General

Where possible, the infrastructure uses the corresponding kinematic calculation. In the absence of a
corresponding kinematic gauge or adequate allowances, the method with the rules given below may be used.
The static structure gauge is defined on the basis of the static reference profile and its associated rules that
form an agreement between the infrastructure and the vehicle and are therefore inseparable.
The transverse and vertical displacements are dealt with separately.
The static reference profile is determined for a flat straight track, of nominal rail gauge without cant. The
gauge is variable, depending on the situation of the local track (cant, curve radius and rail gauge).
The random phenomena, explained in 5.2, are often taken into account by a fixed allowance.
All the parameters are to be taken into account as positive values to the right or the left of the vertical
centreline depending on the case.
NOTE

6.2

In this clause, the subscript "st" is omitted from all the parameters in order to improve the legibility.

Associated rules

In the absence of an equivalent kinematic gauge, the structure gauge is determined on the basis of the static
reference profile.
The position of the structure in the width plane shall include the sum:

bstructure bRP + S i / a + qsi / a + j

(6)

where

bRP is the semi-width of the static reference profile;

Si/a are the additional overthrows (see 5.2.1.2) ;

qsIi/a is the quasi-static effect with the following general formulation:

26

qsi = z 0 +

on the inside of the curve:

on the outside of the curve:

with z0 either as a constant value

or with z0 as a variable-height value

s0
.[D D0 ]>0 .[h hc 0 ]>0
L

(7)

s0
.[I I 0 ]>0 .[h hc 0 ]>0
L

(8)

qs a = z 0 +
z0 =

s0 ( D0 orI 0 )
(hmax hc 0 )
L

(9)

s0 ( D0 orI 0 )
(h hc 0 )
L

(10)

z0 =

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BS EN 15273-3:2009
EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

The sum of the allowances j to cover the random phenomena.


In the height plane, the position of the structure shall ensure that:

hstructure hRP + hRV + hsusp + hQ + V

(11)

where

hRP is the reference profile height;

hRv is the vertical superelevation/lowering in the transition curve (see 5.3.2);

hsusp is the vehicle uplift due to the suspension flexibility;

hQ is the superelevation of the upper parts due to the vertical effect of the roll (see 5.3.3);

where

Q =

s0
. max(D, I )
L

(12)

an additional allowance V for the random phenomena.

Determination of the sum of allowances

6.3
6.3.1

6.3.1.1

Transverse allowances
Phenomena considered

Allowances are defined to take into account the random phenomena. The various phenomena are grouped
according to their character.
M1 includes the effect of all the random phenomena due to actual movements of the vehicles. This allowance
determines the limit of the point reached by the vehicle. M1 is determined on the basis of:

oscillations characterized by tolerance Tosc;

dissymmetry 0 due to poor suspension adjustment and load distribution not exceeding 1.

M2 includes the random effects that make the best use of allowances to ensure track maintenance at the
chosen frequencies and resources. M2 is determined on the basis of:

widening in order to take account of the track displacements Ttrack between two maintenance operations;

the geometric part and the additional quasi-static effect due to the crosslevel error of the track TD.

M3 is an allowance that allows easy management of the gauge in the long term and offers additional
possibilities for special consignments, temporary installations or others.
6.3.1.2

Determination of the sum of allowances j

The effective value of j may be chosen:

either as a fixed value, determined on the basis of the experience the infrastructure manager has on his
network;

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

or as a value calculated on the basis of the maintenance tolerances with the following calculation method:

when determining the limit gauge, it shall be regarded that the simultaneous occurrence of the extreme values
of all the phenomena given in 5.2 is very improbable. This is why the arithmetic sum of the allowances is not
acceptable. It can be shown that an acceptable level of certainty can be obtained by using the following
general formula:

j = k

(13)

Tj '

j'

where Tj is the allowance of the various phenomena to be considered (see 6.2). Parameters that are not
independent shall be considered together, i.e. in an arithmetic sum.
Coefficient k determines the safety level (k 1).
More detailed explanations are given in EN 15273-1.
An example of the calculation and the values recommended for the tolerances are given in Annex A and
Annex B.
6.3.2
6.3.2.1

Vertical allowances for random phenomena


Phenomena considered

An allowance is defined to take into account the following tolerances:

vertical effect of the roll due to random phenomena (see 5.3.3) (only for the upper parts);

track vertical tolerance TN;

vertical tolerances;

additional allowances.

6.3.2.2

Determination of the sum of vertical allowances V

The effective value of V may be chosen:

either as a fixed value, determined on the basis of the experience the infrastructure manager has on his
network;

or as a value calculated on the basis of the maintenance tolerances with the following calculation method:

When determining the limit gauge, it shall be regarded that the simultaneous occurrence of the extreme
values of all the phenomena given in 5.3 is very improbable. This is why the arithmetic sum of the allowances
is not acceptable. It can be shown that an acceptable level of certainty can be obtained by using the following
general formula:

V = k

Tj '

(14)

j'

where Tj is the allowance of the various phenomena to be considered (see 6.2). Parameters that are not
independent shall be considered together, i.e. in an arithmetic sum.
Coefficient k determines the safety level (k 1).

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

More detailed explanations are given in EN 15273-1.


An example of the calculation and the values recommended for the tolerances are given in Annex A and
Annex B.

Rules for determination of the kinematic gauge

7.1

General

The reference profile is determined for a flat straight track, of nominal rail gauge without cant. The gauge is
variable, depending on the situation of the local track (cant, curve radius and rail gauge).
The random phenomena, explained in 5.2, are taken into account by the sum of allowances j.
All the parameters are to be taken into account as positive values to the right or the left of the vertical
centreline depending on the case.
NOTE

7.2

In this clause, the subscript "kin" is omitted from all the parameters in order to improve the legibility.

Associated rules

The position of the structure shall cover the sum:

bstructure bRP + S i / a + qsi / a + j

(15)

where:

bRP is the semi-width of the kinematic reference profile;

Si/a are the additional overthrows (see 5.2.1.2);

qsi/a is the quasi-static effect with the following general formulation:

qsi =

inside of the curve:

outside of the curve:

s0
.[D D0 ]>0 .[h hc 0 ]>0
L

(16)

s0
.[I I 0 ]>0 .[h hc 0 ]>0
L

(17)

qs a =

j is the sum of the allowances to cover the random phenomena as defined below:

In the height plane, the position of the structure shall ensure that:

hstructure hRP + hRV + hQ + V

(18)

where

hRP is the height of the reference profile;

hRv is the superelevation/lowering in the transition curve (see 5.3.2.);

hQ is the superelevation of the upper parts due to the vertical effect of the roll (see 5.3.3).

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

where

Q =

s0
. max(D, I )
L

(19)

There is an additional allowance V for random phenomena.

7.3

Transverse allowances for random phenomena

7.3.1

Phenomena considered

Allowances are defined to take into account the random phenomena. The various phenomena are grouped
according to their character.
M1 includes the effect of all the random phenomena due to actual movements of the vehicles. This allowance
determines the limit of the point reached by the vehicle. M1 is determined on the basis of:

oscillations characterized by tolerance Tosc;

dissymmetry 0 due to poor suspension adjustment and load distribution not exceeding 1.

M2 includes the random effects that make the best use of allowances to ensure track maintenance at the
chosen frequencies and resources. M2 is determined on the basis of:

widening in order to take account of the track displacements Ttrack between two maintenance operations;

the geometric part and the additional quasi-static effect due to the crosslevel error of the track TD.

M3 is an allowance that allows easy management of the gauge in the long term and offers additional
possibilities for special consignments, temporary installations or others.
7.3.2

Determination of the sum of transverse allowances j

The effective value of j may be chosen:

either as a fixed value, determined on the basis of the experience the infrastructure manager has on his
network;

or as a value calculated on the basis of the maintenance tolerances with the following calculation method:

when determining the limit gauge, it shall be regarded that the simultaneous occurrence of the extreme values
of all the phenomena given in 5.2 is very improbable. This is why the arithmetic sum of the allowances is not
acceptable. It can be shown that an acceptable level of certainty can be obtained by using the following
general formula:

j = k

Tj '

(20)

j'

where Tj is the allowance of the various phenomena to be considered (see 7.2). Parameters that are not
independent shall be considered together, i.e. in an arithmetic sum.
Coefficient k determines the safety level (k 1).
More detailed explanations are given in EN 15273-1.

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

An example of the calculation and the values recommended for the tolerances are given in Annex A and
Annex B.

7.4

Vertical allowances for random phenomena

7.4.1

Phenomena considered

An allowance is defined to take into account the following tolerances:

vertical effect of the roll due to random phenomena (see 5.3.3) (only for the upper parts);

track vertical tolerance TN;

vertical tolerances;

additional allowances.

7.4.2

Determination of the sum of vertical allowances V

The effective value of V may be chosen:

either as a fixed value, determined on the basis of the experience the infrastructure manager has on his
network;

or as a value calculated on the basis of the maintenance tolerances with the following calculation method:

when determining the limit gauge, it shall be regarded that the simultaneous occurrence of the extreme values
of all the phenomena given in 5.3 is very improbable. This is why the arithmetic sum of the allowances is not
acceptable. It can be shown that an acceptable level of certainty can be obtained by using the following
general formula:

V = k

Tj '

(21)

j'

where Tj is the allowance of the various phenomena to be considered (see 6.2). Parameters that are not
independent shall be considered together, i.e. in an arithmetic sum.
Coefficient k determines the safety level (k 1).
More detailed explanations are given in EN 15273-1.
An example of the calculation and the values recommended for the tolerances are given in Annex A and
Annex B.

8
8.1

Rules for determination of the dynamic gauge


General

The reference profile is determined for a flat straight track, of nominal rail gauge. The gauge is variable,
depending on the situation of the local track (cant, curve radius and rail gauge).
The random phenomena, explained in 5.2, are taken into account by the sum of allowances j.
All the parameters are to be taken into account as positive values to the right or the left of the vertical
centreline depending on the case.

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

NOTE

8.2

In this clause, the subscript "dyn" is omitted from all the parameters in order to improve the legibility.

Associated rules

The position of the structure shall cover the sum:

bstructure bRP + S i / a + j

(22)

where

bRP is the semi-width of the dynamic reference profile;

Si/a are the additional overthrows (see 5.2.1.2);

j is the sum of the allowances to cover the random phenomena as defined below.

In the height plane, the position of the structure shall ensure that:

hstructure hRP + hRV + V

(23)

where

hRP is the height of the reference profile;

hRv is the superelevation/lowering in the transition curve (see 5.3.2.).

There is an additional allowance V for random phenomena.

8.3

Transverse allowances for random phenomena

8.3.1

Phenomena considered

Allowances are defined to take into account the random phenomena listed in 1.4.2. The various phenomena
are grouped according to their character.
M1 includes the effects of certain random phenomena due to actual movements of the vehicles. This
allowance determines the limit of the point reached by the vehicle. M1 is determined on the basis of:

dissymmetry 0 due to poor suspension adjustment and load distribution not exceeding 1.

M2 includes the random effects that make the best use of allowances to ensure track maintenance at the
chosen frequencies and resources. M2 is determined on the basis of:

widening in order to take account of the track displacements Ttrack between two maintenance operations;

the geometric part only ( h

TD
) due to the crosslevel error of the track TD (the quasi-static part shall be
L

taken into account by the vehicle).


M3 is an allowance that allows easy management of the gauge in the long term and offers additional
possibilities for special consignments, temporary installations or others.
8.3.2

Determination of the sum of allowances j

The effective value of j may be chosen:

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

either as a fixed value, determined on the basis of the experience the infrastructure manager has on his
network;

or as a value calculated on the basis of the maintenance tolerances with the following calculation method:

when determining the limit gauge, it shall be regarded that the simultaneous occurrence of the extreme values
of all the phenomena given in 5.2 is very improbable. This is why the arithmetic sum of the allowances is not
acceptable. It can be shown that an acceptable level of certainty can be obtained by using the following
general formula:

j = k

Tj '

(24)

j'

where Tj is the allowance of the various phenomena to be considered. Parameters that are not independent
are grouped in an arithmetic sum.
Coefficient k determines the safety level (k 1).
More detailed explanations are given in EN 15273-1.
An example of the calculation and the values recommended for the tolerances are given in Annex A and
Annex B.

8.4

Vertical allowances for random phenomena

8.4.1

Phenomena considered

An allowance is defined to take into account the following tolerances:

vertical effect of the roll due to random phenomena (see 5.3.3) (only for the upper parts);

track vertical tolerance TN;

vertical tolerances;

additional allowances.

8.4.2

Determination of the sum of vertical allowances V

With there being no series of random parameters as in the case of the semi-width, the height is determined by
the arithmetical sum of the various elements to be considered.
The effective value of V may be chosen:

either as a fixed value, determined on the basis of the experience the infrastructure manager has on his
network;

or as a value calculated on the basis of the maintenance tolerances with the following calculation method:

when determining the limit gauge, it shall be regarded that the simultaneous occurrence of the extreme values
of all the phenomena given in 5.3 is very improbable. This is why the arithmetic sum of the allowances is not
acceptable. It can be shown that an acceptable level of certainty can be obtained by using the following
general formula:

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BS EN 15273-3:2009
EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

V = k

Tj '

(25)

j'

where Tj is the allowance of the various phenomena to be considered (see 6.2). Parameters that are not
independent shall be considered together, i.e. in an arithmetic sum.
Coefficient k determines the safety level (k 1).
More detailed explanations are given in EN 15273-1.
An example of the calculation and the values recommended for the tolerances are given in Annex A and
Annex B.

Distance between track centres

9.1

General

The distance between track centres is determined to allow normal traffic on adjacent tracks at the same time
and without restriction. The distance between track centres is established on the basis of the gauge chosen
and takes into account the same phenomena as those taken into account in the actual structure gauge.
The infrastructure manager defines one or more distances between centres in order to allow him to ensure
clearance of the chosen gauge:

for verification of the distance between centres, the limit distance between centres defining the limit
never to be crossed shall be determined;

for track installation, the installation limit distance between centres that defines the installation limit
distance between tracks shall be determined;

in every case, it is advised to keep an additional allowance; for this, a nominal distance between
centres is defined permitting management flexibility, particularly for track maintenance and verification
and also, where necessary an allowance for the running of special consignments.

9.2

Determination of the limit distance between track centres

9.2.1

Introduction

The limit distance between track centres is determined to prevent the gauge of one track from interfering with
the gauge of the adjacent track while taking into account both the reference profiles and associated rules and
also a sum of allowances AEi, determined in the same way as for the limit gauge.
Generally, the limit distance between centres is determined by the upper point of the vertical part of the
gauge, designated below by the letter P (see Figure 5).
Only the widening defined in 5.2 or in EN 15273-1 has an effect on the determination of the limit distance
between centres.
The following values are to be considered for each of the two tracks:

the additional overthrows Si/a (see 5.2.1.2);

the quasi-static effect: qsi/a (see 5.2.1.3);

the effect of the cant difference between two tracks: bh (see below);

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

the allowances Mj, taking into account the track tolerances and certain load tolerances.

The formulae for the first two points and the random phenomena to be considered depend on the gauge type
used as defined in the above clauses.
The effect of whether the space between the centres is on the inside or outside of the curve of the track
considered shall always be taken into account.
EXAMPLE
In the case of two concentric curved tracks, all the phenomena on the inside of the curve are considered
for the outside track and the phenomena of the outside of the curve for the inside track.
In the case of two tracks of opposing curves, all the phenomena on the outside of each of the two tracks are considered
each with its own radius, cant and running speed.

Figure 4 Distances between centres


9.2.2

Effect of cant difference bD

When the two tracks considered have a different cant or transverse crosslevel, the two gauges tend to get
closer to each other or further away at the top of the vertical part. This has major consequences on the
distance between centres measured at the running surface.
If the cant difference brings the two contours together at point P (see Figure 5), the distance between the
centres shall be increased. If the two gauges move further apart at point P, a reduction in the distance
between the track centres could be allowed up to the moment when the gauges touch at the bottom; this
reduction is often disregarded.
Under the above conditions, this effect is calculated as follows:

bD =

hp
L

[D1 D2 ]>0

(26)

Track 1 is the left-hand track and track 2 the right-hand track. The cant shall always be regarded in the same
direction (see Figure 5).

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Key
V1: track 1
V2: track 2
Figure 5 The distance between centres in the case of a cant difference
9.2.3

Allowances to take into account random phenomena

The effects to be covered are explained in 5.2.2.


The effects on the two tracks simultaneously shall be considered. However, it shall be noted that the
phenomena of the two tracks are independent of each other which means an arithmetic sum of the allowance
of each track taken separately can be thought excessive.
Allowances shall be defined to take account of random phenomena when determining the distance between
centres. The different phenomena are grouped according to their character:

the limit distance between centres only takes into account the widening and certain allowances ensuring
safety when traffic crosses during control with the parameters recorded at the site. The grouping of these
parameters is called MEA1;

the installation limit distance between centres takes into account the distance between centres and all the
displacements and wear that might appear during two maintenance periods by means of an allowance
MEA2. Keeping this distance between centres ensures that clearances for the different maintenance and
verification operations are maintained;

the installation nominal distance between centres, in addition to the allowances MEA1 and MEA2, also takes
into account the additional allowance determined in 5.4, called MEA3. Maintaining this space between
centres ensures easier track construction and maintenance.

The allowance MEA1 corresponds to EA1.

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

The sum of allowances MEA1 and MEA2 is determined by EA2.


The sum of allowances MEA1 to MEA3 is determined by EA3.
9.2.4

Determination

The effects described in 9.2.1 depend on the local situation of each track (cant, curve radius and rail gauge)
and shall be taken into account by adding the two semi-widths of the reference profile. The random effects,
explained in 7.2.2.5, will be taken into account by a single allowance EAj. The distance between centres shall
cover the arithmetic sum of these effects:

EA (bRP + S i / a + qsi / a )track 1 + (bRP + S i / a + qsi / a )track 2 + bD + EAj


9.2.4.1

(27)

Determination of allowance EAj

Depending on the use given to the limit distance between centres to be determined, allowance EAj will take
into account a different part of the effects accordingly.
The effective value of EAj can be chosen:

either as a fixed value, determined on the basis of the experience the infrastructure manager has on his
network;

or as a value calculated on the basis of the maintenance tolerances with the following calculation method.

The phenomena to be taken into account depend on the calculation methodology and type of distance
between centres considered.
9.2.4.2
9.2.4.2.1

Calculation methodology
For the static gauge

For the static gauge, there is no general rule governing the calculation methodology for the limit distance
between centres.
Very often, the limit distance between centres is determined as the sum of the nominal gauge semi-widths.
Where a corresponding kinematic gauge exists, the limit distance between centres can be calculated with the
kinematic method.
9.2.4.2.2

For the kinematic gauge

When determining the limit distance between centres, it shall be considered that it is very unlikely that all the
phenomena will attain extreme values simultaneously. This is why the arithmetic sum of the allowances is not
acceptable. It can be shown that an acceptable degree of certainty can be obtained whilst following the
general formula below:

2
2
EA = k bT j
+ bT j
j
track 1 j
track 2

(28)

where Tj is the allowance of the various phenomena to be considered. Parameters that are not independent
shall be considered together, i.e. in an arithmetic sum. It shall be noted that the same phenomena on the two
tracks are to be considered as independent.

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Coefficient k determines the safety level (k 1).


More detailed explanations are given in EN 15273-1.
An example of the calculation and the values recommended for the tolerances are given in Annex A and
Annex B.
9.2.4.2.3

For the dynamic gauge

No standardized method yet exists for calculation the limit distance between centres for the dynamic gauge
The kinematic gauge calculation principle can be easily transposed.

9.3

Determination of the nominal distance between track centres

9.3.1

Introduction

All the allowances mentioned in the calculation of the limit distance between centres above are covered by the
nominal distance between centres. The nominal distance between centres has additional allowances that are
to be chosen by the infrastructure manager on the basis of the phenomena he wants to cover:

an allowance to increase the safety level;

an additional maintenance allowance;

an allowance to cover aerodynamic phenomena;

an allowance to facilitate the installation of turnouts;

an allowance to permit the running of special consignments;

a reserve for future layout or gauge modifications;

allowances to obtain a non-variable distance between centres that is easily manageable for the
maintenance and verification services where actual allowances are generous;

additional allowances for the safety of persons outside the scope of this standard and shall be defined by
the authority responsible.

9.3.2

Determination

Generally, the value of the nominal distance between centres is constant; it is defined for ranges of selected
radii in order to facilitate track design, laying and maintenance.
However, there is no methodology common to all networks for determining the nominal distance between
centres because it results from different allowances, to be considered or not, according to the requirements of
each infrastructure manager. The nominal distance between centres will therefore be determined at the same
time as the nominal gauge, following a feasibility study based on the objective set and the resulting economic
and technical consequences.
One way of obtaining a bigger safety allowance with the aim only of facilitating the management of the
distance between centres is to add together all the random allowances mentioned in the case of the limit
distance between centres in an arithmetic sum instead of a root mean square sum. It shall be noted that this
methodology is generally accepted but rarely used on the different networks.

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

10 Elements of variable layout


10.1 Introduction
10.1.1 Calculation principle
The abovementioned rules provide enough information to determine the space to be reserved for rail traffic on
a straight track and in the body of a curve. In transition zones, it is noted that a vehicle occupies a
progressively varying space as a function of the characteristics of two elements of the layout concerned. This
transition zone depends on not just its layout characteristics, but also on the length of the vehicles operating
on the tracks concerned. See Figure 6.

Key
1

start of curve (curve tangent point)

centreline of bogies or axles

track centreline

vehicle centreline
Figure 6 Transition effects

The rules for additional overthrows and for the quasi-static effect take no account of the position of the end
point on the body. When a vehicle enters a curve, the various effects begin to act as soon as the first axle
comes into the curve. The centre of gravity and the points defining the location reached by the vehicle are
before the start of the transition. The rules to be applied to determine the gauge variations when crossing a
layout transition zone are explained below.
10.1.2 Characteristics of a layout transition
A layout transition often consists of a variation in the curve radius on the one hand, and a variation of cant, or
of cant deficiency, on the other. The curve radius can vary smoothly or suddenly, while the change of cant is
always determined by a cant gradient that requires a minimum distance (see also ENV 13803-1).
The curve and gradient transitions are generally merged although they can be separate.
The vertical transition curves generally do not have any progressive curve transition (see ENV 13803-1). The
same phenomena occur only for plane curves.
Due to the fact that turnouts are very specific layout elements, they are dealt with separately.

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

10.1.3 Gauge variations


Gauge variations depend on the gauge type. As a general rule, the gauge elements of variable width are:

the overthrows;

the quasi-static effect.

It shall be noted that the overthrows depend only on the curve radius and local track gauge. When the gauge
is considered relative to the nearest rail, the rail gauge part is taken into account automatically and therefore
can be disregarded.
On the inside of the curve, the quasi-static effect depends only on the cant and the transition step. It shall be
noted that the characteristic point of the vehicle that determines the maximum point reached by the vehicle is
located in the middle of the body.
On the outside of the curve, the quasi-static effect is a function of the cant deficiency which depends both on
the locally applied cant, the curve radius and the speed. On this side, the maximum point reached by the
vehicle is located at the ends of the body.
Similar phenomena occur in the vertical direction. They are not dealt with in detail in the following.

10.2 Layout transition


10.2.1 Sudden change of curvature
10.2.1.1

Variation of additional overthrows

When a vehicle is located at the beginning of a curve, the front of it already has an overthrow relative to the
track centreline before the first bogie or axle has re-entered the curve.
As soon as the first bogie or axle enters the curve, the rear of the vehicle begins to have an overthrow. This
means that the outside additional overthrows are to be partially taken into account from a distance (na + a)
from the layout transition. The geometric overthrow appears fully when the vehicle is located entirely in the
curve, therefore when the rear of the vehicle is at a distance na from the start of the curve. A smooth change is
created between these two extreme situations.
A similar situation arises on the inside of the curve. As the critical points are located between the two bogies,
the change in the additional overthrows begins at a distance a from the start of the transition zone to end at a
distance a/2 in the curve.
The change in the additional overthrows occurs over a distance that is a function of the vehicle wheelbase a
and overhang na. As the vehicle length is unknown, the maximum allowable length shall be determined. The
detail of this change is determined by running all the reference vehicles through the transition zone.

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Key
1

element of straight layout

element of curved layout of radius R

reference vehicle

transition point (beginning of curve)


Figure 7 Effects of a sudden change of curvature

10.2.1.2

Quasi-static effect transition

The change of curvature in the transition zone changes the quasi-static effect at the same time as the cant
change step.
The quasi-static effect shall be checked at the centre of gravity of the body, normally located in its midpoint.
The curvature to be taken into account is the "average" value between the bogie centres or axles. The ultimate
point reached by the vehicle is between the bogie centres for structures on the inside of the curve and at the
body ends for structures on the outside of the curve.
Generally, the vehicle takes into account part of the roll. In the case of a transition from a straight track to a
curve, the phenomenon seldom occurs before the layout transition.
10.2.1.3

Simplifications

The calculation of the space occupied by the reference vehicles depends largely on the characteristics of the
transition. The calculation shall consequently be repeated for each transition zone. However, the start and end
point is always the same as shown above. To simplify matters, the additional overthrows can be changed
linearly between the two points
10.2.2 Smooth transition of curvature
Smooth transitions of curvature only apply when the speeds are high enough (see ENV 13803-1).
The principles are exactly the same although the results change slightly:

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the starting point is the same as in the previous case; a distance (na + a) before the start of the transition
on the outside of the curve and a distance a from the same point on the inside of the curve;

the end point of the transition zone is located at the same distance as in the previous case but relative to
the end of the transition curve; at (na) beyond this point on the outside of the curve and at the distance
(a/2) after this same point on the inside of the curve;

the changes occur more smoothly because the curve radius also changes smoothly.

Similar simplifications can be introduced. It is often thought that the transition zone is linear along its length
but displaced towards the straight alignment.

Key
1

element of straight layout

element of curved layout of radius R

reference vehicle

transition point (beginning of curve)

Trans

transition
Figure 8 Effects of a smooth transition

10.3 Crossing of a turnout


10.3.1 Introduction
The turnout generally comprises a straight main track and a curved turnout route. In order to be able to install
structures correctly, account shall be taken of the traffic on both the tracks. The space to be cleared for the
turnout route requires particular consideration.

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The layout of a turnout is very specific:

the switch entry angle diverts the vehicle at the beginning of the turnout. This switch entry angle is
present even in the case of a turnout with a curve exit (see EN 13232-1). This angle forces the axle and
the vehicle to leave the theoretical curve exit towards the outside of the curve (see figure);

the curve radius may vary widely along the turnout with parts of the curve less than the vehicle length.
These layout elements are not always straight.

NOTE

This effect is greater in turnouts with a small radius.

Key
1

actual layout

theoretical layout (tangent)

vehicle in theoretical position

vehicle in actual position

wheel flange

additional overthrow due to the switch entry angle


Figure 9 Principle of the switch entry angle effect

A turnout cannot be considered as a normal curvature transition.


10.3.2 Additional overthrow variations
Because of the switch entry angle, at the mathematical switch toe of the turnout, the vehicle is travelling in the
opposite direction of the turnout route relative to the theoretical layout. In order to take account of this
phenomenon, the displacements of the reference vehicles shall be examined by simulation case by case and
use the space envelope occupied by the reference vehicles.
Connection to the origin of the turnout can be simplified in the same way as for the transition curves.
NOTE

It may be noted that the widening at the origin of the turnout can be greater than in the body of the curve.

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Key
1

straight track layout

turnout route layout

reference vehicle

PMA Mathematical Switch Toe

switch entry angle of the turnout

dga

geometric overthrow of the turnout

Figure 10 Geometric overthrow of the turnout


10.3.3 Quasi-static effect variations
As the layout of a turnout can be variable, the theoretical quasi-static effect varies continuously in principle. In
addition, the switch entry angle generated an instantaneous impact that corresponds locally to a very high
cant deficiency.
Very short parts of the layout often exist in the turnouts, in which the curve radius is very large.
To examine the quasi-static effect, all these elements can be disregarded because of the distribution of these
impacts and the inertia of the body. The value of the quasi-static effect is normally limited to the cant and cant
deficiency design value.
10.3.4 Result
As the turnout crossing speed is constant, it is possible to examine the turnout once to cover all cases. The
result of this is shown in the following figure.
Annex E gives a calculation example for a given turnout.

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

11 Determination of the pantograph free passage gauge


11.1 General
11.1.1 Space to be cleared for electrified lines
In the case of electrified lines with overhead contact wires, an additional space shall be cleared for:

the installation of the overhead line;

the free passage of the pantograph.

The first depends on the design of the line and, therefore, does not come within the scope of this standard.
The second point is covered in detail below.
11.1.2 Particularities
The pantograph gauge differs from the structure gauge in the following points:

the pantograph is (partially) live and therefore there shall be an electrical insulating clearance depending
on the nature of the structure (insulated or not);

the presence of an insulated horn shall be taken into account, if appropriate. Therefore, a double
reference profile shall be defined to take into account the mechanical and electrical interference
simultaneously;

in the collection phase, the pantograph is in permanent contact with the contact wire and therefore its
height is variable. The same is true for the pantograph gauge.

11.1.3 Basic principles

Key
Y

track centreline

electrical gauge (with insulated horn)

electrical gauge (with non-insulated horn)

mechanical gauge
Figure 11 Mechanical and electrical pantograph gauge

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

The pantograph gauge requirements are met only if the electrical and mechanical gauge requirements are
met simultaneously:

the structures that are live and at the same potential as the overhead line shall remain outside the
mechanical gauge;

the insulated structures shall also remain outside the mechanical gauge;

non-insulated structures (earthed or at a different potential from the overhead line current) shall remain
outside the electrical and mechanical gauges.

Figure 11 represents the electrical and mechanical pantograph gauge. For the electrical gauge, the figure
illustrates the case with and without insulated horns.
NOTE
The insulating clearance depends on the voltage and regulation applied according to the networks concerned.
Therefore, the electrical gauge is likely to vary between networks. The definition of the electrical insulating clearances
does not come within the scope of this standard.

11.2 Determination of the pantograph free passage mechanical gauge (in the case of the
kinematic gauge)
11.2.1 Determination of the mechanical gauge width
11.2.1.1

Introduction

The pantograph gauge width is determined essentially by that of the pantograph considered and its
displacements. In the transverse displacements, phenomena similar to those in the structure gauge are found
in addition to specific phenomena.
As the pantograph in the collection position follows the contact wire, the pantograph height depends on that of
the contact wire. Therefore, the pantograph gauge is to be examined at the various heights it may assume.
The extreme situations are examined at the following heights:

the upper verification height ho;

the lower verification height hu.

Between these two heights, it can be considered that the gauge width varies in a linear way, which defines a
space commonly called the "pantograph chimney".
The various parameters are shown in Figure 12.
11.2.1.2

Semi-width bw of the pantograph head

The semi-width bw of the pantograph head depends of the type of pantograph used. EN 50367 defines the
dimensions of some pantographs used in Europe.
It is the task of the infrastructure manager to determine the pantograph types to be taken into consideration to
determine the pantograph gauge depending on the type of electrification used
NOTE
It should be noted that the authorization to run with a given pantograph type does not depend only on the
pantograph type, but also on the vehicle it is mounted on

11.2.1.3

Offset of the pantograph ep

The pantograph is not always installed in the centreline of the traction unit bogie centres. The offset depends
mainly on the following phenomena:

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

the clearance between the axle boxes and body/bogies q + w;

the amount of body roll taken into account by the vehicle (depending on s0, I0 and D0);

the pantograph mounting tolerance on the roof ;

the transverse flexibility of the pantograph mounting device on the roof ;

the height under consideration h'.

The infrastructure manager defines the offset limit values epo and epu for the two verification heights ho and hu..
The value at an intermediate height is obtained by a linear interpolation.
.

Key
Y

track centreline

pantograph chimney

mechanical profile

electrical profile
Figure 12 Free passage gauge

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

11.2.1.4

Additional overthrows S

The pantograph gauge has specific additional overthrows.


11.2.1.5

Quasi-static effect

As the pantograph is installed on the roof, the quasi-static effect plays an important role in the calculation of
the pantograph gauge. This effect is calculated on the basis of the specific flexibility s0, cant D0 and reference
cant deficiency I0:

qs'i =

s0 '
[D D'0 ]>0 (h h'c0 ) inside of the curve
L

(29)

qs ' a =

s0 '
[I I '0 ]>0 (h h'c 0 ) outside of the curve
L

(30)

11.2.1.6

Allowances

According to the gauge definition, the following phenomena shall be covered (see also 5.2.2 or
EN 15273-1):

loading dissymmetry;

oscillations generated by track irregularities;

the transverse displacement of the track between two successive maintenance periods;

the cant variation occurring between two successive maintenance periods;

allowances Mj and allowance sumsj are defined in 5.2.3 and 5.2.4.

The calculation methodology is in principle the same as that of the structure gauge. Since a pantograph
incident is assessed as less severe, a lower safety level is generally accepted. Annex A and Annex B describe
a calculation method with recommended values.
11.2.1.7

Calculation methodology

The pantograph gauge width is determined by the sum of the abovementioned parameters. In the case of a
line run by various pantographs, the maximum width used shall be considered. Therefore:
for the lower verification point with h = hu:

b'ui / a ,mec = (bw + e pu + S 'i / a + qs'i / a + j )max

(31)

for the upper verification point with h = ho:

b'oi / a ,mec = (bw + e po + S 'i / a + qs'i / a + j )max

(32)

for an intermediate height h, the width is determined by interpolation:

b'h = b'u +

48

h hu
.(b'o b'u )
ho hu

(33)

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

11.2.2 Determination of the maximum height heff of the mechanical gauge


The gauge height is determined locally on the basis of the contact wire height hf. The following parameters
shall be considered:

the raising fs, of the contact wire generated by the pantograph thrust;

the pantograph skew generated by the offset contact point and the pantograph frame raising due to the
contact strip wear. These two values are characterized by fws+fwa.

The values of these parameters depend on the overhead wire type and the maintenance requirements shall
be determined by the infrastructure manager.
The mechanical gauge height is given by the following formula:

heff = h f + f s + f ws + f wa

(34)

11.3 Pantograph electrical gauge (in the case of the kinematic gauge)
11.3.1 Introduction
The pantograph electric gauge is determined in the same way as the mechanical gauge except for the
following particularities:

the electrical gauge is determined by the live (non-insulated) parts of the pantograph. Therefore, the
electrical profile shown in Figure 12 shall be taken as a basis. This profile differs from the mechanical
profile in width by the value cw, which is the horizontal projection of the width of the insulated horn;

account shall be taken of an electrical insulating distance belec, to be added around the mechanical profile;

since the insulating distance belec is different for the static and the dynamic dimensioning, the study with
the vehicle stationary and running at the maximum velocity shall carried out separately. The electrical
gauge is obtained by superposing the two cases:

stationary: the static values of the following parameters shall be considered: insulation distance,
quasi-static effect due to the cant on the inside of the curve and the raising fs.of the contact wire;

running: the dynamic values of the following parameters shall be considered: insulation distance,
quasi-static effect due to the cant deficiency on the outside of the curve) and the raising fs.of the
contact wire;.

when determining the allowances, care shall be taken not to accumulate tolerances. Therefore, the value
of Mj can be reduced or even disregarded.

All other phenomena are determined in the same way as indicated above.
11.3.2 Pantograph electrical gauge width
The pantograph electrical gauge width is determined by the sum of the parameters defined below. In the case
of a line run by various pantographs, the maximum width used shall be considered. Therefore:
for the lower verification point with h = hu:

b'u ,elec = (bw c w + e pu + belec + S 'i / a + qs'i / a + j )max

(35)

for the upper verification point with h = ho:

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b'o ,elec = (bw c w + e po + belec + S 'i / a + qs'i / a + j )max

(36)

for an intermediate height h, the width is determined by interpolation:

b'h , elec = b'u , elec +

h hu
.(b'o, elec b'u , elec )
ho hu

(37)

11.3.3 Electrical gauge height


The electrical gauge height is determined by the following formula:

heff , elec = h f + f s + f ws + f wa + belec


NOTE

(38)

The electrical gauge is always higher than the mechanical gauge heff,elec.

11.3.4 Insulating distance


The insulating distance belec depends on the voltage and regulation applied to particular network:
The values are different for stationary and dynamic situations. The definition of the values and the calculation
of belec do not come within the scope of this European Standard. Reference shall be made to EN 50119.

11.4 Determination of the pantograph gauge in the case of the dynamic gauge
When the pantograph gauge is defined by the dynamic method, the same basic principles are applied as for
the kinematic method, but it shall be mentioned that other parameters are to be taken into consideration, in
line with the dynamic method given in Clause 8.
A dynamic pantograph reference profile can be defined and the specific additional overthrow rules for the
pantograph gauge. This profile can be chosen on the basis of the pantographs used, as described in 11.2 and
11.3 for the kinematic method, or with a fixed method.
Every structure shall conform to the following formulation:
or

bstructure > b' RP + S 'i S ' a + j ,dyn

(39)

Every structure to be insulated shall conform to the following formulation:


or

bstructure > b' RP + S 'i S ' a + j ,dyn + belec

(40)

The height of the mechanical and electrical gauges may be determined either by using the method employed
for the kinematic gauge or be selecting a fixed height.
For the determination of the values of j,dyn the rules of Clause 8 apply.
NOTE
The calculation methodology can differ between that for the structure gauge and that for the pantograph free
passage gauge.

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

12 Overhead contact wire


The overhead contact wire is a very specific structure which shall ensure the power supply of traction units
whilst being likely to come close to the structure gauge but without penetrating it. In order to prevent any risk
of arcing or structures accidentally becoming live, they shall be separated by an adequate insulating distance.
Moreover, its vertical location varies due to the following effects:

thermal extension of the contact/carrying wire. The temperature of the contact/carrying wire varies
according to ambient temperature, sunshine, wind and current flowing in the overhead line. It should be
noted that this extension is absorbed in the case of tension-regulated overhead lines;

dynamic vertical oscillations fdyn of the contact wire;

wind-related effects;

incidence of the longitudinal profile in the gradient transitions as a function of the distance between the
overhead line supports.

Moreover, the height of the vehicle pantograph varies because of the dynamic vehicle oscillations depending
on its suspension flexibility.
The height of the contact wire and of the live parts of the overhead line system shall always ensure an
adequate insulating distance relative to the vehicle roofs.
The insulating distance belec is generally different in static and dynamic situations. Also, the dynamic variations
are greater when the vehicle is operating at maximum speed. Therefore, the two cases, stationary and at
maximum speed, shall be studied separately; the height shall be verified both in static and dynamic situations.
In a dynamic situation, the minimum height of the contact wire shall be determined using the following formula:
hf,min,dyn = hRP + belec,dyn + fdyn

(41)

In a static situation, the basis is the vehicle height


hf,min,stat = hvh + belec,stat
NOTE
uplift.

(42)

When the maximum vehicle height is unknown, it is possible to consider the reference profile height, minus the

hf,min = min(hf,min,stat ; hf,min,dyn)

(43)

This height is to be ensured over the whole working temperature range.


For determination of belec, see 11.3.4.

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13 Rules for installation of platform edges


13.1 General
By their nature, platform edges form a particular structure. They shall be installed as close as possible to the
passenger coaches whilst ensuring the safety of the rail traffic. It is important to limit the gap between the
vehicle steps and the platform edges in order to offer the passenger correct accessibility. Therefore, it is
recommended installing the platform edges according the structure installation limit gauge.
The infrastructure manager defines the installation tolerances in order to ensure installation close to the
installation limit gauge.
Basically, the installation is defined relative to the running surface and track centreline (bq, hq). If the
installation is carried out relative to the horizontal (xq, yq) (and not to the running surface), account shall be
taken of the inclination of the gauge relative to the horizontal. In this case, the installation is generally carried
out relative to the closest rail.
Generally, for practical reasons, the installation and verification of the transverse installation dimensions are
carried out relative to the inside edge of the closest rail. The dimensions parallel to the running surface
become:

b'q = bq

lactual
2

(44)

Key
1

platform

running surface

track centreline
Figure 13 Installation of the platform

NOTE
Prefabricated platform edge design will take into account its use in the case of canted track. For this, it should
be noted that the edge is to be installed horizontally even with the canted track. In order to allow the gauge to remain
coincident with the platform edge, either an edge coping can be created or a sloping vertical face of the platform provided.
The lower parts can then fit below the coping when the track is canted. Care shall be taken to control the manufacturing
tolerances.

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For this, the platform on the outside of the curve shall be pulled relative to the limit value by a value equal to
q,a :

D
.hcoping
L

if there is a coping: q ,a =

if there is a vertical platform:

(45)

D
.(hq hmin RP )
L

q ,a =

(46)

With a cant, it shall be ensured in particular that the safety steps that allow personnel to leave the track always
come within the gauge for the lower parts.

Key
1

platform

gauge on canted track

safety steps for personnel


Figure 14 Platform edge

13.2 Gaps blac and hlac


The gap is the distance between the platform edge and the vehicle step. It can be broken down into a vertical
component bgapand a horizontal component hgap. The nominal value depends on the values chosen for bq and hq
and on the mounting measurements of the step and its position relative to the bogie centres, the geometric
characteristics of the vehicle and the nature of the platform for the line (concave, convex or straight platform).

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Key
1

platform

step

limit gauge

vehicle
Figure 15 Platform gap

The calculation of this gap is shown in EN 15273-1. Various track parameters have a major effect on the
result, in particular:

the local layout (curve radius, cant, cant deficiency, presence of turnouts and local track gauge);

tolerances and allowances chosen for defining the limit gauge;

platform installation tolerances.

In order to facilitate the task of the builder, the infrastructure manager requests him to follow the following
recommendations where possible, particularly in the case of new installations or facilities:

by installing platforms on straight sections without turnouts;

by limiting the cant to ensure the passenger stepping heights;

by tightening the track gauge tolerances;

by tightening platform installation tolerances;

by reducing the allowances and providing a track fastening relative to the platform. This can be done, for
example, by means of a direct fastening of the track or by locking the sleepers in order to prevent them
from getting closer to the platform;

by building the platform at the same level as the vehicle floor.

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13.3 Installation dimensions


13.3.1 Installation relative to the running surface
13.3.1.1

Transverse installation dimensions bq

In order to ensure free passage of the vehicles in the platforms and correct functioning of the steps and to
allow the opening of the access door (in the case of high platforms), the platforms are installed at a distance bq
from the track centreline. The choice of the value depends on the gauge used and the installation tolerances.
National or international regulations can be more restrictive.

For the static gauge, bq bRP st + S i / a ,st + z 0 + qs i or qs a + 2 kin + q , a

or

For the kinematic gauge, bq bRP kin + S kin + qsi qs a + 2 kin + q ,a


For the dynamic gauge,

bq bRP dyn + S dyn + 2 dyn + q ,a

(47)
(48)
(49)

In the curve and in the presence of cant, account is taken of the additional overthrows due to the track.
Verification relative to the nearest rail makes it possible to eliminate the effect of track gauge widening.
Generally, the quasi-static effect is not taken into account because the platform is practically at the level of the
vehicle body roll centre.
NOTE
In the presence of turnouts, account should be taken of the gauge widening when the vehicles have to run via
the turnout route. This necessitates moving back the platform edge and, therefore, increases the gap, on the basis of the
additional overthrows and the quasi-static effect determined as explained in Clause 10.

13.3.1.2

Dimension hq for installation perpendicular to the running surface

Platforms are installed at a height hq above the running surface. The infrastructure managers are responsible
for choosing this value on the basis of the regulations in force.
International regulations or bi- or multilateral agreements determine the value to be used. Standardized
heights of 550 mm and 760 mm are used at the European level.
If the gauge passes above the platform, it shall be considered lowering the gauge in the presence of a vertical
transition curve and the vertical allowance to be considered. This results in:

hq hRP

50.000
M V + ....
RV

(50)

13.3.2 Installation relative to the horizontal (xq, yq)


If the platforms are installed or verified in the horizontal/vertical planes (and not relative to the running
surface), the gauge rotation shall be taken into account according to the following formulae:
inside of the curve:

xqi bRP + S i + ij +

D
l
( hq )
L
2

(51)

and

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y qi = hq

D
l
bq
L
2

(52)

outside of the curve:

xqa bRP + S i + ij +

D
l
( hq )
L
2

(53)

and

y qa = hq +

D
l
bq
L
2

(54)

13.3.3 Installation tolerances


The platform installation and maintenance and tolerances are very important because of their effect on the
actual gap. This is true both for the transverse and vertical directions. For this, the installation directives given
in 13.2 shall be noted.
Determination of the tolerances does not come within the scope of this standard. It is up to the networks to fix
them on the basis of their particularities whilst taking into account the international regulations in force.

13.4 Verification and tolerances


The verification gauge can be applied unless there are regulations in force that exclude it. The verification
tolerances shall also be defined in the regulations.

14 Tilting trains
14.1 General
Tilting trains have been designed to increase the running speed on classic lines with particularly winding
routes while improving passenger comfort by reducing the transverse acceleration felt. To achieve this, the
vehicle body tilts in curves so that it partly makes up for the cant deficiency.
The gauge is defined for the speeds of conventional trains. In this context, it shall be noted that the traction
unit and any other train vehicle running at speeds greater than the normal line speed shall comply with the
gauge and be verified.
The vehicle shall incorporate all the measures necessary to ensure that tilting train complies with the gauge
used on the section of line in question in the following areas:

straight tracks and circular curves;

transition curves;

in degraded mode following a failure of the tilting system.

In particular, the vehicle shall ensure that all the necessary measures are taken for the tilting train, when
running on the line, to comply with the limit ratio
network:

56

IC

IP

fixed by the infrastructure manager of each


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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

I 'C I C
.
I ' P I P min
example

IC

IP

(55)

= 0,6).
min

If the vehicle value is smaller, the measures necessary to comply with the limit fixed by the infrastructure
manager shall be taken.
It is the task of the infrastructure manager to carry out a line examination to determine the maximum local
running speed on the basis of the following formula:

Ip
R
V ' p I ' c + D '
Ic
c
where c is a constant: c =

(56)

L
and gravity g = 9,81 m/s.
3,6.g

c = 0,0118 in the case of a rail gauge of 1,5 m.


This disregards all the other rules to be met (e.g. layout, etc.).
If the following conditions are met:

Ip
I'p

Ic
D
=
I 'c D'

(57)

which is normally the case, this gives:

V ' p = V 'c

Ip + D
Ic + D

(58)

This formula enables a constant ratio to be defined between classic and tilting train speeds.
These verifications form the basis for an agreement between the infrastructure and the vehicle.

14.2 Transition curve


When a tilting train runs on a transition curve, the tilting system device will be interlocked. Depending on the
tilting system and, more accurately, on the adjustment module, the tilting movement is initiated either at the
start of the transition curve or upstream or downstream of start of the transition curve. Moreover, the tilting
variation depends on the tilting system installed.
As the reaction of the tilting system is not predefined in transition curves, the compliance with the gauge shall
be studied for each case and for each speed range given. Therefore, a tilting vehicle shall only be authorized
after verification of its reactions on the line section under consideration.

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14.3 Degraded modes


Running in degraded mode following a tilting system failure risks generating interferences with the structure
gauge and the space between tracks. This situation may be encountered on a straight as well as on a curved
track. The running speed will be reduced to the normal line speed to ensure the gauge is complied with as
quickly as possible.
The vehicle manager is responsible for carrying out a risk analysis of the infrastructure under consideration
and of the traffic on the adjacent tracks.
The compliance with a safety level defined for this specific risk is part of an agreement between the
infrastructure and the vehicle.

15 Rules for ferries


For access installations to ferries, secant angles between the fixed installations and mobile platforms and
between these platforms and the ferry embarkation ramps are essential. In order to ensure the free passage
of the vehicles over these installations, this angle shall remain limited. In addition, none of the structures shall
project above the running surfaces over the width of the lower parts.
The limit angle " depends on the ferry in question and is given in the following table:
Table 2 Ferry ramp limit angle "
CROSSING

Maximum angle of the


movable gangway "

Korsr Nyborg

reserved
2 30

Gedser - Warnemnde

reserved

Rdby
Frge
Puttgarden

reserved

Sassnitz
Trelleborg

2 30

Hafen

Villa S.G. - Messina

1 30

Reggio C. - Messina

1 30

Stockholm Abo

reserved

Ystad Swinoujscie

reserved

Trelleborg - Rostock

reserved

Malm - Travemnde

reserved

16 Track accessories
16.1 Introduction
Some local structures are very special in that they can or shall come into contact vehicle parts in order to
ensure safe operation of the railway system.
The main systems used in Europe are dealt with below.

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Agreements that are needed to ensure the operation of these systems normally depend on the system under
consideration. Nevertheless, it shall not be forgotten that such systems may affect interoperability.

16.2 Contact ramps


Contact ramps are structures that allow operation of the signalling system and shall ensure contact with the
brushes fitted to the vehicle.
Introducing an agreement makes it possible to ensure the proper operation of these systems. For the
infrastructure, this agreement includes:

the installation dimensions of the system with their tolerances, as a function of the horizontal curve radius
R and the vertical curve radius RV;

the application limits of these curve radii.

Generally, these systems are installed in the track centreline slightly above running surface.
By positioning the contact brushes close to the axle centrelines, their geometrical overthrow values become
very small, or even negligible.

16.3 Active check rails


Like the contact ramps, active check rails are a special structure as the wheels can come into contact with
their internal flanges.
A horizontal interaction range shall be defined between these two elements. This range is determined
according to EN 13232-3 and EN 13232-9.
In the vertical direction, the check rail shall not project outside the gauge used.
Also, it shall not be forgotten that the application of superelevated check rails will be restricted when laying in
vertical curves.

16.4 Planking of level crossings


Except at the level of the flangeway, this type of equipment shall not penetrate the gauge of the lower parts.

16.5 Electric third rail


Like the contact ramps, the electrical third rail is a special structure. It shall be noted that this electric third rail
is very often integral with the track. In addition, account shall be taken of the electrical insulating distance
between the live parts and any other structure

16.6 Rail brakes


Rail brakes are used to stop wagons running down from a marshalling hump. The braking action results from
the friction against the inside and outside surfaces of the wheels.
To ensure proper operation of these devices, the lower parts gauge shall allow a free space to accommodate
these systems and the area of interference with the wheels.
Since the vertical transition radii are very small on the humps, particular attention shall be given to the
transition zone limits.
Due to the fact that these systems are very bulky, interoperability on tracks equipped with them is frequently
not ensured.

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

17 Verification and maintenance of the gauge


17.1 Structure gauge
Several gauge types can be made available to persons responsible for verifying and maintaining the structure
gauge.
The uniform gauge allows a rapid and simple analysis to be carried out with a wide safety margin.
The nominal gauge allows installation of the structures and verification of the gauge with an adequate safety
margin. This method does not require any specific intervention to ensure gauge compliance.
The structure installation limit gauge allows the installation of structures with an adequate safety level while
ensuring that the gauge remains normally maintained between standard maintenance operations if they
comply with the values used to define the gauge. When the gauge is exceeded, either an additional
maintenance operation shall be planned or measures shall be taken to ensure that the situation will not
deteriorate further. This can be done either by fastening the track or by reducing the intervals between
verifications of the track position relative to the structures.
The structure limit gauge allows assessment of whether the running of trains may continue, even if the
structure installation limit gauge is exceeded.
The infrastructure manager is responsible for the periodicity and the means used to verify the structure
installation. Those periodicities shall, however, remain compatible with the tolerance values taken into account
during the determination of M2.
More detailed explanations and guidelines are given in Annex H.

17.2 Distance between centres


The principles used for verification and maintenance of the structure gauge also apply for the distance
between centres.
A constant distance between centres shall be favoured as far as possible; it ensures that the limit distance
between centre is complied with and allows:

easy track maintenance;

easy checking of the space between tracks;

installation of standard turnouts with a fixed space between tracks.

18 Guide for determination of a new gauge from an existing infrastructure


Reserved

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Annex A
(normative)
Calculation methodology for structure gauge allowances

A.1 Introduction
The allowance to determine the tolerances relative to the track shall be fixed by the infrastructure manager.
He either determines fixed values based on his knowledge or uses a commonly accepted calculation
methodology.
This Annex gives a random calculation methodology used on various networks. This method is based on the
hypothesis that the simultaneous occurrence of the extreme values of the tolerances is very improbable. Similarly
to the calculation of the standard deviation of independent deviations, the arithmetic sum is replaced by a
quadratic sum as follows:

=k

Ti

(A.1)

The coefficient k preceding the square root is a security coefficient taking account of the possibility that one or
several tolerances are exceeded.
NOTE 1

Recommended values and calculation examples are given in Annex B.

NOTE 2
In the following, the subscripts "st", "kin" or "dyn" have been omitted to facilitate reading and comprehension of
the formulae.

A.2 Formulation in the case of the static or kinematic gauge


A.2.1 For the installation nominal gauge
A.2.1.1

In the transverse direction

Generally, the sum of the allowance 3 is determined on the basis of the following formulation:

3,i / a = Ttrack +

s
TD
T
h + s 0 D [h hC 0 ]>0 + tg (Tsusp )[h hC 0 ]>0 + tg (Tload )[h hC 0 ]>0 + 0 Tosc [h hC 0 ]>0 + Supl.
L
L
L

(A.2)

The term Supl is to be determined on the basis of the values that the infrastructure manager wishes to take
into account.
The semi-width of the installation nominal gauge is determined by:

bnom ,i = bRP + S i + 3,i + K [D D0 ]>0

(A.3)

bnom ,a = bRP + S a + 3,a + K [I I 0 ]>0

(A.4)

and

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

where

K =
A.2.1.2

s0
[h hc0 ]>0
L

(A.5)

In the vertical direction

Generally, the sum of the allowances V3 is determined for point Q on the basis of the following formulation:

s
L

T
V3,Qa = bQ + + s 0 bQ D + bQ 0 Tosc + bQ tg (Tload ) + bQ tg (Tsusp ) + TN + Supl
2
L

(A.6)

s
L

T
V3,Qi = bQ + s 0 bQ D + bQ 0 Tosc + bQ tg (Tload ) + bQ tg (Tsusp ) + TN + Supl
2
L

(A.7)

For the other points of the upper parts and for the lower parts, the first four phenomena are not to be
considered. Therefore, the allowances are usually determined on the basis of a fixed value as explained
above.

A.2.2 For the installation limit gauge


A.2.2.1
A.2.2.1.1

In the transverse direction


Basic formula

On the basis of the phenomena described in 5.2.2, the principle expressed above is translated by the
following formulae.
Determined firstly is:
2

T
T

2
' 2,i / a = k Ttrack
+ D h + s0 D [h hC 0 ]>0 + tg (Tsusp )[h hC 0 ]>0
L
L

] + [tg (T )[h h ] ]
2

load

C 0 >0

+ 0 (Tosc )[h hC 0 ]>0 (A.8)


L

and
2

T
T

2
"2 = k Ttrack
+ D h + s 0 D [h hC 0 ]>0 + tg (Tsusp )[h hC 0 ]>0
L
L

] + [tg (T )[h h ] ]
2

load

C 0 >0

(A.9)

It shall be noted that the coefficients are generally different for the inside and the outside of the curve.
A.2.2.1.2

Determination of the semi-width on the inside of the curve

The semi-width of the gauge is determined on the inside of the curve by:

blim, i = bRP + S i + max [' 2 ,i + K .( D D0 ); "2 ; (' 2 ,a K .I 0 )]

(A.10)

where

K=

62

s0
[h hc0 ]>0
L

(A.11)

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BS EN 15273-3:2009
EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Therefore, it shall be noted that the formula changes depending on the cant examined as indicated in
Table A.1 below:
Table A.1 Cant
Cant D

Semi-width

0 D < D' L

blim, i = bRP + S i + ' 2 ,a K .I 0

D' L D D"L

blim, i = bRP + S i + "2

D' L < D

blim, i = bRP + S i + ' 2,i + K ( D D0 )

where

D' L =
A.2.2.1.3

' 2, a ' 2,i


K

+ D0 I 0 and D"L = D0 +

"2 '2,i

(A.12)

Determination of the semi-width on the outside of the curve

The semi-width of the gauge is determined on the outside of the curve as a function of the cant deficiency by:

blim, a = bRP + S a + max [' 2 ,a + K ( I I 0 ); "2 ]

(A.13)

Therefore, it shall be noted that formula changes depending on the cant deficiency examined as indicated in
Table A.2 below:
Table A.2 Cant
Cant deficiency I

Semi-width

0 I < IL

blim, a = bRP + S a + "2

IL < I

blim, a = bRP + S a + ' 2,a + K ( I I 0 )

Where

I L = I0 +
A.2.2.2

"2 '2,a

(A.14)

In the vertical direction

Generally, the sum of the allowances V2 is determined for point Q on the basis of the following formulation:
2

2
2

L T s

V2,Qa = k (1 + s0 )bQ + D + bQ 0 Tosc + bQ2 tg 2 tg (Tload ) + bQ2 tg 2 tg (Tsusp ) + TN2

2 L L

(A.15)

V2,Qi

2
2

L TD s 0

= k (1 + s 0 )bQ
+ b
T
+ bQ2 tg 2 tg (Tload ) + bQ2 tg 2 tg (Tsusp ) + TN2

Q L osc
2
L

(A.16)

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For the other points of the upper parts and for the lower parts, the first four phenomena are not to be
considered. Therefore, the allowances are usually determined on the basis of a fixed value as explained
above.

A.2.3 Limit gauge


A.2.3.1

In the transverse direction

The following is determined for the limit gauge:

'1,i / a = k tg (Tsusp )[h hC 0 ]>0

] + [tg(T )[h h ] ]
2

load

C 0 >0

+ 0 (Tosc )[h hC 0 ]>0


L

(A.17)

and

"1,i / a = k tg (Tsusp )[h hC 0 ]>0 + [tg (Tload )[h hC 0 ]>0 ]


2

(A.18)

and the semi-width of the gauge is determined by:

bver ,i = bRP + S i + max ['1,i + K .( D D0 ); 1 "; ('1,a K .I 0 ) ]

(A.19)

and

bver ,a = bRP + S a + max ['1,a + K ( I I 0 ); "1 ]


A.2.3.2

(A.20)

In the vertical direction

Generally, the sum of the allowances V1 is determined for point Q on the basis of the following formulation:
2

V1,Qa

2
2
= k bQ 0 Tosc + bQ2 tg (Tload
) + bQ2 tg (Tsusp
) + TN2
L

(A.21)

2
2
V1,Qi = k bQ 0 Tosc + bQ2 tg (Tload
) + bQ2 tg (Tsusp
) + TN2
L

(A.22)

For the other points of the upper parts and for the lower parts, the first three phenomena are not to be
considered. Therefore, the allowances are usually determined on the basis of a fixed value as explained
above.

A.2.4 For the installation nominal distance between centres


Compared to the structure gauge, the random phenomena of both tracks shall be taken simultaneously.
Assuming that they are equal for both tracks, this is translated by the root of 2 at the beginning of the formula.
The formula is only applied at the level of the upper point P.
For the installation nominal distance between centres:

EA3 = ( 3,i / a )track1 + ( 3,i / a )track 2

(A.23)

The formulae in A.2.1 are used. The choice of i or a depends on the effect determined for the track in
question:

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when the track examined is located on the outside of the curve, the parameters used have the subscript
"a";

when the track examined is located on the inside of the curve, the parameters used have the subscript "i";

It shall be noted that the coefficients are generally different for the inside and the outside of the curve.
The installation nominal distance between centres is determined, in the case of two concentric tracks, on the
basis of:

EA3 = 2.bRP + S a + S i + EA 3 + [K ( I I 0 )]> 0 + [K ( D D0 ) ]> 0 + bD

(A.24)

A.2.5 For the installation limit distance between centres


For the installation limit distance between centres:

' EA 2 =

(' )

2
2 ,i / a track 1

+ ' 22,i / a

track 2

(A.25)

and

"EA 2 =

(" )

2
2,i / a track 1

+ "22,i / a

track 2

(A.26)

The formulae of A.2.2 are used.


The installation limit distance between centres is determined, in the case of two concentric tracks, on the basis
of:

EA2 = 2.bRP + S a + S i + max [' EA 2 + K ( I I 0 ) + K ( D D0 ); " EA 2 ] + bD

(A.27)

A.2.6 For the limit distance between centres


In the case of the limit distance between centres, the following is determined:

' EA1 =

(' )

"EA1 =

(" )

2
1,i / a track 1

+ '12,i / a

track 2

(A.28)

and
2
1,i / a track 1

+ "12,i / a

track 2

(A.29)

The formulae of A.2.3 are used.


The limit distance between centres is determined, in the case of two concentric tracks, on the basis of:

EA1 = 2.bRP + S a + S i + max [' EA1 + K ( I I 0 ) + K ( D D0 ); " EA1 ] + bD

(A.30)

The cant deficiency is used for the track on the inside of the curve, the cant for the track on the outside of the
curve.

A.2.7 For the pantograph gauge


The same formulae are used as those for the installation limit gauge and the limit gauge depending on the
heights involved.

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A.3 Formulation in the case of the dynamic gauge


A.3.1 General
The same formulation as the one used in the case of the static and kinematic gauges is applied in the case of
the dynamic gauge with the difference that no account shall be taken of all the phenomena. as in the case of
the kinematic gauge.
The recommended values are the same where they are applicable.
The main formulae are given again below.

A.3.2 For the installation nominal gauge


A.3.2.1

In the transverse direction

In general, the sum of the allowances 3 is determined on the basis of the following:

3,i / a = Ttrack +

TD
h + tg (Tsusp )[h hC 0 ]>0 + tg (Tload )[h hC 0 ]>0 + Supl.
L

(A.31)

The term Supl is to be determined on the basis of the values that the infrastructure manager wishes to take
into account.
The semi-width of the installation nominal gauge is determined by:

bnom ,i = bRP + S i + 3,i

(A.32)

and

bnom ,a = bRP + S a + 3,a


A.3.2.2

(A.33)

In the vertical direction

Generally, the sum of the allowances V3 is determined for point Q on the basis of the following formulation:

LT

V3,Qa = bQ + D + bQ tg (Tload ) + bQ tg (Tsusp ) + TN + Supl


2 L

(A.34)

LT

V3,Qi = bQ D + bQ tg (Tload ) + bQ tg (Tsusp ) + TN + Supl


2 L

(A.35)

For the other points of the upper parts and for the lower parts, the first four phenomena are not to be
considered. Therefore, the allowances are usually determined on the basis of a fixed value as explained
above.

A.3.3 For the installation limit gauge


A.3.3.1
A.3.3.1.1

In the transverse direction


Basic formula

Generally, the sum of the allowances 2 is determined for point Q on the basis of the following formulation:

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2
track

2 ,i / a = k T

T
+ D
L

h + tg (Tsusp )[h hC 0 ]>0

] + [tg (T )[h h ] ]
2

C 0 >0

load

(A.36)

It shall be noted that the coefficients are generally different for the inside and the outside of the curve.
A.3.3.1.2

Determination of the semi-width on the inside of the curve

The semi-width of the gauge is determined on the inside of the curve by:

blim, i = bRP + S i + 2 ,i
A.3.3.1.3

(A.37)

Determination of the semi-width on the outside of the curve

The semi-width of the gauge is determined on the outside of the curve as a function of the cant deficiency by:

blim, a = bRP + S a + 2,a


A.3.3.2

(A.38)

In the vertical direction

Generally, the sum of the allowances V2 is determined for point Q on the basis of the following formulation:
2

V2,Qa

L TD
2
2

= k bQ +
+ bQ2 tg (Tload
) + bQ2 tg (Tsusp
) + TN2

2 L

(A.39)

V2,Qi

L T
2
2
= k bQ D + bQ2 tg (Tload
) + bQ2 tg (Tsusp
) + TN2

2
L

(A.40)

For the other points of the upper parts and for the lower parts, the first four phenomena are not to be
considered. Therefore, the allowances are usually determined on the basis of a fixed value as explained
above.

A.3.4 Limit gauge


A.3.4.1

In the transverse direction

Generally, the sum of the allowances 1 is determined for point Q on the basis of the following formulation:

1,i / a = k tg (Tsusp )[h hC 0 ]>0 + [tg (Tload )[h hC 0 ]>0 ]


2

22

(A.41)

and the semi-width of the gauge is determined by:

blim, i = bRP + S i + 1,i

(A.42)

blim, a = bRP + S a + 1,a

(A.43)

and

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A.3.4.2

In the vertical direction

Generally, the sum of the allowances V1 is determined for point Q on the basis of the following formulation:
2
2
V 1,Qa = k . bQ2 Tload
+ bQ2 Tsusp
+ TN2

(A.44)

2
2
V 1,Qi = k . bQ2 Tload
+ bQ2 Tsusp
+ TN2

(A.45)

For the other points of the upper parts and for the lower parts, the first four phenomena are not to be
considered. Therefore, the allowances are usually determined on the basis of a fixed value as explained
above.

A.3.5 For the installation nominal distance between centres


On the basis of the phenomena described in 5.2.2, the principle expressed above is translated by the
following formulae.
Compared to the structure gauge, the random phenomena of both tracks shall be taken simultaneously.
Assuming that they are equal for both tracks, this is translated by the root of 2 at the beginning of the formula.
The formula is only applied at the level of the upper point P.
For the installation nominal distance between centres:

EA3 = ( 3,i / a )track1 + ( 3,i / a )track 2

(A.46)

the formulae of A.3.2 are used. The choice of i or a depends on the effect determined for the track in
question:

when the track examined is located on the outside of the curve, the parameters used have the subscript
"a";

when the track examined is located on the inside of the curve, the parameters used have the subscript "i";

It shall be noted that the coefficients are generally different for the inside and the outside of the curve.
The installation nominal distance between centres is determined, in the case of two concentric tracks, on the
basis of:
(A.47)

EA3 = 2.bRP + S a + S i + EA 3

A.3.6 For the installation limit distance between centres


For the installation limit distance between centres:

EA 2 =

( )

2
2,i / a track 1

+ 22,i / a

track 2

(A.48)

The formulae of A.3.3 are used.


The installation limit distance between centres is determined, in the case of two concentric tracks, on the basis
of:

EA2 = 2.bRP + S a + S i + EA 2

68

(A.49)

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BS EN 15273-3:2009
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A.3.7 For the limit distance between centres


In the case of the limit distance between centres, the following is determined:

EA1 =

( )

2
1,i / a track 1

+ 12,i / a

track 2

(A.50)

The formulae of A.3.4 are used.


The limit distance between centres is determined, in the case of two concentric tracks, on the basis of:

EA1 = 2.bRP + S a + S i + EA1

(A.51)

The cant deficiency is used for the track on the inside of the curve, the cant for the track on the outside of the
curve.

A.3.8 For the pantograph gauge


The same formulae as those used for the installation limit gauge and the limit gauge are used depending on
the heights involved.

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BS EN 15273-3:2009
EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Annex B
(informative)
Recommended values for calculation of the structure gauge and
calculation examples

B.1 Recommendations for coefficients


Annex A of this standard gives a calculation methodology.
Coefficients to be taken into account in the abovementioned formulae depend on a set of parameters:

the track-laying system (e.g. ballast/slab, heavy/light sleepers, type of ballast, short rails/continuous
welded rails, etc.);

the maintenance requirements (e.g. operational tolerances, maintenance policy, periodicity of check,
etc.);

the agreements between the vehicle department and the infrastructure department (especially in the case
of certain dissymmetries);

the running velocity (for the dynamic effects);

the experience of the infrastructure manager with the vehicle (dynamic interactions).

As the ballast-laying system is very widely used and the maintenance rules are very similar on the various
networks, the values given in the Annex may be considered as related to the general case providing an
acceptable safety level while following the conventional maintenance rules.
In the case of the slab-laying system, the parameters related to the crosslevel error and to the positioning may
generally be disregarded. Moreover, for the parameter representing the effect of the oscillations, it is assumed
that the track is always in a good and constant condition.
NOTE
It should be noted that, in the case of slab-laid tracks, the limit gauge and the installation limit gauge coincide.
This is due to the fact that the track position and its cant are generally not easily changeable during a maintenance
operation. Therefore, in this case, it is no longer useful to differentiate the two limit gauges.

A proposal of values under the above conditions is given in the table below. For the dissymmetry 0, these
values are related to most profiles recommending a 1 upper limit.

70

Parameters

Ballasted track

Slab

Inside of the
curve

Outside of the
curve

Inside of the
curve

Outside of the
curve

0,025 m

0,025 m

0,005 m

0,005 m

0,020 m

0,020 m

0,005 m

0,005 m

V > 80 km/h

0,015 m

0,015 m

0,005 m

0,005 m

Very
good
track quality

0,007 m

0,039 m

to

to

0,007 m

0,039 m

0,013 m

0,065 m

Track position
Crosslevel
error

Symbol

Table B.1 Coefficients of the allowances recommended for the static and kinematic gauges

Oscillations

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Ttrack

V 80 km/h
TD

to

Tosc

Other tracks

Loading dissymmetry

Tload

0,77

0,77

0,77

0,77

Suspension adjustment
dissymmetry

Tsusp

0,23

0,23

0,23

0,23

Track vertical tolerance

TN

Structure gauge security


coefficient

1,2

1,2

1,2

1,2

Pantograph gauge
security coefficient

Left to the discretion of the infrastructure manager

NOTE 1
Recommendations only, not mandatory. Specific situations allow derogations. For example: blockage of track at
platform Other example: inside of curve at low speed.
NOTE 2 The quality values can be considered as being relative to the results obtained with the track quality measuring
coach.

If they are used in the formulae, the same values apply for the dynamic gauge.

B.2 Examples of kinematic calculation


B.2.1 Limit gauge and installation limit gauge
As an example, the calculation for the following figure is given:

gauge G1 (see EN 15273-1);

values of allowances recommended for ballasted tracks (see Table B.1);

track condition : bad ("other tracks");

V > 80 km/h;

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BS EN 15273-3:2009
EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

local rail gauge : 1 435 mm;

straight track without cant.

The calculation for the point at 3 250 mm is summarized as follows for the outside of the curve and taking into
account the maintenance allowances. The other calculations are similar.

0.015
0.015
'2a = 1.2 0.0252 +
3.25 + 0.4
[3.25 0.5c ]
1
.
5
1
.
5

+ tg(0.23)[3.25 0.5c ]

] + [tg(0,77)[3.25 0.5]
2

>0

]2 + [10,,54 0,065[3,25 0,5]]2

(B.1)

The result of the calculations for the whole profile is given in Table A.4 with, respectively, the semi-width of the
reference profile, of the installation limit gauge and of the limit gauge.
Table B.2 Structure gauge G1
Dimensions in millimetres
bCR

hCR

bnom

blim

bver

1 520
1 620
1 620
1 645
1 645
1 425
1 120
525
0
-525
-1 120
-1 425
-1 645
-1 645
-1 620
-1 620
-1 520

400
400
1 170
1 170
3 250
3 700
4 010
4 310
4 310
4 310
4 010
3 700
3 250
1 170
1 170
400
400

1 550
1 650
1 677
1 702
1 782
1 579
1 286
703
-178
-703
-1 286
-1 579
-1 782
-1 702
-1 677
-1 650
-1 550

1 551
1 651
1 660
1 685
1 735
1 527
1 231
644
-119
-644
-1 231
-1 527
-1 735
-1 685
-1 660
-1 651
-1 551

1 520
1 620
1 631
1 656
1 692
1 479
1 180
590
-65
-590
-1 180
-1 479
-1 692
-1 656
-1 631
-1 620
-1 520

B.2.2 Nominal, installation limit and limit distances between centres


The calculation for the distance between centres for gauge G1 is given below with the following conditions:
hP = 3 250 mm
bRP = 1 645
In the case of two concentric tracks (see Figure 4):
R1 = R2 = 450 m
D1 = 120 mm
D2 = 90 mm

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BS EN 15273-3:2009
EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

V1 = 0 km/h
V2 = 80 km/h
1 = 1,435 m ; 2 =1,445 m
The general formula applicable for gauge G1 is:

EA 1, 645 +

+ 1, 645 +

3 , 75 l 1, 435 0 , 4
+
+
[ D 1 0 , 05 ]
R1
2
1, 5

3 , 75 l 1, 435 0 , 4
+
+
[ I 2 0 , 05 ]
R2
2
1, 5

[ 3 , 25 0 , 5 ]

[3 , 25 0 , 5 ] + 3 , 25 [ D 1 D 2 ] + EA
1, 5

(B.2)

On the basis of the general cant deficiency rules, this gives:


I2 = 79 mm
The allowance EAi calculated according to the formula in A.2 becomes

EA1 = 74 mm,
EA2 = 132 mm,
EA3 = 212 mm,
which gives the following result:
EA1 > 1,645 + (0,008+0,000 + 0,052) + 1,645 + (0,008+0,005 + 0,022) +0,065+ 0,074 = 3,524 m
EA2 > 1,645 + (0,008+0,000 + 0,052) + 1,645 + (0,008+0,005 + 0,022) +0,065+ 0,132 = 3,582 m
EA3 > 1,645 + (0,008+0,000 + 0,052) + 1,645 + (0,008+0,005 + 0,022) +0,065+ 0,309 = 3,809 m

B.2.3 Pantograph gauge


B.2.3.1

Introduction

While installing structures, a distinction shall be made between structures generating a hazard of electric
interference and those that do not generate such a hazard.
Structures not generating such a hazard may be installed at the limit of the electrical gauge.
On the other hand, those generating such a hazard shall comply with an insulating distance belec, to be defined
by the infrastructure manager.
The following case is a calculation example:

a pantograph gauge defined on the basis;

GE1 according to Annex C;

a pantograph 1 600 mm wide;

an insulated horn of (cw =) 265 mm wide;

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BS EN 15273-3:2009
EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

tolerance values recommended by Table B.1;

a dynamic insulating distance belec,dyn of 170 mm a static insulating distance belec,stat of 270 mm;.

a track with curve radius of 350 m;

a track with cant D of 100 mm;

a local rail gauge of 1445 mm;

train running at 70 km/h, which results into a cant deficiency I of 66 mm;

effective height hef of 5 500 mm

B.2.3.2
B.2.3.2.1

Pantograph installation limit gauge on a straight track


In the transverse direction

The values of, calculated according to the methodology of A.1, are given in Table B.4 below.
In order to evaluate the insulating distances, the calculation shall be considered under stationary and
maximum speed conditions. The parameters that change with the speed are belec and j. (j, i specifies the
value stationary and j, a gives the value at maximum speed). The calculation on the inside of the curve
therefore corresponds to the calculation stationary and the calculation on the outside of the curve to the
calculation at maximum speed. On the straight track, the larger of the two values shall be considered.
Table B.3 Pantograph gauge
Dimensions in millimetres

Height

Limit gauge

Installation limit
gauge

H'

1i

1A

2i

2a

5 000

76

95

138

149

6 500

102

126

180

195

The pantograph width is calculated below with these figures for the limit gauge.

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BS EN 15273-3:2009
EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Table B.4 Pantograph gauge upper verification point at ho


Dimensions in millimetres
bw

-cw

ep

belec

qs

Total b

boi, mec

800

170

102

1 072

boa, mec

800

170

126

1 096

boi, elec

800

-265

170

270

102

1 077

boa, elec

800

-265

170

170

126

1 001

Table B.5 Pantograph gauge lower verification point at hu


Dimensions in millimetres
bw

-cw

ep

belec

qs

Total
b

bui, mec

800

110

76

986

bua, mec

800

110

95

1 005

bui, elec

800

-265

110

270

76

991

bua, elec

800

-265

110

170

95

910

From these results, it can be concluded that the most unfavourable situation for the calculation of the
mechanical gauge width on a straight track is that at maximum speed, whilst for the electric gauge, the
stationary situation can be considered the most severe. It shall be noted that the result definitely becomes
symmetrical.
B.2.3.2.2

In the vertical direction

To determine the pantograph gauge height, the same factors have to be considered. In this case, the vertical
oscillation of the wire increases with the speed, whereas the electrical insulating distance decreases.
Calculation of the first criterion does not come within the scope of this standard. Therefore, conservatively, the
most severe situation is regarded to occur with the maximum value of the two parameters. Therefore, the
calculations are continued with the dynamic insulating distance.
When the gauge is defined on the basis of a single type of pantograph, a gauge definition as illustrated in
Figure A.2 is obtained.

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

pantograph chimney

mechanical gauge

electrical gauge
Figure B.1 Envelope of the mechanical and electrical verification gauge on a straight track

B.2.3.3

Situation in a curve

In a curve, the additional overthrows and quasi-static effect are added:


Sa = Si = 350/2.5 + (1 445-1 435)/2 = 12 mm

qsa = 0
qsiu = 25,5 mm and qsio = 33,1 mm
In order to evaluate the effect of the electrical insulating distance, the two cases stationary and running are
considered.
When stationary, the static electrical insulating distance, a quasi-static effect corresponding to the value on
the inside of the curve (qsi) and a sum of the allowances corresponding to the inside of the curve j,i. shall be
considered.

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BS EN 15273-3:2009
EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Table B.6 Pantograph gauge for V = 0 at ho


Dimensions in millimetres
bw

-cw

ep

belec

qs

Total b

boi, mec

800

170

12

33

102

1 117

boa, mec

800

170

12

102

1 084

boi ,elec

800

-265

170

270

12

33

102

1 122

boa, elec

800

-265

170

270

12

102

1 089

Table B.7 Pantograph gauge for V = 0 to hu


Dimensions in millimetres
bw

-cw

ep

belec

qs

Total
b

bui, mec

800

110

12

25

76

1 023

bua, mec

800

110

12

76

998

bui, elec

800

-265

110

270

12

25

76

1 028

bua, elec

800

-265

110

270

12

76

1 003

When running, the dynamic electrical insulating distance applies. At reduced speed, the quasi-static effect can
be regarded as that when stationary.
Table B.8 Pantograph gauge for V > 0 at ho
Dimensions in millimetres
bw

-cw

ep

belec

qs

Total b

boi, mec

800

170

12

33

102

1 117

boa, mec

800

170

12

126

1 108

boi, elec

800

-265

170

170

12

33

102

1 022

boa, elec

800

-265

170

170

12

126

1 013

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BS EN 15273-3:2009
EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Table B.9 Pantograph gauge for V > 0 at hu


Dimensions in millimetres
bw

-cw

ep

belec

qs

Total
b

bui, mec

800

110

12

26

76

1 024

bua, mec

800

110

12

95

1 017

bui, elec

800

-265

110

170

12

26

76

929

bua, elec

800

-265

110

170

12

95

922

For the mechanical gauge, it is found that, on the outside of the curve, the most unfavourable case for the
electrical gauge occurs when stationary; the quasi-static effect on the outside of the curve no longer plays a
role.
In the height direction, the same considerations apply as on the straight track.
In this case, the mechanical gauge is determined for trains that are running while the electrical gauge is
determined for the inside of the curve by the stationary situation and for the outside of the curve by the train
running at maximum speed.
The strict limit gauge is then given by the following Figure B.2.

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BS EN 15273-3:2009
EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

mechanical gauge

electrical gauge

(a) on the outside of the curve


(i)

on the inside of the curve


Figure B.2 Envelope of the "strict" mechanical and electrical gauge in a curve

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BS EN 15273-3:2009
EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Annex C
(normative)
International gauges G1, GA, GB and GC

C.1 General
C.1.1 Application
Gauge G1 is generally applicable for international rail transport in Europe.
Originally, gauges GA, GB and GC were defined for container rail transport in Europe.
It is recommended clearing GA on all the interoperable freight transport networks.
It is recommended providing train paths on the European network corresponding to gauge GB, or even GC.

C.1.2 Gauge types


Kinematic and static gauges exist. For the definition of the corresponding structure gauge, the kinematic
definitions are used.

C.1.3 Parameters and common rules


In principle, all the reference profile dimensions are given below in mm. The values to be used in the formulae
are in m unless otherwise indicated.
All these gauges are defined on the basis of gauge G1. Their application concerns only the upper parts at
h > 3,250 m. All the points h 3,250 m follow the rules for gauge G1. Point h = 3,250 m shall be connected to
the first point h > 3,250 m of the gauge by a straight line.
The result of this is that all the lower parts are the same for all the gauges.
The pantograph gauge is also generally applicable. It shall be noted that the pantograph used may be
different.
For the associated rules, the following values shall be used except for the pantograph gauge.

L = 1, 500 m and nom =1,435 m;

s0 = 0,4 (for G1 and GC) ; s0 = 0,4 or 0,3 (for GA and GB depending on the height);

hc0 = 0,5 m;

I0 = 0,05 m and D0 = 0,05 m.

The rules for the additional overthrows differ according to the gauges used.
The random effects to be considered when determining the allowances are given in Clause 7 of this standard.

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

The superelevation of the upper parts is given by:

hRV =

50
RV

(C.1)

For the lower parts, a lowering is applied, given by:

hRV =

50
RV

(C.2)

The radius RV is limited to 500 m. Dimensions not exceeding 80 mm are regarded as being zero in radii Rv
between 625 m and 500 m.
The characteristics of these reference vehicles are determined on the basis of the rules given in Annex F and
are listed in Table F.2.
All the dimensions in the figures are in mm, in the formulae in m, unless specified otherwise.

C.1.4 Calculation of distance between centres


The lateral part is located at the same distance from the track centreline for all the gauges; it shall be noted,
however, that the limit distance between centres is different for gauge GC and the other gauges as the upper
point of the lateral part (P) is higher in the case of gauge GC.

C.1.5 Pantograph free passage gauge


The free passage gauge parameters are different from those for the structure gauges themselves:

L = 1, 500 m and nom =1,435 m;

s0 = 0,225;

hc0 = 0,5 m;

I0 = 0,066 m and D0 = 0,066 m;

ho = 6,500 m and hu = 5,000 m.

The semi-width is determined as a function (of the semi-width) of the pantograph considered.

C.1.6 Gauge parts


The gauge comprises different parts:
The lower parts are located up to 400 mm above the running surface and apply to all the gauges in question.
Particular attention shall be paid to the gauge for the lower parts that is applicable everywhere apart from on
tracks fitted with rail brakes. For these, a special gauge is defined. The former shall also be complied with
even on tracks with rail brakes, but only in the disengaged position.
The lateral parts are the same for all the gauges up to a height of 3 250 mm above the running surface (see
gauge G1).
The upper parts are different for all the gauges, both with regard to the reference profile and the associated
rules.

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The pantograph gauge is common to all the gauges concerned.


In the following, the reference profiles are defined with the rules for the additional overthrows and the quasistatic effect.

C.2 Gauge for the upper parts (h > 400 mm)


C.2.1 Gauge G1
Dimensions in millimetres

Figure C.1 Kinematic reference profile of gauge G1


Table C.1 Formulae for S and qs of gauge G1
Dimensions in metres
Radius R
Additional
overthrows
S

R 250

250 > R 150


qs
All

82

On the inside of the curve

3 , 75
R

On the outside of the curve

l 1, 435
2

l 1, 435
50
0 ,185 +
R
2

l 1, 435
60
0 , 225 +
R
2

0,4
[D 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

0,4
[I 0,05]>0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

C.2.2 Gauges GA and GB


Dimensions in millimetres

Figure C.2 Kinematic reference profile of gauges GA and GB


Table C.2 Formulae for S of gauges GA and GB
Dimensions in metres

Height h

h 3,250

Radius R

R 250

( G1)
250 > R 150
3,250 < h 3,880
(GA)

SI (on the inside of the


curve)

3 , 75
R

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

l 1, 435
50
0 ,185 +
R
2

l 1, 435
2

l 1, 435
60
0 , 225 +
R
2

All

Point h 3,250 shall be connected by a straight line to


points h 3,880 or 4,110.

R 250

20 l 1, 435
+
R
2

250 R 150

l 1, 435
50
0 ,120 +
R
2

3,250 < h 4,110


(GB)

h > 3,880 (GA)


h > 4,110 (GB)

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Table C.3 Formulae for qs of gauges GA and GB


Dimensions in metres
Height h

qsi (on the inside of the curve)

qsa (on the outside of the curve)

h 3,250

0,4
[D 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

0,4
[I 0,05]>0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

( G1)
3,250 < h 3,880 (GA)

Point h 3,250 shall be connected by a straight line to points h 3,880 or 4,110.


3,250 < h 4,110 (GB)
h > 3,880 (GA)
h > 4,110 (GB)
NOTE

0,3
[D 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

0,3
[I 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

The corresponding flexibility values s0 are given in EN 15273-1.

C.2.3 Gauge GC
Dimensions in millimetres

Figure C.3 Kinematic reference profile of gauge GC


The rules are the same as for gauge G1 whatever the height h.

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Table C.4 Formulae for S and qs of gauge GC


Dimensions in metres
Radius R
Additional
overthrows
S

on the inside of the curve

3 , 75

R 250

250 > R 150

qs
All

on the outside of the curve

l 1, 435
2

l 1, 435
50
0 ,185 +
R
2

l 1, 435
60
0 , 225 +
R
2

0,4
[D 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

0,4
[I 0,05]>0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

C.3 Lower parts (h 0,400 m)


C.3.1 Lower parts of GIC2 generally applicable
This gauge is applicable on all the networks for the operation of all types of international vehicles.
Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1 zone to be mandatorily cleared for passage of the wheel flanges
2 installation zone of the active flanges of check rails, any other structure is prohibited
3 lower limit position of vehicle-mounted parts, except wheels
4 contact ramp installation zone
NOTE

In the section transitions of radius Rv 500 m, the vertical dimensions up to 130 mm above the running

surface are to be reduced by

50

Rv

m (Rv in m). Dimensions not exceeding 80 mm are regarded as being zero in the radii

Rv between 625 mm and 500 m.

Figure C.4 Kinematic reference profile of GIC2

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Table C.5 Lower parts of GIC2 with rail brakes applied


Dimensions in metres

Radius R

SI (on the inside of the


curve)

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

R 250

2,5 l 1,435
+
R
2

2,5 l 1,435
+
R
2

250 > R 150

50
l 1,435
0,190 +
R
2

60
l 1,435
0,230 +
R
2

The quasi-static effect does not play a role if h < 0,5 m.

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C.3.2 Lower parts of GIC1 Tracks for rail brake equipment


This gauge is applicable on infrastructures to be fitted with rail brakes.
Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

zone to be mandatorily cleared for the passage of wheel flanges

installation zone of the active flanges of check rails, any other structure is prohibited

rail brakes in the disengaged position

gauge (limit position) of the outside of the wheel

zone reserved for the projection of the brake shoes only (no fixed installations)

maximum height of the retarders

running surface

kinematic reference profile centreline

(1) effective limit position of the inside surface of the wheel when the opposite wheel is in flange contact.
(2) no fixed track equipment shall penetrate this zone, only the retractable retarders may penetrate it when
being retracted.
(3) rail brakes and other shunting or stopping devices in the activated position may attain the dimensions
115 mm/125 mm, in particular locking retarders 125 mm in height, and be linstalled in curve radii of
R 150 m.
(4) in section transitions of radius Rv 500 m, these vertical dimensions are to be reduced by 50

Rv

(Rv in m). For structures not integral with the track, account shall also be taken of a track maintenance vertical
allowance Mv
NOTE

In the section transitions of radius Rv 500 m, the vertical dimensions up to 130 mm above the running

surface are to be reduced by

50

Rv

m (Rv in m).

Figure C.5 Kinematic reference profile of GIC1 with applied rail brakes

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Table C.6 Lower parts of GIC1 with applied rail brakes


Dimensions in metres
Radius R

SI (on the inside of the


curve)

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

R 250

2,5 l 1,435
+
R
2

2,5 l 1,435
+
R
2

250 > R 150

50
l 1,435
0,190 +
R
2

60
l 1,435
0,230 +
R
2

The quasi-static effect does not play a role if h < 0,5 m.


On parts of humps accessible via hump-avoiding tracks and likely to be occupied by main-line locomotives
and special wagons not authorized to run over marshalling humps or rail brakes or other shunting and
stopping devices in the activated position:

the shunting and stopping devices in the retracted position shall clear the gauges listed in Figures C.4 in
C.3.1;

the convex and concave gradient transition radii shall be 500 m.

C.3.2.1

Vertical lowering

C.3.2.1.1

Nominal value

All the vertical dimensions (h 0,400 m) vary with the vertical radius according to:

hRV =

50
RV

(C.3)

The value of RV is limited to 500 m. Dimensions not exceeding 80 mm are regarded as being zero in radii Rv
between 625 m and 500 m.
C.3.2.1.2

Gradient transitions of marshalling humps

In addition to the lowering rules, account is taken of the following transition rules.
The requirements below contain two series of height dimensions applicable to the rail brakes or other shunting
and stopping devices in the activated position. They have been drawn up to take into account the various
vehicle types likely to drop below the rail brake limit.
In the humps, the rail brakes and other shunting and stopping devices, in the activated position, may attain the
maximum height of115 mm/125 mm above the running surface:

within and close to the concave gradient transitions of radius Rv 300m;

on the parts of non-vertically curved track located 3 m (5 m) at least from the start of the convex gradient
transitions of radius Rv 250 m.

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The distance of 3 m applies for classic humps. The distance of 5 m allows the passage of low-floor vehicles
intended for combined rail-road traffic or pocket wagons.
At the convex transition limit of radius Rv 250 m, the dimensions 115 mm/125 mm shall be reduced by a
value ev (m) equal to:
ev1 = 0,040

250
RV

and ev2 = 0,050

250
RV

(C.4)

Key
1

classic hump

shunting gradient

vehicle

convex

concave

running surface

115 mm or 125 mm

75 mm or 85 mm
Figure C.6 Gradient transitions on marshalling humps

For the classic humps, between the section from which the dimensions 115 mm/125 mm are applicable, i.e.
3 m from the start of the transition and this starting point, the height reductions shall be effected linearly, i.e.:
ev1 = 0,040

250 3 x

3
RV

(C.5)

x being the distance of the section considered relative to the start of the transition.

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For humps where operation of the low-floor vehicles is planned for combined rail-road or pocket wagon traffic,
between the section from which the dimensions 115 mm/125 mm are applicable, i.e. 5 m from the start of the
transition and this starting point, the height reductions shall be at least equal to the value of ev2 given below:

(15,80 x ) 3
250
0,024
53325
RV

ev2 =

Figure C.7 Height reductions

90

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C.3.3 Lower parts for "rolling" roads GIC3


This gauge is applicable to lines for special vehicles.
Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1 zone to be mandatorily cleared for passage of the wheel flanges
2 installation zone of the active flanges of check rails, any other structure is prohibited
3 lower limit position of vehicle-mounted parts, except wheels
4 contact ramp installation zone
NOTE

50.000

In the section transitions of radius Rv 500 m, the vertical dimensions marked with (*) are to be reduced by

Rv

mm (Rv in m). Dimensions not exceeding 80 mm are regarded as being zero in the radii Rv between 625 mm

and 500 m.

Figure C.8 Kinematic reference profile of GIC3

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Table C.7 Lower parts GIC2


Dimensions in metres

Height

Radius R

SI (on the inside of the


curve)

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

R 250

2,5 l 1,435
+
R
2

2,5 l 1,435
+
R
2

250 R 150

50
l 1,435
0,190 +
R
2

60
l 1,435
0,230 +
R
2

h = 0,400

0,250 < h < 0,400

All

Point h = 0,400 and point h = 0,250 shall be connected by


a straight line

R 250

2,5 l 1,435
+
R
2

l 1,435
2

250 R 150

37,5
l 1,435
0,140 +
R
2

40
l 1,435
0,160 +
R
2

h 0,250

The quasi-static effect does not play a role if h < 0,5 m.

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C.3.4 Pantograph free passage gauge


Dimensions in millimetres

Key
Y
1
2
3

track centreline
chimney
mechanical profile
electrical profile
Figure C.9 Pantograph free passage gauge
Table C.8 Associated rules for pantograph free passage gauge
Dimensions in metres
Radius R
Additional
overthrows
S

All

qs
All

on the inside of the curve

2,5
R

on the outside of the curve

0,225
[D 0,066] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

l 1, 435
2
0,225
[I 0,066] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Annex D
(normative)
Gauges for multilateral and national agreements

D.1 Introduction
This Annex groups together different gauges used in Europe. Their application is very often limited to a few
countries.
Certain gauges such as the G2, the GB1 and GB2 may be regarded as derivatives of the international gauges
defined in Annex C of this European Standard; others differ completely from them.
The choice of clearing one or several of these gauges depends solely on the infrastructure manager.
All types of gauges (static, kinematic and dynamic) exist. In the case of kinematic gauges, there are often
corresponding static gauges, with the same name. Where only the static gauge exists without associated rules
for the infrastructure, the nominal installation gauge used is given for information, if there is no installation limit
gauge; the corresponding reference profile is mentioned in EN 15273-1 and EN 15273-2.
The characteristics of the reference vehicles corresponding to the gauges defined in this Annex and
necessary for the transition calculation in curves and turnouts are given in Table F.2 where it is possible to
determine them.
The various gauges have been grouped by type in the following sub-clauses. All the dimensions in the figures
are in mm, in the formulae in m, unless otherwise indicated.

D.2 Kinematic gauges derived from international gauges


D.2.1 Gauge G2
D.2.1.1

General

This gauge is determined on the basis of the rules for international gauge G1 and only differs in its reference
profile. It consists of a kinematic gauge with the same associated rules, in which the lower parts and
pantograph free passage gauge are those of G1.
This gauge is cleared on the main parts of the various networks in Europe (e.g. Germany, Austria,
Netherlands, Switzerland, etc.).
D.2.1.2

Main parameters

For the associated rules, the following values are applicable:

L = 1,500 m and nom =1,435 m;

s0 = 0,4;

hc0 = 0,5 m;

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

I0 = 0,05 m and D0 = 0,05 m.

D.2.1.3

Definition of the gauge


Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.1 Kinematic reference profile of gauge G2
Table D.1 Formulae for S and qs of gauge G2
Dimensions in metres
Radius R
R 250
Additional
overthrows
S
250 > R 150

qs

All

on the inside of the curve

3 , 75
R

on the outside of the curve

l 1, 435
2

l 1, 435
50
0 ,185 +
R
2

l 1, 435
60
0 , 225 +
R
2

0,4
[D 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

0,4
[I 0,05]>0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

D.2.2 Gauges GB1 and GB2


D.2.2.1

General

The gauges are determined on the basis of international gauge GB and the only difference is in their reference
profile in the upper parts (> 3 250 m). It consists of a kinematic gauge with the same associated rules, the
lower parts and the pantograph free passage gauge are those of G1.
These gauges are cleared on the main parts of the various networks in Western Europe (e.g. GB1 in France,
GB2 in Italy, etc.)
D.2.2.2

Main parameters

For the associated rules, the following values are applicable

L = 1,500 m and nom =1,435 m;

s0 = 0,3;

hc0 = 0,5 m;

I0 = 0,05 m and D0 = 0,05 m.

D.2.2.3

Definition of the gauge


Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.2 Kinematic reference profile of gauge GB1

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Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.3 Kinematic reference profile of gauge GB2

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D.2.2.4

Associated rules
Table D.2 Rules for additional overthrows
Dimensions in metres
Height h

Radius R

SI (on the inside of the


curve)

3 , 75

R 250 m

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

l 1, 435
2

h 3,250
250 > R 150 m

GB2

l 1, 435
60
0 , 225 +
R
2

GB1
The point h = 3,250 and the point h = 4,210 are to be
connected by a straight line.

GB1
3,250 < h 4,210

l 1, 435
50
0 ,185 +
R
2

All

GB2
Point h = 3,250 and point h = 4,350 are to be connected
by a straight line.

3,250 < h 4,350


R 250 m

20 l 1, 435
+
R
2

250 R 150 m

l 1, 435
50
0 ,120 +
R
2

h 4,210 m

Table D.3 Quasi-static effect


Dimensions in metres
Height h

qsi (on the inside of the curve)

qsa (on the outside of the curve)

h 3,250

0,4
[D 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

0,4
[I 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,500

3,250 < h 4,210

h 3,500

98

Point h = 3 250 and point h = 4,210 are to be connected by a straight line.

0,3
[D 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

0,3
[I 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,500

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

D.3 Static gauges derived from international gauges


D.3.1 Gauge G1
D.3.1.1

General

This gauge is determined on the basis of international kinematic gauge G1 and only differs in its associated
rules. When a flexibility s0 = 0,4 is adopted, it is merged with kinematic gauge G1.
D.3.1.2

Main parameters

For the associated rules, the following values are applicable:

L = 1,500 m and nom =1,435 m;

s = 0,2;

hc0 = 0,5 m;

I0 = 0,05 m and D0 = 0,05 m;

z0 = 0,025 m.

The vertical uplift to be considered is 30 mm.


The random effects to be considered when determining the allowances are given in Clause 6 of this standard.
The superelevation of the upper parts (h 1,175 m) is given by:

hRV =

50
RV

(D.1)

For the lower parts (h< 0,400m), a lowering is applied, given by:

hRV =

50
not exceeding 80 mm
RV

(D.2)

Passage over the marshalling humps follows the same rules as for kinematic gauge G1.
The pantograph gauge is also merged with that of kinematic gauge G1.

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D.3.1.3

Definition of the upper parts of the gauge


Dimensions in millimetres

Figure D.4 Reference profile of static gauge G1


Table D.4 Definition of the upper parts of the gauge
Dimensions in metres
Radius R
R 250
Additional
overthrows
S
250 > R 150

qs

100

All

on the inside of the curve

on the outside of the curve

3,75
l 1,435
+ 0,045 +
R
2
50
l 1,435
0,140 +
R
2

60
l 1,435
0,180 +
R
2

0,2
[D 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

0,2
[I 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

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D.3.1.4
D.3.1.4.1

Lower parts
Lower parts generally applicable GIC2
Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface

reference profile centreline

limit position of the outside surface of the wheel

theoretical maximum width of the flange profile, taking into account the possible angle of the wheelsets on
the track

effective position of the inside surface of the tyre when the opposite wheel is in flange contact
Figure D.5 Reference profile of the lower parts general application GIC2

D.3.1.4.2

Lower parts applicable on infrastructures to be fitted with rail brakes GIC1


Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface

reference profile centreline

limit position of the outside surface of the wheel

theoretical maximum width of the flange profile, taking into account the possible angle of the wheelsets on
the track

effective position of the inside surface of the tyre when the opposite wheel is in flange contact
Figure D.6 Reference profile of the lower parts infrastructure to be fitted with rail brakes GIC1

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D.3.1.4.3

Associated rules
Table D.5 Associated rules
Dimensions in metres

Radius R

SI (on the inside of the


curve)

2,5
l 1,435
+ 0,045 +
R
2

R 250

250 > R 150

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

50
l 1,435
0,145 +
R
2

60
l 1,435
0,185 +
R
2

The quasi-static effect can be disregarded.

D.3.2 Gauge G2
D.3.2.1

General

This gauge is determined on the basis of kinematic gauge G2 and only differs in its associated rules. If a
flexibility of s0 = 0,4 is adopted, it is merged with kinematic gauge G2.
D.3.2.2

Main parameters

For the associated rules, the following values are applicable:

L = 1,500 m and nom =1,435 m;

S0 = 0,2;

hc0 = 0,5 m;

I0 = 0,05 m and D0 = 0,05 m;

z0 = 0,025 m.

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D.3.2.3

Definition of the gauge


Dimensions in millimetres

Figure D.7 Reference profile of static gauge G2


Table D.6 Definition of the gauge
Dimensions in metres
Radius R
R 250
Additional
overthrows
S

qs

on the inside of the curve

on the outside of the curve

3,75
l 1,435
+ 0,045 +
R
2

250 R 150

50
l 1,435
0,140 +
R
2

60
l 1,435
0,180 +
R
2

All

0,2
[D 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

0,2
[I 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

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D.3.3 Gauges GA, GB and GC


D.3.3.1

General

These gauges are determined on the basis of kinematic gauges GA, GB, GC and on only differ in their
associated rules. When a flexibility of s0 = 0,3 is adopted, they are merged with kinematic gauges GA, GB and
GC.
D.3.3.2

Main parameters

For the associated rules, the following values are applicable:

L = 1,500 m and nom =1,435 m;

s0 = 0,2;

hc0 = 0,5 m;

I0 = 0,05 m and D0 = 0,05 m;

z0 = 0,025 m.

D.3.3.3

Definition of the gauge


Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.8 Reference profile of static gauge GA, GB and GC

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Table D.7 Additional overthrows for GA and GB


Dimensions in metres
Height h

Radius R

SI (on the inside of the


curve)

3,75
l 1,435
+ 0,045 +
R
2

R 250
h 3,220
250 > R 150
3,220 < h 3,880
(GA)
3,220 < h 4,080
(GB)

h 3,850 (GA)

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

50
l 1,435
0,140 +
R
2

60
l 1,435
0,180 +
R
2

All

Point h 3,250 and point h 4,210 are to be connected by a


straight line.

R 250

20
l 1,435
+ 0,045 +
R
2

250 R 150

50
l 1,435
0,075 +
R
2

h 4,080 (GB)

Table D.8 Quasi-static effect for GA and GB


Dimensions in metres
Height h

qsi (on the inside of the curve)

qsa (on the outside of the curve)

All

0,2
[D 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

0,2
[I 0,05]>0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

Table D.9 Additional overthrows for GC


Dimensions in metres
Radius R
R 250

250 > R 150

On the inside of the curve

on the outside of the curve

3,75
l 1,435
+ 0,045 +
R
2
50
l 1,435
0,140 +
R
2

60
l 1,435
0,180 +
R
2

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Table D.10 Quasi-static effect for GC


Dimensions in metres
Height h

qsi (on the inside of the curve)

qsa (on the outside of the curve)

All

0,2
[D 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

0,2
[I 0,05]>0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

D.4 National application gauge


D.4.1 Belgian gauges BE1, BE2 and BE3
D.4.1.1

Application

Gauges BE1, BE2 and BE3 are kinematic gauges that differ from international gauges with regard to their
profiles and the formulae for additional overthrows. The formulae for additional overthrows are determined on
the basis of three reference vehicles that are generally different from those of the international gauges. For the
other associated rules (e.g. quasi-static effect, vertical elevation/lowering, taking random phenomena into
account, etc.), the formulae of gauge G1 are applicable.
The definition of the gauges is limited to 100 mm above the running surface. Below this, the rules for G1
apply. Tracks fitted with rail brakes shall comply with the gauges of the lower parts of the corresponding G1.
For tracks supplied by a 3 kV contact wire, a pantograph free passage gauge is determined for pantographs
1,760 m wide with different rules compared to those for G1:

epo = 0,245 m and epu = 0,170 m;

s0 = 0,4;

I0 = D0 = 0,066 m.

For tracks supplied by a 25 kV contact wire, the pantograph free passage gauge G1 is applicable with the
1,600 m wide European head according to EN 50367.
D.4.1.2

Main parameters

For the associated rules (except for pantographs), the following values are applicable:

L = 1, 500 m and nom =1,435 m;

s0 = 0,4;

hc0 = 0,5 m;

I0 = 0,05 m and D0 = 0,05 m.

106

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D.4.1.3

Reference profiles
Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.9 Reference profile of gauge BE1

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Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.10 Reference profile of gauge BE2
Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.11 Reference profile of gauge BE3

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D.4.1.4

Associated rules
Table D.11 Rules for additional overthrows
Dimensions in metres
Height h

Radius R

SI (on the inside of the


curve)

R 400

6 l 1,435
+
R
2

400 > R 250

28
l 1,435
0,055 +
R
2

250 > R 165

40,5
l 1,435
0,105 +
R
2

165 > R 150

60
l 1,435
0,225 +
R
2

R 1 000

5 l 1,435
+
R
2

1,170 < h

R 1,170

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

1 000 > R 165

165 > R 150

26,47
l 1,435
0,0215 +
R
2

40,5
l 1,435
0,105 +
R
2

Table D.12 Quasi-static effect


Dimensions in metres
Height h
All heights

qsi (on the inside of the curve)

0,4
[D 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

qsa (on the outside of the curve)

0,4
[I 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,500

D.4.2 French gauges FR-3.3


D.4.2.1

Application

This gauge is determined on the basis of international gauge GB and only differs from it with regard to its
reference profile in the upper parts (> 3 250 mm). It consists of a kinematic gauge with the same associated
rules, in which the lower parts and the pantograph free passage gauge are those of G1.
This gauge is cleared by the main parts of the French network in order to allow the operation of double-decker
coaches.

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D.4.2.2

Main parameters

For the associated rules, the following values are applicable:

L = 1,500 m and nom = 1,435 m;

s0 = 0,3;

hc0 = 0,5 m;

I0 = 0,05 m and D0 = 0,05 m.

D.4.2.3

Definition of the gauge


Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.12 Gauge FR-3.3

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Table D.13 Rules for additional overthrows


Dimensions in metres
Height h

Radius R

h 3,250

R 250

250 > R 150

h 3,500
NOTE
line.

SI (on the inside of the


curve)

3 , 75
R

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

l 1, 435
2

l 1, 435
50
0 ,185 +
R
2

l 1, 435
60
0 , 225 +
R
2
37 , 5

R 150

Between point h = 3,250 m and the first point h > 3,250 m the limit gauge is connected by a straight

Table D.14 Quasi-static effect


Dimensions in metres
Height h

qsi (on the inside of the curve)

qsa (on the outside of the curve)

h 3,250

0,4
[D 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

0,4
[I 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,500

h 3,500

0,3
[D 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,500

0,3
[I 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,500

NOTE
Between point h = 3,250 m and the first point h > 3,250 m the limit gauge is connected by a
straight line.

D.4.3 Portuguese gauges PTb, PTb+ and PTc


D.4.3.1

General

These gauges are defined for rail traffic in Portugal where they have been used since the 1950s.
These gauges differ both with regard to the reference profiles and the associated rules for international
gauges. In addition, it shall be noted that as the rail gauge is larger, the cant deficiency and associated rules
formulae vary compared to the international gauges.
They consist of kinematic gauges that follow the same rules as those given in Clause 7 of this European
Standard and, therefore, they are almost at the maximum of the rules used by international gauges.
For the lower parts, specific profiles exist for main line traffic and passage over the rail brakes.

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For the pantograph free passage gauge, the same rules apply as for the international gauge G1. The same
reference heights are used.
The reference vehicles that form the basis for the definition of these gauges are given in Annex F, in Table F.2
of this standard.
D.4.3.2

Main parameters

For the associated rules, the following values are applicable:

1,733 m and lnom = 1,668 m;

s0

= 0,4;

hco = 0,5 m;

I0

D.4.3.3

= 0 m = D 0.
Reference profiles of the upper parts
Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.13 Reference profile of gauge Pb

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Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.14 Reference profile of gauge Pb+

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Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.15 Reference profile of gauge Pc

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D.4.3.4

Reference profiles of the lower parts


Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.16 Reference profile of the lower parts on tracks not fitted with rail brakes
Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.17 Reference profile of the lower parts on tracks fitted with rail brakes

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D.4.3.5

Associated rules

The associated rules are generally applicable for all the profiles defined above.
Table D.15 Associated rules
Dimensions in metres
Height h

Radius R

SI (on the inside of the


curve)

3,75 l 1,668
+
R
2

R 250
h 0,400
250 > R 150

0,400

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

50
l 1,668
0,190 +
R
2

60
l 1,668
0,230 +
R
2

23,25 l 1,668
+
+ 0,070
R
2

R 250

<h
0,700
250 > R 150

0,700

50
l 1,668
0,037 +
R
2

31,75 l 1,668
+
+ 0,029
R
2

R 250

<h
1,170

250 > R 150

1,170

R 250

50
l 1,668
0,044 +
R
2

250 > R 150

60
l 1,668
0,084 +
R
2

31,75 l 1,668
+
+ 0,004
R
2

<h
3,550

60
l 1,668
0,077 +
R
2

50
l 1,668
0,069 +
R
2

60
l 1,668
0,109 +
R
2

R 250

20 l 1,668
+
R
2

250 > R 150

50
l 1,668
0,120 +
R
2

4,110 h (CPb)
4,210 h (CPb+)

Table D.16 Quasi-static effect


Dimensions in metres

116

Height h

qsi (on the inside of the curve)

qsa (on the outside of the curve) ]

All heights

0,4
D >0 [ h 0 , 5 ] >0
1,733

0,4
I >0 [ h 0 , 5 ] >0
1,733

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D.4.3.6

Vertical superelevation/lowering

The upper parts are to be raised by the value:

hRV =

50
RV

(D.3)

It shall be noted that, taking into account the presence of a large horizontal part of the upper part, it is
necessary to add the allowances for covering the vertical roll effect as explained in 5.3.3.
The lower parts are to be lowered by the value:

hRV =

50
RV

(D.4)

D.4.4 Finnish gauge FIN1


D.4.4.1

General

This gauge is defined for the rail traffic in Finland.


This gauge differs both with regard to the reference profile and the associated rules for international gauges.
In addition, as the rail gauge is larger, the cant deficiency and associated rules formulae vary compared to the
international gauges.
It is a static gauge that more or less follows the rules of Clause 6 of this European Standard and, therefore,
differs widely from the international gauges.
In the absence of any associated rules for the determination of allowances, the nominal installation gauge is
given in this part of the standard informally. The reference profile for this gauge is mentioned in EN 15273-2. It
is based on this structure nominal gauge and can be used with the general rules given in this standard for
determining a limit gauge or installation limit gauge.
This installation nominal gauge includes the widening effect, the quasi-static effect due to the cant deficiency
and all the allowances for the random phenomena.
This gauge contains lower parts, upper parts and the pantograph free passage gauge, including guidance for
passage over tracks fitted with rail brakes.
In the absence of any clear associated rules, it is impossible to determine the limit distance between centres.
Therefore, the nominal distance between centres is given below.
D.4.4.2

Main parameters

For the associated rules, the following values are applicable:

= 1,600 m and lnom = 1,524 m;

s0

= 1 (on the inside of the curve) and s0 = 0 (on the outside of the curve);

hc0 = 0 m;

I 0 = 0 = D 0.

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D.4.4.3

Reference profiles of the upper parts


Dimensions in millimetres

(*) 6 750 for V 160 km/h or 7 000 for V > 160 km/h
Key
1

gauge applicable on the running line (outside the station)

gauge applicable in the station zone


a

for main line

for secondary line

zone applicable on electrified line (for pantograph and contact wire)

zone where structures may be allowed (e.g. signals, ballast profile, etc.)
k

= 50 mm for RV > 1 000 m ;


= - 50 + RV /10 for 500 m > RV 1 000 m
= 0 for 500 m RV
Figure D.18 Nominal gauge FIN1

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D.4.4.4

Associated rules

The dimensions of the profiles shall be increased by the additional overthrows and the quasi-static effect.
The additional overthrows are identical on the inside and on the outside of the curve:

Si = S a =

36
R

(D.5)

The additional overthrows do not apply to the pantograph gauge and are therefore only applicable for
h 5,600 m.
The quasi-static effect is limited to the inside of the curve:
qsi =

1
E.h
1,600

(D.6)

qsa = 0
D.4.4.5

Nominal distance between centres

The distance between centres shall be at least equal to the nominal distance between centres defined as a
function of the speed given in the following table. In the case of new lines, the nominal distance between
centres will be at least 4,500 m.
Table D.17 Nominal distance between centres
EA
[mm]

Vmax
[km/h]

4 100+ EA

140

4 300+ EA

200

4 500

250

4 700

>250

Table D.18 Values for EA [mm]


R

EAnom

EAnom

[m]

= 4 100 mm

= 4 300 mm

> 4 000

4 000...1 500

50

1 499...800

100

799...400

200

399...250

300

100

220...249

400

200

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D.4.4.6

Marshalling hump

Key
1

vehicle gauge

rail brakes
Figure D.19 FIN1 Marshalling hump with rail brakes

D.4.5 Swedish gauges SEa and SEc


D.4.5.1

General

These gauges are defined for rail traffic in Sweden.


They differ both with regard to the reference profile and the associated rules for international gauges. They
consist of dynamic gauges that follow the rules given in Clause 8 of this European Standard. Determination of
the allowances for random phenomena follows the rules explained in this clause.
For the lower parts, specific profiles exist for main line traffic and passage over the rail brakes.
For the pantograph free passage gauge, the same rules apply and the same heights as for the international
gauge G1.
The reference vehicles that form the basis for the definition of these gauges are given Table F.2 of this
standard.
D.4.5.2

Main parameters

For the associated rules, the following values are applicable:


= 1,500 m and lnom = 1,435 m;

hco = 0,77 m;

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I0

D.4.5.3

= 0 = D0.
Determination of the gauge

The dynamic reference profiles are given below. The hatched area determines the zones where the
installation of live parts on the vehicle roof is not authorized.
Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface

free zone for live parts


Figure D.20 Dynamic reference profile SEa

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Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface

free zone for live parts


Figure D.21 Dynamic reference profile SEc
Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface

reference profile for vehicles not authorized to cross rail brakes

reference profile for vehicles authorized to cross rail brakes in the non-activated position

reference profile for vehicles authorized to cross rail brakes in the activated position
Figure D.22 Reference profile of the lower parts for SEa and SEc

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The associated rules are given below.


Table D.19 Reference profile of the lower parts for SEa and SEc
Dimensions in metres
Radius R

on the inside of the curve

on the outside of the curve

All

41 l max 1, 435
+
R
2

31 l max 1, 435
+
R
2

Additional
overthrows Si/a

D.4.6 German gauge DE1


D.4.6.1

General

This gauge is determined on the basis of gauge G1 (or G2) and only differs with regard to the lateral parts in
the radius range < 500 m. This supplement applies over a widened profile and is only taken into account when
it exceeds gauge G1 (or G2). Further information is given in EN 15273-1.
This gauge is used in several European countries (Germany, Austria, Switzerland,) for the operation of ICE
high-speed trains.
D.4.6.2

Main parameters

For the associated rules, the following values are applicable:

L = 1, 500 m and nom =1,435 m;

s0 = 0,28;

hco = 0,7 m;

I0 = 0,05 m and D0 = 0,05 m.

D.4.6.3

Definition of the gauge

The reference profile allows the definitions of the supplement to be applied on the inside of the curve. It is not
taken into account that when this supplement is applied it exceeds the lateral part of gauge G1.

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Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.23 Reference profile of gauge DE1
Table D.20 Reference profile of gauge DE1
Dimensions in metres
Radius R

Additional
overthrows
S

qs

on the inside of the curve

on the outside of the curve

500 R 250

35,906
l 1,435
0,1283 +
R
2

250 R 150

45,906
l 1,435
0,1684 +
R
2

500 R 150

0,28
[D 0,05] >0 [h 0,7] >0
1,5

0,28
[I 0,05] >0 [h 0,7] >0
1,5

D.4.7 German gauge DE2


D.4.7.1

General

This gauge is determined on the basis of gauge G2 which it widens between a height of 3,765 m and 4,335 m
in order to allow the free passage of double-deck vehicles.
D.4.7.2

Main parameters

For the associated rules, the following values are applicable:

124

L = 1,500 m and nom =1,435 m;

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s0 = 0,4;

hco = 0,5 m;

I0 = 0,05 m and D0 = 0,05 m.

D.4.7.3

Definition of the gauge


Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

kinematic reference profile G2

kinematic reference profile DE2 (see table)

supplement relative to gauge G2


Figure D.24 Reference profile of gauge DE2

The increase in size compared to gauge G2 is defined in the following table.

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Table D.21 Details of reference profile DE2


Dimensions in metres
hRP

bRP

hRP

bRP

hRP

bRP

hRP

bRP

[m]

[m]

[m]

[m]

[m]

[m]

[m]

[m]

3,53

1,645

3,905

1,454

4,055

1,388

4,205

1,249

3,765

1,51

3,915

1,45

4,065

1,383

4,215

1,234

3,775

1,506

3,925

1,445

4,075

1,378

4,225

1,223

3,785

1,502

3,935

1,441

4,085

1,372

4,235

1,208

3,795

1,498

3,945

1,437

4,095

1,366

4,245

1,194

3,805

1,494

3,955

1,432

4,105

1,359

4,255

1,18

3,815

1,49

3,965

1,428

4,115

1,352

4,265

1,166

3,825

1,486

3,975

1,423

4,125

1,343

4,275

1,154

3,835

1,483

3,985

1,419

4,135

1,333

4,285

1,137

3,845

1,478

3,995

1,415

4,145

1,323

4,295

1,124

3,855

1,474

4,005

1,411

4,155

1,311

4,305

1,108

3,865

1,47

4,015

1,406

4,165

1,298

4,315

1,093

3,875

1,466

4,025

1,401

4,175

1,286

4,325

1,079

3,885

1,462

4,035

1,396

4,185

1,273

4,335

1,064

3,895

1,458

4,045

1,391

4,195

1,262

4,68

0,785

Table D.22 Additional overthrows


Dimensions in metres
Radius R

Height h
Additional
overthrows
S

All

R 250

on the outside of the curve

See G2

250 > R 150


h 4,335
3,765 < h <
4,335

qs

on the inside of the curve

See G2
All

h 3,765

0,19
[D 0,05] >0 [h 0,695]>0
1,5

0,19
[I 0,05] >0 [h 0,695 ]>0
1,5

See G2

D.4.8 German gauge DE3


D.4.8.1

General

This gauge is determined on the basis of gauges G2 and GB. It incorporates them by passing through all the
points of the two profiles and uses the associated rules of G2 (or G1).
This gauge can be used in the future in part of the European network.
D.4.8.2

Main parameters

For the associated rules, the following values are applicable:

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L = 1,500 m and nom =1,435 m;

s0 = 0,4;

hco = 0,5 m;

I0 = 0,05 m and D0 = 0,05 m.

D.4.8.3

Definition of the gauge


Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.25 Reference profile of gauge DE3
Table D.23 Reference profile of gauge DE3
Dimensions in metres
Radius R

on the inside of the curve

3 , 75

on the outside of the curve

l 1, 435

Additional
overthrows
S

R 250

[m]

250 > R 150

l 1, 435
50
0 ,185 +
R
2

l 1, 435
60
0 , 225 +
R
2

qs

All

0,4
[D 0,05] >0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

0,4
[I 0,05]>0 [ h 0 , 5 ]>0
1,5

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D.4.9 Czech gauge Z-GD


D.4.9.1

General

Gauge Z-GD is a fixed uniform gauge used in the Czech Republic.


It is applicable only for curve radii 250 m, cant or cant deficiencies not exceeding 160 mm and vertical
transitions with radii of RV > 2500 m.
It contains all the allowances M1 and M2 necessary for the maintenance of (ballasted) tracks and the additional
allowances M3 for the gauge for open doors and safety of personnel.
In order to ensure compatibility with the vehicle gauge, it is essential that the maintenance is carried out so
that the tolerances recommended in Table B.1 in Annex B are complied with. The tolerances for tracks for
V < 80 km/h and of poor quality ("other tracks") are regarded as being adequate.
The installation of the platforms and definition of the wheel areas are to be defined on the basis of gauge G1.
D.4.9.2

Main parameters

For the associated rules, the following values are applicable:

L = 1,505 m and nom =1,435 m;

max =1,470 m;

s0 = 0.

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D.4.9.3

Determination of the gauge


Dimensions in millimetres

Key
Left-hand side:

- for main lines (including the stations)


- for main lines at the stations and crossing points
- for main lines at open-air crossing points
- for main lines for passenger trains

A B for the structures and equipment outside the track on the ballast profile side
C D for the equipment in the spaces between tracks
Right-hand side: - for the other lines in the station and at the crossing points
- for the other lines at the open-air crossing points
E - F for all the structures and equipment
1

running surface
Figure D.26 Gauge Z-GD

D.4.10 UK gauge UK1


D.4.10.1 General
This gauge is used in the United Kingdom.
The gauge calculation comprises a lower part and an upper part with specific rules. Both parts are determined
with the dynamic rules.

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D.4.10.2 Main parameters


For the associated rules, the following values are applicable:

L = 1,505 m and nom =1,435 m;

max =1,451 m for the lower parts and max =1,454 m for the upper parts;

s0 = 0.

D.4.10.3 Definition of the gauge


Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface

zone for wheels and guard-irons

zone reserved just for steps

NOTE 1
It should be noted that in the event of a failure causing the deflation of the air suspension, the vehicle may
exceed the reference profile by 0,025 m to be deducted from the infrastructure allowance.
NOTE 2
The vehicle shall also take into account the whole geometric effect of passing over concave or convex
minimum vertical radii Rv min = 500 m.

Figure D.27 Dynamic reference profile of the lower parts of UK 1[A]

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Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.28 Dynamic reference profile of UK1 (upper parts)
Table D.24 Dynamic reference profile of UK1 (upper parts)
Dimensions in metres
Height h

Radius R

SI (on the inside of the


curve)

R 360
h 0,179

0,0125 +

l 1,435
2

0,0125 +

l 1,435
2

360 > R 160


0,179

R 360

<h

1,100

1,100 < h

360 m > R 160 m

R 160

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

25,949
l 1,435
0,0595 +
R
2
36,97
l 1,435
+ 0,011 +
R
2

41,155
l 1,435
+ 0,011 +
R
2

All the quasi-static effects are taken into account by the vehicle: qsi = qsa = 0.

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D.4.11 UK gauge UK1 [D]


D.4.11.1 General
Gauge UK1 [D] defines a series of dynamic gauges, based on dynamic gauge UK1. It is used only in the
United Kingdom and only by the infrastructure. The gauge is determined by a fixed profile, applicable at the
smallest radius that can be reduced as a function of the radius. In order to permit a maximum allowance
relative to the existing infrastructure, its additional negative overthrows are determined on the basis of a radius
Rmin determined per track section.
The installation of the platforms and definitions of the wheel zones are to be defined on the basis of dynamic
gauge UK1.
D.4.11.2 Determination of the gauge
Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.29 Gauge UK1[D]

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Table D.25 Additional overthrows


Dimensions in metres
Radius R

SI (on the inside of the


curve)

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

R Rmin

l 1,435
2

l 1,435
2

R min R 160

36,97 36,97 l 1,435

+
R
Rmin
2

41,155 41,155 l 1,435

+
R
Rmin
2

All the quasi-static effects are taken into account by the vehicle: qsi = qsa = 0.
In the vertical direction, account is taken of the superelevation of the upper parts

41,155 41,155
.

R
Rmin

D.4.12 UK gauge W6a


D.4.12.1 General
This gauge is used in the United Kingdom.
The gauge calculation is divided into a lower part and upper part with specific rules. The lower part follows the
dynamic rules and the upper part follows the static rules.
D.4.12.2 Main parameters
For the associated rules, the following values are applicable:

L = 1,505 m and nom =1,435 m;

max =1,454 m for the lower parts and max =1,454 m for the upper parts.

For the upper parts only (h > 1,000 m):

I0 = 0,15 m and D0 = 0,15 m;

z 0 = 0,051.

(h 1,000) .
2,080

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D.4.12.3 Definition of the gauge


Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface

NOTE
The vehicle shall also take into account the whole geometric effect of passing over concave or convex
minimum vertical radii Rv min = 500 m.

Figure D.30 Dynamic reference profile of the lower parts of W6a


Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

running surface
Figure D.31 Static reference profile of W6a (upper parts)

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Table D.26 Additional overthrows of W6a (upper parts)


Dimensions in metres
Height h

Radius R

SI (on the inside of the


curve)

0,0125 +

R 360

h 1,000

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

l 1,435
2

360 > R 200

27
l 1,435
0,0625 +
R
2

200 > R 160

32
l 1,435
0,0875 +
R
2

1,000 < h

R 200

20,986
l 1,435
+ 0,0375 +
R
2

20,478
l 1,435
+ 0,0375 +
R
2

Table D.27 Quasi-static effects


Dimensions in metres
Height h

qsI (on the inside of the


curve)

qsa (on the outside of the


curve)

h 1,000

1,000 < h

z 0 = 0,051.

(h 1,000)
2,080

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Annex E
(informative)
Calculation example for determination of the gauge at a turnout

E.1 Introduction
The gauge with can vary as defined in the normative part of this standard. In the following, the calculation
methodology is explained by means of a graphic example. For other cases, the infrastructure manager shall
carry out a similar study.
The turnout taken as an example is a very severe type because of the following elements:

its high switch entry angle (1);

its low curve radius in the turnout route (215 m);

a widening of the local track.

The turnout geometry is defined in Figure E.1.

Figure E.1 Turnout layout


In this example, the layout is defined at rail level. The widening means that the layout is slightly different for
the large radius rail compared to the small radius rail.
The gauge is determined:

for gauge G1, defined in Annex C;

a turnout laid on a straight track (not wound or pressed to a curve).

Unless otherwise indicated, the dimensions in all the figures in this annex are in given in mm.

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E.2 Methodology
The calculation principle is given in the body of this standard.
The characteristics of the reference vehicles to be taken into account for this gauge are given in Annex F. For
the vehicles to be taken into account, it is not always the vehicles with the minimum or maximum wheelbase
that represent the most severe cases. For this, the whole range of possible vehicles shall be checked where
they correspond to the reference vehicle(s).
Table E.1 lists the characteristics of the G1 reference vehicles.
Table E.1 Characteristics of the G1 reference vehicles
Reference vehicle n

Ai/a

Bi/a

BV

na
(a = 5 m)

na
(a = 20 m)

1i

3,75

1,645

5,477

2a

3,75

1,645

1,208

0,368

3i

50

0,185

1,460

20

4a

60

0,225

1,420

8,736

4,832

NOTE
Vehicles 1 and 3 determine the additional overthrows for the inside of the curve, and vehicles
2 and 4 for the outside of the curve. Certain values are purely theoretical and of no practical use for other
reasons (e.g. buffer locking).

The following sub-clause determines the widening in the curve. When a vehicle occupies the turnout route, the
end of this vehicle will penetrate the main line gauge. First, the main line gauge widening is determined, then
the exercise is repeated for the turnout route.
The following sub-clause determines the quasi-static effect.

E.3 Widening in the curve


E.3.1 Widening of the main line
This widening is determined by reference vehicles no. 2 and no. 4 of Table E.1. The space occupied is
determined separately for these two vehicles.
For each vehicle, the wheelbase shall be varied between the extreme values allowed on the network
concerned. Very often, the vehicle with the most reduced wheelbase (and therefore the greatest overhang)
will be the most severe case. Because of the complexity of the turnout layout, the whole range of the coach
shall be checked.
In Figure E.2, the envelope has been defined for reference vehicle no. 2 with several wheelbases.

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Key
PMA

Mathematical Switch Toe

V25

Reference vehicle V2 with 20 m wheelbase

V220

Reference vehicle V2 with 5 m wheelbase

Bv

Semi-width of vehicle

Figure E.2 Widening for vehicle n 2


The same exercise shall be repeated for vehicle no. 4.
Finally, the two exercises are superimposed whilst taking into account the width difference of the two
reference vehicles. The envelope of the two profiles defines the widening at this turnout for the gauge used.
The result is shown in Figure E.3.

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Key
PMA

Mathematical Switch Toe

V2

reference vehicle V2

V4

reference vehicle V4

Bv

semi-width of vehicle

Figure E.3 Widening for main line

E.3.2 Widening in the turnout route


The widening of the gauge in the turnout route is determined on the basis of reference vehicles no. 1 and
no. 3 that determine the widening of the gauge on the inside of the curve. In this case, it is always the vehicle
with the maximum wheelbase that occupies most space.
Again, the space envelope occupied by the two reference vehicles is determined while considering the width
difference of the two vehicles.
The result of the exercise is shown in Figure E.4.

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Key
PMA

Mathematical Switch Toe

JP

stock rail front point

V320

reference vehicle V3 with 20 m wheelbase

V15

reference vehicle V1 with 5 m wheelbase

Figure E.4 Widening for turnout route

E.4 The quasi-static effect


On the outside of the curve, the cant deficiency is determined as follows:

V2
40 2
I = 11,85
= 11,85
= 88,2 mm
R
215

(E.1)

It should be noted that on entering the turnout, the vehicle is subjected to impacts. In the turnout, small
variations of curvature or non-tangency might occur. These two aspects happen over a very short period and
the vehicle does not have time to tilt. The small variation in roll that might occur is not able to be included in
the allowances M1 (Tosc).
In the case of different radii, an effective radius can be determined according to the rule given in EN 13232-3.
It shall be noted that often a family of turnouts is designed for a constant deficiency. In this case, this value is
fixed at 90 mm.
Therefore, the quasi-static effect is determined as:

qsi =

[h 0,5]>0
0,4
.[0,09 0,05]>0 .[h 0,5]>0 =
1,5
93,75

On the inside of the curve, D always being limited (see EN 13803-2) qsi is often zero.

140

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E.5 Gauge width at a turnout


The width of the gauge used G1 is determined for point P (1 645, 3 250) which determines the distance
between track centres and therefore the maximum gauge width.
For this exercise, only the limit gauge is used, with.

the additional overthrows (widening in the curve and local widening) (see Figure D.4)

the quasi-static effect (for point P: qsa varies from 0 to 28 mm and qsi = 0 mm)

the allowances 1 (1a = 47 mm and 1a = 58 mm)

The sum of the two phenomena is given in Figure E.5 for point P (1 645, 3 250). In this figure, a simplification
is shown to characterize this gauge by straight lines and elements of circles.

Key
PMA

Mathematical Switch Toe

JP

stock rail front point

Figure E.5 Gauge width


The gauge width is variable over the full height. The width at cross-section A-A of Figure E.5 is shown in
Figure E.5. The amount to be added to the gauge on a straight track depends on the height and is given in
Table E.2.

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Dimensions in millimetres

Key
RP

Reference Profile

AdV

gauge at turnout
Figure E.6 Cross-section A-A of gauge

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Table E.2 Supplement to be added to gauge on straight track


Dimensions in millimetres
bRP

hRP

Supplement
with turnout

-1 620

400

90

-1 620

1 170

97

-1 645

1 170

111

-1 645

3 250

132

-1 425

3 700

181

-1 120

4 010

193

-525

4 310

203

4 310

-90

525

4 310

-90

1 120

4 010

-90

1 425

3 700

-85

1 645

3 250

-79

1 645

1 170

-72

1 620

1 170

-36

1 620

400

-36

1 520

400

-25

The following two cases demand particular attention when turnouts are involved in the application:

the application of this type of turnout requires an increase of the limit distance between centres of
138 mm compared to two tracks laid straight and without this turnout;

the application of this type of turnout alongside a platform requires an extra clearance of 90 mm along the
platform (case of a platform 760 mm high).

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Annex F
(normative)
Determination of reference vehicle characteristics

F.1 Introduction
The characteristics of the reference vehicles defining the gauge are needed to calculate the structure gauge in
the turnout or transition curve zones.
The characteristics of the reference vehicles shall not be merged with those of the vehicles used as a basis to
create the gauge; on the contrary, the space required by them is equivalent. Therefore, the reference vehicles
shall always be determined from the additional overthrow formulae
It should be noted that the reference vehicles are virtual vehicles not to be confused with actual vehicles.

NOTE

F.2 Methodology
The characteristic of the reference vehicles are determined on the basis of the following basic formula:

Sa =

Aa
n (n + a)
+ Ba = bveh + a a
bRP for a reference vehicle that determines the gauge on the outside of
R
2R

the curve with Aa and Ba coefficients that depend on the reference vehicle.
and S i =

Ai
a2
+ Bi = bveh +
bRP for a reference vehicle that determines the gauge on the inside of the
R
8R

curve with Ai and Bi coefficients that depend on the reference vehicle.


It shall be remembered that several reference vehicles may exist for the inside and outside of the curve.
For the inside of the curve, there is a single solution. The solution for the outside of the curve cannot be
obtained unless the value of the wheelbase a is known. For this purpose, values shall be determined over the
whole range of wheelbases admitted on the network.
NOTE
In the case of a unified gauge which is the gauge used, there is no additional overthrow. In this case,
characteristics can only be determined on the basis of the vehicles actually running on the network.

These two formulae lead to the following formulae which allow a and na to be determined directly:
On the inside of the curve:

bveh = bRP + Bi

(F.1)

and

a = 8 Ai
On the outside of the curve:

144

(F.2)

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bveh = bRP + Ba

(F.3)

and

na =

a + a 2 + 8 Aa
2

(F.4)

in which a varies over the whole range of the admitted values.


The methodology above may be generalized to gauges using several reference vehicles.

F.3 Calculation example


F.3.1 Introduction
As an example, the characteristics of the reference vehicles for gauge G1 are determined according to
Annex C.
In the upper parts, the body width is 1,645 m and the additional overthrows as follows:
R 250 m

Si or Sa =

250 R 150 m Si =

Sa =

3,75
[m ]
R

50
0,185 [m]
R

60
0,225 [m]
R

(F.5)

(F.6)

(F.7)

The reference vehicles are then determined as follows.

F.3.2 Vehicle no.1 (on the inside of the curve)


bveh1 = 1,645 m

The value of a shall be determined on the basis of formula:

a = 8 Ai

(F.8)

with Ai = 3,75 giving aveh1 = 5,477 m

F.3.3 Vehicle no.2 (on the outside of the curve)


bveh2 = 1,645 m

The values of a and na shall be determined on the basis of formula:

na =

a + a 2 + 8 Aa
2

(F.9)

with Aa = 3,75

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This formula allows the determination of na only if a is known. For the following, a wheelbase a varying from
5 m to 20 m is assumed, allowing na which varies from 1,208 m (for a = 5 m) down to 0,368 m (for a = 20 m) to
be determined.

F.3.4 Vehicle no.3 (on the inside of the curve)


bV3 = 1,645 0,185 m = 1,460 m

The characteristics of a and na shall be determined on the basis of the above formula with AI = 50 giving.

50 a 2
=
R 8R

(F.10)

giving aveh3 = 20 m

F.3.5 Vehicle no.4 (on the outside of the curve)


bV2 = 1,645 m 0,225 m = 1 420 m

The values of a and na shall be determined on the basis of the following formula:

60 na ( a + na )
=
R
2R

(F.11)

This formula allows the determination of na only if a is known. For the following, a wheelbase a varying from
5 m to 20 m is assumed, allowing na which varies from 8,736 m (for a = 5 m) and 4,832 m (for a = 20 m) to be
determined.

F.3.6 Summary
The results are summarized in Table F.1:
Table F.1 Summary
Reference vehicle n

Ai/a

Bi/a

bveh

na
(a= 5 m)

na
(a= 20 m)

3,75

1,645

5,477

3,75

1,645

1,208

0,368

50

0,185

1,460

20

60

0,225

1,420

8,736

4 ,832

NOTE
Vehicles no.1 and no.3 determine the additional overthrows on the inside of the curve, and
vehicles no.2 and no.4 on the outside of the curve. Certain values are purely theoretical and of no practical
use for other reasons (e.g.. buffer locking).

F.3.7 International gauge reference vehicles


The table below determines international gauge reference values given in Annexes B and C of this European
Standard.

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Table F.2 Characteristics of some reference vehicles


Gauge

hmin

hmax

bCR

Ai

Aa

bveh

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[m]

[m]

[mm]

[mm]

[m]

G1/G2/GC

400

max.

1 645

G1/G2/GC

400

max.

1 645

G1/G2/GC

400

max.

1 645

G1/G2/GC

400

max.

1 645

GA/GB/

400

3250

1 645

400

3250

1 645

400

3250

1 645

400

3250

1 645

GA/GB/

3 880/4 110/

max.

1 645

GB1/GB2

4 210/4 210

GA/GB/

3 880/4 110/

max.

1 645

GB1/GB2

4 210/4 210

GA/GB/

3 880/4 110/

max.

1 645

GB1/GB2

4 210/4 210

GA/GB/

3 880/4 110/

max.

1 645

GB1/GB2

4 210/4 210

FR-3.3

400

3 250

1 645

FR-3.3

400

3 250

1 645

FR-3.3

400

3 250

1 645

FR-3.3

400

3 250

1 645

FR-3.3

3 500

max.

1 645

FR-3.3

3 500

max.

1 645

BE1 BE3

1 170

max.

1 645

BE1 BE3

1 170

max.

1 645

BE1 BE3

1 170

max.

1 645

BE1 BE3

1 170

max.

1 645

BE1 BE3

1 170

max.

1 645

BE1 BE3

1 170

max.

1 645

BE1 BE3

1 170

max.

1 645

BE1 BE3

1 170

max.

1 645

BE1 BE3

100

1 170

1 645

BE1 BE3

100

1 170

1 645

BE1 BE3

100

1 170

1 645

BE1 BE3

100

1 170

1 645

BE1 BE3

100

1 170

1 645

BE1 BE3

100

1 170

1 645

BE1 BE3

100

1 170

1 645

BE1 BE3

100

1 170

1 645

3,75

1 645
3,75

50
60

225

3,75

1 460

1,208

0,368

8,736

4,832

1,208

0,368

8,736

4,832

4,301

1,832

7,808

4,142

1,208

0,368

8,736

4,832

6,514

3,229

1,772

0,583

5,390

2,490

6,841

3,454

8,736

4,832

1,531

0,488

5,194

2,367

6,841

3,454

8,736

4,832

20,000

1 420
1 645

na [m]
(20 m)

5,477

1 645
185

na [m]
(5 m)

5,477

GB1/GB2
GA/GB/

3,75

1 645

GB1/GB2
GA/GB/

50

185

1 460

225

1 420

20,000

GB1/GB2
GA/GB/

60

GB1/GB2
20

1 645
20

50
50

1 645
120

1 525

120

1 525

3,75

1 645
3,75

50
60

185

1 460

225

1 420
1 645

37,5

1 645
6

40,5
40,5
60
60

55

1 590

55

1 590

105

1 540

105

1 540

225

1 420

225

1 420
1 645

26,47
40,5
40,5
60
60

20,000

17,321

6,928

1 645

26,47

5,477

1 645

28

20,000

1 645

37,5

28

12,649

14,967

18,000

21,909

6,325

1 645
21,5

1 623,5

21,5

1 623,5

105

1 540

105

1 540

225

1 420

225

1 420

14,552

18,000

21,909

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BS EN 15273-3:2009
EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Table F.2 (continued)


hmin
[mm]

hmax
[mm]

bCR
[mm]

400

1 720

400

1 720

400

1 720

400

1 720

400

700

1 720

400

700

1 720

400

700

1 720

400

700

1 720

700

1 170

1 720

700

1 170

1 720

700

1 170

1 720

700

1 170

1 720

1 170

3 550

1 720

1 170

3 550

1 720

1 170

3 550

1 720

1 170

3 550

1 720

4 110/4 210

max.

1 720

4 110/4 210

max.

1 720

4 110/4 210

max.

1 720

4 110/4 210

max.

1 720

Gauge
CPb/CPb+/

Ai
[m]

Aa
[m]

b
[mm]

3,75

bveh
[mm]
1 720

a
[m]

na [m]
(5 m)

na [m]
(20 m)

5,477

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

3,75

1 720

1,208

0,368

8,736

4,832

1,208

0,368

8,736

4,832

4,301

1,832

7,808

4,142

1,208

0,368

8,736

4,832

6,514

3,229

1,772

0,583

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

50

185

1 535

225

1 495

20,000

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

60

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

3,75

1 720

5,477

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

3,75

1 720

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

50

185

1 535

225

1 495

20,000

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

60

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

20

1 720

12,649

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

20

1 720

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

50

120

1 600

120

1 600

20,000

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

50

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

3,75

1 720

5,477

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

3,75

1 720

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

50

185

1 535

225

1 495

20,000

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

60

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

37,5

1 720

17,321

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

37,5

1 720

CPc
CPb/CPb+/

1 720

6,928

CPc
CPb/CPb+/
CPc

148

1 720

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Annex G
(normative)
Uniform gauge

G.1 Introduction
Some uniform structure gauges exist in Europe. These fixed gauges are often determined on the basis of
gauges defined above in this standard. The permit easier management and maintenance for the infrastructure
managers.

G.2 GU1
G.2.1 General
Gauge GU1 is a uniform, fixed gauge used in different European countries, amongst them Greece.
The profile is the same as that of GU2 (on a straight track) but differs in its associated rules. It is similar in
shape to the (static or kinematic) reference profile G2 but is only cleared on a straight track. The
corresponding kinematic gauge has been determined below.
It is only applicable for curve radii up to 250 m, cant or cant deficiencies not exceeding 160 mm and vertical
transitions with radii of RV > 2500 m.
It contains all the allowances M1 and M2 necessary for the maintenance of (ballasted) tracks and the additional
allowances M3 for the gauge for open doors and safety of personnel.
In order to ensure compatibility with the vehicle gauge, it is essential that the maintenance is carried out so
that the tolerances recommended in Table B.1 in Annex B are complied with. The tolerances for tracks for
V < 80 km/h and of poor quality ("other tracks") are regarded as being adequate.
The installation of the platforms and definition of the wheel areas are to be defined on the basis of gauge G1.
The reference vehicle characteristics are given in Annex F.

G.2.2 Determination of the gauge


The profile is determined by its profile which is fixed.

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Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

550 mm to 1 000 mm platform installation zone


Figure G.1 Gauge GU1

The following formulae can be applied to extrapolate the application of this gauge for radii less than 250 m:
Table G.1 Additional overthrows
Dimensions in metres

150

Radius R

Si (on the inside of the


curve)

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

250 R 150

50
0,185
R

60
0,225
R

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G.2.3 Equivalent kinematic gauge


As this gauge is not defined on the basis of an existing kinematic gauge, it is interesting to determine its
equivalent to allow verification of the vehicle.
The rules given in this European Standard, more particularly in Annex A, allow the kinematic gauge to be
determined on the basis of the envelope. By using the associated rules of gauge G1 and the values
recommended in Annex B, it is possible to subtract the additional overthrow and the quasi-static effect values
and the allowances M1 and M2 to obtain the maximum permissible reference profile. As this gauge is extra
wide to clear the "open door" gauge, it is evident that allowances M3 exist on the side wall. A gauge
comparable to G! can be found by using the wall 1 645 mm from the track centreline.

G.3 GU2
G.3.1 General
Gauge GU2 is a uniform, fixed gauge used in different European countries, amongst them the Netherlands
The gauge is determined by two profiles applicable to two situations:

on a straight track;

in a curve of 250 m radius with cant or cant deficiency not exceeding 160 mm.

Extrapolation rules are given for application in curve radii less than 250 m and vertical transitions with radii
RV > 2 500 m.
The profile on a straight track is the same as that of GU1 but differs from it in its scope. Subject to rules used
according to the calculation methodology given in Annex A with the values recommended in Annex B, this
gauge ensures the clearance of (static or kinematic) gauge G2, from which it is derived.
It contains all the allowances M1 and M2 necessary for the maintenance of (ballasted) tracks and the additional
allowances M3 for the gauge for open doors and safety of personnel.
In order to ensure compatibility with the vehicle gauge, it is essential that the maintenance is carried out so
that the tolerances recommended in Table B.1 are complied with. The tolerances for tracks for V < 80 km/h
and of poor quality ("other tracks") are regarded as being adequate.
The installation of the platforms and definition of the wheel areas are to be defined on the basis of gauge G1.
The reference vehicle characteristics are the same as those of gauge G2 and are given in Annex F.

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G.3.2 Determination of the gauge


Dimensions in millimetres

Key
1

550 mm to 1 000 mm platform installation zone

on a straight track

in a curve
Figure G.2 Gauge GU2

The following formulae can be applied on profile GU2 in a curve to extrapolate the application of this gauge for
radii less than 250 m:

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Table G.2 Additional overthrows


Dimensions in metres

Radius R

Si (on the inside of the


curve)

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

250 R 150

50
0,185
R

60
0,225
R

G.4 GUC
G.4.1 General
Gauge GUC is a uniform gauge determined on the basis of interoperable gauge GC. It is used in different
countries in Europe, particularly on the European High-Speed Network. The gauge is determined by a fixed
profile.
Extrapolation rules are given below for application in curve radii less than 250 m with cant and cant
deficiencies not exceeding 180 mm. The vertical transition curve radii shall be limited to 2 000 m.
An additional vertical allowance of 50 mm has been taken into account.
It contains all the allowances M1 and M2 necessary for the maintenance of (ballasted) tracks and the additional
allowances M3.
In order to ensure compatibility with the vehicle gauge, it is essential that the maintenance is carried out so
that the tolerances recommended in Table B.1 are complied with. The tolerances for tracks for V > 80 km/h
and of very good quality are regarded as being necessary.
In the lower parts, different zones have been defined:

a zone for installation of low structures;

a zone for installation of 550 mm and 760 mm platforms. The installation of the platforms follows the
rules defined by gauge G1.

In the upper parts, a zone is defined for the free passage of the pantograph applicable for a contact wire
height of 5,08 m and a voltage of 25 kV AC.
The reference vehicle characteristics are the same as those of gauge GC and are given in Annex F.

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G.4.2 Determination of the gauge


Dimensions in millimetres

Key
A

zone reserved for the passage of the pantograph

zone for installation of platforms 550 mm and 760 mm high

zone for installation of low structures


Figure G.3 Gauge GUC

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The following formulae can be applied to extrapolate the application of this gauge for radii less than 250 m:
Table G.3 Additional overthrows
Dimensions in metres

Radius R

Si (on the inside of the


curve)

Sa (on the outside of the


curve)

250 R 150

50
0,185
R

60
0,225
R

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Annex H
(informative)
Gauge maintenance guideline

H.1 Introduction
Application of the gauge rules is not always evident and is a speciality. Therefore, the track and gauge
infrastructure managers shall put into place regulations that ensure not only the clearance of the gauge, but
also its maintenance over time.
This Annex gives some basic guidelines that can help the maintenance manager to manage his infrastructure
well.

H.2 Choice of gauge


The choice of gauge is the responsibility of the infrastructure manager, but for the determination of the
allowances M, he will take account of the allowances actually available on his network. Therefore, he may be
forced to define several structure gauges to be applied depending on the situation considered.
In view of the fact that the calculation of a limit gauge is quite complicated and it is not always possible to have
it monitored by personnel with the adequate training or experience, it seems necessary to define a nominal or
uniform gauge, simple to apply by non-specialized personnel. This is quite often the case with railway
personnel (contact line staff, signalling staff, conductor) occasionally faced with this set of problems without
having to master the relevant calculation details covered in this standard.

H.3 Installation rules


H.3.1 Guidelines for installation of equipment along the track
It shall be noted that the gauge is inadequate for the installation of equipment such as signals, contact wire
posts and the like along the tracks. By their very function, these structures shall be positioned close to the
tracks but at an adequate distance from the track to maintain allowances for various reasons such as
subsequent modifications of the layout without the need for too major infrastructure work. These additional
allowances also allow easier management of the gauge because regular checking of their position is not
mandatory.
Therefore, it is advisable to define a standard transverse profile covering the nominal positions of these
various items relative to the tracks and between the tracks themselves.
The same ideas apply to structures that by their nature are not as flexible. It is advisable to define nominal
free sections to allow better flexibility to take into account subsequent modifications of the lines such as
electrification or installation of highly visible signals.
It shall be noted that the free sections and the transverse profiles can vary from one line to another as a result
of their economic importance or according to future prospects.

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H.3.2 Guidelines for the installation of tracks alongside structures


The situation changes when tracks are to be installed alongside existing structures. A financial study will
determine the optimum installation, whilst taking into account the costs incurred by modification of the
structures and their management and possible limited use.

H.3.3 Guidelines for the installation of temporary structures


Temporary structures may be necessary to ensure the maintenance of structures such as bridges, tunnels
or in the case of laying provisional tracks.
The risk that these structures might cause should not be disregarded. However, while operation remains
possible according to the rules given in this standard and the procedures adapted are put into force, these
structures can be tolerated. Particular attention shall be paid to special transport needed to operate along this
type of structure.

H.4 Managing and checking of structures


H.4.1 Management principles
If the infrastructure manager has approved the existence of structures close to the gauge or which, in the case
of a nominal gauge, penetrate it, the maintenance manager shall implement a management system to ensure
various objectives, in particular to:

judge the frequency of the control measures;

determine the effect when examining modification of the layout;

examine the possibilities of special consignments;

examine the possibility of modifying the gauge.

For each structure, it is advisable to determine:

the position relative to the track (cross section);

the data relative to the layout (kilometre, radius, cant, inside or outside of the curve);

the data regarding the operation of the traffic (e.g. train speed, gauge used, etc.).

H.4.2 Management of critical situations


In the case of critical structures, a special procedure shall be specified:

the control frequency can be increased;

the track position can be fixed by a sleeper block or similar;

the train speed can be reduced if it has an effect on the gauge calculation;

track slewing can be planned or the track cant can be changed;

local measures can be taken to ensure that the situation does not deteriorate further.

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In this latter case, fixed markers can be placed along the tracks allowing rapid verification of the track position
and assessment of the effect of the maintenance operations by a pre- and post-maintenance check. This
marking system can be used both for lateral and vertical problems. This procedure is highly recommended
when checking the minimum height of the contact wire.

H.4.3 Practical aspects for measuring the structures


When checking the position of the structure, the structure envelope relative to the track it is associated with
shall be determined. The relative position is determined by the vertical and transverse distances and by the
cant. Any modification of these three elements has a very great effect on the allowances relative to the gauge.
The frequency of the checks depends on the traffic, maintenance operation cycles, stability of the structure
and of the allowance of this structure relative to the gauge. This frequency is determined by the experience of
the manager and shall be proportional to the tolerances taken into account in the calculation of the allowances
M 2.
When the verification measurements are interpreted, account shall be taken of the precision of the
measurement systems used. The following shall be considered:

the resolution of the measurement, i.e. the number of points per unit of area. This is necessary to assess
the irregularity of the structure surface (e.g. masonry, rock wall, etc.;

the precision of the measurement itself (standard deviation of the measurement error).

The infrastructure manager may possibly group these two parameters into one additional allowance. This
imprecision can also be considered as a random phenomenon and therefore can be taken into account in the
formulae determined in Annex A of this standard.

H.5 Effect of track maintenance


During any maintenance operation, all the structures approaching the gauge shall be examined in order to
judge the effect of a maintenance operation on the maintenance of the gauge. It shall be noted that any lift,
slewing or change of cant risks having a great effect on the allowances and therefore on the gauge
maintenance.

H.6 Personnel training


As the gauge is quite a complex subject that concerns all railway specialities, it is important to provide
adequate training for the categories of personnel involved in this activity. It is clear that this training shall be
adapted to the level of the users.

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Annex I
(informative)
A-deviations

A-deviation: National deviation due to regulations, the alteration of which is for the time being outside the
competence of the CEN/ CENELEC member
This European Standard falls under Directive 2008/57/EC.
NOTE (from CEN/ CENELEC Internal Regulations Part 2: 2006, 2.17): Where standards fall under EU Directives, it is the
view of the Commission of the European Communities (OJ No C 59, 9.3.1982) that the effect of the decision of the Court
of Justice in case 815/79 Cremonini/Vrankovich (European Court Reports 1980, p. 3583) is that compliance with
A-deviations is no longer mandatory and that the free movement of products complying with such a standard should not
be restricted within the EU except under the safeguard procedure provided for in the relevant Directive.

The A-deviations in an EFTA country replace the provisions of the European Standard in the corresponding
CEN/CENELEC country until they have been withdrawn.
In view of the national laws in force, Switzerland requests the following A-deviations:
In Switzerland, the dimensions of the gauges and their fields of application are defined in the executing
provisions of the Railway ordinance (AB-EBV, SR 742.141.11 /
http://www.admin.ch/ch/d/sr/c742_141_11.html):
- for the kinematic reference profiles in article 18.2/47.1
- for the structure gauge in article 18
- for the rolling stock gauge in article 47.
According to these regulations, for all types of gauges (e.g. EBV O1, EBV O2, EBV O4), the associated rules
of the kinematic reference profile correspond with EN 15273-1, Annex C, clause C.1.1 (especially with
formulae C.1, C.2 and C.3) whatever the height h.
The use of the rules for calculating the kinematic gauges for the upper parts (h above 3.250 m) given in EN
15273-1, Annex C, clause C.2.2 and C.2.3 (especially formulae C.8, C.9, C.10 and C.11) is not allowed in
Switzerland.
Therefore the compatibility of the EBV gauges with the international gauges of EN 15273-2 is as follows:
Gauge G1:
Trafficability without restriction.
Gauge GA:
Restricted trafficability within Gauge EBV O1. The formulae to be applied for the calculation of the kinematic
rolling stock gauge (upper parts) are those associated with the G1 whatever the height h.
The use of the exceptions for heights h above 3.250 m given in EN 15273-2, Annex B, clause B.3.3.1, B.3.4.1,
B.3.5.1 and B.3.6.1 is not allowed in Switzerland.
The standard loadings for gauge GA, defined in UIC-Leaflet 506, Annex B, clause B.1.1 are accepted in
operation within Gauge EBV O1.

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Gauge GB:
Restricted trafficability within Gauge EBV O2. The formulae to be applied for the calculation of the kinematic
rolling stock gauge (upper parts) are those associated with the G1 whatever the height h.
The use of the exceptions for heights h above 3.250 m given in EN 15273-2, Annex B, clause B.3.3.1, B.3.4.1,
B.3.5.1 and B.3.6.1 is not allowed in Switzerland.
The standard loadings for gauge GB, defined in UIC-Leaflet 506, Annex B, clause B.1.2 are accepted in
operation within Gauge EBV O2.
Gauge GC:
Trafficability without restriction within Gauge EBV O4.
In dependence on the associated rules of the kinematic reference profile, the structure gauge (upper parts) for
all types of gauges (e.g. EBV O1, EBV O2, EBV O4) is calculated according to EN 15273-3, Annex C, clause
C.2.1, Table C.1 (respectively Annex C, clause C.2.3, Table C.4).
The use of the formulae given in EN 15273-3, Annex C Table C.2 respectively Table C.3 (for height h above
3.250 m) is not allowed in Switzerland.
Justification
To ensure the interoperability concerning the different gauges, the requirement of the executing provisions of
the Railway ordinance (SR 742.141.11 / http://www.admin.ch/ch/d/sr/c742_141_11.html) have also to be
complied with in Switzerland.
Switzerland never accepted the exceptions for height h above 3.250 m (especially for gauge GA and GB)
according to UIC-Leaflet 506 which are described now in EN 15273-1, EN 15273-2 and EN 15273-3.

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Annex ZA
(informative)
Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential
Requirements of the 2008/57/EC

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN/CENELEC/ETSI by the European
Commission and the European Free Trade Association to provide one means of conforming to Essential
Requirements of Directive 2008/57/EC

Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Communities under that Directive and has
been implemented as a national standard in at least one Member State, compliance with the clauses of this
standard indicated in Tables ZA.1 to ZA.6 confers, within the limits of the scope of this standard, a
presumption of conformity with the corresponding Essential Requirements of that Directive and associated
EFTA regulations.
Table ZA.1 Correspondence between this European Standard, the TSI relating to the infrastructure
sub-system of the European high-speed rail system of 20 December 2007 (published in Official
Journal L 77, 19.03.2008, p 1) and Directive 2008/57/EC
Clauses/Subclauses and
Annexes of this EN

Clause(s)/Sub-clause(s) of the
TSI

Clause 5 General
information on all the
gauging methods

2.2.3
Definition of the infrastructure
domain/Scope of application Functions and aspects of the
domain within the scope of this
TSI - To allow free and safe
passage of a train within a given
volume

Clause 6 Rules for


determination of the
static gauge

Clause 7 Rules for


determination of the
kinematic gauge

Clause 8 Rules for


determination of the
dynamic gauge

2.2.4
Definition of the infrastructure
domain/Scope of application Functions and aspects of the
domain within the scope of this
TSI - To allow passengers
boarding and alighting from
trains stopped in stations.

2.2.5
Definition of the infrastructure
domain/Scope of application Functions and aspects of the
domain within the scope of this
TSI To ensure safety

Essential
Requirements of
Directive 2008/57/EC
Annexe III Essential
requirements
General requirements
Sub-clause 1.1.1 Safety

Sub-clause 1.2
Reliability and
availability
Sub-clause 1.5
Technical compatibility
Annex III Sub-clause
2.1.1 Requirements
specific to each subsystem Infrastructures Safety

Comments

Whilst awaiting an
agreement on access
for people with reduced
mobility and dynamic
effects, the usable width
of the platforms remains
open and therefore the
national rules remain
applicable in
compliance with
4.2.20.3 of the TSI
Clause. 18 Guide for
determination of a new
gauge from an existing
infrastructure remains
open
.

Clause 9 Distance
between track
centres

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Table ZA.1 (continued)


Clauses/Subclauses and
Annexes of this
EN
Clause 10
Elements of
variable layout
Clause 11
Determination of
the pantograph
free passage
gauge
Clause 12
Overhead contact
wire

Clause 13 Rules
for installation of
platform edges

Clause 16 Track
accessories
Sub-clause 16.3
Active check rails

Clause 17
Verification and
maintenance of the
gauge

Clause 18 Guide
for determination of
a new gauge from
an existing
infrastructure
Annex A
Calculation
methodology for
structure gauge
allowances

162

Clause(s)/Sub-clause(s) of the
TSI

3.2.1.1.1.1
Essential requirements
Essential requirements for the
Infrastructure domain Safety
The design, construction or
assembly, maintenance and
monitoring of safety-critical
components

3.2.1.1.1.3
Essential requirements
Essential requirements for the
Infrastructure domain - Safety
The components used must
withstand any normal or
exceptional stresses

3.2.1.1.2
Essential requirements
Essential requirements for the
Infrastructure domain General
requirements Reliability and
availability
3.2.1.5
Essential requirements
Essential requirements for the
Infrastructure domain General
requirements Technical
compatibility.

3.3.1
Essential requirements Meeting
the essential requirements by the
specifications of the Infrastructure
domain Safety
3.3.2
Essential requirements Meeting
the essential requirements by the
specifications of the Infrastructure
domain Reliability and
availability

Essential
Requirements of
Directive
2008/57/EC
2.1.1 2 dangers to
which persons are
exposed, particularly
when trains pass
through stations

2.1.1 3
infrastructure to
which the public has
access (platforms)

Comments

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Table ZA.1 (continued)


Clauses/Subclauses and
Annexes of this
EN
Annex C
International
gauges G1, GA,
GB and GC

Annex F
Determination of
reference vehicle
characteristics

Annex G
Uniform gauge

Annex H Gauge
maintenance
guideline

Clause(s)/Sub-clause(s) of the
TSI

Essential
Requirements of
Directive
2008/57/EC

Comments

3.3.5
Essential requirements - Meeting
the essential requirements by the
specifications of the Infrastructure
domain Technical compatibility.
4.5
Description of the infrastructure
domain Maintenance rules
4.8.
Description of the infrastructure
domain Register of
infrastructure
6.2.6 1.
Assessment of conformity and/or
suitability for use of the
constituents and verification of the
sub-system Infrastructure subsystem Assessment of minimum
infrastructure gauge

6.2.6.2
Assessment of conformity and/or
suitability for use of the
constituents and verification of the
sub-system Infrastructure subsystem - Assessment of minimum
value of mean track gauge

7.3
Implementing the Infrastructure
TSI Specific cases
Annex B 1
Assessment of the infrastructure
sub-system
Annex D
Items to be included in the
Infrastructure Register concerning
the infrastructure domain

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Table ZA.2 Correspondence between this European Standard, the ERA draft of the TSI relating to
the infrastructure of the European conventional rail system (IU-INF-080916-TSI 2.7 of 2008/10/07) and
Directive 2008/57/EC
Clauses/Subclauses and
Annexes of this
EN

Clause(s)/Sub-clause(s) of the
TSI

Essential
Requirements of
Directive 2008/57/EC

Clause 5
General
information on all
the gauging
methods

3.2.
Essential requirements Basic
parameters of the infrastructure
domain corresponding to the
essential requirements Table 1

Annexe III Essential


requirements General
requirements
Sub-clause 1.1.1 Safety

Clause 6 Rules
for determination
of the static gauge

4.2.2.
Description of the infrastructure
domain Functional and technical
specifications of the domain
Performance parameters
Table 3

Clause 7 Rules
for determination
of the kinematic
gauge

Clause 8 Rules
for determination
of the dynamic
gauge

Clause 9
Distance between
track centres
Clause 10
Elements of
variable layout
Clause 11
Determination of
the pantograph
free passage
gauge

Clause 12
Overhead contact
wire

164

4.2.4
Description of the infrastructure
domain Functional and technical
specifications of the domain
Lines 4.2.4.1 to 4.2.4.5
4.2.5
Description of the infrastructure
domain Functional and technical
specifications of the domain
Track parameters 4.2.5.1 to
4.2.5.4
4.2.6
Description of the infrastructure
domain Functional and technical
specifications of the domain
Track parameters Switches and
crossings 4.2.6.2. and 4.2.6.3
4.2.7
Description of the infrastructure
domain Functional and technical
specifications of the domain
Track resistance to applied forces
4.2.7.1 to 4.2.7.3

Comments

The Infrastructure TSI


for conventional tracks
is still under study and
may be amended
without warning.

Sub-clause 1.2
Reliability and
availability
Sub-clause 1.5
Technical compatibility
Annex III Sub-clause
2.1.1 Requirements
specific to each subsystem - Infrastructures
Safety
2.1.1 2 dangers to
which persons are
exposed, particularly
when trains pass
through stations.
2.1.1 3 infrastructure
to which the public has
access (platforms)

The rules to be taken


into account on the
dynamic effects and the
distance between
tracks on the basis of
which the dynamic
effects are to be taken
into account remain
open.
In specific cases
relating to the minimum
track gauge, the gauge
and the distance
between tracks remain
open for the Estonian,
Latvian and Lithuanian
networks

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Table ZA.2 (continued)


Clauses/Subclauses and
Annexes of this
EN
Clause 13
Rules for
installation of
platform edges
Clause 14 Tilting
trains
Clause 16 Track
accessories
Sub-clause 16.2
Contact ramps
Sub-clause 16.3
Active check rails
Sub-clause 16.4
Planking of level
crossings
Sub-clause 16.5
Electric third rail
Sub -clause16.6
Rail brakes

Clause 17
Verification and
maintenance of
the gauge

Clause 18 Guide
for determination
of a new gauge
from an existing
infrastructure
Annex A
Calculation
methodology for
structure gauge
allowances

Clause(s)/Sub-clause(s) of the
TSI

Essential
Requirements of
Directive
2008/57/EC

Comments

4.2.9.
Description of the infrastructure
domain Functional and technical
specifications of the domain
Track geometrical quality
and limits on isolated defects
4.2.9.1 to 4.2.9.4
4.2.10
Description of the infrastructure
domain Functional and technical
specifications of the domain
Platforms 4.2.10.2 to 4.2.10.5
4.2.11.1
Description of the infrastructure
domain Functional and technical
specifications of the domain
Maximum pressure variation in
tunnels
4.2.11.6
Description of the infrastructure
domain Functional and technical
specifications of the domain
Effect of crosswinds
4.3.1
Description of the infrastructure
domain Functional and technical
specification of the interfaces
Interfaces with the rolling stock
sub-system Locomotives and
passengers Table 8

Description of the infrastructure


domain Functional and technical
specification of the interfaces
Interfaces with the rolling stock
sub-system Wagons Table 9

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Table ZA.2 (continued)


Clauses/Subclauses and
Annexes of this
EN
Annex C
International
gauges G1, GA,
GB and GC

Annex D
Gauges for
multilateral and
national
agreements
Annex F
Determination of
reference vehicle
characteristics
Annex G
Uniform gauge
Annex H Gauge
maintenance
guideline

Clause(s)/Sub-clause(s) of the
TSI

4.3.2.
Description of the infrastructure
domain Functional and technical
specification of the interfaces
Interfaces with the energy subsystem Table 10
4.3.3.
Description of the infrastructure
domain Functional and technical
specification of the interfaces
Interfaces with the controlcommand and signalling subsystem Table 11
4.5
Maintenance plan
4.8.
Register of infrastructure
6.2.4.1
Assessment of conformity and/or
suitability for use of the
constituents and verification of the
sub-system Infrastructure subsystem Assessment of
conformity conditions
Assessment of minimum gauge
6.2.4.2.
Assessment of conformity and/or
suitability for use of the
constituents and verification of the
sub-system Infrastructure subsystem Assessment of
conformity conditions
Assessment of the track centre
distance
7.6
Implementing the Infrastructure
TSI Specific cases
Annex B
Assessment of the infrastructure
sub-system Table 20
Annex D
Items to be included in the
Infrastructure Register concerning
the infrastructure domain
Table 21

166

Essential
Requirements of
Directive
2008/57/EC

Comments

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EN 15273-3:2009 (E)

Table ZA.3 Correspondence between this European Standard, the revised TSI relating to the
European high-speed rail system of February 2008 (published in Official Journal L 84, 26.03.2008,
p 132) and Directive 2008/57/EC
Clauses/Subclauses and
Annexes of this
EN
The whole
standard is
applicable

Clause(s)/Sub-clause(s) of the
TSI

Essential Requirements
of Directive 2008/57/EC

4.3.2.3
Functional and technical
specification of the interfaces
Kinematic gauge

Annexe III Essential


requirements General
requirements
Sub-clause 1.1.1 - Safety

4.8.1
Register of the infrastructure

Sub-clause 1.2
Reliability and availability

Comments

Sub-clause 1.5
Technical compatibility
Annex III Sub-clause
2.4.3 Requirements
specific to each subsystem Rolling stock
Sub-clause 2.4.33
Technical compatibility

Table ZA.4 Correspondence between this European Standard, the preliminary version of the TSI
relating to the infrastructure of the European conventional rail system Rolling stock Locomotives
and passengers (IU-RST-14112008-TSI draft Rev 2.0 of 2008/11/14) and Directive 2008/57/EC
Clauses/Subclauses and
Annexes of this
EN
The standard is
not yet applicable

Clause(s)/Sub-clause(s) of the
TSI

7.3.2.2
Track and gauge interaction
Specific cases Spain.

Essential Requirements
of Directive 2008/57/EC

Annex III Essential


requirements General
requirements

Sub-clause 2.4.3 3
Technical compatibility

Comments

Gauge GHE 16,


included in the TSI, is
not currently in the
standard. The TSI is
still being worked on
and the contents
could change before
publication

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Table ZA.5 Correspondence between this European Standard, the intermediate amendment of the
TSI relating to the conventional rail systems rolling stock wagons of November 2008 and approved
by the rail safety and interoperability committee on 26 November 2008 and Directive 2008/57/EC
Clauses/Subclauses and
Annexes of this
EN
The whole
standard is
applicable

Clause(s)/Sub-clause(s) of the
TSI

4.8.1
Register of infrastructure and
rolling stock
5.4.2.1
Bogies and running gear
Annexe KK
Register of infrastructure and
rolling stock. Register of
infrastructure.

Essential Requirements of
Directive 2008/57/EC

Comments

Annexe III Essential


requirements General
requirements
Sub-clause 1.1.1 - Safety
Sub-clause 1.2 Reliability
and availability
Sub-clause 1.5 Technical
compatibility
Annex III Sub-clause 2.4.3
Requirements specific to
each sub-system Rolling
stock
Sub-clause 2.4.33
Technical compatibility

Table ZA.6 Correspondence between this European Standard, the TSI relating to persons with
reduced mobility in the trans-European conventional and high-speed rail system (published in the
Official Journal of 2008/03/07) and Directive 2008/57/EC
Clauses/Subclauses and
Annexes of this
EN

Clause(s)/Sub-clause(s) of the
TSI

Essential Requirements
of Directive 2008/57/EC

Clause 13 Rules
for installation of
platform edges

4.1.2.18.2
Platform height and offset
Platform offset

Annex III Essential


requirements General
requirements

Annex G
Universal gauge

7.4.1.2
Specific cases Platform offset

Sub-clause 1.5
Technical compatibility
Annex III Sub-clause
2.1.1 Requirements
specific to each
sub-system infrastructure - safety
2.1.1 2 dangers to
which persons are
exposed, particularly
when trains pass through
stations.
2.1.1 3 infrastructure to
which the public has
access (platforms)

168

Comments

Interfaces with the


TSI relating to the
infrastructure of
conventional rail
systems remain open

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WARNING Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the product(s) falling within
the scope of this standard.

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Bibliography

[1]

UIC 505-1:2003, Railway transport stock Rolling stock construction gauge

[2]

UIC 505-4:1977, Effects of the application of the kinematic gauges defined in the 505 series of leaflets
on the positioning of structures in relation to the tracks and of the tracks in relation to each other

[3]

UIC 606-1:1989, Consequences of the application of the kinematic gauge defined by UIC Leaflets in
the 505 series on the design of the contact line

[4]

EN 13232-1, Railway applications Track Switches and crossings Part 1: Definitions

[5]

ENV 13803-1, Railway applications Track alignment design parameters Track gauges 1435 mm
and wider Part 1: Plain line

[6]

EN 13803-2, Railway applications Track alignment design parameters Track gauges 1435 mm
and wider Part 2: Switches and crossings and comparable alignment design situations with abrupt
changes of curvature

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National Annex (informative)


Gauge terms used in Great Britain
Absolute gauging
A full assessment of clearances on a section of track between the vehicle and fixed structures
and between the vehicle and vehicles on adjacent tracks.
Dynamic gauging
A gauging method which uses a reference profile which encloses all likely vehicle suspension
movements. Suspension movements are calculated dynamically, and are added to the
geometry of the vehicle in order to ensure that the vehicle remains within the reference
profile under the conditions specified by the associated rules.
Gauge
A gauge is a definition of the shape and size of specific vehicles or infrastructure.
Gauging
The process by which swept envelopes of a vehicle, or vehicle gauges are used to determine
clearances on a section of track between the vehicle and fixed structures and between the
vehicle and vehicles on adjacent tracks.
Geometric gauge
A gauge which is in the form of a drawn line. The associated rules may adjust the shape and
size of the gauge line as a function of track features including, for example curvature.
Kinematic gauging
A gauging method which uses a reference profile where allowance for vehicle suspension
movements is calculated by empirical rules which do not take account of the vehicle mass.
UIC gauging is the most common form of kinematic gauging.
Although the term 'kinematic envelope' has been used in Great Britain for many years, it
actually relates to the dynamic gauging method (see above).
Reference profile
The common gauge line on which gauges applicable to both vehicle and infrastructure are
based.
Static gauging
A gauging method which uses a reference profile which does not enclose vehicle suspension
movements. Its size and shape is therefore similar to the static size and shape of vehicles. A
fixed allowance for suspension movements is contained within the associated rules, and
forms part of the clearance between the reference profile and fixed structures and between the
reference profile and vehicles on adjacent tracks.

Licensed copy: Mr. Mark Churchill, Parsons Brinckerhoff Ltd, Version correct as of 20/10/2010 14:06, (c) BSI

BS EN
15273-3:2009

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