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We live in a world of automation and full of facilities only because of
technology. In this world we have become so much addicted to technology so
that we would rarely try to turn on a television ourselves rather than searching
for the missing remote control for turning on the television.
Controlling electronic devices and domestic appliances using a remote
control is an attractive facility provided in the present consumer electronics
products. This product CPC (cordless power controller) is essentially a remote
control implemented with the help of a cordless phone. This makes it possible to
control lights, fans and other appliances of our home using our cordless phone.
This in fact eliminates the need of another remote controller in our home.
The CPC is connected between the receiver and the telephone lines so
that the signals at the input port of CPC will be same as from ordinary telephone
that will be in accordance with the conventional DOT standards.
The working of the CPC can be summarized as below
1. On reset, CPC would be in the telephone mode. Power control mode
(PCM) only after dialing a particular code. (For eg.33#). After the code
has been entered, CPC switches to the power control mode. The
indicator and the tone generator tell us that the device has been
selected. And the relay disconnects telephone from the lines.
2. In the PCM, we can select different devices by dialing appropriate
codes for each (For eg.1 for bulb,2 for fan ) etc.
3. After selecting a device we can control the ON/OFF state of the device
by entering a different key (For eg. 3).
4. If the device selected is fan, we can con troll the speed of it by using
two dedicated switches, for increasing and decreasing the speed
5. The mode changes automatically to telephone when the phone is
disconnected. Thus the device works in two modes namely
1. Power control mode
2. Telephone mode
The firing pulses for the TRIAC are generated by the -controller. The
phase of the firing pulse can be varied and hence the firing angle of the TRIAC.
By varying the firing angle we can control the brightness of the lamp, speed of
the fan etc. Isolation can be given by using the pulse transformer, at the
triggering side. The entire software for -controller is stored in an EPROM.
The product will be very useful for bedridden patients, handicapped
individuals and even lazy people!!!


Touch-tone dialing is a method of sending signals from telephone
customer's premises to central offices and beyond. Compared to rotary dialing
its principal advantages are:1. All the signaling energy is in the voice frequency band, making it
possible to transmit signaling information to any point in the
telephone network to which voice can be transmitted
2. Touch-tone dialing is faster, reducing the dialing time for users and
reducing he holding time for central office for common equipment.
3. It provides a mean for transmitting more than ten distinct signals.
4. It provides a more convenient signaling method.
The development work that led to the introduction of touch-tone dialing
began at Bell Laboratories in the mid 1950's. The dialing unit had mechanical
linkages that plucked two out of six metal reeds, each of which was resonant at a
specified frequency. When a customer pushed any of thee ten buttons, two reeds
were plucked to form a signal coded to corresponding digit. The energy so
generated was transferred inductively to coils in the station set network and so
transmitted to receiver at central office. Although this mechanism was
cumbersome, the performance of the equipment and the reaction of the
customers pointed the way to an ultimately feasible system and indicated a
favorable public response to push-button signaling.
Using this new technology a compact multi-frequency oscillator
equipped with push buttons for selecting and controlling voice frequency signals
was developed in the late 1950's. The oscillator was particularly adapted to the
low and variable power available from the central office battery over the range
of the existing loops to the station set. The oscillator design the central office in
the presence of the noise from numerous sources that is always present on the
telephone circuits, but not so high as to exceed crosstalk. The concept of a fourbyfour frequency code resulted in a relatively simple mechanical system at the
station set.
Concurrently with these electrical and mechanical developments, human
developments and performance ratings of button arrangements were made. The
optimum size, spacing, travel and operating force of the buttons were
determined. It was also established that feedback of signal tones through the
telephone receiver was desirable.
The purpose of technical details was to test the operational capabilities of
the system and its components. These include:
1. The dialing and supervisory capabilities of the system over typical and
limiting plant conditions. A sample of adequate size and diversity including
various gauges of loaded and non-loaded cable and wire and exposure to
various environmental conditions was needed.
2. The effectiveness of the protection provided in the system against false
signals. It was anticipated that signal like impulses would be generated by
speech, line noise, test supervisory tones that exist on telephone circuits.
3. The reliability, stability and maintenance requirements of the equipment and
its components under typical conditions.

4. Customer usage characteristics such ass dialing speed, learning rate, signal
pulse duration, error types and rates.
5. The results of the second set of trials led to the conclusion that a practical
new dialing scheme could be developed based on the technical concept of
the system and components used in the technical trials.
Touch Tone Dialing Scheme
In the previous section various advantages of touch tone dialing was
listed. Initially the only objective was to reduce the dialing time. The
development was governed by two factors. The rotary dial had been around for
several decades and was very inexpensive. The power dissipation, variation of
gain among devices, reliability and cost were all issues. One scheme that was
developed involved the generation of damped waves by interrupting the direct
current through the coil of an inductor capacitor tuned circuit. Very soon it
became clear that it was essential to be able to transmit customer's signals end to
end. Two requirements from the end to end signaling objective:
1. The signals must not contain an out of band component such as DC step.
2. Sustained rather than damped signals must be used to maintain adequate
signal to noise margins for the wider range of transmission losses when
two-customer loops are involved.
The first of these two requirements the need for the signals to be wholly
contained within the voice frequency band also brings with it the
problem of vulnerability to talk off. The second reintroduced the
uncharted domain of active devices.
Choice of Code
When only voice frequencies are employed, protection against talk off
must rely on statistical tools. This protection is required only during inter digital
intervals; speech interference with valid signals can be avoided by the
transmitter disablement when a push-button is operated. Since signals with a
simple structure are prone to frequent limitation by speech and music some form
of multi-frequency code particularly difficult of imitation is indicated. If the
signal frequencies are restricted to binary fashion, the greatest economy in space
of frequency results from the use of all combinations of N frequencies, yielding
n=2 exp. N different signals.
To minimize the number of circuit elements, as well as to reduce the
sharing of amplitude range P should be as small as possible, yet be larger than
unity for the sake of talk off protection. Let us thus examine codes in which
P=2. If one can be found that is not readily imitated by speech or music there is
no merit in choosing P higher than 2.
There are further advantages, as we shall see in imposing the further
restriction that, with P=2, the frequencies for each combination fall respectively
into two mutually exclusive frequency bands. If for example 15 or more
combinations are required N must be at least 8. In the 4 by 4 code, eight signal
frequencies are divided into two groups: group A, the lower group of four
frequencies and group B, the higher group of the four frequencies, resulting in

16 combinations.
Band Separation and Limiter Action
With a two group arrangement it is possible at the receiver to
the two frequencies of a valid signal by band filtering before attempting to
determine the two components of a signal renders reliable discrimination
between valid signals and speech or noise simpler for two reasons: