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(i) Problem
1. In a He Ne laser transition from 3S to 2P level (E3-E2) gives a laser emission of 632.8
nm wavelength. If the energy of 2P level (E2) has energy 15.2 X 10-19 J how much
pumping energy is required neglecting energy leakage?
2. Two plane mirrors forming a resonant cavity in a He Ne laser are at a distance of 0.5 m.
find the frequency separation between two consecutive modes in longitudinal cavity.
3. A relative population (Boltzmann ratio) of 1/e is representative of the ratio of populations
in two energy levels at room temperature. Determine the wavelength of emitted radiation.
4. Find out the energy differences between two energy levels of Ne atom corresponding to
principal laser radiation. Calculate the no. of photons emitted per second to give a power
output of 2 mW.
5. A 15 mW laser has an aperture of diameter 5 mm emitting light 632.8 nm. If it is focused
by a lens of focal length 5 sm find out (1) angular spread of the laser beam, (2) areal
spread of the beam and (3) intensity of beam.
(ii) Assignment:
1. Write down the full form of LASER. What are its characteristics? Differentiate between
ordinary light & LASER.
2. Describe (with figure) different components of a lasing system briefly explaining utilities
of the various components. Give stress on the usefulness of optical resonator in
optimizing lasing action.
3. Write down the applications of Ruby & He Ne laser. Also differentiate between the
utilities between a 3 & 4 level laser in this context. Is it feasible to have a two level
4. Define the following: pumping, spontaneous & stimulated emission (absorption for the
latter, in addition), population inversion.
5. Define laser gain (with mathematical expression), coherence (spatial, temporal),
coherence length, time. Relate the last two with laser band-width (BW).
6. Derive the mutual relation between Einsteins A & B co-efficient.
7. Briefly explain the energy level diagram of Ruby and He Ne laser.
8. Estimate the dimensions of Einsteins A & B co-efficient.


(i) Problem


Copper (At. Wt. 63.5) has FCC structure with atomic radius 0.1278 nm. Calculate its
density & inter planar spacing for (3 2 1) planes. What would be its packing factor?
Calculate the co-ordination number for SC, BCC &FCC structure. Also determine d110,
d110, d111 for SC, BCC & FCC crystal of side a respectively.
The molecular wt. of KBr (FCC) is 119.01 g. mole-1 & its density is 2.75 g.cm-3.
Calculate lattice constant of the crystal. Determine the same if the same parameter would
correspond to a BCC crystal structure.
Obtain the Miller indices for a plane having intercepts of a/3, & c/2.
If the lattice constant for a BCC crystal is 3.75 A0 & density of material of the crystal is
8570 kg. m-3, find its atomic masses. Derive the necessary formula.
in an orthorhombic crystal
A powder pattern is obtained for lead with radiation of wavelength 1.54 A0. The (220)
reflection is observed at Bragg angle 320. What is the lattice parameter of lead? Assume
1st order reflection.

(ii) Assignment:
1. Define: space lattice, Bravais lattice, unit cell, Miller indices, co-ordination number,
atomic packing factor
2. Relate density of material of a crystal with lattice constant of the crystal.
3. Estimate the relationship between inter planar spacing (d) & Miller indices (h k l) of a
4. Give two examples of each (1) SC, (2) BCC & (3) FCC Crystal.

(A) X RAY:
(i) Problem
1. The spacing of a plane in a crystal is 1.1 A0 & the 2nd order Braggs reflection is 300. What
is the energy of X-rays in eV.

2. K radiation if Mo (z=42) has a wavelength 0.72 A0. Find the wavelength of the
corresponding radiation of copper (z=29).
3. A beam of X-rays of wavelength 0.842 A0 is incident on a crystal at a glancing angle of 80
for 1st order Braggs reflection occurs. Calculate the glancing angle for 3rd order
4. If the energy levels of K, L, M states of Pt are 78, 12 & 3 KeV respectively, then
calculate the wavelengths of K & K lines emitted from Pt.
5. If the potential differences applied across an X-ray tube is 12.4 keV and the current
through it is 2 mA. Calculate (i) the number of electrons striking the target per second, &
(ii) the speed with which they strike it.
6. If be the linear absorption coefficient of X-rays prove that = 0.639/x1/2 where x1/2 is the
half-value thickness of the substance.
7. A crystal of NaCl mounted on a Bragg spectrometer reflects the K line of X-rays at an
angle 600 in the 1st order. Calculate the wavelength of K line of X-rays if the density is
2.17 g/cc, mol.wt. of Nacl is 58.63.
8. Find the excitation potential of a tube to give a K-absorbtion line for =0.2 A0
[Hint: use the formula for min].
(ii) Assignment:
X rays correspond to what energy (KeV) and wavelength (A0)?
State Braggs law. Can X rays be diffracted from a single slit of width 1 mm?
State Moseleys law. What are the effects of the law in the arrangement of periodic table?
Graphically differentiate between the origin of characteristics & continuous X rays. Do
the spectra depend on low/high value of Z of the target element? Explain.
5. What are hard & soft X rays? Mention a few applications of X rays.
6. Prove that the minimum value for the wavelength of X rays is inversely proportional to
the applied voltage (V) in the X ray tube. How the K.E. (Max) is related to the minimum
7. Laue suggested that crystals can act as a 3D grating for X ray diffraction. Justify this
statement. Also explain why ordinary plane transmission grating cannot be applied for
this case.