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KENYATTA UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT: ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
AUTOMATED LIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM

BY
NAME: MOSES WEKESA MTENDE
REG. NO: J174/5620/2011
UNIT NAME: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
UNIT CODE: ECU 400
LECTURER: MRS THAKUR
DATE: 12thJANUARY, 2015

ABSTRACT
This study is about creating a web based light control system which further will be controlled by
android phone. The purpose of creating this system is to enhance proper use of light in houses,
homes, offices, industries and factories. One will be able to check whether the lights are on or off
using the phone and decide to switch off or on regardless of where one is. This will help in
cutting down of the unnecessary electricity cost and in so doing it will factor in cutting down the
cost of living. The button on the android phone will be able to control a web server which will be
able to communicate with the Socket directly using the Heyu software. The proposed system
aims to make all these operations more effective and the tasks to be more efficient.
Chapter one gives a brief description of the project including the problem statement, the
background study, scope, justification and limitation. Chapter two gives the literature review of
the system and chapter three covers the methodology used, tools for collecting, analyzing and
implementing the data.

DECLARATION
This proposal is my original work and has not been presented for a Degree in any other
University.
Signature _______________________ Date_______________________________
Name: Moses W. Mtende

J174/5620/2011

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE.............................................................................................................. 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................... 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY..............................................................................1
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT.......................................................................................... 1
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.................................................................................. 2
1.4 JUSTIFICATION..................................................................................................... 2
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION....................................................................................... 3
1.5.1 Scope.............................................................................................................. 3
1.5.2 Limitations....................................................................................................... 3
CHAPTER TWO............................................................................................................. 4
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................. 4
2.1 CASE STUDIES..................................................................................................... 4
2.1.1 CASE STUDY 1: LINKFRESH Solutions.................................................................4
2.1.2 Case study 2: ProVisions food processing and distribution software.................................5
2.1.3 Case study 3: The Provision Processing System..........................................................6
CHAPTER THREE.......................................................................................................... 8
3.0 METHODOLOGY................................................................................................... 8
3.1 Development Model................................................................................................. 8
3.2 Data Collection tools................................................................................................. 9
3.2.1 Interviews........................................................................................................ 9
3.2.2 Observation...................................................................................................... 9
3.2.3 Document Review.............................................................................................. 9
3.3 Data Analysis Methods.............................................................................................. 9
3.4 Tools to Implement and Test the system.......................................................................10
3.4.1 Software tools................................................................................................. 10
3.4.2 Hardware tools................................................................................................ 10
3.5 System testing and verification.................................................................................. 11
3.6 Deployment.......................................................................................................... 11
3.7 Time schedule: Gantt chart....................................................................................... 12
3.8 Proposed System Budget.......................................................................................... 13
REFERENCES............................................................................................................. 14

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In our country today most persons are connected in the grid. Especially with the project of rural
electrification not only are those living in towns can access electricity but also those in rural.
Electricity come with a cost and thus getting a way to cut down unnecessary costs that arise due
to improper use becomes a key priority.
Due to the increase in the cost of living unnecessary cost in the electricity bills only means
making life even more difficult. These costs arises when one forgets to switch off the lights when
in hurry especially when one is late at his working place, forgetting to put off the socket after
cooking using the electric coils and so on.
The proposed automated light control system will enable one to be able to check the status of the
light in his or her place and take appropriate action. In so doing there will be saving of energy
which will directly lead to reduction in the bill hence cost of living will eventually drop.
The full adoption of the system will also see the country global domestic product(GDP) grow
due to the injection of taxes in the system and in so doing these will also improve the economy
of the country.
The system will not only improve the life of citizens in the country by cutting down on the cost
of living but also improve the countrys economy at large.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Electricity is so crucial in our day to day operation. We need light at night, we need power to run
turbines and drive industries and factories. We need light for cooking, learning and in
transportation just to mention few.
People usually use the light and sometimes forget to switch the bulb off when they are not in use.
These practices also happen at offices, homes, learning institutions and factories. These increases

the unit of power consumed and leads to higher electricity charges. This challenge can become a
history once the system is adopted. When one will realize the lights were not off he/she will be
able to switch it off from wherever they will be at any time as long as the system is operational.
The automated proposed light control system aims at solving these challenges by directly
monitoring the lights condition and communicating the status which one can be able to check
using the android phone and decide on the appropriate solution. There will manage how one uses
the light and in so doing directly controls the unnecessary cost on the electricity bills.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


This study will be guided by these specific objectives:

To develop a control system that would monitor the condition and status of light in the

buildings.
To develop an automated light control system that would allow for easy control of light

using android phone.


To implement the system.
To validate the system
To apply the chosen methodology in the development of the system

1.4 JUSTIFICATION
The increase in the cost of living facing most persons today calls for availability of a
way to help in cutting down the cost. The cost becomes even more due to
unnecessary electricity charges added to the bills. Since the extra charges can be
controlled and eradicated, this calls for a control automated system to do so.
Due to increase in technology the automated system will be available in android
phones which almost every one can afford. By pressing a button one will be able to
reduce the cost of using lights and directly cutting down his/her cost of living.
The electricity provider bodies like Kenya Power and Lighting Company (KPLC) will
also benefit from the proposed system since the system will see the country
economy shoots and there profit will also increase because they will be taking less
from the generating stations.

1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION


1.5.1 Scope
The automated light control system manages the monitoring and controlling of lights in the
buildings. The system which will be configured to an android mobile app which be able to
monitor the web server activities and regulate them as required. The ruby on rails server will
control the Heyu software activity of monitoring the switch lights and the whole process will be
real time.
1.5.2 Limitations
However the light control system has the following limitations;
1. Only person with android phone will easily access the service.
2. The Control operation needs internet to operate.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

The existence of technology proves to be a reliable source of creation and novelty especially
when it comes to development of the IT products and automated systems. Cawson et al (1995) is
has an opinion that lands on technology is the facilitator of the innovation process aimed at
shaping things for customers. The improvement process narrows down to the way new IT
products suppliers incorporate the knowledge of clients in designing the appropriate systems.
Development of the light control automation systems can be facilitated by the wide use of sensor
(android) network that essentially reduces the number of sensors used in automated system (Reza
Mohamaddoust, 2011). Mohamaddoust and his colleagues discovered the importance of
directing greater efforts towards optimizing electrical energy utilization through the relevant use
of the wireless sensor networks which directly contribute to the energy conservation applications
such as light control.
The efficiency of the sensors and their wide use can be achieved by an extended use of the
microcontrollers. Mustafa et al (2010) developed an embedded system for energy saving of street
lights. The central use of the microcontrollers plays a focal role of automating the functionality
of the street light control system. Incorporation of the microcontrollers in designing the new
streetlight system aims at cutting down on the huge consumption of electricity.
It is also important to recognize the value of the wireless lighting control as well as the need to
save energy as it will be seen in some quoted cases revolving around the United States environs
(Daintree Networks Inc., 2010). The lighting control system functionality include the on/off and
dimming controls, occupancy sensing, photo sensing, scheduling the turns on and off,
centralizing the control system interface, establishing a communication system between the
lighting equipment and the control system as well as settling on an outstanding method of
displaying, measuring and responding to lighting energy usage. An argument on energy
monitoring settles on the idea of a better data equals a better saving and this begins with
advanced water lighting control systems.

(Abdelrasoul Jabar Alzubaidi, Arwa Abdel Mohsen Ahmed Hassan, 2014), proposed an automated traffic light
control system because the current have some limitations due to using a pre-defined hardware,
which is programmed according to fixed time that never change. Hence, there is no flexibility of
modification on real time basis. These calls for modern automated flexible.
2.1 CASE STUDIES
2.1.1 CASE STUDY 1: Automatic Street Light Control System
Automatic Street Light Control System is not only a simple but also the powerful tool to control
light during the night and day. Relay uses as an automatic switch in this system. It is functional
100%. As soon as the sunlight sets this system automatically switches ON lights. Light
Dependant Resistor (LDR) is a type of sensor which performs this work and senses the light as
our eyes does. As soon as the sunlight comes, it automatically switches OFF lights. Such type of
system is very useful for reducing energy consumption.

2.1.2 CASE STUDY 2: Microcontroller Based Automatic Water Level Control System
The subsequent use of the microcontrollers is further seen in the development of the
microcontroller based automatic water level control system, a project developed by Ejiofor and
Oladipo (2013), based on the principle of inter-operability. In their project, the two considered
the joint operation of the sensors, microcontroller, comparator circuit, display unit and the pump.
Copper conductors are therefore used as water level sensors given the fact that water poses the
electrical conductivity property. When the water touches the copper sensor, voltage is transferred
to the comparator circuit for further processing. The comparator may either give a LOW or a
HIGH depending on the level of water in the tank. This is further fed in the microcontroller,
which further uses the information in controlling the water pump. The LCD screen serves as an
output unit while the functionality of the entire system is controlled by the programmed
assembly language in the Atmel 89C52 microcontroller

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 METHODOLOGY
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
There are several methodologies that can be used to design and develop a system for example
scram, prototyping and Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology(SSADM).
3.1 Prototyping methodology
In prototyping methodology, analysis, design and implementation phases are performed
concurrently, and all the three phases are repeatedly in a cycle until the system is completed. In
this methodology, the basics of analysis and design are performed and work immediately starts
on a system prototype. The prototype is a quick and dirty program that provides minimal amount
of features. The first prototype is the first that the user will use, and provide comments, which
are often used to reanalyze, redesign and reemployment. A second prototype provides a few more
features. Then the cycle continues till the system is accepted. The major disadvantages of
prototyping are that the fast paced system releases challenge to careful methodological analysis,
which makes the initial designs very poor
3.2 Scrum methodologies
This method is based on iterative and incremental software development where requirements and
solutions evolve through collaboration between collaboration between self organized cross
functional teams. It allows project participants to adjust themselves and their activities in
response to situations that arise during the project development process, requirements are
implemented into system functionalities as soon as they are identified, the necessary tests carried
out and this is repeated until the whole system is developed.
3.3 SSADM methodology
The development of the proposed system will be in Structured Systems Analysis and
Development Methodology (SSADM). Design is not affected by existing methods.
It uses well defined techniques and documentation.
It takes into concern user involvement.
Every stage is terminated by a quality review which is staffed by people with mixed
experience, some of whom are not directly connected with the project.

Design

Figure 1: design
3.2 Data Collection tools
The following techniques will be used to identify and gather data and requirements needed for
the development of the proposed system.
3.2.1 Interviews
The researcher will conduct a one on one interview with various respondents. It will be a
reliable method in that first-hand information will be collected. The plant owner, managers and
employees will be interviewed to determine the specific requirements needed by each party.
3.2.2 Observation
In this method, the researcher will study the interested areas and come up with the necessary
conclusions. A visit to the plant to observe how they operate will help to note what the
respondent fails to pass forward. This will involve close interaction with the plants employees as
they process the birds to see how the activities are carried out, the sequence in which they are
carried out and what their deliverables are.

3.2.3 Document Review


The existing systems records will be studied so as to know; what to be used, what not to be
used, or what will be missing; what will work well, what will not work; how the system is used,
how it was supposed to be used, and how the study would like to use it. The records will include
data about how the current system operates in processing of the birds through to their delivery to
the customers as well as how the employees, customers and suppliers are managed and all the
calculations involved.
3.3 Data Analysis Methods
The following tools will the used to analyze the data and the process.
a) Data flow diagrams (DFDs)
Data flow diagrams illustrate how data is processed by a system in terms of inputs and
outputs. They describe how the system transforms the data and how the data is processed
as well as how the data is stored. They also depict how the data flows through the
processes. The DFDs will be used to show how information flows through the different
levels of poultry processing.
b) Flowcharts
A flow chart is a means to visually present the flow of data through an information
processing system, the operations performed within the system and the sequence in which
they are performed. It is a diagrammatic representation that illustrates a solution model
to a given problem .This will be used to analyze the processes that are take place during
the processing of a chicken.
c) Use case
A use case is a collection of possible scenarios related to a particular environment. Use
cases will be used to make up of a set of possible sequences of interactions between the
system and the users in the poultry plant.
3.4 Tools to Implement and Test the system
3.4.1 Software tools

Operating system- Kali Linux to provide a platform where other development


tools will run.

Heyu software
Programming languages
Ruby on Rails

3.4.2 Hardware tools

Intel Corei3 or higher version


X10 PLW01 standard toggle wall switch
X10 CM11A computer interface
Serial to USB interface cable
An Android OS phone

3.5 System testing and verification


A few tests will be conducted to check and correct errors:

Unit testing - individual units of source code will be tested.


Program testing- validation and verification tests will be done on the individual modules.
System testing- At this stage, a test on the overall proposed system will be done

3.7 Time schedule: Gantt chart


Task

SEP

OCT

NO
V

Planning

SYSTEM Analysis

SYSTEM Design

DEC

JAN

FEB

MAR

SYSTEM
IMPLEMENTATION
SYSTEM TESTING

DOCUMENTATION

Figure 2: Gantt chart


3.8 Proposed System Budget
ITEM
1 Laptop Computer
2 X10 CM11A computer interface
3

X10 PLW01 standard toggle wall

switch
Serial to USB interface cable

An Android OS phone

Total
Figure 3: Budget

TOTAL COST IN KSHS


38000
6500
1000
500
3500
49500

REFERENCES
Caponetto, R., Dongola, G., Fortuna, L., Riscica, N. and Zufacchi, D. (2008), Power
consumption reduction in a remote controlled street lighting system, International Symposium
on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion
(SPEEDAM 2008), Ischia, une, pp. 428-33.
Costa, M.A.D., Costa, G.H., dos Santos, A.S., Schuch, L. and Pinheiro, J.R. (2009), A high
efficiency autonomous street lighting system based on solar energy and LEDs, Brazilian Power
Electronics Conference (COBEP 2009), Bonito, 27 September-1 October, pp. 265-73.
Cawson, A., Haddon, L & Miles, I. (1995). Delivering information technology into home. The
shape of things to consume, 1(4), pg 227-313.
Daintree Networks Inc. (2010). The value of wireless lighting control. White paper. Retrieved
from: http//www.daintree.com
Mohamaddoust, R., Hagighat, T. A., Mohamad, J. M. S. & Capanni, N. (2011). A Novel Design
of an Automatic Lighting Control System for a Wireless Sensor Network with Increased Sensor
Lifetime and Reduced Sensor Numbers. Sensors, 11, pg 8933-8952.
Mustafa, S., Abdalhalim, F., Ahamed, S. & Abdalroof, A. (2010). Automatic Street Light Control
System Using Microcontroller. Mathematical Methods and Optimization Techniques in
Engineering, pg 92-96.

Cooperman, A., Dieckmann, Member ASHRAE & Broderick, J. (2009). Control Systems LEED:
Emerging Technologies. ASHRAE journals, pg 96-99.
Ejiofor, V. E & Oladipo, O. F. (2013). Microcontroller based Automatic Water level Control
System. International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication
Engineering, 1(6), pg 1390-1396.