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1)2.

2(a)

French prime minister

To his English language translator

Then to the English language translator of Chinese prime minister

Then to Chinese prime minister


(Arrow indicates telephone line).

(b)
Chinese prime minister

Translator who can translate it to Japanese

Translator between Japanese to German in Germany

Then to translator of French prime minister (who can translate from Germany to French)

Then to France prime minister.

(Arrow indicates telephone line)

2) (2.7) All the packets get delivered.


3) Sorcerers Apprentice It is a bug in a protocol where, under some circumstances, the receipt
of message causes multiple messages to be sent, each of which, when received triggers the same
bug.
In order to avoid this the RFC 1350 was revised to say All packets other than duplicate ACKs
and those used for termination are acknowledged unless a timeout occurs.
This means that all packets can be sent except the duplicates, which is the same messages cannot
be allowed.
4) The Three addressing schemes used in a typical TCP/IP operation:
i) Port Number: It is section of the addressing information used to determine the senders and
receivers of messages. It is a 2 byte data used to identify the application that will receive the
transport layer. The port numbers enable different applications on the same computer to share
network resources.
ii) IP Address: It is the address that is needed by every device on a computer. It is unique each
one is different. The size of IP address is 4 bytes, written as four numbers separated by periods.
Each number will be 0 to 255. For example 7.450.40.670 could be an IP address.
iii) MAC Address: The MAC address is a distinct value associated with a network adapter.
These addresses are also called as physical address or hardware address. It is a 6 byte address.
MAC address of the same data traversing multiple networks get changed in each network.
5) Given that,
The packet loss ratio is .
For 1 packet transmitted 1 packets get through successful.
Let us assume R packets to be transmitted to get one packet successfully
Then,
(1 ) * R = 1 * 1
R=1/ (1 ).

6) Given,

Image is 1600x1200 with 3 bytes/pixel,


That is 1600 x 1200 x 3 = 5,760,000 bytes. In bits it is 46,080,000 bits.
At 56-kbps modem channel, it takes about 46,080,000/56,000 = 822.857 sec,
At 1-mbps cable modem, transmit takes about 46,080,000/1,000,000 = 46.080 sec,
At 10-mbps Ethernet, transmit takes about 46,080,000/10,000,000 = 4.608 sec,
At 100-mbps Ethernet, transmit takes about 46,080,000/100,000,000 = 0.4608 sec, At 1 Gigabit
Ethernet, transmit takes about 46080000/1,000,000,000 = 0.04608 sec to transmit.
7) Tier 1 ISP : A Tier 1 ISP is an ISP that can access to the whole Internet Region routing table
only through its arrangement-free peering relationships. Some of Tier 1 ISPs are Tata
Communications, AT &T, CenturyLink, XO communications, GTT, Verizon, Sprint, NTT, Level
3, Zayo Group.
They have large traffic volumes, large customer bases and large number of routers and support
many Ass inside the network.
To become a Tire 1 ISP
They should have a very large network.
They shouldnt buy, instead they should sell to tire 2.
They have to have access to the entire routing table, solely through peering relationships.
8) The design goals of the internet architecture that was mentioned in his paper are:
1) To develop an effective technique for multiplexed utilization of existing interconnected
models and
2) To connect together the original ARPANET with ARPA packet radio network.
End to End principle Functions placed at lower levels may be redundant or of little value
when compared to cost of providing them at lower level.
A system should consider only functions that can be completely and correctly implemented
within it. All other functions are best moved to the system level where it can be completely and
correctly implemented.
Fate sharing The storage of the state information of data at end of the network in order not to
lose data is called as fate sharing.
Dumb network It is a network that provides the physical interconnection between nodes but
not much processing to support communication.