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11n OFDM

MIMO WLAN System

I-Tai Lu and Kun-Ju Tsai

Polytechnic University

6 Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201

Abstract—Effects of improved channel estimation are studied for far more efficient than a frequency-domain approach in terms

a proposed IEEE 802.11n OFDM MIMO system. Three channel of mitigating the noise effects on channel estimation.

estimation methods are considered: maximum likelihood (ML), A channel estimation method utilizing the above mentioned

time-domain truncation (TDT) and model-based (MB). TDT and idea was proposed in [3]. The method first obtains the initial

MB are particularly useful when the channel delay spread is estimation of the channel transfer functions for all sub-carriers

short. For an MMSE receiver, MB shows a 1-2.5dB improvement using a conventional channel estimation method such as the

over ML on the packet error rate performance for TGn channels maximum likelihood (ML) approach. It then derives the

B and D for various modulation and coding schemes. TDT is a channel impulse response by applying the inverse Fourier

simplified version of MB and shows a 1-2dB improvement over

transform on these transfer functions. Subsequently, it truncates

ML at low SNRs. But improvements diminish when transmit

beamforming is also employed.

the impulse response to remove weak and noisy late arrivals in

Keywords - Channel Estimation, MIMO, OFDM,LAN, the time-domain. Finally, it performs the Fourier transform on

IEEE802.11n the truncated channel impulse response to yield an improved

estimation of the channel transfer function in the frequency

I. INTRODUCTION domain. For convenience, this method will be called the time-

domain truncation method (TDT). The TDT method works

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) well for channels with short delay spreads. However, it requires

techniques have the important merit of high spectral efficiency an initial channel estimation for all sub-carriers. If there are

because the adjacent OFDM sub-carriers can partially share the null sub-carriers, the TDT approach will induce channel

same spectrum while still remaining orthogonal to one another. estimation errors. The null-subcarrier induced errors may be

Hence, OFDM technology has been adopted in Wireless Local small compared to the noise induced errors when SNR is low.

Area Network (WLAN) standards such as IEEE 802.11 a/g and However, the former becomes more significant than the latter

HIPERLAN. when SNR is high. Therefore, TDT is not applicable at high

Multi-input Multi-output (MIMO) transceiver structures SNRs.

have the important merit of high throughput because MIMO Since there may always be null sub-carriers in practical

provides multiple orthogonal eigen-channels which facilitate systems, we propose a model-based (MB) channel estimation

the transmission of multiple spatial streams for each pair of method to circumvent the difficulty due to null sub-carriers. In

transceivers. Therefore, a proposed next generation standard the MB method, the channel impulse response is modeled as a

for WLAN [1] is considering the use of MIMO OFDM tap-delay line. The tap coefficients are obtained using a least

technologies. square approach in the time-domain. Therefore, as long as there

In MIMO systems, the information in the channel matrix is are more non-null sub-carriers than the number of taps, the MB

essential for decoding the transmitted message correctly. If the approach works well for all SNRs. A similar approach to MB

channel matrix is not estimated accurately, the eigen-channels was published in [4].

cannot be fully decoupled at the receiver and the spatial To evaluate the performance of the three channel estimation

streams become coupled. This results in inter-spatial stream- approaches mentioned above, we simulate the packet error rate

interference (ISSI). As channel estimation error increases, ISSI (PER) for various modulation and coding schemes (MCSs),

and consequently the packet error rate (PER) increase. MIMO configurations, MIMO processing techniques and

For OFDM MIMO systems, the channel matrix is usually channel models [1].

estimated in the frequency domain. However, since the The rest of the paper is organized as follows. The ML, TDT

coherent bandwidth of indoor channels is usually larger than and MB methods are discussed in Section II. In Section III, we

the signal bandwidths for WLAN applications, it will be more calculate the mean square error (MSE) in estimating the

advantageous to estimate the channel matrix in the time- transfer function of TGn channels B and D using the three

domain than in the frequency domain. methods described in Section II. Two data recovery techniques

For example, there are 64 sub-carriers in the 20MHz mode for MIMO processing are discussed in Section IV. The effects

of a proposed IEEE 802.11n standard [1]. Using the proposed of different channel estimation schemes on the PER

preamble, the receiver is required to estimate the channel performance are presented for several modulation and coding

transfer matrix for 56 out of the 64 sub-carriers. But, for small schemes with different TGn channel types in Section V.

indoor environments the delay spreads are very small. Consider Conclusions are made in Section VI.

the TGn B channel [2] as an example, the delay spread is only

90 nsec. Each channel would require only 2 to 3 taps in the II. CHANNEL ESTIMATION

time domain model because the sampling interval is fixed at 50 For the kth sub-carrier, let H ij (k ) denote the channel transfer

nsec. Thus, a time-domain channel estimation approach will be function for the ith receive antenna and the jth transmit antenna.

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For a 20MHz bandwidth, there are 64 sub-carriers. Thus, estimated channel transfer functions Hˆ ij (k ) to form a 56 × 1

k=0,1,2,…,63 and sub-carrier spacing is 312.5kHz. The vector Ĥ ij . Based on (5), form a 56 × L inverse Fourier

corresponding time-domain channel impulse response is the

inverse Fourier transform of H ij (k ) : transform matrix F such that

63 Hˆ ij ≈ F h ij . (6)

1

hij (l ) =

N

∑

k =0

H ij (k )e j 2πkl / 64

. (1) Note that F does not depend on the antenna indexes ij. The least

square solution of (6) is

where l =0,2,…,63 and the sampling interval is 50nsec. ~

h ij = ( F F ) −1 F Hˆ ij .

H H

(7)

A. Conventional Maximum Likelihood (ML) Algorithm

The high throughput long training field (HT-LTF) proposed

and the l th tap of the time domain channel impulse response

~

in [1] is used to estimate the channel matrix where the transmit hij (l ) is approximated by the l th element of h ij in (7).

antennas are excited one at a time for each sub-carrier. Thus, Step 4) The improved channel transfer functions are

after OFDM demodulation, the estimation of H ij (k ) can be finally obtained by performing a Fourier transform on the

formulated as shown below. Let improved channel impulse response

ri (k ) = H ij (k ) s j (k ) + ni (k ) . (2) ~ L −1

~

H ij (k ) ≈ H ij (k ) = ∑ hij (l )e − j 2πkl / 64 . (8)

where s j (k ) is the jth transmit training signal, ri (k ) is the ith

l =0

receive signal and ni (k ) is the ith receive noise. If the noise is

C. Time-Domain Truncation (TDT) Approach

Gaussian, it can be shown that the ML channel estimation is This TDT method is a simplified version of the MB

given as approach. It also consists of four steps. The first, second and

H ij (k ) ≈ Hˆ ij (k ) = ri (k ) / s j (k ) . (3) fourth steps are the same as those of the first approach. In the

third step, an improved time-domain channel impulse response

Since s j (k ) is non-zero for only 56 sub-carriers (k is from 1 to is obtained by simply truncating the approximated impulse

28 and from 36 to 63), the channel transfer function in (3) can response obtained in the first step at the maximum delay

be derived for only 56 sub-carriers. spread.

B. Model-Based (MB) Channel Estimation Algorithm ˆ hˆ (l ) l < L

hˆij (l ) = ij (9)

This MB algorithm consists of the following four steps: l≥L

0

Step 1) The time-domain channel impulse response in (1) is

Thus, in the fourth step, the improved channel transfer

approximated by performing the inverse Fourier transform on

functions are obtained by performing a Fourier transform on

the estimated frequency-domain channel transfer functions in

(3) over the 56 sub-carriers the improved channel impulse response hˆij (l ) derived in (9):

1 28 63 ~

~ L −1

ˆ

hij (l ) ≈ hˆij (l ) = ∑ Hˆ ij (k )e j 2πkl / 64 . (4) H ij (k ) ≈ H ij (k ) = ∑ hˆij (l )e − j 2πkl / 64 . (10)

N k =1 k =36 l =0

To improve the estimation of channel impulse response in (4),

III. SIMULATION RESULTS FOR CHANNEL ESTIMATION

a frequency domain interpolation approach may be employed

to approximate the channel transfer functions Hˆ ij ( k ) at null Fig. 1 shows the channel estimation results of a typical B

sub-carriers (k=0, 29-35). However, we will not discuss such channel at SNR=10dB. The solid line is the original channel

an interpolation method in this paper. transfer function. Comparing the three methods in Section II,

Step 2) Maximum delay spread is estimated and the the MB method has the best estimation accuracy for all sub-

number of taps (say L) in the channel transfer function is then carriers and the ML results are the worst. Even at null sub-

determined. Let TT =L*50nsec denote the estimated maximum carriers, the MB results are very close to the true channel

delay spread. There are many ways to determine L. If SNR is results but the ML and TDT methods cannot provide accurate

known, we can simply choose a threshold for minimum hij to channel information.

determine TT. If SNR is unknown, a method for estimating L Define the mean square error (MSE) for channel

can be found in [5]. After L is determined, we can express the estimations as

tap coefficients of the channel impulse response in terms of the 2

L −1 i j k

63

Hˆ ij (k ) ≈ H ij (k ) = ∑ hij (l )e − j 2πkl / 64 ≈ ∑ hij (l )e − j 2πkl / 64 . (5) where H ij (k ) represents the estimated channel transfer

l =0 l =0 ~

Step 3) If the number of taps L is less than 56, an improved function Hˆ ij (k ) , H~ ij (k ) or H~ ij (k ) derived from the three

time-domain channel impulse response can be obtained by different approaches described in Section II, respectively.

solving the tap coefficients directly from (5). Use the L

unknown taps hij (l ) to form an L × 1 vector h ij and use the 56

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1.5

more noise and the optimum L is when TT is equal to the

effective channel delay spread. It is not the case for the TDT

Magnitude

also magnifies the effects due to null carrier frequencies. Thus,

0.5

small L’s are not necessarily better for the TDT method. An

0 Original Channel optimum L will be usually greater than the effective channel

0 10 20 30 40 50 ML Estimation

60 70

Subcarrier Index MB Estimation

length.

4 TDT Estimation Comparing to the MB result with L=8, the ML result is 4

2 dB worse (i.e., higher) for all SNRs for channel B. Comparing

to the TDT result with L=16, the ML result is 2dB worse at

Phase

0

SNR=10dB but is 5 to 6 dB better at SNR=25dB for channel

-2

B. For channel D, the ML result is 3 dB worse than the MB

-4

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 result for all SNRs. It is 2 dB worse at SNR=10dB but is 5 dB

Subcarrier Index better at SNR=25dB than the TDT result[??]. Thus, we

Fig. 1 Magnitude and phase of channel transfer function at 64 conclude that MB provides the best results (smallest MSE) for

sub-carriers. all situations. TDT is a simplified version of ML. It provides

smaller MSE than ML at low SNRs.

TGn Channel B TGn Channel D

-8 -8

IV. DATA RECOVERY TECHNIQUES

-10 -10

After OFDM demodulation, the received vector

-12 -12 r (k ) = [ri (k )] for the kth sub-carrier can be written as

MSE(dB)

-14 -14

r (k ) = H ( k ) s (k ) + n(k ), H (k ) = [ H ij ( k )] . (12)

where s (k ) = [ s j (k )] is the transmit vector and

-16 -16

ML ML n(k ) = [n j (k )] is the noise vector.

MB (L=8) MB (L=14)

-18 -18

MB (L=16) MB (L=16)

TDT (L=14)

For each channel estimation method, two data recovery

TDT (L=8)

-20

TDT (L=16)

-20

TDT (L=16) techniques are used to recover the transmitted data at the

10 15 20 25 10 15 20 25 receiver.

SNR(dB) SNR(dB)

The first one is an MMSE receiver. The MMSE

Fig. 2 Mean Square Error of Channel Estimations processing matrix for each sub-carrier k at the receiver is:

−1

Considering a 2 × 2 MIMO structure, Fig. 2 shows the MSE ( )

R = H H H + C N H H , H = [ H ij ] . (13)

results for channels B and D computed using 2000 channel where the superscript H denotes Hermitian, CN is the

realizations. Note that the guard time interval TG of an OFDM

covariance matrix of noise, and H ij represents the estimated

symbol is 800nsec and the maximum delay spreads TD’s of ~

channels B and D are 90 nsec and 400 nsec, respectively. channel transfer function Ĥ ij , H~ ij or H~ ij . For convenience, we

Thus, on one hand, the estimated maximum delay spread TT have omitted the writing of sub-carrier index k in (13). The

should be less than TG because the maximum delay spread of MMSE processed result becomes

most indoor channels is less than 800nsec. On the other hand, sˆ = RH s + R n . (14)

TT should be greater than TD because the effective channel

delay spread is the sum of the original channel delay spread The second data recovery technique is a combination of

and the delays of transmit and receive low pass filters. In transmit and receive beamforming procedures. Two channel

practice, TT should be estimated. If SNR is known, we can estimations are required in this approach. The first channel

simply choose a threshold for minimum h(t) to determine TT. estimation is made at the transmitter using the channel probing

In our simulations, two values of TT are chosen for each signal sent by the receiver. Here, we have assumed a time

channel model. TT is 400nsec or 800nsec for channel B and division duplex (TDD) system where reciprocity holds. Thus,

700nsec or 800nsec for channel D. In other words, the the channel information derived from the reverse link can be

used to estimate the channel information of the forward link.

maximum number of taps, L, is 8 or 16 for channel B and 14

or 16 for channel D. Since the two L values for channel D are The transmit beamforming matrix is V which is derived from

close to each other, the MSE results derived by these two the SVD decomposition of the first estimated channel

values are also close to each other for both TDT and MB matrix H :

methods. However, the MSE results are very different for

H = UΣV H . (15)

channel B. It is interesting to see that L=8 is better than L=16

The transmitter applies the transmit beamforming on the data

for the MB approach while the reverse is true for the TDT

before transmission. Thus, the received signal becomes

approach. For the MB approach, using a smaller L removes

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Consider a 2 × 2 MIMO configuration first. Fig. 3 shows

r = HV s + n . (16)

the PERs for different MCS’s of a MMSE receiver using the

Subsequently,

the effective channel for the receiver three channel estimation methods for channels B. The MB

becomes HV . After receiving the transmitted data, the channel estimation approach is 1 to 2.5 dB better than the

receiver estimates the effective channel and applies the MMSE conventional ML approach in most situations. Exceptions

approach as shown in (13) to recover the transmitted data. The happened at very high SNRs (SNR>38dB for MCS 15) where

MMSE processed result becomes the ML approach has already provided a very accurate channel

estimation and no improvement on channel estimation can be

sˆ = RHV s + R n (17) made by the MB approach.

In (17), the MMSE processing matrix is The TDT channel estimation approach is 1 to 2 dB better

(

−1

R = H H H + CN H H

) (18)

than the conventional ML approach only at low SNR’s. At high

SNRs, the TDT (see the curve for MCS15) results are much

worse than the ML results. This is because the null-subcarrier

where H is the ML estimation of the effective channel induced error due to the truncation in the time domain is large

HV . Note that the three approaches described in Section II compared to the noise induced errors at high SNRs. Thus, even

can be used in the first channel estimation at the transmitter. though SNR is as high as 40dB, the effective SNR’s of the

But only the ML approach can be used for the second channel TDT approach are still in the 20’s and the PER for MCS15

estimation at the receiver because the delay spread of the with two 64-QAM data streams becomes very large.

effective channel HV is so long that both MB and TDT 0

TGn Channel D

10

cannot provide any improvement over ML.

MCS Modulation Schemes & Coding Data -1

10

Index Number of Data Streams Rate Rate

8 Two BPSK data streams 1/2 13M PER

MCS8 ML

11 Two 16-QAM data streams 1/2 52M MCS8 MB

15 Two 64-QAM data streams 5/6 130M -2

MCS8 TDT

10 MCS11 ML

27 Four 16-QAM data streams 1/2 104M MCS11 MB

35 One QPSK / One 64-QAM 1/2 52M MCS11 TDT

MCS15 ML

MCS15 MB

MCS15 TDT

-3

10

V. SIMULATION RESULTS FOR PER 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

SNR(dB)

The modulation and coding schemes used for simulation Fig. 4 PERs of the MMSE receiver for TGn channel D.

are listed in Table 1. For each case, 10000 packets are

transmitted over randomly generated channels to derive the Fig. 4 shows the PERs for different MCS’s of a MMSE

packet error rate (PER). Each packet consists of 1000 bytes of receiver using the three channel estimation methods for

data. According to different MCS’s, the length of the packet is channel D. Observations similar to those made for Fig.3 can

varying. Since the maximum Doppler spread is only 6 Hz, the also be made here for Fig. 4. The MB approach provides the

channel can be considered as time invariant during the period best PER performance. It is around 1-2dB better than the ML

of the whole packet. approach for all cases and all SNRs. The TDT approach

0

TGn Channel B performs as good as the MB approach and is 2dB better than

10

the ML approach at low SNRs for MCS8. But it is much

worse than the ML approach at high SNRs for MCS15. The

reason is the same as that given for Fig. 3.

-1

10

Comparing Fig.4 to Fig. 3, PER performances for channel

D are 3 to 6 dB better than their counter parts in channel B.

This is because the delay spread of channel D is four times

PER

MCS8 ML

MCS8 MB that of channel B. Thus, channel D provides a larger frequency

MCS8 TDT

-2

10 MCS11 ML

diversity gain than channel B.

MCS11 MB Fig. 5 shows the PERs using the combined transmit and

MCS11 TDT

MCS15 ML receive beamforming approach for MCS11 and MCS35 for

MCS15 MB channel B. The two data streams of MCS11 are both 16-QAM

MCS15 TDT

-3

10

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

but for MCS35 one data stream is QPSK and the second is 16-

SNR(dB) QAM. However, the two MCSs support the same data rate

Fig. 3 PERs of the MMSE receiver for TGn channel B. (52Mbits/sec). In both cases, neither TDT nor MB provides a

significant improvement on the PER performance. Note that

two channel estimations are required by the combined transmit

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and receive beamforming approach. The first channel rate of MCS27 (a 4 × 4 structure) is twice that of MCS11 (a

estimation can be implemented by any of the three approaches. 2 × 2 structure).

But only the ML approach can be employed in the second

channel estimation. Apparently, the improvement on the first TGn Channel B 4x4 TGn Channel D 4x4

0 0

10 10

channel estimation using either MB or TDT does not make too

much difference in the final PER results. This is due to the fact

that the MMSE processing for data recovery at the receiver

has compensated the effects due to slightly inaccurate channel -1

10 10

-1

PER

0 0

10 10

-2 -2

10 10

MCS27 ML MCS27 ML

MCS27 MB MCS27 MB

-1 -1

10 10 MCS27 TDT MCS27 TDT

-3 -3

10 10

10 20 30 40 10 15 20 25

PER

SNR(dB) SNR(dB)

Fig. 6 PERs of the MMSE receiver for a 4x4 configuration.

-2 -2

10 10

Beamforming(ML)

VI. CONCLUSION

Beamforming(ML)

Beamforming(MB,L=8) Beamforming(MB,L=8) Effects of improved channel estimation are studied for a

-3

10

Beamforming(TDT,L=16)

10

-3 Beamforming(TDT,L=16) proposed IEEE 802.11n MIMO OFDM system. Maximum

10 15

SNR(dB)

20 25 10 15

SNR(dB)

20 25

likelihood (ML) approach, time-domain truncation (TDT)

approach and model-based (MB) approach are considered.

Fig. 5 PERs derived by beamforming. Among the three approaches, the MB approach yields the best

packet error rate (PER) results for all cases in both TGn

As a reference, we have also plotted the PERs derived by channels B and D when an MMSE receiver is employed. The

the MMSE receiver using the MB channel estimation MB results are 1 to 2.5 dB better than the ML results for all

approach in Fig. 5. It is remarkable that, at PER=0.1, the cases when SNR is less than 38dB. The TDT approach is a

combined transmit and receive beamforming results are 3dB simplified version of the MB approach. It is 1 to 2 dB better

or 7dB better than the MMSE results for MCS11 and MCS35, than the ML approach at low SNR’s, but does not work as well

respectively. This is due to the fact that eigen channels in at high SNRs. Both MB and TDT are particularly useful when

MIMO systems always have different channel gains for the channel delay spread is short. The improvements on PERs

different sub-carriers. The combined transmit and receive derived by MB or TDT over ML diminish when the combined

beamforming approach can consistently assign data streams transmit and receive beamforming approach is employed.

with higher order modulations to stronger eigen channels and

data streams with lower order modulations to weaker eigen Acknowledgements

channels for all sub-carriers. But the MMSE approach This work was completed during the development of a MIMO

processing does not have this capability. OFDM system at InterDigital Communications Corp. A partial

Comparing the results for the two MCSs with the same data list of those who have contributed to this work include Dr.

rate, the MCS11 result is 2dB better than the MCS35 result if Changsoo Koo, Robert L. Olesen, Dr. Eric Yang, Dr. Jerry

the MMSE receiver is employed, but the former is 2dB worse Dai, and Nirav Shah. We would also like to recognize those

than the latter if the combined transmit and receive who make this work possible: Scott Kalish, Eldad Zeira, and

beamforming approach is employed. We conclude that the Dr. Fatih Ozluturk.

unequal stream case has a better PER performance than the

equal stream case when the combined transmit and receive REFERENCES

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