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# Results and formulae needed in examinations

The MEI Students Handbook is designed for use during the course and contains a large
number of results, and other useful information. Not all of this is available in the booklet
Consequently there are some results which students need for examinations that they will have
to recall or derive. This file contains such results. They are listed by units, rather than by topic
as in the Students Handbook. In a few cases the list would be identical to a page in the
Students Handbook and in that case the page reference is given instead.
Before you go on to look at the lists, there are a number of points we would like to bring to

Learning formulae and results is not always the best thing to do. In some cases it is
better practice to know how to derive them and to be prepared to do so should the
need arise.

By their nature such lists cannot be completely inclusive. There is almost no limit
to the elementary results that a candidate needs. The results listed are those that
are given in the Students Handbook but are not in the examination booklet, MF2.

The results to be known for any unit include all those that need to be known for
earlier units in the same strand. Thus a candidate for C3 needs to recall or derive
the results required for C1 and C2.

The results to be known for an applied unit include some of those needed for
equivalent pure units (see the Assumed Knowledge section on the units title
page).

There is an underlying assumption that students know all the results needed for
Intermediate Tier GCSE.

There is a typesetting error on page 12 of the current printing of the handbook (Fifth edition,
July 2004). The integral of sin 2 x is given at the bottom of the right hand column; the answer
should be 12 ( x 12 sin 2 x ) and not 12 ( x 12 sin 2 x ) . This will of course be corrected at the next

printing.

## C1 results that are not given in the examination booklet (page 1)

b b 2 4ac
.
2a
Discriminant > 0: 2 real roots

## Discriminant = 0: 1 repeated root

Discriminant < 0: No real roots

Modulus
x means the positive value of x. For x 0, x = x ; for x < 0, x = x .
x < a a < x < a (a > 0)

Binomial coefficients

n
The notations nCr and are equivalent.
r
n
n
C0 = Cn = 1
Binomial coefficients may be found using Pascals triangle:
1
1

1
1
1

1
3

10

10
and so on.

1
4

1
5

Indices

a m a n = a m+ n
1
am = m
a

a m a n = a mn
1

an = n a

a0 = 1

(a )

m n

= a mn

Straight lines

## The line joining ( x1 , y1 ) to ( x2 , y2 ) has:

y2 y1
x2 x1

m=

Equation

y y1 y2 y1
=
x x1 x2 x1

( x2 x1 ) + ( y2 y1 )
2

Length

Mid-point

x1 + x2 y1 + y2
,

2
2

## Other formulae for the equation of a straight line:

Through ( 0, c ) with gradient m:

y = mx + c

## Through ( x1 , y1 ) with gradient m:

y y1 = m ( x x1 )

Through

( a, 0 ) and ( 0, b ) :

x y
+ =1
a b

Circles

2

## C2 results that are not given in the examination booklet (page 1)

You are also expected to recall or derive C1 results that are not given in the examination
booklet.
Logarithms and exponentials

x
log a = log a x log a y
y
1
log a n x = log a x
n

## log a ( xy ) = log a x + log a y

( )

log a ( x n ) = n log a x
1
log a = log a x
x
log a a = 1

log a 1 = 0

y = a x x = log a y

## Trigonometric ratios of some angles

0o

30o

45o

60o

90o

180o

sin

1
2

1
2

3
2

cos

3
2

1
2

1
2

-1

tan

1
3

Trigonometric identities

sin
= tan
cos

sin 2 + cos 2 = 1

Triangles

## Area = 12 ab sin C = 12 bc sin A = 12 ca sin B

Sine rule:

a
b
c
=
=
sin A sin B sin C

## C2 results that are not given in the examination booklet (page 2)

Circular measure

Arc length s = r

Area of sector A = 12 r 2

Trigonometrical relationships

sin ( ) = sin

cos ( ) = cos

sin ( + 90 ) = cos

cos ( + 90 ) = sin

## cos ( + 180 ) = cos

tan ( ) = tan
tan ( + 180 ) = tan

Differentiation

## Differentiation from first principles

dy
y
f ( x + x) f ( x)
= Lim = Lim
dx x 0 x x0
x
dy
is also written as f ( x)
dx
For y = x n ,

dy
= nx n 1
dx

For y = f ( x) + g( x),

dy
= f ( x) + g( x)
dx

Integration

x n +1
+ c, n 1
n +1
( f ( x) + g( x) ) dx = f ( x) + g( x) + c
n
x dx =

Definite integrals

f ( x)dx gives the area of the region bounded by y = f ( x) , the x-axis and the lines x = a

and x = b .
a
a

## f ( x)dx + f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx

b

f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx
a

## C3 results that are not given in the examination booklet

You are also expected to recall or derive C1 and C2 results that are not given in the
examination booklet.

Exponentials

y = e x x = log e x = ln x
ln ( e x ) = x

eln x = x

Differentiation
Standard derivatives

f ( x)

f ( x)

e kx

kekx

ln x

1
x

sin kx

k cos kx

cos kx

k sin kx

Product rule

y = uv,

dy
dv
du
=u +v
dx
dx
dx

Chain rule

dy dy du
=

dx du dx

## C3 results that are not given in the examination booklet (page 2)

Integration
Standard integrals

f ( x)

f ( x)dx (+ a constant)

e kx

1 kx
e
k

1
x

ln x

sin kx

1
cos kx
k

cos kx

1
sin kx
k

Integration by substitution

y = f (u ), u = g( x),

## C4 results that are not given in the examination booklet

You are also expected to recall or derive C1, C2 and C3 results that are not given in the
examination booklet.

Trigonometry

sec2 1 + tan 2
cosec 2 1 + cot 2
sin 2 = 2sin cos
cos 2 = cos 2 sin 2 = 2 cos 2 1 = 1 2sin 2
2 tan
tan 2 =
1 tan 2

Vectors
u1 v1

u2 . v2 = u1v1 + u2 v2 + u3v3
u v
3 3

## FP1 results that are not given in the examination booklet

You are also expected to recall or derive relevant C1 and C2 results that are not given in
the examination booklet.

Finite series
n

r = n ( n + 1)
r =1

1
2

Complex numbers

Real-imaginary form
For z = x + jy , Re( z ) = x and Im( z ) = y
mod( z ) = z = x 2 + y 2

## arg( z ) = where cos =

x
y
and sin =
and <
z
z

( arg(0) is undefined)

## The conjugate of z is z* where z* = x jy

1
x jy
z*
2
= 2
= 2
zz* = z ,
2
z x +y
z
Modulus-argument (polar) form
If z = r and arg( z ) = , then z = [ r , ] = r ( cos + jsin )
z* = r (cos jsin ) ,

1 1
= ( cos jsin )
z r

## Mechanics 1 results that are not given in the examination booklet

You are expected to be able to recall those on page 14 of the Students Handbook.
You are also expected to recall or derive relevant C1 and C2 results that are not
given in the examination booklet.

## Particular attention should be given to the constant acceleration formulae.

Written in scalars

(u + v ) t

s = ut + 12 at 2

s=

v = u + at

v 2 u 2 = 2as

1
2

s = ut + 12 at 2
s = 12 ( u + v ) t
v = u + at
(There is no simple vector equivalent of v 2 u 2 = 2as .)
Written in vectors

s = vt 12 at 2

s = vt 12 at 2

Attention should also be given to the equations for general motion where the
acceleration need not be constant.
Written in scalars

ds
= s
dt
dv
d2s
a=
= v = 2 = s
dt
dt

v=

s = vdt

These results can also be written using vectors; in that case the symbol r is often used

## Mechanics 2 results that are not given in the examination booklet

You are also expected to recall or derive Mechanics 1 results that are not given in the
examination booklet.
Friction
F = R
F R

## when sliding takes place

when no sliding takes place

Centre of mass

( m ) x = ( mx )

( m ) r = ( mr )

## Work done by a constant force, W = F ( s cos ) = ( F cos ) s

Kinetic energy = 12 mv 2
Work done against gravity = mgh
Power =

dW
= Fv cos
dt

## The work energy principle

The total work done by the forces acting on a body is equal to the increase in the kinetic
energy of the body.

## Formulae and results

Mechanics 2 results that are not given in the examination booklet (page 2)
Impulse

## Impulse = Ft for constant F

Impulse = change in momentum = mv mu

Impacts
Newtons Experimental Law

v2 v1 = e ( u2 u1 )

## where e is the coefficient of restitution

e=

velocity of separation v2 v1
=
velocity of approach u1 u2

## Formulae and results

Statistics 1 results that are not given in the examination booklet (page 1)
Samples

There are two notations, according to whether the data are grouped or not.
Ungrouped data A sample has n observations of x, x1 , x2 , ... xn .

x=

Sample mean:

2

Grouped data

2
i

( x )

= xi2 nx 2

## A sample has n observations of x, with fi observations of xi .

Sample mean:

x=

=n

x f

i i

n
2
Sum of squares of deviations: S xx = ( xi x ) f i
=x f

2
i i

( x f )

i i

= xi2 f i nx 2

S xx
n

msd =

rmsd = msd

Sample variance:

s2 =

## Sample standard deviation:

s = s2

S xx
n 1

Some calculators give both rmsd and s; make sure you understand the output from your
calculator.

Coding

If y = a + bx

## Formulae and results

Statistics 1 results that are not given in the examination booklet (page 2)
Selections and arrangements

Number of ways of
*

## arranging n unlike objects in line = n !

selecting r objects from n unlike objects when the order does not
n
n!
matter
= n Cr = =
r r !( n r ) !
selecting r objects from n unlike objects when order does matter
n!
= n Pr =
( n r )!

Conditional probability
P( B A) =

P ( A B)
P ( A)

## Discrete random variables

[The formulae for finding the mean or expectation, E ( X ) , and the variance, Var( X ) , of X
are given in MF2.]
E ( a + bX ) = a + bE ( X ) , Var ( a + bX ) = b 2 Var ( X )

## The binomial distribution

For the binomial distribution, B ( n, p ) , the random variable, X, is the number of successes
from n independent trials of a process for which P(success) = p .
P( X = r ) = nCr p r q n r for r = 0,1, 2, ... , n where q = 1 p .

## Formulae and results

Statistics 1 results that are not given in the examination booklet (page 3)
The binomial hypothesis test
(A description of the process of hypothesis testing is given on page 18 of the Students
Handbook.)
Null hypothesis

## H0: The probability of the underlying population, p, has a given

value
Alternative hypotheses H1: p the given value (2-tail test)
p > the given value (1-tail test)
or
p < the given value (1-tail test)
or
Test statistic

Critical values

## Statistics 2 results that are not given in the examination booklet

You are also expected to recall or derive Statistics 1 results that are not given in the
examination booklet.
The 2 test on a contingency table
The test statistic is X =
2

( fo fe )
fe

For a contingency table with r rows and c columns there are ( r 1)( c 1) degrees of
freedom.

## Product moment correlation and regression

The formulae are given in the examination booklet but you are advised to work with the
forms using sums of squares and sums of products, as given below.
Correlation coefficient: r =

S xy
S xx S yy

S xy
S xx

## Decision Mathematics 1 results that are not given in the examination

booklet

You are expected to be able to recall or derive those on page 26 of the Students
Handbook, and those at the top of page 28.

## Decision Mathematics 2 results that are not given in the examination

booklet
You are also expected to recall or derive Decision Mathematics 1 results that are not
given in the examination booklet.
Decision trees
Decision
node
Chance node

Payoff node

EMV

## Expected monetary value

Propositional connectives

or

and

equivalence

implies

not

Distributive laws
a (b c ) = ( a b ) ( a c )
a (b c ) = ( a b ) ( a c )

de Morgans Laws
~ ( p q ) ~ p ~ q
~ ( p q ) ~ p ~ q

## Decision Mathematics 2 results that are not given in the examination

booklet (page 2)
Algorithms and vocabulary
See page 28 of the Students Handbook for step-by-step descriptions of various algorithms
and also for explanations of standard terms used in linear programming.

## Formulae and results

Decision Computation results that are not given in the examination booklet
You are also expected to recall or derive Decision Mathematics 1 results that are not
given in the examination booklet.

Recurrence relations
First order

## For un +1 = aun + f (n)

( a 1) ,

if f (n) = 0, un = a n u0
otherwise, un = Aa n + particular solution
For un +1 = un + f (n) (i.e. a = 1 in the above relation),
n

un +1 = u0 + f (i )
i =0

Second order

## For un + 2 + aun +1 + bun = f (n)

The auxiliary equation is 2 + a + b = 0 with roots 1 and 2

( 1 2 )
un = ( An + B ) n ( 1 = 2 = )

f ( n) = 0 .

## Algorithms and vocabulary

See page 28 of the Students Handbook for step-by-step descriptions of various algorithms
and also for explanations of standard terms used in linear programming.

## Formulae and results

Numerical Methods results that are not given in the examination booklet
You are also expected to recall or derive C1 and C2 results that are not given in the
examination booklet.
You will be given all the results except those below for numerical differentiation.

Numerical differentiation
f ( x)

f ( x + h) f ( x)
,
h

f ( x)

## MEI Structured Mathematics:

f ( x + h) f ( x h)
2h