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Premier Coaching Institute For

SSC,-CGL, Railways, RBI, Bank PO


A-91, 2nd Floor, Near Style Shoes,
Lajpat Nagar , New Delhi 110024
Mo.

9716523859

,9716523857

By Dr. Gaurav Garg (Faculty General Science)

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CELL (CYTOLOGY)

ANIMAL CELL
Plant cell
Cell wall is present
Centrosome is absent

Animal cell
Cell wall is absent
Centrosome is present

Cell wall
Found only in plant cells
Freely permeable
It is dead

Cell Membrane
Found in both plant and animal cells
Semi-permeable
It is living

Protoplasm
Cytoplasm
Present inside the cell & bounded by Present
in
between
plasma
cell plasma membrane
membrane & nuclear membrane.
It contains nucleus
It does not contain nucleus
Nucleus
It is present inside the cell.
It controls all the cellular activities.

Nucleolus
Present inside the nucleus.
Takes part in formation of ribosomes.

Chromosomes
Found inside the nucleus

Centrosomes
Found in the cytoplasm near the
external surface of nucleus.
Initiates cell division in animal cells

Carry genetic information


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1.
2.
3.
4.

Mitochondria: power house of the cell, helps in cellular respiration.


Ribosomes: protein synthesis.
Golgi bodies: secretion of enzymes, formation of cell wall in plant cells.
Lysosomes: suicidal bags of the cell which destroy the worn-out cells by
producing enzymes.
5. Plastids: chloroplast + chromoplast (fruits, flowers) + leucoplast (colourless).
6. Vacuole: to maintain turgidity in plant cell.
7. Nucleus: controlling centre of the cell.
On the basis of presence and absence of well-defined membrane bound structure,
the cell is classified as: prokaryotes (e.g. bacteria, fungi) and eukaryotes (e.g. plant &
animal cell).
Cell Division- division of a parent cell to produce daughter cells.

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TISSUE (HISTOLOGY)

1. Meristematic tissue: Helps in growth of plants.


2. Permanent tissue: the newly formed cells of the meristematic tissue get
matured & are differentiated into permanent tissue.
3. Parenchyma: Helps in storage of food. Parenchyma with chloroplasts are
called chlorenchyma and helps in photosynthesis.
4. Collenchyma & Sclerenchyma: provides mechanical support.
5. Xylem: It conducts water & minerals from root to other parts of the plant.
Phloem: Conducts prepared food from leaves to the other parts of plant.

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1. Epithelial tissue: covers the external surface as well as internal lining of the
organs. They are classified according to the shape of cell.
2. Connective tissue: it joins and support various parts of the body.
Areolar: present under the skin, acts as packing material for the organs.
Tendon
Ligament
It attaches muscles to bones
Connects bone to bone.
Formed of white fibrous tissue.
Formed of yellow elastic fibre
It is present in the white matter of It is present in the sympathetic
brain & spinal cord
nervous system.
Adipose: stores reserved food (fats), acts as an insulator.
Skeletal: forms endoskeleton of vertebrates.
Bone

It is brittle
Cells called osteocytes are arranged in
a concentric manner
Covered by periosteum

Cartilage

It is elastic.
Cells called chondricytes are arranged
in groups of 2 or 4.
Covered by perichondrium.

Fluid: help in transportation of oxygen, carbondioxide, nutrients & remove


waste materials.
a. Blood: RBC (Erthrocytes without nucleus & mitochondria) + WBC
(defense) + platelets (thrombocytes: contain nucleus, helps in
clotting of blood).
b. Lymph: colourless fluid without RBC & haemoglobin, produced by
spleen. All interexchanges of nutrients & waste products between
blood & tissue takes place through lymph only.
3. Muscular tissue:
Smooth
Involuntary
Contract slowly & never
fatigued
Found in alimentary
canal, urinary bladder

Striped
Voluntary
Contract faster & get
fatiqued soon
Found in limbs

Cardiac
Involuntary
Contract quickly & never
get fatiqued.
Found in wall of heart,

Smallest muscle: stapedius located in middle ear (length 1.27mm).


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Largest muscle: buttocks


Strongest muscle: jaw. Your jaw bite can be as much as 2000 N per second.
Longest muscle: Sartorius muscle is the muscle of anterior hip & thigh group that
is connected to the ilium & the tibia.
4. Nervous tissue:
Neurons are cells that conduct nerve impulses, or action potentials, across
their membrane to the next neuron.
They possess a large cell body (soma), with cell projections
called dendrites and an axon.
Dendrites are thin, branching projections that receive electrochemical
signalling (neurotransmitters) to create a change in voltage in the cell.
Axons are long projections that carry the action potential away from the
cell body toward the next neuron.
The bulb-like end of the axon, called the axon terminal, is separated from
the dendrite of the following neuron by a small gap called a synapse.
When the action potential travels to the axon terminal, neurotransmitters
are released across the synapse and bind to the post-synaptic receptors,
continuing the nerve impulse.[

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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Human respiratory system has
nostrils, nasal cavities, pharynx,
trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
and lungs.
Pleura: the protective covering of
lungs.
The part of trachea concerned with
sound- larynx.
The part of brain where respiratory
centre is located- Medulla Oblongata.
Respiration is a 2 step process. First step is breathing, leading to exchange of gases
and second step is oxidation of food molecules in the cell accompanied with release
of energy.
The glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid by the process of glycolysis in the
cytoplasm without utilising oxygen. Pyruvate enters into mitochondria to pass
through Krebs cycle in aerobic respiration utilising oxgen & producing ATP
molecules.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 686 Kcal
After glycolysis, pyruvate gets converted either into ethyl alcohol as in bacteria or
yeast or into lactic acid as in muscles of man. This is Anaerobic respiration.
C6H12O6 -> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 50 Kcal
Respiration in plants: stomata in leaves, root hairs in roots & lenticels in the bark
of stem and roots helps in gaseous exchange through simple process of diffusion.
Aquatic animals like fishes take oxygen dissolved in water and respire through
gills.
In earthworm, skin acts as respiratory organ.
Land animals have lungs as the main respiratory organ.
Insects show tracheal respiration which takes place through a network of air
tubes called trachea.
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NUTRITION

Autotrophic nutrition:
Photosynthesis is the process which converts solar energy to chemical energy.
Light reaction produces oxygen, ATP and NAPDH.
During dark reaction, NADPH and ATP molecules produced during light reaction
are utilised for synthesis of carbohydrate from CO2 & H2O.
Light, temperature, CO2 & H2O affect the rate of photosynthesis.
Heterotrophic nutrition:
Parasitic- parasities live on or inside the host & obtain food synthesised by its
living host.
Saprophytic nutrition- saprophytes obtain nutrients from dead & decaying
matter.
Holozoic- feeding of complex organic matter by ingestion, which is subsequently
digested, absorbed & assimilated.
Amoeba obtains its food by the process of phagocytosis and shows holozoic mode.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

The alimentary canal of man consists of buccal cavity, oesophagus, stomach,


duodenum, ileum (small intestines), colon (large intestines) and rectum.
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The digestive process begins in the mouth. Food is partly broken down by the
process of chewing and by the chemical action of salivary enzymes that break down
starches into smaller molecules.
After being chewed and swallowed, the food enters the oesophagus. The
oesophagus is a long tube that runs from the mouth to the stomach. It uses
rhythmic, wave-like muscle movements (called peristalsis) to force food from the
throat into the stomach.
The stomach churns the food and bathes it in a very strong acid (gastric acid). Food in
the stomach that is partly digested and mixed with stomach acids is called chyme.
After being in the stomach, food enters the duodenum, the first part of the small
intestine. It then enters the jejunum and then the ileum (the final part of the small
intestine). In the small intestine, bile (produced in the liver and stored in the gall
bladder), pancreatic enzymes, and other digestive enzymes produced by the inner
wall of the small intestine help in the breakdown of food.
In the large intestine, some of the water and electrolytes (chemicals like sodium) are
removed from the food. Many microbes (bacteria like Bacteroides, Lactobacillus
acidophilus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella) in the large intestine help in the digestion
process.
Solid waste is then stored in the rectum until it is excreted via the anus.
Digestive
glands
Salivary gland
Gastric glands
Liver
Pancreas
Intestinal
glands

Secretion
Saliva
Gastric juice

Enzymes

Ptyalin
Pepsin
Lipase
Bile juice
NO enzyme
Pancreatic juice Amylase
Trypsin
Lipase
Intestinal juice protein digestion
or
sugar digestion
Succus
Lipase
entericus

Substrate
Starch
Proteins
Lipids
Fats
Starch
Proteins
Fats
Peptones
Sugars
Fat

Products
Maltose
Peptones
Glycerides
Emulsification
Maltose
Peptides
Fatty acids
Amino acids
Glucose
Fatty acids &
glycerol

Assimilation is the process of utilisation of digested food as the components of


protoplasm, needed for production of energy, growth & repair process.
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EXCRETORY SYSTEM:

Each kidney is made up of 2 regions an outer cortex and an inner medulla. Each
kidney receives a renal artery from dorsal aorta and sends a renal vein to inferior
vena cava.
Ureters are the tubes that connect kidneys with the urinary bladder.
Urethra is a tubular connection between urinary bladder & external opening of
urinary tract. The muscle which guards the urethra: splincter muscle.
The urine is forms by 3 main steps:
o Ultrafiltration
o Rebsorption
o Tubular secretion.
Urine is acidic in nature and its colour is due to presence of pigment- urochrome.

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The kidney's primary function is the elimination of waste from the bloodstream by
production of urine. They perform several homeostatic functions such as:1.
2.
3.
4.

Maintain volume of extracellular fluid


Maintain ionic balance in extracellular fluid
Maintain pH and osmotic concentration of the extracellular fluid.
Excrete toxic metabolic by-products such as urea, ammonia, and uric acid.

Nephron: the functional unit of kidneys

1. Bowmans capsule along with glomerous from malpighian body.


2. In glomerular filtrate, water(99%), inorganic salts, amino acids, fatty acids,
glucose, urea, uric acid, hippuric acid, hormones, vitamins are present.
3. PCT absorbs glucose, water & vitamins, Na, K, Ca & Mg, 75 % amino acids.
4. Ascending Loop of henle does not absorb any water.
5. The process by which kidneys regulate the water content of the bodyOsmoregulation.
6. DCT reabsorbs some Na & K. It leads to collecting tubes which leads to
ureters.
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NERVOUS SYSTEM

The brain is made of:


Cerebrum: seat of memory, thought, reason, logic etc. It controls the
coordination of muscular movements.
Cerebellum: concerned with body equilibrium.
Medulla oblongata controls the involuntary activities like heart beat, breathing.
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Spinal cord is concerned with reflex action.


Note that in brain, gray matter is outside, white matter inside.
In spinal cord, gray matter inside, white matter outside.

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CIRCULATORY SYSTEM:

It is a double circulation system processed by heart:


Pulmonary where deoxygenated blood is pumped into the lungs.
Systematic when oxygenated blood is circulated into body parts.
Human heart beats 72 times per minute. Sphygmomanometer measure the BP.
There are 2 limits of BP. Higher limit is the systolic (contraction phase of heart) and
lower is diastolic (relaxation phase of heart). Normal BP is 120/80mm of Hg.
Blood clot: coagulation or solidification of fiuld blood in which fibrinogen is
converted into fibrin.
Blood groupings: antigens & antibodies
Antigens- they are proteins found on the surface RBCs. Antigens are A and B.

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RH factor- it is based on RH antigen. A person can be Rh+ or Rh-. In world population,


Rh+ are 85% and Rh- are 15 % only. RH+ can receive blood from Rh- but no viceversa.
Antibodies- they are produced in lymph gland & are present in blood plasma.

Respiratory disorders:
1. Emphysema- a situation of short breath due to break down of alveolar walls and
reduction of respiratory area as it happens due to smoking.
2. Pneumonia- infection of lungs by Diplococcus pneumonia and leads to
accumulation of mucous & lymph in alveoli, impairing gaseous exchange.
3. Asthma- difficult breathing due to spasm in bronchial muscles & narrowing of
bronchi.
4. Hiccups- due to spasmodic contraction of diaphragm.

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REPRODUCTORY SYSTEM

Fertilisation is the fusion of gametes (sperm & egg) to produce a zygote (diploid cell).
Organs to produce gametes are gonads (male gonad is testes, female gonad is
ovaries).Puberty is the age when the reproductive organs become fully functional to
produce offspring.
Male reproductive system consists of a pair of testes, genital ducts, accessory glands
& copulatory organ, penis. Testes contain semeniferous tubules and produce sex
hormones e.g. testosterone.
Female reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus,
vagina & external genitalia. Ovaries produce ova & female sex hormones. Uterus is
thick walled organ where the embryo develops. Cervix is the entrance of uterus.
Menustrual phase is the shedding of the epithelial lining of the endometrium.
After fertilisation, the young embryo would be implanted in uterus. Embryo later
undergo development and forms the foetus. Gestation period is the time for which
the young ones are carried within the uterus.
Placenta serves as the nutritive organ and respiratory exchange between the foetus
and mother. Umbilical cord attaches the foetus with placenta. Pregnancy lasts for
280 days. After the birth, placenta is removed.
Chromosome: a unit of hereditary character. The number of chromosomes in human
is 46 (out of which 44 are known as autosomes & 2 are sex hormones).
Male has 44 + XY chromosomes.
Female has 44 + XX chromosomes.
The hormone that stimulates contraction of uterus during child birth is oxytocin.

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ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Endocrine glands do not possess ducts & their secretions are called hormones.
Hormones are chemical regulators. Hormones are directly poured into the blood
stream & act on the target organs.
Exocrine glands have ducts, secrete enzymes. They increase the rate of a biochemical
reaction.
Gland
Pineal gland
Pituitary
gland

Hormones secreted
Melatonin
Growth hormone
Anti-diuretic hormone

Effect of hormones
Affects daily physiologic cycles
Controls growth of bones & muscles
Increases re-absorption of water in
kidneys
Gonadotrophins
Controls development of ovaries & testes
Thyroid gland Thyroxine
Controls rate of metabolism & rate that
glucose is used up in respiration &
promote growth
Adrenal
Adrenaline or emergency Prepares the body for emergencies,
gland
hormone
increase heart rate, depth of breathing,
raises blood sugar level so more glucose
is available for respiration, diverts blood
from gut to limbs
Pancreas
Insulin
Converts excess glucose into glycogen in
liver
Glucagon
Converts glycogen back to glucose in
liver
Ovaries
Oestrogen
Controls ovulation
Progesterone
Prepares the uterus lining for receiving
an embryo
Testes
Testosterone
Control sperm production
Thymus
Thymosin
Promotes production & maturation of
WBCs.
Master gland: pituitary
Largest gland: thyroid.

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HUMAN DISEASE:
BACTERIAL

Disease
Tuberculosis

Cause
Mycobacterium
tuberculosis

Effects
Infection in lungs, high fever (BCG vaccine
can help)

Whooping
cough

Bacillus pertussis

Mild fever, irritating cough


(DPT vaccine)

Cholera

Vibrio cholera

Vomiting & muscular cramps


Dehydration & loss of minerals

Diarrhoea or escherchia coli,


food
shigella,
poisoning
campylobactera &
salmonella.

Dehydration accompanied by fever, nausea


or vomiting

Tetanus

Motile bacteria,
clostridium tetani
Enter through injured
surfaces

Paralysis of thoracic muscles (neck & jaw)

Pneumonia

Streptococcus
pneumonia

Inflammation of lungs resulting in chest


pain, shallow breathing

Typhoid

Salmonella
typhi High fever, head ache, ulceration of
found in intestine of intestine
humans

Plague

Bacterium
pasteurella/ yersinea
pestis
Transmitted by bed
bug or head louse

Gonorrhoea

Neisseria
Infection in the mucous membrane of
Gonorrhoea
urinogential tract
transmitted through May result in female sterility
sexual contact

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Bubonic- blood disease, enlargement of


lymph nodes.
Pneumonic-haemorrhages of bronchi &
lungs.
Septicemic- Anaemia

VIRAL

Disease
Mumps

Cause
Paramyxovirus

Effects
Painful swelling of salivary glands

Measles

Rubella virus

Loss of appetite, eruptions on skin, buccal


& respiratory passage show signs of
inflammation

Influenza

Influenza Virus

Inflammation of upper respiratory tract,


nose, throat & eyes

Common cold Rhinovirus

watery eyes, excessive nasal secretions

Rabies

RNA virus

Hydrophobia, spasm of throat & chest


leading to death

Hepatitis

Hepatitis A virus
Hepatitis B virus

Jaundice, loss of appetite


Hepatitis B is fatal

Dengue
fevere

RNA
containing
dengue virus, by bite
of female mosquito
aedes aegypti

Conjunctivitis, high fever, backache, retroorbital pain (between the eye balls).
Can be haemorrgraphic: fatal with nausea,
abdominal pain

Yellow fever

Arbovirus

Vomiting, rupture of veins in kidneys,


spleen, liver etc.

Disease
Malaria

Cause
Plasmodium
protozoan
anopheles mosquito

Effects
Reoccuring fever, weakness

Amoebiasis

Entamoeba histolytica

Abdominal pain, alternating diarrhoea &


constipation, stool with blood, mucous &
mucous membrane pieces.

PROTOZOAN

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MINERALS & VITAMINS

Minerals are derived from the breakdown of rocks of earths crust which are then
dissolved in water.
Minerals are needed in only small quantities in the diet, though some of them
accumulate to a specific degree e.g. there is around 1kg of calcium in the average
human body.
1. Calcium, phosphorus & magnesium compounds are major components of
bones & teeth.
2. Fluoride is important in protecting teeth from decay.
3. Sodium, potassium, calcium & chloride ions are important in
a. maintaining correct composition of cells, of the tissue fluids around
them (homoestatis).
b. Communication between cells i.e. rapid transfer of signals along nerve
cells & in brain.
c. Muscle contraction.
4. The hormones produced by thyroid gland contains iodine.
5. Enzymes uses magnesium, selenium, zinc for functioning.
6. Sulphur is essential component of amino acids.
7. Iron is incorporated into haemoglobin & related proteins.

VITAMINS :
Vitamins A,D,E and K are fat-soluble & the remaining are water-soluble.
Water-soluble vitamins are easily lost during cooking & are destroyed by exposure to
air & light, so care is needed in food preparation to preserve them.
Deficiency diseases are occur when vitamins are absent or in short supply.

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VITAMIN

DIETARY SOURCE

DEFICIENCY DISEASE

Cheese, eggs, butter, milk

Night blindness,

B1- thiamin

Vegetables

Beri-beri

B2 - riboflavin

Cereals, rice, mushrooms

Ariboflavinosis

B3 - niacin

Beef, prok, wheat, maize

Pellagra

B5 - pantothenic acid

Broccoli & whole grains

Paresthesia

B6 - pyridoxine

Potatoes & peanuts

Anemia peripheral
neuropathy

B7- biotin

Dried mixed fruit

Dermatitis, enteritis

B9 - folic acid

Broccoli, sprouts, spinach

Megaloblast. Deficiency
during pregnancy causes
Birth defects

B12 cobalamin

Megaloblastic anemia

C- ascorbic acid

Salmon, cod, yeast


extracts
Citrus fruits, kiwi, tomato

Oily fish, margarine

Rickets & osteomalacia

Plant oils & green leafy


vegetables

Mild haemolytic anemmia


in new born (rare)
But overdose may cause
congestive heart failure.

Vegetable oils & diary


foods

Bleeding diathesis

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Scurvy

QUESTIONAIRE
1. Downs syndrome is caused by an extra
(a) 11 th chromosome
(b) 18 th chromosome
(c) 21 st chromosome
(d) 22 nd chromosome
2. Which one of the following vitamins helps in the formation of collagen?
(a) Vitamin A
(b) Vitamin-B2
(c) Vitamin-C
(d) Vitamin-E
3. Which of the following is not a mosquito borne disease?
a)
b)
c)
d)

Dengue fever
Malaria
Sleeping sickness
Filariasis

4. Among the following elements, which one is essential for the transmission
of impulses in the nerve fibre?
a) Calcium
b) Iron
c) Sodium
d) Zinc
5. The vitamin which is very liable and easily destroyed during cooking as
well as storage is

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a) Vitamin A
b) Vitamin b6
c) Vitamin C
d) Vitamin K
6. The compound used in anti-malarial drug is
a) Aspirin
b) Neoprene
c) Isoprene
d) Chloroquin
7. Which of the following is a skin disease?
a) Anaemia
b) Pellagra
c) Osteomalacia
d) Rickets
8. The richest source of vitamin D is
a) Cod liver oil
b) Spinach
c) Milk
d) Cheese
9. Which of the following tests helps in diagnosis of cancer?
a) X-ray
b) Urine test
c) Blood test
d) Biopsy test

10. In Photosynthetic process, atmospheric carbondioxide is ____ to


carbohydrates
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a) oxidised
b) Reduced
c) Neutralised
d) Burnt

11. On seeing good food our mouth waters. This fluid is actually
a) Water
b) Hormone
c) Enzyme
d) None of the above

12. The enzyme Pepsin is inactive in stomach without the presence of


a) Nitric Acid
b) Hydrochloric acid
c) Acetic acid
d) Butyric acid

13. Villi present on the inner lining of the intestinal wall


a) Secretes enzymes for digestion
b) Secretes hormones
c) Decreases the surface area for absorption
d) Increases the surface area for absorption

14. During cellular respiration one molecule of glucose is first broken down
into two molecules of ________
a) Acetic acid
b) Pyruvic acid
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c) Lactic acid
d) None of the above
15. Rajib was absent in the class because of muscle pain which he claims to
be due to excess physical exercise he had done yesterday. This pain is due to
a) Formation of lactic acid
b) Formation of acetic acid
c) Formation of Pyruvic acid
d) Formation of Hydrochloric acid

16. Right part of the human heart contains


a) Oxygenated blood
b) Mixed blood
c) Deoxygenated blood
d) No blood

17. The transport of soluble products of photosynthesis is called


translocation and it occurs in the part of the vascular tissue called
a) Xylem
b) Sclerenchyma
c) Phloem
d) Collenchyma

18. In human each kidney has large numbers of filtration units called ___
a) Neutrons
b) Neurons
c) Neptune
d) Nephrons
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19. Gustatory receptors will detect ______


a) light
b) Taste
c) Smell
d) Touch

20. The gap between two neurons is called _____


a) Synapse
b) Synthesise
c) Dendron
d) Axon

21. Involuntary actions including blood pressure, salivation and vomiting are
controlled by the __________ in the hind-brain.
a) Medals
b) Cerebellum
c) Medulla
d) Cerebrum

22. A potted plant kept in a room tends to bend towards the direction of
light. This movement is called
a) Photographism
b) Photonastism
c) Photoperiodism
d) Phototropism

23. The endocrine organ present in human female but not in human male is
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a) Testis
b) Ovary
c) Pituitary gland
d) Thymus

24. If there is a deficiency of growth hormone the child becomes _____


a) Blind
b) Mentally retarded
c) Giant
d) Dwarf

25. People living in coastal areas suffer less from goitre. This is because
a) They eat sea food
b) They drink sea water
c) They bathe in sea water
d) All of the above

26. The direction of impulse in a typical neuron is


a) Axon to dendron
b) Dendron to axon
c) Both a and b are correct
d) Both a and b are wrong

27. Male reproductive organ in flowering plant is


a) Carpel
b) Stamen
c) Corolla
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d) Ovary

28. Female reproductive organ in flowering plant is


a) Carpel
b) Stamen
c) Corolla
d) Ovary

29. A fertilized ovule develops into a _____ in an angiosperm plant


a) seed
b) fruit
c) flower
d) cotyledon

30. Where are sperms formed in the human body?


a) Vas deferens
b) Prostate gland
c) Ovary
d) Testis

31. The place where fertilization take place in the human body is
a) Uterus
b) Oviduct / fallopian tubes
c) Ovary
d) vagina
32. Copper T and Loops are
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a) Contraceptive devices
b) Conventional devices
c) Conducive devices
d) Contaminating devices
33. _______ is a common tube for urine and sperm in human male.
a) Urethra
b) Uterus
c) Ureter
d) None of the above

34. If in human a sperm (22+Y) fertilizes an egg (22+X), the sex of the foetus
shall be
a) Male
b) Female
c) Either male or Female
d) none of these

35. Forelimb of frog, lizard, bird & man has some evolutionary relationship.
This are
a) Hand relationship
b) Missing links
c) Analogous organs
d) Homologous organs

36. The number of autosomes in a human body cell is


a) 44
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b) 46
c) 22
d) 23

37. The theory of Natural Selection was proposed by


a) Lamarck
b) Darwin
c) Mendel
d) Haldane

38. Surgically removing tails of mice over several generations do not yield
mice without tails. This proves that
a) Cutting tail does not cause genetic change. So it not inherited.
b) Acquired characters during ones own life are not inherited.
c) Neither a nor b is correct
d) Both a and b are correct

39. Only ____ % of the energy can be transferred from one trophic level to
the next trophic level.
a) 1
b) 5
c) 10
d) 20

40. Accumulation of non- biodegradable pesticides in different trophic levels


is called
a) Biological degradation
b) Biological magnification
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c) Biological concentration
d) Biological deposition

41. The kidneys in human beings are a part of the system for
(a) nutrition.
(b) respiration.
(c) excretion.
(d) transportation.

42. The xylem in plants are responsible for


(a) transport of water.
(b) transport of food.
(c) transport of amino acids.
(d) transport of oxygen.

43. The autotrophic mode of nutrition requires


(a) carbon dioxide and water.
(b) chlorophyll.
(c) sunlight.
(d) all of the above.

44. The breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water and energy
takes place in
(a) cytoplasm.
(b) mitochondria.
(c) chloroplast.
(d) nucleus.

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45. Movement of food through oesophagus is due to


(a) Lubrication by saliva
(b) Peristalsis
(c) Gravitational Pull
(d) All of the above

46. Where is bile produced?


(a) Gall bladder
(b) Blood
(c) Liver
(d) Spleen

47. In normal expiration, the diaphragm is


(a) Arched
(b) Flattened
(c) Perforated
(d) None of these

48. The correct pathway of blood in circulatory system is


(a) atria ventricles arteries veins
(b) ventricles atria veins arteries
(c) ventricles veins arteries atria
(d) veins ventricles atria arteries

49. Respiration is a process in which

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(a) Energy is stored in the form of ADP


(b) Energy is released and stored in the form of ATP
(c) Energy is used up
(d) Energy is not released at all.

50. The UV radiation from the sun is likely to cause _____________ in human
a) Skin cancer
b) Lung cancer
c) Liver Cancer
d) Brain Cancer

51. The three Rs to save the environment are


a) Remember, Reduce, Reuse
b) Recall, Reduce, Refund
c) Reduce, Recycle, Reuse
d) Reduce, Refund, Reuse

52. Biodiversity hot spots are


a) Areas where large number of different species are found
b) Hot Areas where large number of different species are found
c) Areas which became hot due to large number of different species.
d) Areas where large spot has been created due to death of number of species

53. Chipko Andolan is associated with


a) Protesting against pasting of posters on walls
b) Saving money
c) Using more postal stamps
d) Saving forest
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54. To which one of the following types of organisms do mushrooms


belong?
a) Algae
b) Ferns
c) Fungi
d) Lichens
55. Food wrapped in newspaper is likely to get contaminated with
A.
B.
C.
D.

Lead
Aluminium
Iron
Magnesium

56. Which one of the following plants is used for green manuring in India?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Wheat
Sunhemp
Cotton
Rice

57. Which one of the following disease is Inheritable?


A.
B.
C.
D.

Leukaemia
Colour blindness
Malignancy
Hepatitis

58. Which of the following vitamins is synthesised in the body by intestinal


bacteria?
A.
B.
C.
D.

vitamin B1
vitamin B4
vitamin D
vitamins K

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59. BCG vaccination (Bacillus Calmette Guerine) is injected to get immunity


from
A.
B.
C.
D.

Polio
Cholera
Small pox
Tuberculosis

60. Which one of the following parts of the pitcher plant becomes modified
into a pitcher?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Stem
leaf
stipule
petiole

61. Which chamber of human heart pumps fully oxygenated blood to aorta
and hence to the body?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Right Auricle
Left Auricle
Right Ventricle
Left Ventricle

62. Which one of the following is a vitamin?


A.
B.
C.
D.

Citric acid
Folic acid
Glutamic acid
Linoleic acid

63. Which one of the following is responsible for converting milk into curd?
A. Fungi
B. Bacteria

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C. Virus
D. None of these
64. In which one of the following animals is skin a respiratory organ?
A. Cockroach
B. Frog
C. shark
D. Whale
65. What is the pH level of blood of a normal person?
A. 4.0 4.5
B. 6.45 65.5
C. 7.35 7.45
D. 8.25 8.35
66. Which of the following disease is not a caused by viruses?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Cholera
Chickenpox
Hepatitis
Measles

67. In which one of the following, antibody formations takes place?


A.
B.
C.
D.

RBCs
Blood platelets
Blood Plasma
Donnans membrane

68. How do most insects respire?


A. through skin
B. through gills
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C. by lungs
D. by trachea system
69. Which one of the following part of human brain is the regulating centre
for swallowing and vomiting?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Cerebellum
cerebrum
medulla oblongata
pons

70. Production of which one of the following is a function of the liver?


A.
B.
C.
D.

Lipase
Urea
Mucus
Hydrochloric acid

71. Oncogene is responsible for


A. Aids
B. typhoid
C. malaria
D. cancer
72. Which acid is produced when milk gets sour?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Acetic acid
Tartaric acid
Lactic acid
Butyric acid

73. Two richest known sources of edible protein are

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A.
B.
C.
D.

Meat and eggs


Milk and vegetables
Soyabean and groundnut
Some algae and other micro-organisms

74. Which nutrients are most likely to be affected by food processing and
storage?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Carbohydrates
Fats
Proteins
Vitamins

75. The part of the body directly affected by Rickets is:


(a) Bone tissue
(b) Epidermal tissue
(c) Nervous system
(d) Respiratory system
76. The part of the body directly affected by Pneumonia is:
(a) Bone tissue
(b) Epidermal tissue
(c) Nervous system
(d) Respiratory system
77. The part of the body directly affected by Rabies is:
(a) Bone tissue
(b) Epidermal tissue
(c) Nervous system
(d) Respiratory system
78. The part of the body directly affected by Beri Beri disease is:
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(a) Nervous system


(b) Epidermal tissue
(c) Respiratory system
(d) Bone tissue
79. Amino acids are a product of the digestion of:
(a) Carbohydrates
(b) Fats
(c) Proteins
(d) Vitamins
80. Which one of the following pairs of food components in humans reaches
the stomach totally undigested
a)
b)
c)
d)

Protein and starch


Fat and starch
Fat and cellulose
Starch and cellulose

81. urea is the chief nitrogenous component of the excretory products of


a)
b)
c)
d)

Man
Earthworm
Cockroach
Frog

82. Amino acids are used as food additives for which of the following
reasons?
a) As natural antibiotics
b) As natural growth inhibitors
c) For nutritive purposes
d) As antioxidants

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83. Lycopene is an important antioxidant normally present in high level in


a) Artichokes
b) Bananas
c) Tomatoes
d) Soyabeans
84. The main effect of DDT on birds is
a) fewer feathers
b) reduced growth
c) blindness
d) thinner egg-shell
85. Which of the following is most hazardous?
a) Crop waste
b) Yard waste
c) Paper waste
d) Battery
86. The fertile part of soil is
a) mineral water
b) soil air
c) humous
d) soil water
87. The main source of air pollution is
a) Factory exhaust
b) Automobile exhaust
c) Firewood
d) Bad breath

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88. Majority of all living species on the Earth are found in


a) Tundra region
b) Antarctica
c) Tropical rainforest
d) Temperate region
89. Cell organelle found only in plants
a) Mitochondria
b) Plastids
c) Golgi complex
d) Ribosomes
90. Enzymes are polymers of
a) Amino acids
b) Fatty acids
c) Sugar
d) Ribosomes
91. Which trait can effectively be confered into a plant by a transgene?
a) Resistance to insects
b) Resistance to humans
c) Tolerance to light
d) Tolerance to snowfall
92. What is the general term used to describe the degradation of pollutants
using a biological apporach?
a) Biostimulation
b) Bioremediation
c) Biodegradation
d) Bioprocessing

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93. Which genera of micro-organisms have the most diverse pathways for
bioremediation?
a) Pseudomonas
b) Salmonella
c) Legionella
d) Colletotrichum
94. What is nanotechnology?
a) The individual manipulation of molecules and atoms to create materials
with novel or improved properties
b) The creation of new terms to describe very small, almost unimaginable
particle in physics
c) The terms used to describe the size of cellular components
d) The transition of molecular biology into the physical sciences
95. The colourless, odourless, tasteless radioactive gas present within homes
and buildings is
a) Argon
b) Radon
c) Xenon
d) Krypton
96. Pedology is the study of
a) Rock
b) Coal
c) Ecosystem
d) Soil
97. The absorption of zinc in the human digestive tract may be inhibited by
the presence of

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a) Plant fibre
b) Animal fibre
c) Water
d) Oil
98. A species that is unique to a defined place or region and not found
anywhere else is called
a) Endangered
b) Endemic
c) Indigeneous
d) Extinct
99. The main cause of global rising sea levels is
a) Thermal expansion
b) Melting of glaciers
c) Melting of polar ice
d) Melting of Antarctica
100. Anemometer is used to measure
a) wind density
b) wind velocity
c) wind speed
d) wind gravity
101. Ketone bodies are produced by
a) brain
b) liver
c) kidney
d) muscles

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102. Genetic mapping is based on the linkage between it on to a second


substrate.
a) loci
b) muton
c) recon
d) cistron
103. Most of the plants obtain nitrogen from the soil in the form of
a) nitrate
b) nitrite
c) nitric acid
d) nitrogen gas
104. Soilless Culture is called

Hydrophobics
Hydroponics
Hydrophilic
plant culture

105. Iron for the body is mainly obtained from

Fruits
Germinating seeds
Green vegetables
Milk

106. Dialysis is used for a patient suffering from

heart trouble
liver trouble
brain trouble
kidney trouble

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107. In which season do we need more fat

Summer
Winter
Rainy season
None

108. Body build up food is

Fats
Carbohydrates
Proteins
all the above

109. Human eye has

Concave
Convex
biconcave
flattened lens

110. Diphtheria affects the

alimentary canal
Throat
Lungs
Brain

111. Bleeding of the gums is caused by the deficiency of

A-Vitamin
D-Vitamin
Vitamin C and D
K-Vitamin

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112. Gums disease is called

Diphtheria
Anemic
Pneumonia
Pyorrhea

113. Thrombosis is a disease of the

blood
skin
Brain
Lungs

114. Cataract is the disease of

blood
eyes
Kidney
Ears

115. The Chinese practice of curing a disease by needle is called

needle therapy
acupuncture
thrombosis
none

116. The source from which quinine is extracted

Cinchona
Fungi
Roulfia
Datura

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117. Which of the following is a sex linked disease

tuberculosis
Bow leg gedness
Colour blindness
Anaemia

118. Milk sugar is called

Fructose
galactose
Sucrose
Lactose

119. The vitamin found in chillies is

B-Vitamin
C-Vitamin
D-V itamin
K-Vitamin

120. Casein is a

Milk sugar
Milk fat
Milk protein
None

121. Rearing of silk worms is called

Arboriculture
Sericulture
Silviculture
Apiculture

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122. Plants prepares the food in presence of sunlight by the phenomenon of

Osmosis
transpiration
photosynthesis
none

123. Ascorbic acid is an


a) Enzyme
b) Carbohydrates
c) Protein
d) Vitamins

124. Culturing of honey bees is called

Arboriculture
Sericulture
Silviculture
Apiculture

125. Insulin is a hormone which secretes from

liver
gonads
pancreas
pituitary gland

126. The age of a tree can be determined by

the number of leaves on a tree


measuring its diameter of stem
Counting the number of annual ring
the number of branches present on a tree

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127. Meningitis is a disease of the

liver
Kidney
heart
brain

128. Antibiotics are drugs used for the cure of

Bacterial diseases
Cancer
Malaria
Nervous disorders

129. Alexander Fleming discovered

Penicillin
X-ray
Streptomycin
Telephone

130. Who discovered circulation of blood in human body?

Edward Jenner
Joseph Lister
William Harvey
Jonon Esals

131. The credit of developing the polio vaccine goes to:

Jonas Salk
Alb E. Sabin
Selman Waksman
none of these

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132. Anatomy is the branch of science which deals with:

Structure of animals and plants


Functioning of body organs
Animal behavior
Cells and tissues

133. Ecology deals with:

Birds
Cell formation
Relation between Organisms and their environment
Tissues

134. Oncology is the study of:

Birds
Cancer
Mammals
Soil

135. How many bones are there in a newborn child approximately?

206
207
300
307

136. Who invented X-Ray?

Roland Hill
Wilhelm K. Roentgen
Marie Curie
Graham Bell

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137. Who is the father of modern genetics?

Gregor Mendel
Francis Crick
Thomas Watson
Charles Darwin

138. Largest muscle of human body is:

Pelvic
Bicep
Stapadius
Cardiac

139. Name the longest bone of human body:

Radia
Ulna
Femur
Tibia

140. Which gland in the human body is called Master Gland?

Pituitary Gland
Bulbourethral gland
Thyroid gland
Lever

141. A branch of science dealing with the study of teeth is:

Odontology
Ornithology
Entomology
Gerontology

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142. Which gland controls blood pressure?

Thyroid gland
Pituitary Gland
Bulbourethral gland
Adrenal glands

143. How many chromosomes does the human cell contains?

46
38
29
52

144. Who is affected by Foot and Mouth Disease?

Human being
Goats
Cattle
Cats

145. Which disease is caused by the deficiency of vitamin B1?

Beriberi
Measles
Scratch
Mumps

146. Malaria affects which part of the body?

Spleen
Lungs
Heart
Kidneys

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147. With which part of the body is affected by Myopia?

Ears
Heart
Eyes
Kidneys

148. Which part of the body is affected by Pyorrhea?

Elbow
Gums
Skin
Lungs

149. What is the name of the instrument that is used to measure the pulse
rate?

Hygrometer
Thermometer
Ammeter
Sphygmometer

150. What are the antibodies that participate in the defence mechanism of
our body made up of?

Proteins
Vitamins
Carbohydrates
Minerals

151. Cow milk is a rich source of:

Vitamin A
Vitamin B
Vitamin C
Vitamin D

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152. Which of the following diseases is not caused by a virus?

Cancer
Rabies
AIDS
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

153. Which of the following diseases is caused by the deficiency of iron in


human body?

Anaemia
Scurvy
Dermatosis
Beri-Beri

154. Which of the following is a disease of brain?

SARS
AIDS
Diabetes
Alzheimers

155. Indias first transgenic crop was

Potato
Brinjal
Sugarcane
Cotton

156. Total volume of blood in a normal adult human body:

5-6 liters
3-4 liters
8-10 liters
10-12 liters

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157. Name the hardest substance of the body:

the Enamel of teeth


the skin
the skull
the thigh bone

158. How many sets of ribs usually are there with human being?

10
12
14
16

159. Tibia is a bone found in the:

Skull
Arm
Leg
Face

160. What is the largest organ of human body?

Liver
Intestine
Skin
Thigh

161. How many muscles are there in human body?

620
640
570
470

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162. Which part of the human body remains the same in size from birth to
death?

Nose
lips
eyes
ears

163. Human heart beats about how many times a day:

50 thousand times
74 thousand times
1 lakh times
78 thousand times

164. The main function of the kidney is:

To control blood pressure


To control body temperature
To remove waste product from the body
To help in digestion of food

165. What is the speed that a human brain sends message?

140 mph
100 mph
240 mph
200 mph

166. Which of the following glands secrete tears?

Lachrymal
Pituitary
Thyroid
Pancreas

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167. At the time of sneezing which part of human body stops functioning?

Lungs
Heart
Kidney
Eyes

168. Bats can fly in the dark because

they have a better vision in the dark


the light startles them
they produce high pitched sounds called ultrasonic
None of the above

169. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy refers to

Brain Fever
Mad Cow Disease
Enteric Fever
Poultry Diarrhea

170. The heart of the human embryo starts beating in the ___ week of its
development,

second
third
fourth
first

171. The two minerals required to keep teeth and bones intact and in good
condition are

lead and zinc


calcium and phosphorus
copper and sulphur
iron and iodine

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172. Vitamins A and C are predominantly present in

brinjal
ladys finger
potato
tomato

173. Excess carbohydrates and insufficient proteins in daily diet will lead to

Kwashiorkor
Night blindness
Pernicious anaemia
Loss of hair

174. Coagulation of blood in vessels is prevented during normal circulation by

heparin
prothrombin
plasmogen
thromboplastin

175. If a father has blood group A and the mother has blood group 0, which
one of the blood groups may be found in their progeny?

A
AB
O
Both (a ) and (c )

176. The endocrine glands secrete

bile
hormones
sweat
genes

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177. Which of these is most consistently observed in Vitamin B12 deficiency?

Pigmentation of skin
Red, sore tongue with capillary atrophy
Megaloblastic anaemia
Absence of tendon reflexes

178. Which element in chillies causes burning sensations?

Capsaicin
Cyanogen
Ammonia
Capsicum

179. Which one of the following is not an essential micronutrient for plants?

Boron
Zinc
Sodium
Copper

180. The stones formed in human kidney consist mostly of

sodium acetate
magnesium
calcium oxalate
calcium

181. A person with a blood group __ is considered to be an universal donor.

A Positive
AB Positive
AB Negative
O negative

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182. It is possible to produce seedless tomato fruits by

applying trace elements in tomato fields


spraying mineral solution on plants
spraying hormones on flowers
applying fertilizers containing radioactive elements

183. Late Blight is a disease that affects the ____ crop.

coconut
cashew
potato
pepper

184. Saffron is the dried _____ of the saffron plant.

fruit
aril
stigmas and tops of styles
tender leaves and sprouts

185. Vitamin D is manufactured in a healthy human being by the action of


____ on the skin and absorbed in the blood stream.

ozone
radium
moonlight
sunlight

186. Which of the following characteristics separates man from all other
primates?

Exhibition of curiosity
Degenerate sense of smell
Opposability thumb
Projecting chin

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187. Lactose and Rennin, the enzymes required to digest milk, disappear in
the human body by the age of ____ years.

2
3
5
8

188. The term Fauna means

plant kingdom
animal kingdom
neither
Both

189. pH of blood remains constant due to

blood pressure
perspiration
buffer action
respiration

190. Which one among the following statements regarding heart sounds is
correct?

Heart sounds are caused by the internal blood flow inside the heart
Heart sounds are caused by the external blood flow outside the heart
Heart sounds are caused by opening and closing of heart valves
Normal sounds are called murmurs

191. The seeds can most suitably preserved in :

cold and dry condition


cold and wet condition
hot and dry condition
hot and wet condition

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192. Which among the following vitamins is considered to be a hormone?

A
B
C
D

193. Decomposition of organic matter is due to

Virus
Fungi
Bacteria
None of these

194. Which of the following crops helps in nitrogen fixation?

Rice
Wheat
Maize
Beans

195. The spider spins its web from a liquid secreting from its

posterior silk gland


posterior abdomen glands
mouth
salivary glands

196. Which one of the following is caused by the expression of a recessive


gene present on sex chromosome?

Rheumatism
Nervous shock
Muscular dystrophy
Cerebral haemorrhage

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197. It Is not advisable to sleep under a tree at night because of release of

oxygen in a lesser quantity than the required levels


oxygen in large amounts
carbon monoxide
carbon dioxide

198. The rate of growth of plants can be measured by a/an

manometer
photometer
auxanometer
thermometer

199. Which of the following is not found in animal cell?

Cell wall of cellulose


Nucleus
Mitochondria
None of these

200. Mammal capable of flying is :

Jaguar
Ostrich
Pallican
Bat

201. The edible part of the potato is :

root
bud
fruit
stem

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202. The small pox vaccine was discovered by

Edward Jenner
Louis Pasteur
John
Harvey

203. In which of the following structure the human body vermiform appendix
is included:

large intestine
small intestine
gall bladder
stomach

204. Usually stem cutting is a culturing process which is used in:

banana
sugarcane
mango
cotton

205. The fruits of coconut and mango are __.

pome
drup
beri
hesperidium

206. Hydroponics is associated with a:

plant growth without soil


plant growth without water
relation of sound and air
technique of water conservation

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207. Which of the following is not a mammal?

fish
bat
whale
None of these

208. The hormone secreted when one is frightened or excited

pituitrin
thyroxine
parathormone
adrenaline

209. Which of the following acid is present in the human abdomen?

sulphuric acid
hydrochloric acid
nitric acid
picric acid

210. The enzyme that is necessary to bring about clotting of blood is

peptidase
amylase
lipase
thrombokinase

211. Blood clotting requires vitamin

A
B
C
K

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212. Sex linked genes are carried by

X-chromosomes
Y-chromosomes
different part of X- and Y-chromosomes
autosomes

213. Sickle-cellanemia is a disease caused due to the abnormality in

White blood cells


Red blood cells
Thrombocytes
Blood plasma composition

214. The blood group AB is called universal recipient because:

antibody is found in the blood


antibody is not found in the blood
blood lacks antigen
blood lacks both antibody and antigen

215. Carbohydrate are stored in plants and animals in the form of

cellulose and glucose respectively


starch and glycogen respectively
starch and glucose respectively
cellulose and glycogen respectively

216. The science dealing with diseases of plants is called as __.

Plant anatomy
Plant ecology
Plant morphology
Plant pathology

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217. Which one of the following techniques can be used to establish the
paternity of a child?

Protein analysis
Chromosome counting
Quantitative analysis of DNA
DNA finger printing

218. In human body, the pancreas secretes its enzymes into which one of the
following?

Duodenum
lleum
Jejunum
Stomach

219. Which among the following is the richest source of ascorbic acid?

Apple
Bean
Carrot
Guava

220. The vitamin which is generally excreted by humans in urine is :

vitamin A
vitamin D
vitamin C
None

221. The human body needs the following vitamins. Arrange them in the
increasing order of their requirement:
1) Vitamin A
2) Vitamin D
3) Vitamin E
4) Vitamin K

1,2,3,4
3, 1,2,4

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4,3,2, 1
1,4,3,2

222. Match the following


A. Typhoid
B. Measles
C. Malaria
D. Diabetes

1 . Metabolic disorder
2 . Bacteria
3 . Virus
4 . Protozoa

2341
1234
3241
4321

223. The virus of AIDS affects the growth of:

Haemoglobin
RBCs in blood
T cells in blood
grey cells in brain

224. In the rabbit and horse, the appendix:

is very small
helps in digestion of cellulose
has no use
stores food

225. Which of the following statements is true with respect to Leukaemia:

Number of RBCs increases in blood


Number of WBCs increases in blood
Number of both RBCs and WBCs decreases in blood
Number of WBCs decreases in blood

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226. Which of the following is not an autoimmune disorder?


a) Diabetes mellitus
b) Haemolytic anemia
c) Rheumatic fever
d) Cholera
227. The natural anticoagulant of blood in the vessel is
a) EDTA
b) Oxalate
c) Citrate
d) Heparin
228. Western blotting technique is used to detect the
a) proteins
b) DNA
c) mRNA
d) rRNA
229. Which of the following is not a renewable energy resource?
a) Wood
b) Wave
c) Biogas
d) Natural gas
230. Streptomycin is used to cure the diseases caused by
a) Bacteria
b) Virus
c) Yeast
d) Fingi

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231. Antihaemorrhagic vitamin is also called as


a) Vitamin E
b) Vitamin K
c) Vitamin D
d) Vitamin B12
232. Erythropoietin, the hormone involved in synthesis of RBCs, is released to
blood circulation by
a) red blood cells
b) bone marrow cells
c) renal cells
d) hepatic cells
233. Plasma bicarbonate is transported across red blood cells by
a) Pectrin
b) Ankyrin
c) Carbonic anhydrase
d) Band 3 protein
234. The discovery of human blood group was made by
a) Emil Von Behring
b) Ehrlich
c) Landsteiner
d) Milstein
235. Penicillin the wonder drug was discovered first by Alexander Fleming
from the culture of
a) Penicillium notatum
b) Penicillium chrysogenum
c) Penicillium funiculosum
d) Penicillium stoloniferum

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236. Who developed the Rabies vaccine?


a) Robert Koch
b) Robert Gallo
c) Walther Hesse
d) Louis Pasture
237. Sugar in the nucleotide is
a) Hexose
b) Pentose
c) Priose
d) Heptose

238. The first viral pathogen discovered was


a) HIV
b) TMV
c) HPV
d) YMV
239. Plague is caused by
a) Bacterium
b) Fungus
c) Alga
d) Virus
240. Selman A. Waksman was awarded Nobel Prize for the discovery of
a) Penicilin
b) Streptomyces
c) Streptomycin
d) Penicillium

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241. Robert Koch has been awarded Nobel Prize in 1905 for the discovery
of
a) Anthrax
b) Cholera c) Tuberculosis
A) a and b
B) a and c
C) only a
D) only c
242. Organisms, which utilize simple inorganic compounds, are termed as
a) Phototrophs
b) Autotrophs
c) Heterotrophs
d) Necrotrophs
243. Which of the following methods is employed for disposal of sludge that
is contaminated with heavy metals heavily?
a) Incineration
b) Drying
c) Landfilling
d) Composting
244. Deterioration of fat in the presence of oxygen is due to the enzyme
a) Lipase
b) Protease
c) Lipoxygenase
d) Peptidase
245. In cheese manufacture, curd is formed by the addition of
a) Renin
b) Protease
c) Peptidase
d) Amylase
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246. Excessive intake of polished rice causes deficiency of


a) Vitamin A
b) Vitamin B1
c) Vitamin D
d) Vitamin K
247. Tofu is a processed product of
a) Kidney bean
b) navy bean
c) Broad bean
d) Soyabean
248. Decomposition of carbohydrates by microorganisms or enzymes is called
a) Putrefaction
b) Fermentation
c) Canning
d) Dextrinisation
249. Consider the following statements:
A. Milk is rich in calcium and vitamin D.
B. On heating milk combines with casein and is converted to calcium
caseinate. Of these
a) Statement A is correct and B is wrong
b) Statements A and B are correct
c) Statements A and B are wrong
d) Statement A is wrong and B is correct
250. Pace maker of heart
a) S. A. Node
b) A.V. node
c) A.V. septum
d) I.A.septum
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