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The Italian Avant-Garde and National Tradition

Author(s): John C. G. Waterhouse


Source: Tempo, No. 68 (Spring, 1964), pp. 14-25
Published by: Cambridge University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/943549
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THE ITALIAN
AVANT-GARDEAND
NATIONAL TRADITION

byJohnC. G. Waterhouse

Musical nationalismis sometimes looked on as a transientphenomenon,


characteristicof the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and closely
associated with political nationalism. But such a view is only a half-truth:
nationalcharacteristicshave had a way of turningup in the music of most ages,
and we find them not only in periods of militantpolitical nationalismand
parochialism,but also, often to a strikingdegree, at times when frontiers
seemed to implyno culturalbarriers. Medieval civilizationwas internationalto
an extent that would have been inconceivablein the nineteenthcentury; yet
there is no mistakingthe quintessentialitalianitca
of, say, Landini. The Italian
and Englishmadrigalschools of the late sixteenthand earlyseventeenthcenturies
could be regardedas closely-relatedphases of one great culturalflowering;yet
one need not look at the words to assignmadrigalsby Marenzio and Weelkes, or
Gastoldi and Morley, to theirrespectivecountries.
years this tendencyhas, of course, been
During the past hundred-and-fifty
reinforcedby political factors. But now that one-eyed patriotismis at last
beginningto die out in Europe, now that air-traveland wireless are making
easier thanever before, it is remarkablehow even the
culturalinternationalism
countriesstill seem to hesitateto sacrificetheir
most 'common-market-minded'
musical individualities.
On the face of it nothingcould be more internationalthanthe present-day
avant-garde:composers fromall corners of the world flock to Darmstadt (or
Warsaw or Venice) and freelyexchangeideas and techniques. Yet it is becoming
increasinglyclear thatnationalidentitieswill not be submergedeven by this,and
thatalmostall the trulycreativemembersof the avant-gardeshow strongsigns
of theirnationaltemperamentsand traditions: Boulez can only be fullyunderstood in the lightof his heritagefromDebussyand Messiaen; Maxwell Davies and
Birtwistlemake no secret of theirdebts to Englishmusic of the Middle Ages and
early Renaissance; and in Italy,perhapsmore than in any other country,international avant-gardetechniqueshave been fusedwith, and animatedby, idioms
and spiritualattitudeswhich clearly springfromnational roots.
To see how this situationhas arisen we must tryto consider the younger
generationof Italian composers in relation to the whole past historyof Italian
music, and more particularlyto their immediatepredecessors,the Italian composers of the period stretchingfrom the firstworld war to the second. It is
forthe Britishto view them in this way, because of
unfortunately
verydifficult
our extraordinaryneglect of almost all Italian music between Puccini and
Dallapiccola, and because of our relativeignoranceeven of Dallapiccola himself.
Recent investigationshave convinced me not only of the very considerable
intrinsicworthof much of the music in thisneglectedfield,but also of its crucial
importancefora just assessmentof the Italianmusic of thepresentmoment. My
1964 by John C. G. Waterhouse

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THE ITALIAN AVANT-GARDE

15

main purpose in this article is to point to just a few of the connectinglinks


between the Italian avant-gardecomposers and their nationalheritage.
Nowadays it has become a cliche to speak of the 'Mediterraneansunshine'
of much typicallyItalianmusic. But it is quite a usefulcliche, whichhappilysums
up a quality that Landini, Monteverdi, Vivaldi, Bellini, Dallapiccola, etc. all
have in common. Among the varioustechnicalfeaturesmost commonlyassociated
with it, one of the most obvious is a tendencyto delightin thirds,sixthsand
not merely as 'functional'building-stonesin the
common chords as sensations,
structure-a
tendency to enhance the sensuous warmth of these
music's
intervalsand chords by their spacing, melodic context, instrumentation,
etc.
Landini's use of thirdsand sixths shows markedlygreater awareness of their
euphony than Machaut's; Palestrina's ethereal polyphonylays more stress on
the beautyof the triadas sound thando the rougher,more impassionedtextures
of Byrdor Lassus; Monteverdiand GiovanniGabrieli sometimessustainsingle
common chords for long periods, oftendressingthem up in the most dazzling
ornamentation;Vivaldi, whose harmonycan seem functionalin the extreme,
neverthelessallows himselfto luxuriatein triadic warmthfor its own sake in
many of his best slow movements; Boccherini's chord-progressionsare in
generalmore sonorousand less dramaticthanHaydn's. In thenineteenthcentury
this tendencywent into temporaryeclipse-Verdi was more interestedin stark,
powerfulchord-relationsthanin chordsas chords. But in the twentiethcentury
it reappearswith great prominence,and has done much to preventItaly from
to the anti-triadictrendsassociatedwith Schoenberg.
submittingwhole-heartedly
This revival of 'Mediterranean' triadic sensuousness is already clearly
evident in Puccini. But to the end of his life foreign,and especiallyFrench,
influencespreventedhim fromfullyregainingthe Italianethos as it had been in
the great daysof the sixteenthand seventeenthcenturies. The fullrecoveryof
that ethos, and the reshapingof it in modern terms,was the work mainlyof
composersof the next generation,and above all of Pizzettiand G. F. Malipiero.
Thanksto these composers,youngermen like Dallapiccola and Petrassiand still
youngerones like Nono, Madernaand Berio could accept thisaspect of italianita'
as a birthright,and integrateit with much more advanced trendswithoutany
dangerof destroyingit. Exx. i, 2 and 3 give some idea of the formsthatthissensuous approach to thirds,sixthsand triadshas takenin successivegenerationsof
modern Italian composers.
Ex. 1

Largamente, ma non troppo lento

etc.

from G. F. Malipiero's TorneoNotturno(1929)

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TEMPO

16
Ex.2

Allegretto molto comodo (J=58-o0)


p
recilando
tranquillo,
_
-

Pie

V iolin

na

......

_4

'Cello

Trumpet
V

Horn

quan

- do

- va

de

pres-

so

la

...

(arm.)

(arm.)

I'al-

ta

re

si

fer

na

"

(arm )

ma -

semnpre

ro

..

......

'...... .... ........

no

(arm.)

Jp

from Dallapicola's CinqueFrammenti


di Saffo(1942)

Ex. 3

(un poco liberamente)

Woodwind

..

....

sost.

iola
(tutti con sord.)

splen-

-108ca. Cit.en.l

Ses.pr

con
sord
cupa

mp espr.

Tpt.

Trumpet
& Horn

-_

Violin

_.

HCh.

n.p

V i bra
Vn

con sorde

Viola

Cb.(arm.)

Woodwind

Vib.
V ibraphone
& Piano

Violin

.
..... ....................

.......

L9 I

1 19

Via.

fromMaderna's Serenata No. 2 for II instruments(1954, revised 19g7)

It is noteworthythatDallapiccola worshipsMalipiero, and rightlylooks on


TorneoNotturno
(perhaps thisbewilderinglyuneven and over-prolificcomposer's
and strangelyhauntingonemost impressivework) as one of the most fascinating
act operas of the twentiethcentury-he has said that when he firstheard the
work in 1932 it seemed to him "to rediscover the old authentic spirit of Italian

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THE ITALIAN AVANT-GARDE

17

thatMadernawas a memberof Malipiero's


music." It is also perhapssignificant
and
conducts
his
teacher's
music oftenand with evidententhusiasm.
master-class,
Another facet of the 'Mediterranean sunshine' of Italian music can be
seen in an exceptional sensitivityto all the subtletiesof that most luminousof
musical textures: vocal polyphony. Here too we find a definitetwentiethcenturyrevivalof somethingthathad been dormantduringthe nineteenthcentury
and indeed the eighteenth-forall its splendourVerdi's choral writinglacks the
infiniterefinementand richnessof detail to be foundin Palestrina'sor Monteverdi's. In this revivalthe crucial figurewas Pizzetti, who in the chorusesfor
La Nave (1905-7),
in the 'Trenodia per Ippolito Morto' from Fedra (1905-12),
and above all in the Due Canzoni Corali (19 I 3) not only resurrected the old madri-

gal traditionvirtuallysingle-handed,but raised it to a remarkableintensityof


expression which makes the decline of his creative powers from about 1921
onwards all the more regrettable.
But even if Pizzettihimselfnever again equalled the choral writingof these
choral scenes in
early works-with whichI shouldalso mentionthe magnificent
his finest opera Debora e jaele (19 15-2 I), in which, however, Italian qualities are

modifiedby Russianones derivingfromMussorgsky-he laid the foundationsof


a traditionwhich soon produced notable resultsin manypassagesof vocal poly-

phony by G. F. Malipiero, from San Francescod'Assisi (192 I1) to MagisterJosephus


in the Cori di Michelangelo
(1957); in much of Casella's Missa pro Pace (I944);
di Liberazione (I955) and
the
Canti
di
the
Canti
(1933-6),
Prigionia (1938-41),
the Requiescant(1958) of Dallapiccola; in Salmo IX (1934-6), the Coro di Morti
and Noche Oscura
of Petrassi; and, more recently, in the
(1940-41)
(i950o-5)
smaller pieces by Luigi Nono.
Canto Sospeso (19 g6) and several

The best music of this tradition,which includes both accompanied and


unaccompanied choral works, shows a strongawareness both of the sensuous
and beautyand of the dramaticpower of humanvoices in concert. In some works
of Nono the explorationof the subtletiesof nuance and texturemade possible
voices still harks
by the divisionof words and even syllablesbetween different
back to madrigalianroots:it is reallyonlyan extremeextensionof the somewhat
treatmentof words and choral texturesto be foundin the madrigals
fragmented
of Marenzio, Gesualdo and others. Exx. 4-7 give some impressionofthe growth
and continuityof this tradition.
Ex.4

Moderatamente mosso..
il

dolce4ap- ri - le

giun -

se,

il

dolce ap-ri -le

giun -

se,

Soprani
-. II
il dolce6ap- ri - le giun-se,
Confralti

IF

il
Tenorii
1.11

Bassi

il

dolcea

- ri - le

giun -

seil

II

5R
6v

overleaf)
(Ex. 4 continued

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dolce ap -

I8

TEMPO
e

non

- ri - le giun-se,

trailt. . . . .
ion

non

ri -

ta

Ilon-

ta

ta

ion

non

dolce'ap-

giun - se,

le

om----)
non

no

no

no

molto

-~---t
ta

ta

ion

tratt . ..

non

non e,

on

non

lon- ta

no

-------"

no

no

from Pizzetti's Due Canzoni Carole (1913)


Ex. 5
Sempre molto lento, ma un poco pii flessibile (molto espressivo)

pp.

meno dik
A
div
e

Soprani

Do - mi - ne De- us!

Contralti
0

Do -

mi- ne

Do

pii pp

Do - mi-ne De-us!

Do

Do

mi- ne

mi

Do - mi

- mi- ne

ne,

ne De.

us!

m)1olto
P

Tenori

a00;

De

n
us!

Tutti>

In

4f
To

-n-

Do.-

Do

us!

ne De- us!
.mi-from

- mi.-ne

De-us!

spe

ra

Vi

in

-sb

etc.

Te.

P subito
p

Dallapiccola's Canti di Prigionia(1938-41)

Ex. 6

Molto tranquillo ma senza trascinare ( = 0)

S.&T.

Speak

C.&
a.

B,
Bass Clt.
Orch.

gent Speak

hear

she
can
gent - iy,

y,

13

r
she

Hn.
Hrp
A

PP Hu.& Harp
on nextpage)
(Ex. 6 continued

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can

.
Ii

THE ITALIAN AVANT-GARDE

19
I

the

hear

B.

L7
grow...etc.

dais - ies

dais

ies

grow...

----------

. --the

F=_

from Dallapiccola's Requiescant(I957-58)

Ex. 7

cque

c.I

.Ici
T.II

6.(-

,
.

..

"

mpo

,.

ca

Fa

from Nono's Sara dolcetacere(i960)

to vocal polyphony,and even more persistent


Closelyallied to thissensitivity
and well-known,is the sensitivityto the solo humanvoice embodied in the bel
canto tradition. This traditiondid not go into eclipse in the I9th century,but
it became somewhatvulgarizedaround the turn of the century,for instancein
the notoriousMascagnianaria dell' urlo; and thisonce again led manycomposers
to react againstrecent developmentsand seek inspirationin Italy'smore remote
past. G. F. Malipiero's cantilenalines owe more to Monteverdithanto Bellini,
Verdi or Puccini, while Dallapiccola's owe at least as much.
The vocal lines of Dallapiccola's recentworks and of all the avant-gardeare
oftenangularin the extremeand verycomplex in rhythm; yet by some alchemy
even they rarelylose the suave cantilena quality of the bel canto tradition-a
per la Nottedi Natale
comparison of the vocal parts of Dallapiccola's Concerto
(i956-7) with the sharper,harder-edgedlines of Webern's cantataswill demonstratethis clearly. It is noteworthythat Dallapiccola's purely instrumental
works are few and relativelyunimportant,and that in many of Nono's less
a Guiomar(1962), the most convincing
pieces, e.g. the firstCanciones
satisfactory
sectionsare those for voice. The developmentof Italian vocal cantilenain the
twentiethcenturyis illustrated in Exx. 8- i.
Ex. 8
Lento

disperato
(tenor)

m4J

31
Man - gio

pa

ne

nP 00

"t~f"
+-:
.'

con

la - cri - me,

a - cquaa

ma

ra,

K"7

,r"

fird

(Ex. 8 continued
overleaf)

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do -

TEMPO

20

lo

tra -

ri e i

va

gli

nu - tri

mhan

ca

to.

etc.

air
Ex.9
Riviere

from G. F. Malipiero's TorneoNotturno


(1929)

Moltotranquillo
" .
p
ri - vo

ar

442-44

op

de-gli aero - pla - ni

sa

non

ra

per me

la

giam-mai

vit-to-

ria

che

Strgs.

p dolcissimo

Mki.01

chi

de u- na

ed

ra

guer-

pre

un pe

rio - do

di

pa

ce.
etc.

Fl.

from Dallapiccola's Yolo di Notte(1937-39)

Ex. 10
Allegromoderato

etc.
leading
eventually to

el

I Ib
'

Ex.11
If Female......
voicefo

If>P4'-

Pppp
D

sti

ng

ii

..

"

"

"

lascia vibrare sempre

Harp
(Ex.

ii continuedon nextpage)

c e t

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ng

THE ITALIAN AVANT-GARDE


_"_

go
go

_
1-

PP"=

..-.

.-.

-- i'Is
Pfrom

fj

21
==-

-d

Berio'sCircles96)

from Berlo's Circles(1960)

Up till now I have concentratedon musical characteristicsthathave reappeared, at least intermittently,


throughoutItaly's history. But there are also a
few more specificallymodern musical phenomenawhich are both recognizably
Italian and considerablyolder than the avant-garde; which, in other words,
formed a part of the avant-garde'sbirthrightthough they were not of such
ancient lineage as the tendenciesI have already discussed.
FirstlyI shouldmentiona special kindofpretty,rathersuperficialdecorativeness in which a variegatedand colourfulpalette servespurelyhedonisticends and
is often associated with a rathergimmickyviolence which can be downright
vulgar. The protagonistof this trend was not in fact a composer but the poet
has cast an insidiousspell over a very
Gabriele d'Annunzio. But dannunzianesimo
Italian
it
left
traces
deal
of
modern
even on so sober a composeras
music:
great
Pizzetti,while in Respighiand Zandonai it is oftenallowed to run riot. What is
more, thoughthe fulld'Annunzianethos now has a 'period' flavourits influence
is still discerniblein some ways even today: few would deny thatsomethingof
the kindcan be seen in much of the music of Nono, especiallywhen, forinstance,
he juxtaposes gentle, rarefied sonorities with unmotivatedbashing on the
percussion.
Similarlydecorative, post-d'Annunzianqualities figureprominentlyin the
music of Niccolo Castiglioni(b. 1932), whose stylerangesfrommere gimmicks,
sometimesof childish naivety,to a shimmeringkaleidoscopic prettinesswhich
can be verycharmingindeed. One recurrentfeatureofhis musicis a fondnessfor
multitudesof trilling,twitteringlines which are incomparablyairier and more
delicatethanStockhausen'seruptivearabesques,whichtheyinsome waysresemble;
indeed theyare oftencuriouslyreminiscentof bird-song(the resemblancemayor
maynot be deliberate). But Castiglioni'sbirds,ifsuch theybe, lack the numinous qualitythatgivesMessiaen's the air of mysticalsymbols;theybelong, rather,
to the same hedonistic ornithologyas the recorded nightingalein Respighi's
very d'AnnunzianPinesof Rome.Ex. 12 is a typicalexcerpt. Neo-d'Annunzian
Ex. 12

oscillando da 54 a 68
Flutes-2I

Oboe

Celesta
Nap

ViolinI

So

(Ex. I 2 continued overleaf)

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TEMPO

22
III
l.

Flutes

Ciarinet

pp
fromCastiglioni's Sequenze(1959)

tendenciescan be seen in several other Italian avant-gardecomposers. To cite


one more example (very differentfrom Castiglioni), the Due Improvvisi
per
of Gino Marinuzzijuniorare so unabashedlylushand variegatedlysensual
Orchestra
and texturalintricacymaintainany connection
in sound thatonlytheirrhythmic
with the avant-gardeat all.
The last tendencythat I have space to mention,and the only one that has
nothingdirectlyto do with 'Mediterraneansunshine', though the two things
are oftenfoundin the same work, is an exceptionallypotent traditionof highly
'committed' protest against war and injustice, which reached maturitywith
Dallapiccola and is the mainspringof severalof Nono's most intenseand moving
works. Political protest-musichas, of course, appeared in manycountries; but
compared with Dallapiccola's and Nono's that of composers like Tippett and
Eisler,and even thatof Shostakovichand Weill, seems relativelyaloofand lacking
in the more agonized kind of involvement. The Italiansseem to be unusually
willingto abandonthemselvesto thiskindofmusical'impurity':no othercountry
has produced such powerfulexpressionsof protestfromits residentcomposers;
the only comparablyforcefuland committed musical utterancesoutside Italy
are those of the by-then-expatriate
Schoenberg.
This traditionof protest-through-music
may have its ultimateroots in the
close associationof music (especiallythatof Verdi) withthe strugglesforfreedom
and nationalunityof the Risorgimentoperiod. It reappearsin a more desperate
and 'modern' formin the strangelytormentedworks that Casella was writing
duringthe firstworld war (in some ways his most interestingperiod). Two of
them, the Pagine di Guerra ( 915) and the Elegia Eroica (1916), make specific,
almostprogrammaticreferenceto the war. There can be no question about the
natureof the impulse behind a passage such as Ex. I3. But Casella's attitudeto
the war seems to have been curiouslyambivalentand muddled; by a kind of
doublethinkhe managedto retaina naive, almost Rupert Brooke-like belief in
the heroismof fighting.This sentimentwas later, alas, to get the upper hand in
his ludicrousopera II DesertoTentato(1936-7),in praise of Mussolini's Abyssinian
campaign.
There is no such ambivalence in Dallapiccola's protest, nor in Nono's.
These composers' wrathat the state of the world gave rise, in the older man's
Canti di Prigionia (1938-41)

and I1 Prigioniero(1944-8), and in the younger man's

II CantoSospeso(1956), to three of the most famousof all modern Italian compositions.Few could remainunmovedby the clanging,relentlessbells and impassioned choral entreatiesof the firsttwo of the Cantidi Prigionia,or by the overwhelming choruses of II Prigioniero(less overwhelmingin the production at
Sadler's Wells than the composer intended: he says that the second choral

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THE ITALIAN AVANT-GARDE

23

Ex. 13
Grave e pesante, grandiosamente
________

n all 4 notes

_------- AV__(all_4)

(a114)

(all 4)

upperussion

Elegia Eroica (96)

Trpts.sella's
Hns.TLE

Vln.I.II
Vla.
molto espr. ed a]Passionato

(Bass line doubled in lower

s.D.

8ve)

,ff

Percussion
joy
gong

from

Casella's

Elegia

Eroica

lasci
vibrare
Si
(I916)

intermezzoshould be amplifiedby microphonesso that the audience feels itself


"literally swept away and submergedby the immensityof the sound"). The
freneticbrass-writingand howling semitonal clashes of 11 CantoSospesomay at
effective.
timesseem more wilful,but theytoo are thrillingly
Some idea of the protestingviolence, the terror-struckagony, expressed
in these works, is givenby Exx. 14 and I g, and by Ex. g, quoted earlier.
Much more could be said about variousaspects of the Italian avant-garde's
Ex. 14
Appena meno mosso
=72

=o

Sa-

er-dio

tes

-tu i

in-,

duan-tet

etr -iu

T.

B.

Hns. Timp.
Tuba, Pfte. Cb.
Bass
Drum
Tam-Tam

Bass Drum

jP

ii lempo)
(ripretndere
Et

S.

- stif ti- am

sann- cti

..........

i, -

et

san - ti

et

san - cti

rrrr

B.
Et

san - eti

tu -

___

Org.

before)

tu

If
8f

Z'

+ Organ Pedals

(Ex. 14 continued
overleaf)

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TEMPO

24
S.
C.

T.

Molto animato, glorioso (Jd84)

t-

ri

Et
tu--

san-cti

ex

toui

Et

san- cti

tu

ex -

ftent, ex -

i,

Org.

Organ Solo
sostenendo le voci

(as

before)

from Dallapiccola's 11Prigioniero(1944-48)


Ex. 15
ca. 92

Horns
7
.-I

Trumpets

Trombones

I7

Fl.
O

I7_

mf

_ _

Trombs.

Timp.

_Timp.

Hn-.

Hns.

S.
J

I.

_
-

oil
A

Timp.

21V

from Nono's II CantoSospeso1956

nationalheritage. One could forinstancementionthe engaging(indeed in a work


like Circlesextraordinarily
fascinating)spiritof caprice whichBerio seemsto have
inheritedfromPetrassi,hence indirectlyfromCasella, and throughhim ultim-

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BENJAMIN LEES'S VISIONS OF POETS

2S

atelyfromDomenico Scarlattiand Rossini,and which servesto lightenand vivify


the 'note-volleying'mannerwhich Berio shares with Boulez and Stockhausen.
One could also mentionthe influenceof plainsong(not, of course, confinedto
Italy,but particularlystrongthere) which runs throughmuch of the output of
in the earlyworksof
Pizzetti,G. F. Malipiero, Respighietc., figuresprominently
in
a
albeit
more
sublimated
and
Petrassi
form, in some of
(and,
Dallapiccola
still
heard
with
and
can
be
ones
recent
their
too),
unexpected clarityin, say,
manypartsof Nono's Epitafo per GarciaLorca(1952-3).
These various tendencies are, of course, no more than ingredientsof
somethingaltogethermore intangibleand complex-a persistentlyrecurrent
musical atmospherewhich seems to be the musical equivalent of the Italian
nationaltemperament. I certainlydo not claim that all these tendenciesare in
themselveseitheruniversalin Italianmusicor confinedto it; some of themhave
counterparts,for example, in Britishmusic. Neverthelessthe sum total of their
Italian. Nor should one suppose thatall Italianavant-garde
effectis distinctively
more than all theirpredenational characteristics,any
show
obvious
composers
Italianabout the hard,ejaculatorytexture
cessorsdid: thereis nothingspecifically
while
of, say, Aldo Clementi's IdeogrammiNo.2 or his Episodi per Orchestra,
most of Franco Donatoni's recentmusic seems no more nationalthanhis Bart6kian early works. Both these composers have clearly learned a great deal from
Stockhausen. And I can detect little Italian spiritin most of the sounds which
emanatefromthe Milan electronic studies, and little spiritof any kind in such
of Italy'smore extremealeatoriclunaciesas have come myway. Buton the whole
Italy's musical avant-gardeshows to a surprisingdegree how resilienta national
traditioncan be even when circumstancesseem to be conspiringto obliterateit.

BENJAMIN LEES'S VISIONS


OF POETS

by Deryck Cooke
From the expressive point of view, as was shown in the firstpart of this
articlel the special quality of Lees's music is that it is concerned with the
emotional unrest of contemporarylife-the sense of violence, the feelingsof
it
doubt, discouragement,even despair-but while voicing these unflinchingly,
confrontsthemwitha naturalvitalitywhichis not devoidofhumour,courage,and
hope. Seattle thereforemade an appropriatechoice when they commissioned
him to write a large-scalechoral work to open the 'Century 2 Exposition' of
1962. The result, Visionsof Poets,was performedat the expositionon May 15
and 16, by Adele Addison (soprano), Albert da Costa (tenor), the Seattle
Chorale and SymphonyOrchestra,under Milton Katims. It was a spectacular
occasion, the stage of the new Seattle Opera House being filledwith a chorus
of 90o and an orchestraof 95; the work created a profoundimpression,and
was generallyvoted Lees's outstandingachievementto date.
i. This is the conclusion of Mr. Cooke's article 'The Recent Music of Benjamin Lees' in Tempo 64,
Spring 1963.
( 1964 by Deryck Cooke

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