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Combustion Quality of Coal and Lignite

The Market for Bentonite in the


Europe: Supply Side Issues
Wide Publishing
( A Division of Wide Educational Products and Services)
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( At Radio Galley,on DumDum Road ,Near Dumdum Chiria More )
Kolkata-700002.INDIA

Wide Educational Products and Services. 7/1/1, Samar Sarani (At Radio Galley on Dumdum Road, Near Dumdum Chiriamore) Kolkata 700002,
West Bengal, India. Phone : (033)25468733 / Fax : (033) 25468733 Mobile : 09339682179 / 09007744212. Email : wide.publishing@gmail.com.

Guidance for Solving Environmental Challenges of Mining, Construction,


Processing and Oil and Gas Fields Projects.

Introduction to Bentonite
Bentonite is the commercial name for the
clay mineral montmorillonite, which is
formed by the weathering of volcanic ash
bed. Most known bentonite deposits in the
world date from the Tertiary and Mesozoic
periods and may thus be up to 230 million
years old. World resources of bentonite
are very large and thought to be practically
inexhaustible.
Wide Educational Products and Services. 7/1/1, Samar Sarani (At Radio Galley on Dumdum Road, Near Dumdum Chiriamore) Kolkata 700002,
West Bengal, India. Phone : (033)25468733 / Fax : (033) 25468733 Mobile : 09339682179 / 09007744212. Email : wide.publishing@gmail.com.

Land Acquisition and Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility


Management - Manual For Resource Intensive Core Industries

The mineral possesses many useful properties,


which makes it a valuable material for a number
of industrial uses and applications. The most
sought-after properties are its absorptive and
swelling capacities; its weight increases several
times when dry bentonite is mixed with water
and creates a gelatinous and viscous fluid. The
clay is normally extracted by surface open-pit
mining and then processed by crushing and
drying to reach a moisture content of
approximately 15 per cent (http://www.imaeu.org/eubaindex.htm ).
Wide Educational Products and Services. 7/1/1, Samar Sarani (At Radio Galley on Dumdum Road, Near Dumdum Chiriamore) Kolkata 700002,
West Bengal, India. Phone : (033)25468733 / Fax : (033) 25468733 Mobile : 09339682179 / 09007744212. Email : wide.publishing@gmail.com.

PROJECT ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE ENGINEERING AND


MANAGEMENT ASPECTS For Fuel & Non Fuel Minerals Producing
And User Industries

The name bentonite was given to the clay mineral some


time .Clem and Doehler (1961) report that the name
bentonite was given to the clay mineral as early as 1848,
while the European Bentonite Producers Association
(EUBA 2008) reports the year to be 1898
in the mid-1800s when the first site was discovered near
Fort Benton in Wyoming and has become internationally
accepted. Today, most clays of the same basic type go
by the name bentonite, although they may not possess
the same swelling capacity as the Wyoming grade
bentonite. The name montmorillonite, which is the main
mineral in bentonite, also derives its name from a
deposit, but in this case the deposit is located in
Montmorillon, southern France.
Wide Educational Products and Services. 7/1/1, Samar Sarani (At Radio Galley on Dumdum Road, Near Dumdum Chiriamore) Kolkata 700002,
West Bengal, India. Phone : (033)25468733 / Fax : (033) 25468733 Mobile : 09339682179 / 09007744212. Email : wide.publishing@gmail.com.

Regulatory and Community Requirements of Industrial Project Clearance


Mining, Oil & Gas, Steel, Aluminum, Cement Industries and Other Core
Sectors

There are two main varieties of bentonite:


calcium and sodium, where sodium bentonite is
the more commercially important
(http://www.bgs.ac.uk/)
According to Murray ,calcium bentonite deposits
are much more common than sodium bentonite
deposits. However, calcium bentonite can be
changed to sodium bentonite by the ionexchange process (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/ ).
Wide Educational Products and Services. 7/1/1, Samar Sarani (At Radio Galley on Dumdum Road, Near Dumdum Chiriamore) Kolkata 700002,
West Bengal, India. Phone : (033)25468733 / Fax : (033) 25468733 Mobile : 09339682179 / 09007744212. Email : wide.publishing@gmail.com.

Rehabilitation and Resettlement Issues of People Affected in Project Land


Acquisition- Administrative, Social and Regulatory Mechanisms-

The most notable industrial uses


for bentonite:

Bonding material in the preparation of moulding


sand in the production of iron, steel and nonferrous castings;
binding agent in the production of iron ore
pellets;
civil engineering uses, such as waterproofing
and sealing;
drilling mud in the oil industry the bentonite
seals the borehole walls, removes drill cuttings
and lubricates the cutting head;
pet waste absorbents (cat litter).
Wide Educational Products and Services. 7/1/1, Samar Sarani (At Radio Galley on Dumdum Road, Near Dumdum Chiriamore) Kolkata 700002,
West Bengal, India. Phone : (033)25468733 / Fax : (033) 25468733 Mobile : 09339682179 / 09007744212. Email : wide.publishing@gmail.com.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF ALLIANCE,MERGER AND


ACQUISITIONS

The US Geological Survey reports in its Minerals


Yearbook 2006 that bentonite exports for both
drilling mud and foundry sand increased during
2005 due to the strong demand for foundry
products and increased drilling for oil and gas,
whilst exports of bentonite for iron ore pelletizing
increased significantly. This shows that the
booming commodity market of the recent years
has indeed affected the market for bentonite as
well.
Wide Educational Products and Services. 7/1/1, Samar Sarani (At Radio Galley on Dumdum Road, Near Dumdum Chiriamore) Kolkata 700002,
West Bengal, India. Phone : (033)25468733 / Fax : (033) 25468733 Mobile : 09339682179 / 09007744212. Email : wide.publishing@gmail.com.

Trade and Market for Minerals, Metals, Oil and Gas - Dynamics and
Determinants

WORLD BENTONITE PRODUCTION AND MAJOR


MARKETS in 2006 by Major Region (Tonnes).

Wide Educational Products and Services. 7/1/1, Samar Sarani (At Radio Galley on Dumdum Road, Near Dumdum Chiriamore) Kolkata 700002,
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Combustion Quality of Coal and Lignite

North and Central America is where the largest production of bentonite


occurs in the world. The region is dominated heavily by the US, which is the
world's largest individual producer of bentonite, with a production of 4.6
million tonnes in 2006. In this year, the region accounted for 34 per cent of
world bentonite exports. US exports were shipped mainly to Canada and
Japan, although significant quantities were also sold to Saudi Arabia and
the Western European market. The second largest producer in the region,
Mexico, sold most of its exports to Germany and Belgium.

Europe was the world's largest importer of bentonite in 2006. The most
notable importing countries in Europe were, in descending order, Germany,
Netherlands, France, the UK and Sweden. The two biggest exporters in
Europe were Greece and Italy, who sold most of their export bentonite in
the European home market, with the bulk of their exports shipping to
Germany, France and Sweden. Europe's largest individual producer of
bentonite was, by far, Greece at 1.1 million tonnes bentonite produced in
2006, followed by Russia at approximately 0.5 million tonnes.

Wide Educational Products and Services. 7/1/1, Samar Sarani (At Radio Galley on Dumdum Road, Near Dumdum Chiriamore) Kolkata 700002,
West Bengal, India. Phone : (033)25468733 / Fax : (033) 25468733 Mobile : 09339682179 / 09007744212. Email : wide.publishing@gmail.com.

Guidance for Solving Environmental Challenges of Mining, Construction,


Processing and Oil and Gas Fields Projects.

Asia's biggest importers of bentonite were Malaysia and


Japan. The most notable exporters of bentonite in Asia
were India, China and Cyprus. China produced 3.2
million tonnes of bentonite in 2006, making it the world's
second largest producer. Chinese exports were mainly
confined to the SE Asian market, but some 50,000
tonnes were shipped to the Netherlands. India exported
slightly over 90,000 tonnes to Brazil, but exports were
otherwise mainly shipped to closer customers, except
44,000 tonnes that were exported to the Netherlands.
Cyprus, who is located in the Mediterranean Sea,
exported its bentonite to the West European market, with
the bulk of its shipments going to the Netherlands and
the UK.
Wide Educational Products and Services. 7/1/1, Samar Sarani (At Radio Galley on Dumdum Road, Near Dumdum Chiriamore) Kolkata 700002,
West Bengal, India. Phone : (033)25468733 / Fax : (033) 25468733 Mobile : 09339682179 / 09007744212. Email : wide.publishing@gmail.com.

Land Acquisition and Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility


Management - Manual For Resource Intensive Core Industries

World Bentonite Exports in 2006 by


Major Region (Tonnes).

Wide Educational Products and Services. 7/1/1, Samar Sarani (At Radio Galley on Dumdum Road, Near Dumdum Chiriamore) Kolkata 700002,
West Bengal, India. Phone : (033)25468733 / Fax : (033) 25468733 Mobile : 09339682179 / 09007744212. Email : wide.publishing@gmail.com.

PROJECT ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE ENGINEERING AND


MANAGEMENT ASPECTS For Fuel & Non Fuel Minerals Producing
And User Industries

Major Intra-European Trade Flows of Bentonite,


2007 (Thousand Tonnes).

Wide Educational Products and Services. 7/1/1, Samar Sarani (At Radio Galley on Dumdum Road, Near Dumdum Chiriamore) Kolkata 700002,
West Bengal, India. Phone : (033)25468733 / Fax : (033) 25468733 Mobile : 09339682179 / 09007744212. Email : wide.publishing@gmail.com.

Rehabilitation and Resettlement Issues of People Affected in Project Land


Acquisition- Administrative, Social and Regulatory Mechanisms-

BENTONITE TRADE IN EUROPE


Notable overseas suppliers of bentonite to the European market
were India and the US, who together supplied approximately 9 per
cent of the total European and CIS bentonite imports in 2007. The
major European importers of bentonite from India in 2007 were the
Netherlands (39,158 tonnes), Poland (41,119 tonnes) and Italy
(53,750 tonnes). The main European importers of US bentonite
were Poland (17,762 tonnes) and the UK (29,215 tonnes).
The main drivers behind the European bentonite market appear to
be consumer applications (such as pet litter) and industrial uses
(such as foundry sands, construction, to some extent drilling muds
and, in Sweden, iron ore pelletizing), but there is simply too little
information available to make any strong assertions regarding this.

Wide Educational Products and Services. 7/1/1, Samar Sarani (At Radio Galley on Dumdum Road, Near Dumdum Chiriamore) Kolkata 700002,
West Bengal, India. Phone : (033)25468733 / Fax : (033) 25468733 Mobile : 09339682179 / 09007744212. Email : wide.publishing@gmail.com.

Trade and Market for Minerals, Metals, Oil and Gas - Dynamics and
Determinants

Conclusions
Particular attention was devoted to the European market,
and the role of the CIS countries. We noted that the
market had a distinct regional character, although
approximately 9 per cent of the total European and CIS
bentonite imports in 2007 was supplied by India and the
US. Greece is by far the biggest supplier of European
bentonite imports, followed by Italy, the Netherlands,
Germany and Turkey, in descending order.
The main drivers behind the European bentonite market
appear to be consumer applications (such as pet litter)
and industrial uses (such as foundry sands, construction,
to some extent drilling mud and, in Sweden, iron ore
pelletizing), but there is simply too little information
available to make any strong assertions regarding this
Wide Educational Products and Services. 7/1/1, Samar Sarani (At Radio Galley on Dumdum Road, Near Dumdum Chiriamore) Kolkata 700002,
West Bengal, India. Phone : (033)25468733 / Fax : (033) 25468733 Mobile : 09339682179 / 09007744212. Email : wide.publishing@gmail.com.