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Non-linear Programming

J. C. C. Saad;* J. A. Frizzone

* Departamento de Engenharia Rural, FCA-UNESP, Caixa Postal 237, 18603-970 Botucatu, SP, Brazil

Departamento de Engenharia Rural, ESALQ-USP, Caixa Postal 9, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

(Receiy ed 3 March 1995; accepted in rey ised form 8 January 1996)

the lay-out, as well as the design and management of

trickle irrigation systems, to achieve maximum net

benefit. The model consists of an objective function

that maximizes profit at the farm level, subject to

appropriate geometric and hydraulic constraints. It

can be applied to rectangular shaped fields, with

uniform or zero slope. The software used is the

Gams-Minos package. The basic inputs are the cropwater-production function, the cost function and cost

of system components, and design variables. The main

outputs are the annual net benefit and pipe diameters

and lengths. To illustrate the capability of the model,

a sensitivity analysis of the annual net benefit for a

citrus field is evaluated with respect to irrigated area,

ground slope, micro-sprinkler discharge and shape of

the field. The sensitivity analysis suggests that the

greatest benefit is obtained with the smallest microsprinkler discharge, the greatest area, a square field

and zero ground slope. The costs of the investment

and energy are the components of the objective

function that had the greatest effect in the 120

situations evaluated.

1996 Academic Press Limited

C8

C9

C 10

C 11

C 12

C 13

C 14

C 15

Ccp

C cs

Ce

C ee

C ie

C kw

Cp

Cpe

C ps

C pvm

C pvn

C pvs

Notation

h

A

Ba

Bn

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

Cv

D

Dld

Dlu

dm

pump eficiency

total area, m2

annual benefit, US$ / ha yr

annual net benefit or profit from the

irrigated crop, US$ / ha yr

constant in Eqn (10)

constant in Eqn (10)

constant in Eqn (11)

constant in Eqn (11)

constant in Eqn (12)

constant in Eqn (12)

constant in Eqn (13)

Dmd

Dmu

Dnd

Dnu

Ds

dx

dy

109

constant in Eqn (14)

constant in Eqn (15)

constant in Eqn (15)

constant in Eqn (16)

constant in Eqn (16)

constant in Eqn (18)

constant in Eqn (18)

cost of control panel, US$

cost of control station, US$

emitter cost, US$

annual cost of electric energy, US$ / yr

annual cost with with investment and

energy, US$ / ha yr

cost of the kWh, US$

annual production cost (without

irrigation), US$ / ha yr

cost of polyethylene pipe, US$ / m

cost of pumping station, US$

cost of p.v.c. pipe used in main line,

US$ / m

cost of p.v.c. pipe used in manifold line,

US$ / m

cost of p.v.c. pipe used in submain

diameter, US$ / m

cost of valves and registers, US$

inside diameter of the pipe, m

downhill lateral line diameter, m

uphill lateral line diameter, m

maximum net depth of water to be

applied per irrigation

downhill main line diameter, m

uphill main line diameter, m

downhill manifold line diameter, m

uphill manifold line diameter, m

submain line diameter, m

ground slope in x direction, m / m

ground slope in y direction, m / m

1996 Silsoe Research Institute

110

J. C. C. SAAD ; J. A. FRIZZONE

Ea

El

E mv

E nt

Et

ETa

ETp

ETs

Eu

Fcr

Hcs

Hf

Hld

Hlu

hm

Hmd

h min

Hmu

Hnd

Hnu

Hs

Ht

hv

If

Ifx

Is

It

Ky

L

Ll

Lm

Ln

Ls

Ltl

Ltm

Ltn

Lts

Lx

Ly

Mad

Ns

Nsu

Nsus

Om

number of emission points in the lateral

line

manufacturing variation in emitter

expressed as a coefficient of variation

number of emitters per emission point

total number of emitters

actual seasonal evapotranspiration, m

average daily evapotranspiration during

peak-use period, m / d

maximum evapotranspiration per

season, m

emission uniformity

capital recovery factor

head losses in the control station, m

head loss due to pipe friction, m

downhill lateral head losses, m

uphill lateral head losses, m

average emitter pressure, in m

downhill main line head losses, m

minimum pressure in the subunit, m

uphill main line head losses, m

downhill manifold head losses, m

uphill manifold head losses, m

submain line head losses, m

total head losses plus total difference in

elevation, m

allowable pressure head variation in the

subunit, m

irrigation frequency, d

maximum irrigation frequency, d

number of irrigation days during the

season

number of irrigation hours per set of

subunits working simultaneously, during

an irrigation interval

yield response factor

length of pipe, m

lateral line length, m

main line length, m

manifold line length, m

submain line length, m

total lateral line length, m

total main line length, m

total manifold length, m

total submain length, m

length of field in x direction, m

length of the field in y direction, m

management allowed deficit, %

number of submain lines

total number of subunits

number of subunits working

simultaneously

number of outlets in the main line

On

Os

P

Pw

Q

Q av

Qe

Ql

Qm

q min

Qn

Qs

Qt

Se

Sl

Tav

Vmd

Vmu

Vs

Vt

Wa

Y

Ym

Yr

Z

number of outlets in the submain line

price of product in US$ / kg

percentage area wetted

flow rate in the pipe, m3 / s

available discharge, m3 / s

average emitter discharge, m3 / s

lateral line discharge, l / h

main line discharge, l / h

minimum emission rate in the subunit,

l/ h

manifold line discharge, l / h

submain line discharge, l / h

total discharge at pump outlet, l / h

distance between emission points in a

lateral line or distance between plants in

a row, m

distance between laterals or between

rows of plants, m

number of hours available for irrigation

per day

average flow velocity in the downhill

main line, m / s

average flow velocity in the uphill main

line, m / s

average flow velocity in the submain

line, m / s

volume of water applied per plant during

the season, m3

available water-holding capacity of the

soil, m / m

actual yield, kg / ha yr

maximum annual yield, kg / ha yr

relative yield

plant root depth, m

1. Introduction

Trickle irrigation is a convenient and efficient

method of supplying water directly to the root zone of

row crops or to individual plants, such as trees and

vines. A trickle irrigation system offers special agronomical, agrotechnical and economic advantages for

the efficient use of water and labour (Keller and

Bliesner1). For a given site there are many possible

variations in the lay-out, design and management of

trickle systems. Improvements in equipment technology and the rapid increase in energy, equipment and

manpower costs has demanded that designers and

farmers consider the fundamental economic aspects.

Hence, the optimization of lay-out, design and operation has become an important factor affecting farmers profit.

111

Benami and Ofen;4 Oron and Karmeli;5 Karmeli and

Oron;6 Oron and Walker7), the optimization objective was to minimize the total cost. This consisted of

two opposing factors: the cost of the investment and

the operational cost. The investment included the cost

of all network components, while the operational cost

included mainly labour and energy. Generally, larger

pipe diameters for a given length and discharge,

increase capital costs but, at the same time, decrease

the energy requirements. On the other hand, smaller

pipe diameters decrease capital costs but increase the

energy requirements.

Linear programming was utilized to optimize the

pipe network, when the lay-out and operation of

permanent irrigation systems were defined (Pleban

and Amir;2 Oron and Karmeli;3 Benami and Ofen4).

Another optimization method, referred to as geometric programming associated with the branch and

bound technique, was used when the lay-out, design

and management of the solid-set pressurized irrigation

system were not defined (Oron and Karmeli;5 Karmeli

and Oron;6 Oron and Walker7).

Allen and Brockway8 pointed out that the best

criterion for irrigation system optimization was the

maximization of the net economic benefit, and not the

minimization of the total cost. Holzapfel et al.9

developed a non-linear optimization model for the

design and management of drip irrigation systems

which maximized profit from the irrigated crop. Their

Micro-sprinkler

Lateral

reference for the development of the present work.

The purposes of this paper are (1) to develop a

non-linear model that provides the optimization of

lay-out, design and management of trickle irrigation

systems in both flat and sloping areas, to maximize

crop profit; and (2) to illustrate the capability of the

model by means of a sensitivity analysis of the annual

net benefit for a citrus field located in Limeira, Sao

Paulo, Brazil, by varying area, micro-sprinkler discharge, ground slope and shape of the field.

2. Model development

The trickle irrigation system optimization model

consists of an objective function that maximizes profit

at the farm level, subject to appropriate constraints.

The basic assumptions in the model are as follows (see

also, Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 ): (1) the area must be

rectangular; (2) the slope must be uniform in both

directions; (3) the pump and control stations are

placed at the middle of one edge of the field (in the x

direction); (4) the lateral lines are polyethylene and

the others are polyvinyl chloride (p.v.c.); (5) there

must be at least one subunit working in each submain

line during the effective period of irrigation; (6) the

total number of subunits must be equal to or a

multiple of the number of subunits working simultaneously; (7) the ratio of the total number of subunits

Manifold

Subunit

Valves

Submain

Main

x

Fig. 1 . Basic configuration adopted by the trickle irrigation system optimization model (with main line)

112

J. C. C. SAAD ; J. A. FRIZZONE

Valves

Subunit

Micro-sprinkler

Lateral

Manifold

direction, submains will all be either uphill or downhill. There are two basic configurations: one with main

line (Fig. 1 ) and another without it (Fig. 2 ). The

others possible configurations are obtained by simple

multiplication of the above subunits.

2.1 . Objectiy e function

The objective function to be maximized is the

annual net benefit and is given by the benefit minus

the costs of the investment, energy and production.

Thus

B n 5 B a 2 C ie 2 C p

Submain

(1)

irrigated crop in US$ / ha yr; Ba 5 annual benefit in

US$ / ha yr; Cie 5 annual cost of the investment and

energy in US$ / ha yr; Cp 5 annual production cost

without irrigation, in US$ha yr.

The benefit is

B a 5 PYm Yr

(2)

where

Yr 5

y

x

Y

Ym

annual yield in kg / ha yr; Yr 5 relative yield and

Y 5 actual yield in kg / ha yr.

The benefit depends on the yield and the model

used to quantify the relationship between yield and

water, when any other required resource is at the

optimum level, is (Doorenbos and Kassam10)

12

system optimization model (without main line)

Y

ETa

5 Ky 1 2

Ym

ETs

Then

working simultaneously to the number of submain

lines must be an integer; (8) the ratio of the total

number of subunits to the number of submain lines

must be an even number and (9) the length and the

width of the irrigated area must be multiples of the

distance between emission points in the lateral line

and of the distance between lateral lines.

A trickle irrigation system is usually composed of

subunits, that in this paper consist of emitters (or

micro-sprinklers), pipes (laterals and manifold), and

accessories such as valves. Each subunit is connected

directly to a submain or to a main line. On sloping

fields the lateral, manifold and main pipelines will be

laid uphill and downhill. The exception is the submain. Because the control and pump stations are

placed at the middle of one edge of the field in the x

(3)

Yr 5

Y

ETa

5 1 2 Ky 1 Ky

Ym

ETs

(4)

(5)

where Ky 5 yield response factor; ETa 5 actual seasonal evapotranspiration in m; ETs 5 maximum evapotranspiration per season, m.

The volume of water applied per plant (or tree) per

season (Vt), in m3, is given by

Vt 5

ETa Se S1 3600E nt Q e Is It

5

Ea

If

ETa 5

(6)

S3600EI SES Q I I D

a

nt

e t s

(7)

f e 1

Thus

Ba 5 PYm 1 2 K y 1 K y

DG

3600E a E nt Q e It Is

If Se S1 ETs

(8)

113

lateral or distance between plants (or trees) in a row,

in m; S1 5 distance between laterals or between rows

of plants (or trees), in m; E a 5 water application

efficiency; E nt 5 number of emitters per emission

point; Q e 5 average emitter discharge in m3 / s; It 5

number of irrigation hours per set of subunits working

simultaneously, during an irrigation interval; Is 5

number of irrigation days during the season and

If 5 number of days in the irrigation interval (irrigation frequency).

The cost of the investment and energy, Cie,

(US$ / ha)

Cie 5

h[(Ce E t) 1 (C pe Ltl) 1 (C pvn Ltn) 1 (C pvs Lts)

1 (C pvm Ltm) 1 Cv 1 C cp 1 C cs 1 C ps]Fcr 1 C eej10 000

A

(9)

where Ce 5 emitter cost, in US$; E t 5 total number of

emitters; C pe 5 cost (US$ / m) of polyethylene pipe

expressed as a function of the diameter (m); Ltl 5 total

length of lateral in m; C pvn 5 cost (US$ / m) of p.v.c.

pipe expressed as a function of the manifold diameter

(m); C pvs 5 cost (US$ / m) of p.v.c. pipe expressed as a

function of the submain diameter (m); C pvm 5 cost

(US$ / m) of p.v.c. pipe expressed as a function of the

main diameter (m); Ltn 5 total length of manifold in

m; Lts 5 total length of submain in m; Ltm 5 total

length of main line in m; C v 5 cost (US$) of valves;

Ccp 5 cost (US$) of control panel; C cs 5 cost (US$) of

control station; C ps 5 cost (US$) of the pump station;

Fcr 5 capital recovery factor; C ee 5 annual cost

(US$ / yr) of electric energy and A 5 total area, m2.

The pipe cost expressed as function of line diameter

are expressed by regression equations as follows

Cpe 5 C 1(Dlu 1 Dld) 2 C 2

(10)

(11)

Cpvs 5 C 5(Ds)

C6

(12)

C8

C8

(13)

is the downhill lateral line diameter, in m; Dnu is the

uphill manifold line diameter, in m; Dnd is the

downhill manifold line diameter, in m; Ds submain

line diameter, in m; Dmu is the uphill main line

diameter, in m; Dmd is the downhill main line diameter, in m; C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C 5 , C 6 , C 7 and C 8 are

constants.

The cost (US$) of valves expressed as a function of

the total number of subunits is given by

C v 5 C 9 Nsu

(14)

C9 5 constant.

The cost (US$) of the control panel expressed as a

function of the total number of subunits is given by

Cpc 5 C 10(Nsu)C11

(15)

The cost (US$) of the control station expressed as a

function of the actual discharge is given by

C cs 5 C 12 1 (C 13 Qt)

(16)

discharge (m3 / s) at the pump outlet, given by

Q t 5 2Q e E nt E l On Nsus

(17)

On 5 number of outlets in the manifold and Nsus is the

number of subunits working simultaneously. The factor 2 is used because there are lateral lines on both

sides of the manifold line. The same factor appears in

a number of other equations, such as Eqns (18), (20),

(47) and (48).

The cost (US$) of the pump station expressed as a

function of the required power is given by

Cps 5 C 14

S2000Q E E75OhN

e

nt

(hm 1 Ht)

sus

C15

(18)

the pump efficiency; C 14 and C15 are constants and Ht

is the total head losses plus the total difference in

elevation, in m, given by

Ht 5 [(Hlu 1 Hnu 1 Hs 1 Hmu 1 Hcs)1?05]

1 [(Ll d y) 1 (Ln dx) 1 (Ls d y) 1 (Lm d x)]

(19)

manifold head losses (m); Hs 5 submain head losses

(m); Hmu 5 head losses in the uphill main line (m);

Hcs 5 head losses in the control station, m; Ll 5 lateral

line length, in m; d y 5 ground slope in y direction

(m / m); Ln 5 manifold line length, in m; d x 5 ground

slope in x direction (m / m); Ls 5 submain line length,

m and Lm 5 main line length in m. The factor 1?05 is

adopted to compensate head losses produced by

valves, registers, emitter connections and others.

The annual cost (US$ / yr) of electric energy expressed as a function of the consumption is given by

S2Q E E O N

Cee 5 C kw

nt

hNsus If

(20)

sus

114

J. C. C. SAAD ; J. A. FRIZZONE

system can be obtained using the following equations.

Et 5

AE nt

Se Sl

(21)

A

A

Ltl 5 2

Sl 2El Sl

(22)

A

A

Ltm 5

2

2El Se 4El Se On

(23)

0?5A 0?5Lx E l Se

2

On Sl

Sl On

(24)

Lts 5

(26)

Ln

On 5 1 0?5

Sl

(27)

Ns 5

Lts

Ly 2 (El Se)

(28)

Q 1?75

D 4?75

(34)

L 5 length of pipe (m); Q 5 flow rate in the pipe

(m3 / s) and D 5 inside diameter of the pipe (m).

For larger plastic pipe, where the diameter is

greater than 0?125 m, the Darcy Weisbach equation is

given by (Keller and Bliesner1)

Hf 5 9?58 3 1024L

Q 1?83

D 4?83

(35)

function of the emission uniformity. For design purposes, the allowable pressure head variation in a

subunit that will give a reasonable emission uniformity

(Eu) can be computed by (Keller and Bliesner1)

h v 5 2?5(h m 2 hmin)

Nsu

Os 5

2Ns

(29)

Ns

2

(30)

Om 5

Hf 5 7?89 3 1024L

(25)

Ll

1 0?5

Se

El 5

the pipe head losses. For use with smooth plastic pipes

and hoses less than 0?125 m in diameter, this equation

is given by (Keller and Bliesner1)

m; Ly is the length of the field in the y direction, in m;

Ns is the number of submain lines; Os is the number of

outlets in the submain line and Om is the number of

outlets in the main line.

(36)

subunit (m); h min 5 pressure head that will give the

minimum emission rate in the subunit (m).

To estimate the emission uniformity for a proposed

design, Karmeli and Keller11 used

Eu 5 100 1 2 1?27

E mv

4Ent

D qQ

min

(37)

In sloping fields, the model solves the design of the

trickle irrigation system assuming that the uphill and

the downhill pipes have the same length, but different

diameters. Thus

decimal); E mv 5 manufacturing variation in emitter

expressed as a coefficient of variation and qmin 5

minimum emission rate in the subunit (m3 / s).

The hv value must be divided among the lateral and

manifold lines. Keller and Bliesner1 recommended, as

a general design guideline, that the allowable subunit

head variations should be allocated equally between

the lateral and manifold head variations. Karmeli and

Peri12 found the most economic division is approximately 55% in the lateral and 45 percent in the

manifold. This paper uses limits of 40% and 60% to

subdivide hv to find the division that maximizes profit.

Thus

(31)

(38)

(32)

(39)

(33)

(40)

Hnd 5 downhill manifold head losses (m) and Hmd 5

head losses in the downhill main line (m).

(41)

(42)

2.2. Constraints

The constraints in the present analysis are the

hydraulic conditions, the irrigation criteria, the geometric limitations and the operational characteristics.

selected so that the flow velocities are maintained

between the limits of 0?2 and 2 m / s.

2.2.2. Management constraints

The irrigation frequency (If) must be less than the

maximum value (Ifx)

If < Ifx

(43)

where

Ifx 5

dm

ETp

Mad Pw

Wa Z

100 100

(45)

percentage area wetted (the average horizontal area

wetted in the top 15 to 30 cm of the crop root zone as

a percentage of the total crop area); Wa 5 available

water-holding capacity of the soil, m / m and Z 5 plant

root depth, m.

The available time to irrigate the total field area is a

restriction

Nsu It

< Tav

Nsus If

(46)

per day.

The water discharge is restricted by the water

available to the field

2Qe E nt E l On Nsus

< Q av

Ea

(47)

The irrigated area under the trickle irrigation

system must cover the total area (A) of the field

Nsu 5

A

2El On Se Sl

recovery factor, energy cost, cost function and cost of

the system components; and (3) design variables:

number of plants (trees) per hectare, number of

emitters per emission point, number of irrigated days

during the cycle, maximum evapotranspiration per

season at the design of percentage of confidence, peak

evapotranspiration rate, recommended emitter pressure, efficiency of the motor and the pump and emitter

coefficient of manufacturing variation.

(44)

is the maximum net depth of water to be applied per

irrigation, m and ETp 5 average daily evapotranspiration during peak-use period, m / d. For trickle irrigation dm (in m) is given by

dm 5

115

(48)

The model requires basic inputs such as: (1) topographic data: total area, field length and ground slope

along the x and y directions; distance between plants

in a row and distance between plant rows; (2) cost

The output data are: (1) net benefit, total cost of the

trickle irrigation system and the cost of each component; and (2) length and diameter of all pipelines in

the hydraulic network, number of subunits and number of subunits working simultaneously, emission

uniformity, irrigation frequency, number of irrigation

hours per set, average flow velocity in the submain

and main line.

To illustrate the capability of the model, the net

benefit for a citrus field, located in Limeira, Sao

Paulo, Brazil, was evaluated for the following variables: total area (8?29 and 23?04 ha); micro-sprinkler

discharge (35, 56 and 87 l / h); ground slope (the same

value in x and y directions of 0, 1, 3 and 5%); shape of

the field (field length in x direction / field length in y

direction: ratios of 0?25, 0?44, 1, 2?25 and 4). The

combination of these variables resulted in 120 possible

configurations. Each model configuration has 67 lines

and 59 rows, with 59 decision variables and 216

non-zero values. The input data are shown in Table 1.

2.6 . Software

The optimization model was run on a AT-486

microcomputer using the GamsS-Minos package

(Brooks et al.13). This software uses the simplex

method, the quasi-Newton method, the reduced gradient method and the projected Lagrange method to

solve linear, non-linear and mixed optimization problems. A configuration is composed by a value of area,

micro sprinkler discharge, ground slope and shape of

the field. Each model configuration was solved in

about 1 min.

116

J. C. C. SAAD ; J. A. FRIZZONE

(Cp)

Available discharge, m3 / s (Qav)

Available water-holding capacity of

the soil, m / m (Wa)

Average (or design) pressure, in m

(h m)

Average daily evapotranspiration

during peak-use period, in m / d

(ETp)

Capital recovery factor (Fcr)

Coefficient of Eqn (10) (C1)

Coefficient of Eqn (10) (C2)

Coefficient of Eqn (11) (C3)

Coefficient of Eqn (11) (C4)

Coefficient of Eqn (12) (C5)

Coefficient of Eqn (12) (C6)

Coefficient of Eqn (13) (C7)

Coefficient of Eqn (13) (C8)

Coefficient of Eqn (14) (C9)

Coefficient of Eqn (15) (C10)

Coefficient of Eqn (15) (C11)

Coefficient of Eqn (16) (C12)

Coefficient of Eqn (16) (C13)

Coefficient of Eqn (18) (C14)

Coefficient of Eqn (18) (C15)

Cost in the kWh, in US$ (Ckw)

Distance between emission points in

a lateral or distance between trees

in the row, in m (Se)

Distance between laterals or between

rows of tree, in m (Sl)

Ground slope in x direction, % (d x)

Ground slope in y direction, % (d y)

Head losses in the control station, in

m (Hcs)

Length of field in x direction / length

of field in y direction

Management allowed deficit, % (Mad)

Manufacturing variation in microsprinkler expressed as a coefficient

of variation (Emv)

Maximum evapotranspiration per

season, in m (ETs)

Maximum irrigation frequency, day

(Ifx)

Maximum yield, kg / ha yr (Ym)

Micro-sprinkler cost (Ce)

Micro-sprinkler discharge, l / h (Qe)

Number of hours available for irrigation per day (Tav)

Number of irrigation days during the

season (Is)

Number of micro-sprinklers per

emission point (Ent)

Percentage area wetted (Pw)

Plant root depth, m (Z )

Price of citrus in US$ / kg (P )

Pump efficiency (h )

Total area, in m2 (A)

Water application efficiency (Ea)

Yield reduction ratio (K y)

Value

1356

0?2

0?1

15

4?7

0?135 87

9?03

0?009 0

91?41

1?51

380?45

1?78

190?23

1?78

403?43

683?90

0?52

1812?12

0?1

834?22

0?47

0?050 64

basic assumptions of the optimization model. For

example: the configuration with the greatest net benefit has four subunits, one subunit working simultaneously, one submain line, and area of 480 m 3

480 m. These values are consistents with assumptions

5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.

The model describes the pipe diameters as continuous variables, although pipes can only be purchased in discrete diameters. The diameters found by

the model can be interpreted as the equivalent diameter for a pipe section consisting of two successive

commercial pipe segments.

2950

4

8

0; 1; 3 or 5

0; 1; 3 or 5

15

0?25; 0?44; 1;

2?25 or 4

50

0?05

0?487

5?32

82 742?4

2?11

35; 56 or 87

21

120

1

50

1

0?055 88

0?65

82 944 or 230 400

0?90

1

2940

2930

2920

2910

2900

2890

2880

00

05

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

ratio of length in x direction / length in y direction , for

micro -sprinkler discharge of 35 l / h and ground slope in both

directions of zero. Irrigated area : m , 8?29 ha; j , 23?04 ha

Input data

Table 1

Input data used in the example

390

380

370

360

350

340

330

320

310

300

0

05

15

25

35

function of the ratio of length in x direction / length in y

direction , for the micro -sprinkler discharge of 35 l / h and

ground slope in both directions of zero. Irrigated area : m ,

8?29 ha; j , 23?04 ha

117

using an iterative process. The first iteration results in

non-integer values that are not desirables in some

variables (for example, the total number of subunits).

With these values and with the basic assumptions, it is

possible to establish alternatives with integer values

for the variables where this is necessary. The alternative that gives the greatest net benefit will be accepted

as the final result for that configuration.

The production cost, in all cases, was

US$1316 / ha yr and the benefit was US$4624 / ha yr

equivalent to a relative yield of unity, that is, the real

production is equal to the maximum production. So,

the variation of the net benefit in the 120 configurations is a function of the variation of the cost of the

investment and energy. This can be observed by

comparing Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 . The costs of the

investment and energy are the most sensitive components of the net benefit.

The greatest net benefit (US$2946 / ha yr) was obtained with the smallest micro-sprinkler discharge

Table 2

Variables for the configurations with the greatest net benefit and smallest net benefit

Variables

Greatest

Smallest

230 400

82 944

Length of field in x direction (Lx),

m

480

192

Length of field in y direction (Ly),

m

480

432

Micro-sprinkler discharge (Qe), l / h

35

87

Slope in x direction (d x), %

0

5

Slope in y direction (d y), %

0

5

Allowable pressure head variation

in the subunit (h v), m

9?37

9?34

Annual benefit (Ba), US$ / ha yr

4624

4624

Annual cost of electric energy

(Cee), US$ / yr

1120

619

Annual cost with investment and

energy (Cie), US$ / ha yr

322

536

Annual net benefit (Bn), US$ / ha yr

2946

2732

Average flow velocity in the downhill main line (Vmd), m / s

1?7

1?7

Average flow velocity in the uphill

main line (Vmu), m / s

1406

2490

Cost of control station (Ccs), US$

8112

5570

Cost of pump station (Cps), US$

3095

2876

Cost of values (Cv), US$

1614

4641

Downhill lateral head losses (Hld),

m

5?13

5?64

Downhill lateral line diameter

(Dld), m

0?017

0?012

Downhill main line diameter

(Dmd), m

(Hmd), m

(Hnd), m

4?24

10

Downhill manifold line diameter

(Dnd), m

0?094

0?042

Emission uniformity (Eu)

0?80

0?81

Irrigation frequency (If), d

3?2

5?3

Irrigation time per set of subunits

working simultaneously (It), h

13?28

8?82

Variables

Lateral line length (Ll), m

Main line discharge (Qm), l / h

Main line length (Lm), m

Manifold line discharge (Qn), l / h

Manifold line length (Ln), m

Minimum pressure in the subunit

(h min), m

Number of emission points in the

lateral line (El)

Number of outlets in the main line

(Om)

Number of outlets in the manifold

line (On)

Number of outlets in the submain

line (Os)

Number of submain lines (Ns)

Number of subunits working simultaneously (Nsus)

Submain line diameter (Ds), m

Submain line discharge (Qs), l / h

Submain line head losses (Hs), m

Submain line length (Ls), m

Total discharge in pump outlet

(Qt), l / h

Total head losses (Ht), m

Total lateral line length (Ltl), m

Total main line length (Ltm), m

Total manifold line length (Ltn), m

Total number of micro-sprinklers

(Et)

Total number of subunits (Nsu)

Total submain line length (Lts), m

Uphill lateral head losses (Hlu), m

Uphill lateral line diameter (Dlu), m

Uphill main line diameter (Dmu), m

Uphill main line head losses

(Hmu), m

Uphill manifold head losses

(Hnu), m

Uphill manifold line diameter

(Dnu), m

Greatest

1050

118

63 000

236

11?25

30

Smallest

783

34

18 792

92

11?27

9

30

12

2

1

6

1

1

2

0?114

0?089

63 000

37 584

4?54

4?73

360

396

63 000

30?35

28 320

944

7200

4

360

5?13

0?017

37 584

50

9792

1104

2592

12

396

2?24

0?014

4?24

0?8

0?094

0?071

118

J. C. C. SAAD ; J. A. FRIZZONE

1 resulted in the best values.

2960

2940

2920

4. Conclusions

2900

2880

2860

2840

2820

ground slope in both directions(%) , for micro -sprinkler

discharge of 35 l / h and Lx / Ly 5 1. m , 8?29 ha; j , 23?04 ha

direction / field length in y direction ratio of 1 and

zero ground slope. The smallest net benefit

(US$2732 / ha yr) was given by the greatest slope

ground (5%), micro-sprinkler discharge of 87 l / h,

smallest area (8?29 ha), and ratio between field length

in x direction and field length in y direction of 0?44

(Table 2).

did not violate the basic assumptions of the trickle

irrigation system optimization model, developed for

application in flat and sloping fields. The sensitivity

analysis involving the effect of area, ground slope,

micro-sprinkler discharge and the shape of the field

showed that the greatest net benefit is obtained with

the smallest micro-sprinkler discharge, the greatest

area, a square field and zero ground slope. The cost of

the investment and energy are the components that

change most in the 120 situations evaluated. The net

benefit per unit area decreases as the ground slope

increases and as the micro-sprinkler discharge increases. This optimization model can help engineers to

design trickle irrigation systems.

References

1

The net benefit per unit area decreased as the

ground slope increased (Fig. 5 ) and as the micro

sprinkler discharge increased (Fig. 6 ). The most

profitable shape of the 8?29 ha field was a square area.

For the 23?04 ha area, the ratio field length in x

2960

2940

2920

2900

9

2880

2860

2840

10

2820

11

30

40

50

60

70

Micro-sprinkler discharge, l / h

80

90

micro -sprinkler discharge (l / h) , for a ground slope of zero in

both directions and Lx / Ly 5 1 . m , 8?29 ha; j , 23?04 ha

12

13

New York: AVI Book, 1990

Pleban S; Amir I An interactive computerized aid for the

design of branching irrigating networks. Transactions

of the ASAE 1981, 24(2): 358 361

Oron G; Karmeli D Solid set irrigation system design

using linear programming. Water Resources Bulletin

1981, 17(4): 565 570

Benami A; Ofen A Irrigation engineering. Haifa: IESP,

1984

Oron G; Karemli D Procedure for the economical

evaluation of water networks parameters. Water

Resources Bulletin 1979, 15(4): 1050 1060

Karmeli D; Oron G Analysis of closed conduit irrigation

system and its subdivision. Journal of the Irrigation

and Drainage Division, ASCE, 1979, 105(2): 187 196

Oron G; Walker W R Optimal design and operation of

permanent irrigation systems. Water Resources Research 1981, 17(1): 11 17

Allen R G; Brockway E Concepts for energy-efficient

irrigation system design. Journal of Irrigation and

Drainage Engineering 1984, 110(2): 99 106

Holzapfel E A; Marin o M A; Valenzuela A Drip

irrigation nonlinear optimization model. Journal of the

Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE, 1990,

116(4): 479 496

Doorenbos J; Kassam A H Yield response to water.

Roma: FAO, 1979 (Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 33)

Karmeli D; Keller J Trickle irrigation design. Glendora;

Rain Bird Sprinkler Manufacturing Corp, 1975

Karmeli D; Peri G Trickle irrigation design principles.

Haifa: The Technion Students Publishing House, 1972

Brooks A; Kendrick D; Meeraus A Gams; a users guide.

Redwood City: The Scientific Press, 1988

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