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# ANALYSIS

Physics is not all about the study of motion, including accelerations, which
are changes in velocities. Physics is also about what can cause an object to
accelerate. That cause is a force which is a pull or push upon an object resulting
from the interaction with another object. The force is said to act on the object to
change its velocity. Whenever there is an interaction between two objects, there is
a force upon each of the objects. When the interaction comes to an end, the two
objects no longer experience the force. Force only exist as a result of an
interaction. For example, when a car slams into a telephone pole, a force on the
car from the pole causes the car to stop.
Force is a quantity that is measured using the standard metric unit known as
the Newton, which is abbreviated by an N. One Newton is the amount of force
required to give a 1 kg mass an acceleration of 1 m/s/s. A force is a vector quantity,
which is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. To fully describe the
force acting upon an object, you must describe both the magnitude, size or
numerical value, and the direction.
A single vector can be broken down into two components, namely its
horizontal and vertical vectors. The task of determining the amount of influence of
a single vector in a given direction involves the use of trigonometric functions, that
is through the component method. To determine the vertical component of a vector,
cosine function is used while sine function is used in a horizontal component.
Afterwards, the Pythagorean Theorem is used in order to come up with the
magnitude and direction of the resultant. Another one would be to through the
parallelogram method, a graphical representation of the vectors. The single vector
which effect is the same as that of vectors when added is called a resultant, which
is the sum of vectors. The vector that balances a resultant is called the equilibrant,

which is equal in magnitude with the resultant but oppositely directed. Equilibrium
is a state of balance. When an equilibrium is at rest, it is a static equilibrium. The
first condition of equilibrium states that the sum of all forces acting on a body or
system is zero.
In the performed experiment, concurrent forces act on a ring pulled by 4
strings with loads attached to its ends. The objectives of this experiments are to
determine the resultant force of concurrent forces using the Graphical and
Analytical method, to determine the first condition of equilibrium and its
implication, and to differentiate scalar from vector quantities and compare resultant
from equilibrant. The materials that were used are force table, super pulley with
clam, mass hangers, slotted mass, and a protractor. We are given some instructions
for equipment care such as extra care should be given on the super pulleys to avoid
damages and use reasonable mass on the hanger. The goal is to find the equilibrant,
in order to know what the resultant of the three vectors is. This was done in a two
dimensional plane. We need to find the equilibrant ( E . It is equal to the

## resultants magnitude but in opposite direction.

R=
E

(1)
In the graphical method, accuracy in drawing and measuring length of lines
is needed. A ruler and a protractor are needed as the resultant will depend on the
length of the arrow obtained. In addition, knowledge in scaling is important. This
method includes the parallelogram and polygon methods.

The parallelogram method is only used for adding two forces. In this, the tail
of the arrow is in the same location of the two vectors or origin and a
parallelogram is drawn with the diagonal line representing the resultant force.
Figure 1 shows two forces, F1 and F2, added with the resultant R.

F2

R
F1
Figure 1

On the other hand, the polygon method is used if there are more than two
given forces. The arrows in this method are connected head to tail. The arrow that
closes the polygon will be the resultant R. The tail of the resultant is located at the
tail of the first vector while its head is pointed toward the head of the last vector.
Figure 2 shows the resultant R is drawn from the tail of the first vector F 1 to last
vector F3.
R

F1
F3

F2

Figure 2
For analytical method, a more reliable way of finding a resultant vector is by
the component method. A component of a vector is the projection of the vector on
an axis. In this method, the resultant may be determined by adding first all the

Fx

## and along the y-axis,

Fy

and

then using the following equations to get the resultant and its direction where Fn
is the last force being added.

F x =F 1 x + F2 x + F 3 x + F nx

(2)

F y=F 1 y + F 2 y + F 3 y + F ny

(3)

R= ( F x ) +( F y )

tan 1 (

Fy)
Fx

(4)

(5)

Force is a vector quantity that, when applied to a rigid body, has a tendency
to produce translation, which means a movement in a straight line. When the
equilibrant was identified, the ring in the middle did not experience a change in
motion anymore. This means that it reached its state of equilibrium.

101: Resolution of Force, we are
given 7 procedures to help us
solve this experiment. Without
these procedures, we will not have
any idea what to do or what to
expect. The first procedure is
assembling the system using four
pulleys of the force table. As
shown in Figure 3, a force board
(or force table) that has three (or

FIGURE 3

## more) chains or cables attached to a

centre ring. The chains or cables
exert forces upon the centre ring in
three different directions. Typically
the experimenter adjusts the direction of the three forces, makes measurements of
the amount of force in each direction, and determines the vector sum of three
forces. Forces perpendicular to the plane of the force board are typically ignored in
the analysis and it is use with a ring, bench pulley, and string.

The second procedure is to attach a hanger at the end of each string that
passes over a frictionless pulley and arbitrarily suspend a mass on each hanger.
These strings are used to place the slotted mass. As shown in figure 4,

FIGURE 4

## the slotted mass is placed on the

hanger.
The third procedure is by trial
and error. As shown in Figure 5, the
ring must be placed at the center by
adjusting the angle of the strings or
vary the load on the hanger. This
procedure

requires

patience

in

FIGURE 5

## getting the right angle and loaded

mass.
The fourth procedure is to
pull the ring slightly to one side and
then

release.

Then

afterwards,

observe if the ring returns to the center. And if not, going back to the third
procedure is a must and adjust the position or load of one string if balance is
difficult to obtain.
The fifth procedure
is to record the mass on
each string and its angle
as

MASS

ANGLE

F1= 25g

1=15

F2 = 25g

2=65

F3 = 25g

3=280

F1 , F 2 , F 3 , F 4 , 1 , 2 , 3 4

F 4= 50g

## is at the center and

balanced

just

like

4 =151

in

Table 1
Table 1.
The sixth procedure is determine the resultant of F1 , F 2 , F 3 , using the
polygon method and the component method. Then compare the result of

F4.

## The last procedure is to perform another trial by repeating procedures 1 to 6 but

with a different mass on the hangers or different angles for the strings.
In trial 1, as shown in Figure 6, the value of the fourth mass is 50 grams and
its angle is 151 degrees. As shown in Table 2.1, using the Polygon Method, the
Resultant is equal to 50g while the angle is 325 o.

## The Polygon Methods

percentage error for the Resultant is 0.00% while for the Angle is 1.81%. As shown
in Table 2.2, using the Component Method, the Resultant is equal to 50.85g while
the angle is 330.5o. The Component Methods percentage error for the Resultant is
1.70% while for the Angle is 0.15%.

FIGURE 6

COMPONENT METHOD
=F x =F 1 x +F2 x + F 3 x

1mm = 1g

F2

## F x =25 cos 15 +25 cos 65 +55 cos 280

F3

=F y =F 1 y + F 2 y + F 3 y
F y =25 sin15 +25 sin 65 +55 sin 280

=325

R= ( F x ) + ( F y )

R =50g
0

error of F=

5050
x 100=0.00
50

F x =44.26 g

F y =25.04 g

R= ( 44.26 ) + ( 25.04 )
2

R=50.85 g

Fx
)=29.5o S of E330.5o
Fy
=tan1

|5050.85
|x 100=1.7
50
331330.5
error of =|
|x 100=0.15
331
error of F=

x 100=1.81
|331325
331 |

error of =

Table 2.1

Table 2.2

While in trial 2, as shown in Figure 7, the value of the fourth mass is 125
grams and its angle is 179 degrees. As shown in Table 3.1, using the Polygon
Method, the Resultant is equal to 127g while the angle is 361 o. The Polygon
Methods percentage error for the Resultant is 1.60% while for the Angle is 0.56%.
As shown in Table 3.2, using the Component Method, the Resultant is equal to

124.5g while the angle is 360o. The Component Methods percentage error for the
Resultant is 0.40% while for the Angle is 0.28%.

FIGURE 7

POLYGON METHOD

F1
F2

1mm = 1g

R =127g

=3610

F3

x 100=1.6 0
|125127
125 |

x 100=0.56
|359361
359 |

error of F=

error of =

Table 3.1
COMPONENT METHOD
=F x =F 1 x +F2 x + F 3 x

## F x =75 cos 0 +35 sin 45 +35 sin 315

F x =124.5 g

=F y =F 1 y + F 2 y + F 3 y

## F y =75 sin 0 +35 sin 45 +35 sin 315

F y =0 g

R= ( F x ) + ( F y )

R= ( 124.5 ) + ( 0 )
2

|125124.5
|x 100=0.4 0
125

error of F=

R=124.5 g

Fx
)=0o 360o
Fy
=tan1

x 100=0.28
|359360
359 |

error of =

Table 3.2
The biggest percentage error that we have acquired is 1.81% which was
from the first trial at the polygon method. This means that the ring was near at the
equilibrium state but not entirely at the center. There are numerous factors that can
be found. One of these factors could be the uneven flooring of the room. We
noticed how the table is shaking too much. It could either be the floor or the table
itself.
Based on the frequent adjustments in the trial and error part, we can say that
F4 is entirely dependent on F1, F2, and F3. Everything on the force table must be
balanced in order to get the ring to its equilibrium state.

For every trial, we somehow get the correct load at the first to fifth try. As
shown in Table 4.1 and Table 4.2, there is somehow a clue in order to get the right
be closed to F3s value to make it balance. Likewise, in trial 2, the loaded mass in
F2 and F3 is 35g while F1 is 75g, F4 must be closed or higher than F3.
MASS

ANGLE

MASS

ANGLE

F1= 25g

1=15

F1= 75g

1=0

F2 = 25g

2=65

F2 = 35g

2=45

F3 = 25g

3=280

F3 = 35g

3=315

F 4= 50g

4 =151

F 4= 125g

4 =179

## Table 4.2 Trial 2

CONCLUSION
Forces are vector quantities. Their magnitudes are defined in terms of the
acceleration they would give the standard mass. Concurrent forces reach the state
of equilibrium when the sum of all its forces is equal to zero. The resultant
obtained is always opposite in direction to the equilibrant but the same in
magnitude. That is why we can determine the equilibrant when we find out what
the resultant is. The resultant can be obtained through an actual experimentation,
polygon method, or component method. In the polygon method, the vectors should
be drawn precisely, following a scale, in order to have a right value of the resultant.
In component method, the principles of cosine, sine and the Pythagorean Theorem
should be used. If all methods are done accurately, the resultant should all be the
same, with a percentage of error of less than 10. The net force can be obtained by

adjusting the fourth mass and angle such that while plastic ring aligns with the
black ring printed on the force table. Since there is no resultant and is balanced,
then the sum of all forces acting on a body or a system is equal to zero. The
positioning of the ring is important because it tells whether the force table
apparatus is at equilibrium or not. The mass of the hangers cannot be disregarded
because its weight can still affect the equilibrium even when there is no slotted
mass on it. When a pull is applied on the ring and then released, it sometimes fail
to return to the center might because that the other three pulls still have rings on it
or the string fail to retract because of the other three pulls that are connected to it.
The significance of the resultant of F1, F2, and F3 to the remaining force (F4) is
somehow or equal, in some cases, to the magnitude of F 4. The efficient, accurate
and practical to use for me is the analytical method because it only requires
calculations which is more precise than the polygon method. The polygon method
is more time consuming and prone to error.