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Testing Directional

Ground Fault Determination


Practical Example of Use

Testing Directional Ground Fault Determination

Version: Expl_GndFlt_SteadyState.ENU.1 - Year: 2014


OMICRON electronics. All rights reserved.
This application note is a publication of OMICRON electronics GmbH.
All rights including translation reserved. Reproduction of any kind, for example, photocopying, microfilming,
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Reprinting, wholly or in part, is not permitted. The product information, specifications, and technical data
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OMICRON electronics translates this manual from the source language English into a number of other
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We have done our best to ensure that the information given in this manual is useful, accurate, up-to-date and
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Please use this note only in combination with the related product manual that contains several important
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Content
Preface ......................................................................................................................................................... 4
1

Application Example ............................................................................................................................ 5

Theoretical Introduction to Directional Ground Fault Determination ............................................. 7


2.1 Characteristic of the Ground Fault Current.................................................................................... 7
2.2 Determination of the Fault Direction .............................................................................................. 8
2.2.1
2.2.2

2.3
3

Directional Characteristic for Isolated Networks ............................................................................... 8


Directional Characteristic for Compensated Networks .................................................................... 10

Voltage Measurement for Directional Ground Fault Determination ............................................ 12

Practical Introduction to Steady-State Directional Ground Fault Testing .................................... 14


3.1 Defining the Test Object .............................................................................................................. 14
3.1.1

3.2

3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3

3.3

Example Output Configuration for the Directional Ground Fault Function ...................................... 16
Analog Outputs ............................................................................................................................... 17
Binary Inputs ................................................................................................................................... 17

Local Hardware Configuration for Directional Ground Fault Testing ........................................... 18


3.3.1
3.3.2

3.4

Device Settings ............................................................................................................................... 15

Global Hardware Configuration of the CMC Test Set ................................................................. 16

Analog Outputs ............................................................................................................................... 18


Binary Inputs ................................................................................................................................... 18

Defining the Test Configuration ................................................................................................... 19


3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3

General Approach ........................................................................................................................... 19


Ground Fault Test Module .............................................................................................................. 21
Directional Test ............................................................................................................................... 26

Support....................................................................................................................................................... 27

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Preface
This paper describes how to test the directional ground fault determination function (based on steady-state
values) for permanent ground faults in isolated and compensated networks. It contains an application
example that will be used throughout the paper.
The theoretical background of the steady-state directional ground fault determination function will be
explained. This paper also covers the definition of the necessary Test Object settings as well as the
Hardware Configuration for testing this function.
Finally, the Ground Fault test module will be used to test the directional decision of the related relay function.
Supplements:

Sample Control Center file Example_GroundFault_SteadyState.occ (referred to in this


document).
Requirements: Test Universe 3.00 or later; Ground Fault; Ramping and Control Center licenses.

Note:

OMICRON 2014

Testing the transient ground fault determination is not described in this document. For further
information regarding this subject, see Example_GroundFault_Transient.pdf.

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Application Example
20 kV

20 kV
Protection Functions
(21) Distance Protection Function (not a part of this document)

200/1

(67N) Directional Ground Fault Function


Distance Relay

IN

20000 V
3

100 V
3

VResidual

da

dn

da

dn

da

dn

100 V
3

60/1

Figure 1: Feeder connection diagram of the application example

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Parameter Name

Parameter Value

Frequency

50 Hz

VT (primary / secondary phases /


secondary open delta)

20000 V 100 V 100 V


3
3
3

CT (primary/secondary)

60 A /1 A

0.04 IN,nom

Ground Fault Settings

0.4

1)

Vnom
3

Notes

VResidual (open delta winding) is connected


CT ratio of the cable type (split core) current
transformer
Note: For overhead lines the phase CTs are
connected to a Holmgreen circuit. In this case
use the CT ratio of the phase CTs.
Pick-up value of the ground fault determination
in forward and reverse direction; depending on
the manufacturer, the relay may have different
settings for both directions. (IN,nom is a
reference current that can be obtained from the
relay manual. In this case it is the rated current
of the protective relay) 1)
Pick-up value of residual voltage

cos phi

Directional characteristic. Depends on the


transformer star point connection (see
chapter 2.2 )

1s

Delay time of the directional decision

= The Pick-up value depends on the transformer star point connection.

Table 1: Relay parameters for this example

Note:

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In this example, the directional ground fault function indicates the direction of the fault (forward
or reverse), but it does not trip.

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Theoretical Introduction to Directional Ground Fault Determination

2.1

Characteristic of the Ground Fault Current


A fault inception is a sudden change of state in the power system. Therefore, the power system will
transition from one steady-state into another. In isolated networks, the fault current during and after this
transition is mainly caused by the phase-to-ground capacities of the network. In compensated networks, the
Petersen coil (arc extinction coil) that is connected between the star point and ground also contributes to the
fault current.
Therefore, the time signal of the ground fault current consists of two basic components:

Figure 2: Characteristic of the ground fault current (with Petersen coil)

1.

2.

The transient ground fault current, which is caused by discharging and charging of the power system
components. The peaks of this current can be several times higher than the nominal current of the power
system. It has a frequency range between 500 Hz and 8 kHz for the discharge and 70 Hz to 4 kHz for the
charge of the phase-to-ground capacities of the power system. After fault inception, it lasts only for a few
periods of the nominal frequency of the power system. Transient ground fault relays can use this current
to determine the direction of a ground fault.
The steady-state ground fault current, which is caused by the phase-to-ground capacity of the non-faulty
phases and for compensated networks only by the Petersen coil. The magnitude of the ground fault
current depends on the phase-to-ground capacities and on the network configuration (isolated or
compensated) and therefore can be much smaller than the magnitude of the nominal current. As it is a
steady-state current, it has the nominal frequency of the network (50 Hz or 60 Hz). This ground fault
current can be used by the directional ground fault determination function (sensitive, permanent or wattmetrical ground fault detection) to determine the direction of the ground fault.

Note:

OMICRON 2014

The following document will only focus on the directional ground fault determination based on
steady-state values.

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2.2

Determination of the Fault Direction

2.2.1 Directional Characteristic for Isolated Networks

VC

180

1
+90

VResidual

VB

-90

+90

VC
180

VB

IC
-90

+90

IB
IN IA IB IC

ICap IN

VC
180

VB
-90

Figure 3: Primary voltages and currents during a ground fault in an isolated medium voltage radial network

Figure 3 shows the primary values of an isolated radial network during a ground fault. The voltages and
currents can be explained as follows:
1.

As the star point of the network is not solidly grounded, a ground fault will not cause a short circuit.
Therefore, the voltage between the faulty phase and the star point N will not break down. Instead, the
phase voltage will be dragged to ground potential. This will cause the residual voltage between the star
point N and ground. Additionally, the magnitude of the phase-to-ground voltages of the non-faulty phases
will rise to the magnitude of the phase-to-phase voltages, and the angle between the phase-to-ground
voltages will change from 120 to 60. During the ground fault, the phase-to-phase voltages will remain
as they were before.

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2.

The phase-to-ground capacities of the non-faulty phases and the ground fault form fault loops . The
currents in these loops are driven by the phase-to-ground voltages. Because of the capacities, the fault
current in each phase will lead the respective voltages by 90. The sum of the currents in all phases IN is
measured by a cable type CT or, for overhead lines, by the sum of three phase CTs connected in parallel
by a Holmgreen circuit. In non-faulty feeders, the sum current will have an angle of -90 with reference to
the vector diagram of the voltages (1).

3.

All the fault loops mentioned in (2) will go through the faulty feeder. Therefore, the sum of all capacitive
currents of all non-faulty feeders will flow through the cable type CT in the faulty feeder. This current is
the capacitive ground fault current of the network ICap .
The fault loops of the faulty feeder , however, will go through the cable type CT two times and in
different directions. Therefore, the cable type CT cannot measure the capacitive currents of the faulty
feeder!
The resulting current IN through the cable type CT is the capacitive ground fault current of the network
ICap . As ICap is the sum of the capacitive currents in all non-faulty feeders. It is usually significantly higher
than the capacitive current in a single non-faulty feeder. Also the capacitive current in the faulty feeder is
shifted by 180 in comparison to the non-faulty feeders. Therefore, it will have an angle of 90 with
reference to the vector diagram of the voltages (1).

Based on the direction of the current sums IN in the faulty and the non-faulty feeder, the relay can decide on
the direction of the fault.
+90

IN Faulty Feeder

VC

Forward
IPick-up

180

VResidual

IPick-up

VB

IN Non-Faulty Feeder
-90

Reverse

Figure 4: Directional characteristic of the directional ground fault protection function for isolated networks (sin- circuit) with primary
voltages and currents

Figure 4 shows the directional characteristic for isolated networks. As the ground fault currents are
capacitive currents, the direction can be determined by analyzing the imaginary part of the current. This is
also called sin- circuit. The relay at the faulty feeder will indicate "Forward", whereas the relays at nonfaulty feeders will indicate "Reverse". Therefore, the faulty feeder can be detected by observing the
directional indicators of all relays at the busbar.
Note:

OMICRON 2014

Depending on the phase-to-ground capacities of the respective non-faulty feeder, the current
sum in this feeder may be below the pick-up value. Therefore, some non-faulty feeders may not
show "Reverse".

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2.2.2 Directional Characteristic for Compensated Networks

VC

180

1
+90

VResidual

VB

-90

+90

VC
180

VB

IC
-90

IB
IN IA IB IC

+90

ICap

VC
180

IN

VB
ICap
-90

IInd

Figure 5: Primary voltages and currents during a ground fault in a compensated medium voltage radial network

Figure 5 shows the primary values of a compensated radial network during a ground fault. The voltages and
currents can be explained as follows:
1.

As the star point of the network is not solidly grounded a ground fault will not cause a short circuit.
Therefore the voltage of the faulty phase will not break down. Instead it will be dragged to ground
potential. This will cause the residual voltage between the star point N and ground. Also the magnitude of
the phase-to-ground voltages of the non-faulty phases will rise to the magnitude of the phase-to-phase
voltages, and the angle between the phase-to-ground voltages will change from 120 to 60. During the
ground fault, the phase-to-phase voltages will remain as they were before.

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2.

The phase-to-ground capacities of the non-faulty phases and the ground fault form fault loops . The
currents in these loops are driven by the phase-to-ground voltages. Because of the capacities, the fault
current in each phase will lead the respective voltages by 90. The sum of the currents in all phases IN is
measured by a cable type CT. In non-faulty feeders, the sum current will have an angle of -90 with
reference to the vector diagram of the voltages (1).

3.

All the fault loops mentioned in (2) will go through the faulty feeder. Therefore, the sum of all capacitive
currents of all non-faulty feeders will flow through the cable type CT in the faulty feeder. This current is
the capacitive ground fault current of the network ICap .
The fault loops of the faulty feeder , however, will go through the cable type CT two times and in
different directions. Therefore, the cable type CT cannot measure the capacitive currents of the faulty
feeder!
The Petersen coil that is placed between the star point and ground will also form a fault loop through the
ground fault . The current in this fault loop is driven by the residual voltage VResidual . This inductive
current IInd will be added to the capacitive ground fault current ICap and therefore, will compensate it. The
detuning v quantifies this compensation, and it is defined as follows:
v

ICap IInd
IInd

In most applications the inductive current will be higher than the capacitive current to avoid resonances at
the nominal frequency of the network. Also the Petersen coil is not an ideal inductivity, and it therefore
has a resistive component that shifts the current through the inductivity along the real axis (0).
Therefore, in most applications, the sum of the currents IN through the cable type CT of the faulty feeder
will be in the fourth quadrant (depending on the application, it may also be in the first quadrant).
Based on the direction of the current sums IN in the faulty and the non-faulty feeder, the relay can detect if
the fault is in forward direction.
Reverse

VC

+90

IPick-up

Forward
IPick-up

180

VResidual

IN Faulty Feeder

VB
IN Non-Faulty Feeder
-90

Figure 6: Directional characteristic of the directional ground fault protection function for compensated networks (cos- circuit) with
primary voltages and currents

Figure 6 shows the directional characteristic for compensated networks. As the current sum in the faulty
feeder is partly resistive, the relay can detect the faulty feeder by analyzing the real part of the current. This
is also called cos- circuit. The relay at the faulty feeder will indicate "Forward". Therefore, the faulty feeder
can be detected by observing the directional indicators of all relays at the busbar.
Note:

OMICRON 2014

As the current sum in non-faulty feeders is capacitive, its real part is almost zero. Therefore, the
relay is not able to detect the fault direction in non-faulty feeders, and it will not show "Reverse".

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2.3

Voltage Measurement for Directional Ground Fault Determination


For correct ground fault direction determination and for the pick-up of the residual voltage, the direction and
the magnitude of the measured voltages must be correct. Figure 7 shows the connection and the phasors of
the different voltages.
A

100 V
3

20,000 V
3

C
A

VA

VB

100 V
3
n

V Residual

da

dn

da

dn

da

dn

VC

Measured residual voltage at open delta winding


Primary

VC

VC

+90

180

Secondary

VResidual

VB

+90

180

VResidual

VB

-90

-90

Calculated zero sequence voltage from phase voltages


Primary

VC

Secondary

180

VC

+90

+90

180

V0

V0

VB

-90

VB

-90

Figure 7: Voltage measurement for directional ground fault protection

It is possible to either measure the residual voltage at an open delta winding or to calculate the zero
sequence voltage out of the phase voltages.
The measured residual voltage will be:
VResidual

VB V C

The calculated zero sequence voltage will be:


V0

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VB V C

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Table 2 shows an example of how to calculate the respective voltages.


Primary Voltages

V A 0 kV 0

V B 20 kV -150

20 kV +150
V C

Secondary Voltages

V A 0 V 0

V B 100 V -150

100 V +150
V C

Residual Voltage

VResidual

VB V C

3
100 V 180

Zero Sequence Voltage

1 a
V1
1
2
V 2 1 a

3

1 1
V 0

V0

2
a V A

a VB

1 VC

VB V C

3
57.74 V 180

Table 2: Example of the voltages during a ground fault

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Practical Introduction to Steady-State Directional Ground Fault Testing


There are different approaches on testing protection systems:
> Conventional testing: The test values are defined manually to test specific parameters or
specific protection functions.
> Simulation-based testing: The test values are obtained from a transient simulation of the
power system to test the function of the protection system as a whole.
The Ground Fault test module is designed for simulation-based testing of transient ground fault relays and
directional ground fault relays based on steady-state values. It is able to simulate the power system and to
directly output the simulation results with a CMC test device.
This test module can be found on the start screen of the OMICRON Test Universe. It can also be inserted
into an OCC file (Control Center document).

3.1

Defining the Test Object


Before testing can begin, the settings of the relay to be tested must be defined. In order to do that, the
Test Object has to be opened by double clicking the Test Object in the OCC file or by clicking the
Test Object button in the test module.

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3.1.1 Device Settings


General relay settings (e.g., relay type, relay ID, substation details, CT and VT parameters) are entered in
the RIO function Device.

Note:

The CT data of the cable type CT is entered. Add a new Test Object if you are testing with an
OCC-file where this setting interferes with other tests (e.g. overcurrent or distance protection).
The parameters V max and I max limit the output of the currents and voltages to prevent
damage to the device under test. These values must be adapted to the respective
Hardware Configuration when connecting the outputs in parallel or when using an amplifier.
The user should consult the manual of the device under test to make sure that its input rating
will not be exceeded.

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3.2

Global Hardware Configuration of the CMC Test Set


The global Hardware Configuration specifies the general input/output configuration of the CMC test set. It
is valid for all subsequent test modules and, therefore, it has to be defined according to the relays
connections. It can be opened by double clicking the Hardware Configuration entry in the OCC file.

3.2.1 Example Output Configuration for the Directional Ground Fault Function

VA

VC

VResidual

VB

IA IB IC

Figure 8: Wiring of the analog outputs of the CMC test set.

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3.2.2 Analog Outputs

The analog outputs, binary inputs and outputs can all be activated individually in the local Hardware
Configuration of the specific test module (see chapter 3.3 ).
3.2.3 Binary Inputs
4

2
1
1.
2.
3.
4.

The binary contacts of the directional indicators have to be connected to binary inputs. Any free binary
input can be used.
Depending on other protection functions (e.g. overcurrent or distance protection), some binary contacts
may already be used.
For wet contacts, adapt the nominal voltages of the binary inputs to the voltage of the respective signal,
or select Potential Free for dry contacts.
The binary outputs and analog inputs etc. will not be used for the following tests.

Reverse Direction

Forward Direction

Figure 9: Wiring of the binary inputs of the CMC test set.

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3.3

Local Hardware Configuration for Directional Ground Fault Testing


The local Hardware Configuration activates the outputs/inputs of the CMC test set for the selected test
module. Therefore, it has to be defined for each test module separately. It can be opened by clicking the
Hardware Configuration button in the test module.

3.3.1 Analog Outputs

3.3.2 Binary Inputs

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3.4

Defining the Test Configuration

3.4.1 General Approach


When testing the directional ground fault protection function, the following steps are recommended:

> Pick-up Test: Testing the current and voltage pick-up value of the ground fault directional
determination.
The pick-up test should be a secondary test with the current injection at the inputs of the protection device.
This test can be performed with the Ramping test module and will not be explained in this document. For
more information about testing pick-up values with the Ramping test module, please see the example file
Example_Ramping_Overcurrent.pdf.

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> Directional Test: Verifying the directional decision by simulating the fault currents at a faulty and a nonfaulty feeder.
When using a cable type CT for the directional ground fault protection, it is recommended to perform the
directional test with primary current injection. With this method, it is possible to test if the relay detects the
correct fault direction including the wiring of the cable type CT. In this case, the current outputs of the CMC
test set are injected through a test lead that goes through the cable type CT at least once. The more often
the test lead goes through the cable type CT, the lesser the current output of the CMC test set can be in
order to simulate the primary ground fault current. Figure 10 shows the wiring of the CMC test set for testing
with primary current injection.

Protection Relay

da

dn

da

dn

da

dn

Figure 10: Wiring of the CMC test set for testing the directional ground fault function with primary injection

Note:

Depending on the relay type, it may be necessary to also simulate the phase-to-ground
voltages.

The directional test is performed with the Ground Fault test module.

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3.4.2

Ground Fault Test Module

The Ground Fault test module simulates ground faults in a power system that consists of:

2.

Infeed:
Transformer:

3.

Network:

1.

This is the source for the power system.


It transforms the power from the infeed to the test network. It also provides the star
point for possible Petersen coil or resistor connections.
This is a radial network that consists of one busbar and multiple feeders that are
connected to the busbar. Figure 11 shows the elements of the network. The
ground fault will always be simulated in feeder A. Feeder B will always be a nonfaulty feeder. (See below for how to simulate forward or reverse faults.) All
remaining feeders are combined to one element, the "Remaining System".

Feeder E
Feeder D
Feeder C
Feeder B
Feeder A

Figure 11: Definition of the network elements of the test module Ground Fault

To test a ground fault relay, the parameters of these elements have to be set.

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Test tab
1.

2.

2
3

3.
4.

4
5
6

5.

6.

7.

The nominal frequency of the network can be entered


here. It is also possible to use the frequency from the test
object.
With this option, the network type can be set. Choose
Cable if the network to be simulated is a pure cable
network or a mix between cables and overhead lines.
Select Open line if a pure overhead line network should
be simulated.
The phase in which the fault should be simulated can be
selected here.
Select Permanent to test the directional ground fault
function based on steady-state values. Select Transient
to test transient ground fault relays.
Note: See Example_GroundFault_Transient.pdf for more
information on testing transient ground fault relays.
The ground fault will always be simulated in feeder A. To
define whether a faulty or a non-faulty feeder should be
simulated, the relay location can be changed. Select
Feeder A to simulate a faulty feeder or Feeder B to
simulate a non-faulty feeder.
This option defines the direction of the CT star point.
When injecting the current directly to the cable type CT as
shown in Figure 10, this setting has to be set to Dir. line.
To simulate a ground fault correctly, the test module
needs a ground fault resistance. This is the resistance
between the faulty phase and ground. The default value
can be used, if this value is unknown.

Transformer tab
8.
9.

9
10.
11.

10
11
12

OMICRON 2014

12.

Enter the nominal voltages of the transformer here.


Define the grounding of the transformer star point with
these options. Select Isolated if the simulated network
should have no connection between star point and ground
(see also chapter 2.2.1 ). Choose Compensated for
compensated networks (see also chapter 2.2.2 ).
The detuning must be set if Compensated is selected.
For compensated networks, it is also possible to add a
grounding resistance in parallel to the Petersen coil. This
increases the resistive part of the ground fault current.
This setting is entered as primary value.
Here, the rated power of the transformer is defined.
Also the transformer impedance has to be set for the
simulation. This parameter is equivalent to the relative
short circuit voltage and can be found on the name plate
of the transformer.
This value is the short circuit power of the infeed at the HV
side of the transformer.

Page 22 of 27

Network tab
1.

1
2.

3.

For the simulation, it is also necessary to enter the line


parameters of the faulty feeder. These values resemble
the line or cable between the busbar and the fault. The
resistance and the reactance have to be defined for the
positive and the zero sequence as primary values.
These parameters define the primary capacitive ground
fault current.
Network: The combined ground fault current of the
remaining system.
Feeder A: The ground fault current that is caused by the
phase-to-ground capacities of the faulty feeder.
Feeder B: The ground fault current of the non-faulty
feeder.
When testing with primary injection as shown in Figure 10,
the number of windings through the cable type CT must
be entered at Prim.:, whereas Sec.: is set to one. Figure
12 shows how to define the CT nominal currents for
testing with primary current injection.
Note: If the test current exceeds the maximum output
currents of the CMC test set, the number of windings
through the cable type CT can be increased.
If the test is performed with secondary current injection,
the CT ratio of the respective CT must be entered here. In
this case, it is also possible to use the CT ratio from the
test object by selecting the checkbox.

1
2
3
4

Figure 12: Setting the CT nominal currents for testing with primary injection

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General tab
1.

2.

3
3.

Here, the start condition of the test can be set. This


defines the behavior of the test module after clicking the
Start/continue test button on the toolbar.
When selecting Immediately, the test will begin as soon
as Start/continue test is clicked.
If On binary input: is activated, the test will only start
when the selected binary input is triggered.
When On time trigger is selected, the test will only start
after a signal from a connected time source as specified in
the Hardware Configuration.
The prefault time defines the time before the ground fault
is simulated. This time only applies if Transient is
selected at the Test tab.
With this option, the duration of the fault can be defined.
Make sure the time is long enough to get the correct
reaction from the relay.

Time Assessments
4

It is also possible to do time measurements of the connected binary triggers.


4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

The name of the measurement can be entered here.


With this option, it is possible to ignore all changes of the binary inputs before the selected event. This
ensures that the time measurement is not influenced by binary signals that occurred before the
measurement.
For the time measurement, a start and a stop condition have to be defined. These conditions can be
either events like the start of the voltage output or the fault inception or binary inputs.
To assess the time measurement, the expected time as well as the respective tolerances must be
entered here. Consult the relay manual to define the tolerances.
The measured time as well as the deviation to the expected time are displayed after the test. If the
measured deviation is within the tolerances, the measurement will be assessed as passed. Otherwise, it
will be assessed as failed.

Right-click the measurement, and select Add to add more measurements if necessary.

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Time Signal View

The time signal view shows analog and binary signals of the test. It can be used to check whether the binary
contacts of the relay reacted as expected. Also the cursors (1) can be used via dragging to measure times
manually.

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3.4.3

Directional Test

The directional test is performed by simulating the same ground faults but changing the relay location. As
shown in Figure 13, the first test is performed with the relay located in the faulty feeder (Feeder A). The
second one is then performed with the relay in a non-faulty feeder (Feeder B). The remaining settings of the
Test view are equal.

Figure 13: Definition of a faulty and a non-faulty feeder

The assessment of the test depends on the test step:


> Faulty Feeder: During this test, the relay must detect the forward direction of the fault correctly. The
time assessments can be used to measure the time between the start of the ground fault output and the
appearance of the forward direction indicator. With this measurement, it is possible to check whether the
forward direction was detected correctly and to confirm the delay time of the directional decision. The
time signal view can also be used to check whether the relay operated as expected.
> Non-Faulty Feeder: During this test, the relay detects either a fault in reverse direction, or it is not able
to detect any direction. If the relay can detect the reverse direction, the time measurement can be used
for assessment. Otherwise, the time signal view can be used to check whether the relay operated as
expected.
Note:

The test can always be assessed manually by selecting Manual Assessment on the Home
ribbon.

Feedback regarding this application is welcome via email to TU-feedback@omicron.at.

OMICRON 2014

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Support
When you are working with our products we want to provide you with the greatest
possible benefits. If you need any support, we are here to assist you!

24/7 Technical Support Get Support


www.omicron.at/support
www.omicronusa.com/support
Offering our customers outstanding support is one of our top priorities. At our
technical support hotline, you can reach well-educated technicians for all of your
questions. Around the clock competent and free of charge.
Make use of our 24/7 international technical support hotline: +43 59495 4444.
Additionally, you can find our Service Center or Sales Partner closest to you at
www.omicron.at or www.omicronusa.com.

Customer Area Stay Informed


www.omicron.at/customer
www.omicronusa.com/customer
The customer area on our website is an international knowledge exchange platform.
Download the latest software updates for all products and share your own
experiences in our user forum.
Browse through the knowledge library and find application notes, conference papers,
articles about daily working experiences, user manuals and much more.

OMICRON Academy Learn More


www.omicron.at/academy
www.omicronusa.com/academy
Learn more about your product in one of the training courses offered by the
OMICRON Academy.

OMICRON electronics GmbH, Oberes Ried 1, 6833 Klaus, Austria, +43 5949

OMICRON 2014

Page 27 of 27