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Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

CALCULATION SHEET

Document Ref:

SX023a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a


cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

Eurocode Ref

EN 1993-1-3

Made by

V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff

Date

Dec 2005

Checked by

D. Dubina

Date

Dec 2005

Sheet

of

Example: Calculation of effective section


properties for a cold-formed lipped channel
section in compression
This example deals with the effective properties calculation of a coldformed lipped channel section subjected to compression.
For practical design of light gauge sections to EN1993, designers will normally use software
or refer to manufacturers data. This example is presented for illustrative purposes

Basic Data

Created on Friday, February 20, 2009


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The dimensions of the cross-section and the material properties are:


Total height
h = 200 mm
Total width of upper flange

b1 = 74 mm

Total width of bottom flange

b2 = 66 mm

Total width of edge fold

c = 20,8 mm

Internal radius

r = 3 mm

Nominal thickness

tnom = 2 mm

Steel core thickness

t = 1,96 mm

Basic yield strength

f yb = 350 N mm2

Modulus of elasticity

E = 210000 N mm 2

Poissons ratio

= 0,3

Partial factor

M0 = 1,0

The dimensions of the section centre line are:

Web height

hp = h tnom = 200 2 = 198 mm

Width of upper flange

bp1 = b1 tnom = 74 2 = 72 mm

Width of bottom flange

bp2 = b2 tnom = 66 2 = 64 mm

Width of edge fold

cp = c tnom 2 = 20 ,8 2 2 = 19 ,8 mm

EN1993-1-3
3.2.4(3)

EN1993-1-3
2(3)

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

CALCULATION SHEET

Document Ref:

SX023a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a


cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

Eurocode Ref

EN 1993-1-3

Made by

V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff

Date

Dec 2005

Checked by

D. Dubina

Date

Dec 2005

Sheet

of

Checking of geometrical proportions


The design method of EN1993-1-3 can be applied if the following conditions EN1993-1-3
are satisfied:
5.2

b t 60

b1 t = 74 1,96 = 37,75 < 60 OK

c t 50

c t = 20,8 1,96 = 10,61 < 50 OK

h t 500

h t = 200 1,96 = 102,04 < 500 OK

In order to provide sufficient stiffness and to avoid primary buckling of the


stiffener itself, the size of stiffener should be within the following range:

Created on Friday, February 20, 2009


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0,2 c b 0,6

c b1 = 20,8 74 = 0,28

0,2 < 0,28 < 0,6 OK

c b2 = 20,8 66 = 0,32

0,2 < 0,32 < 0,6 OK

The influence of rounding of the corners is neglected if:

r t5

r t = 3 1,96 = 1,53 < 5 OK

r bp 0,10

r bp1 = 3 72 = 0,04 < 0,10 OK

EN1993-1-3
5.1(3)

r bp 2 = 3 64 = 0,05 < 0,10 OK

Gross section properties

Abr = t (2cp + bp1 + bp2 + hp ) = 1,96 (2 19,8 + 72 + 64 + 198) = 732 mm2


Position of the centroidal axis with regard to the upper flange:
z b1 =

[c (h
p

cp 2 ) + bp2 hp + hp2 2 + cp2 2 t


Abr

= 96,88 mm

Effective section properties of the flanges and lips in compression

The general (iterative) procedure is applied to calculate the effective EN1993-1-3


properties of the compressed flange and the lip (plane element with edge 5.5.3.2
stiffener). The calculation should be carried out in three steps:
Step 1:
Obtain an initial effective cross-section for the stiffeners using effective
EN1993-1-3
widths of the flanges determined by assuming that the compressed flanges are 5.5.3.2 (3)
doubly supported, the stiffener gives full restraint ( K = ) and that design
strength is not reduced ( com,Ed = f yb / M 0 ).

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

CALCULATION SHEET

Document Ref:

SX023a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a


cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

Eurocode Ref

EN 1993-1-3

Made by

V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff

Date

Dec 2005

Checked by

D. Dubina

Date

Dec 2005

Sheet

of

Effective width of the compressed flanges


The stress ratio: = 1 (uniform compression), so the buckling factor is:
k = 4 for internal compression element.

EN1993-1-3
5.5.2 and

= 235 f yb

EN1993-1-5
4.4

For the upper flange:


The relative slenderness:

p,b1 =

bp1 t
28,4 k

72 1,96
= 0,789
28,4 235 350 4

Created on Friday, February 20, 2009


This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

The width reduction factor is:

1 =

p,b1 0,055(3 + )
p,b1

0,789 0,055 (3 + 1)
= 0,914
0,789 2

The effective width is:


beff1 = 1bp1 = 0 ,914 72 = 65,8 mm

be11 = be12 = 0 ,5beff1 = 0 ,5 65,8 = 32 ,9 mm


For the bottom flange:
The relative slenderness:

p,b2 =

bp2 t
28,4 k

64 1,96
= 0,702
28,4 235 350 4

The width reduction factor is:

2 =

p,b2 0 ,055(3 + )
p,b2

0,702 0,055 (3 + 1)
= 0 ,978
0,702 2

The effective width is:


beff2 = 2 bp2 = 0 ,978 64 = 62 ,6 mm

be21 = be22 = 0,5beff2 = 0 ,5 62 ,6 = 31,3 mm

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

CALCULATION SHEET

Document Ref:

SX023a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a


cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

Eurocode Ref

EN 1993-1-3

Made by

V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff

Date

Dec 2005

Checked by

D. Dubina

Date

Dec 2005

Sheet

of

Effective width of the edge fold


EN1993-1-3
5.5.3.2(5a)

For the upper edge fold:


The buckling factor is:
if bp,c bp 0 ,35 :

k = 0,5

if 0 ,35 < bp,c bp 0 ,6 :

k = 0 ,5 + 0 ,83 3 (bp,c bp 0 ,35)

bp,c bp1 = 19 ,8 72 = 0 ,275 < 0 ,35

so

k 1 = 0 ,5

The relative slenderness:

p,c1 =

cp t

28,4 k 1

19,8 1,96
= 0,614
28,4 235 350 0,5

EN1993-1-5
4.4

Created on Friday, February 20, 2009


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The width reduction factor is:

1 =

p,c1 0,188
p,c1

0,614 0,188
= 1,13 but 1 so 1 = 1
0,614 2

The effective width is:

EN1993-1-3
5.5.3.2(5a)

ceff1 = cp 1 = 19 ,8 1 = 19 ,8 mm

Effective area of the upper edge stiffener:


As1 = t (be12 + ceff1 ) = 1,96 (32 ,9 + 19 ,8) = 103,3 mm 2

5.5.3.2(6)

For the bottom edge fold:

EN1993-1-3

The buckling factor is:

5.5.3.2(5a)

bp,c bp2 = 19 ,8 64 = 0 ,309 < 0 ,35

so

k 2 = 0 ,5

The relative slenderness:

p,c2 =

cp t
28,4 k 2

19,8 1,96
= 0,614
28,4 235 350 0,5

The width reduction factor is:

2 =

p,c2 0,188
p,c2

0 ,614 0 ,188
= 1,13 but 1 so 2 = 1
0 ,614 2

EN1993-1-5
4.4

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

CALCULATION SHEET

Document Ref:

SX023a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a


cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

Eurocode Ref

EN 1993-1-3

Made by

V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff

Date

Dec 2005

Checked by

D. Dubina

Date

Dec 2005

Sheet

of

The effective width is:


ceff2 = cp 2 = 19 ,8 1 = 19 ,8 mm

Effective area of the bottom edge stiffener:


As2 = t (be22 + ceff2 ) = 1,96 (31,3 + 19 ,8) = 100 ,2 mm 2

EN1993-1-3
5.5.3.2(5a)
5.5.3.2(6)

EN1993-1-3
Use the initial effective cross-section of the stiffener to determine the 5.5.3.2(3)
reduction factor, allowing for the effects of the continuous spring restraint.
Step 2:

The elastic critical buckling stress for the edge stiffener is:

Created on Friday, February 20, 2009


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cr,s =

2 K E Is
As

EN1993-1-3
5.5.3.2(7)

where:
K is the spring stiffness per unit length,
Is is the effective second moment of area of the stiffener.
For the upper edge stiffener:
The spring stiffness is:

1
E t3
K1 =
2
3
2
4(1 ) b1 hp + b1 + 0,5 b1 b2 hp k f
with:

b1 distance from the web to the centre of the effective area of the stiffener in
compression (upper flange)
b1 = bp1

be12 t be12 2
32,9 1,96 32,9 2
= 72
= 61,73 mm
(be12 + ceff ) t
(32,9 + 19,8) 1,96

b2 distance from the web to the centre of the effective area of the stiffener
in compression (bottom flange)
b2 = bp2

be22 t be22 2
31,3 1,96 31,3 2
= 64
= 54,41 mm
(be22 + ceff2 ) t
(31,3 + 19,8) 1,96

EN1993-1-3
5.5.3.1(5)

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

CALCULATION SHEET

kf =

Document Ref:

SX023a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a


cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

Eurocode Ref

EN 1993-1-3

Made by

V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff

Date

Dec 2005

Checked by

D. Dubina

Date

Dec 2005

Sheet

of

As2 100 ,2
=
= 0 ,97 for a member in axial compression
As1 103,3

K1 = 0,331 N mm 2
The effective second moment of area:
2

2
3
2
ceff1

b t3 c t
ceff1
ceff1
I s1 = e12 + eff1 + be12 t
+
c
t

eff1
12
12
2(be12 + ceff1 )
2 2(be12 + ceff1 )
I s1 = 3663 mm 4

so, the elastic critical buckling stress for the upper edge stiffener is

Created on Friday, February 20, 2009


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cr,s1 =

2 0,331 210000 3663


= 309 N mm 2
103,3

For the bottom edge stiffener:


The spring stiffness is:

E t3
1
K2 =
2
,
3
2
4(1 ) b2 hp + b2 + 0,5 b1 b2 hp kf
K 2 = 0,406 N mm 2
The effective second moment of area:
2

3
2
2
ceff2

be22 t 3 ceff2 t
ceff2
ceff2
I s2 =
+
+ be22 t

+ ceff2 t

12
12
2(be22 + ceff2 )
2(be22 + ceff2 )
2
I s2 = 3618 mm 4

so, the elastic critical buckling stress for the bottom edge stiffener is

cr,s2 =

2 0,406 210000 3618


= 350,7 N mm 2
100,2

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

CALCULATION SHEET

Document Ref:

SX023a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a


cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

Eurocode Ref

EN 1993-1-3

Made by

V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff

Date

Dec 2005

Checked by

D. Dubina

Date

Dec 2005

Sheet

of

Thickness reduction factor d for the edge stiffener


For the upper edge stiffener:
f yb cr,s1 = 350 309 = 1,064

EN1993-1-3
5.5.3.1(7)

The reduction factor will be:


if d 0 ,65

d = 1,0

if 0 ,65 < d < 1,38

d = 1,47 0 ,723d

if d 1,38

d = 0 ,66 d

Created on Friday, February 20, 2009


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0 ,65 < d1 = 1,064 < 1,38

EN1993-1-3
5.5.3.2(3)
Figure 5.10d

The relative slenderness:

d1 =

so

EN1993-1-5
4.4(2)

d1 = 1,47 0,723 1,064 = 0,701

For the bottom edge stiffener:


The relative slenderness:

d2 =

f yb cr,s2 = 350 350 ,7 = 0 ,999

The reduction factor will be:


0 ,65 < d2 = 0 ,999 < 1,38

so

d2 = 1,47 0,723 0,999 = 0,748

Step 3:
As the reduction factor for buckling of the stiffener is d < 1, iterate to refine
the value of the reduction factor for buckling of the stiffener.
The iterations are carried out based on modified values of obtained using:

com,Ed,i = d f yb M0 and

p,red = p d

The iteration stops when the reduction factor converges.


For the upper edge stiffener:
Initial values (iteration 1):

Final values (iteration n):

d1 = 0,701

d1 = d1,n = 0 ,683

be12 = 32 ,9 mm

be12 = be12,n = 36 mm

ceff1 = 19,8 mm

ceff1 = ceff1,n = 19 ,8 mm

EN1993-1-3
5.5.3.2(3)
Figure 5.10e
EN1993-1-3
5.5.3.2 (10)

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

CALCULATION SHEET

Document Ref:

SX023a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a


cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

Eurocode Ref

EN 1993-1-3

Made by

V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff

Date

Dec 2005

Checked by

D. Dubina

Date

Dec 2005

Sheet

of

For the bottom edge stiffener:


Initial values (iteration 1):

Final values (iteration n):

d2 = 0,748

d2 = d2,n = 0 ,744

be22 = 31,3 mm

be22 = be22,n = 32 mm

ceff2 = 19 ,8 mm

ceff2 = ceff2,n = 19 ,8 mm

Final values of effective properties for flanges and lips in compression are:
For the upper flange and lip:

d1 = 0,683

be12 = 36 mm

ceff1 = 19 ,8 mm

Created on Friday, February 20, 2009


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and be11 = 32,9 mm


For the bottom flange and lip:

d2 = 0,744

be22 = 32 mm

ceff2 = 19 ,8 mm

and be 21 = 31,3 mm
t red,1 = t d1 = 1,96 0,683 = 1.34 mm
t red,2 = t d2 = 1,96 0,744 = 1,46 mm

EN1993-1-3
5.5.3.2(12)

Effective section properties of the web


The stress ratio: = 1 (uniform compression), so the buckling factor is:
k = 4 for internal compression element.

and

= 235 f yb

EN1993-1-5
4.4

The relative slenderness:

p,h =

hp t
28,4 k

198 1,96
= 2,171
28,4 235 350 4

The width reduction factor is:

p,h 0 ,055(3 + )
p,h

EN1993-1-3
5.5.2

2,171 0,055 (3 + 1)
= 0,414
2 ,1712

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

CALCULATION SHEET

Document Ref:

SX023a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a


cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

Eurocode Ref

EN 1993-1-3

Made by

V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff

Date

Dec 2005

Checked by

D. Dubina

Date

Dec 2005

Sheet

The effective width of the web is:


heff = hp = 0 ,414 198 = 82 mm

he1 = he2 = 0,5heff = 0 ,5 82 = 41 mm


Effective section properties
Effective cross-section area:
Aeff = t [be11 + be21 + he1 + he2 + (be12 + ceff1 ) d1 + (be22 + ceff2 ) d2 ]
Aeff = 436,7 mm 2

Created on Friday, February 20, 2009


This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Position of the centroidal axis with regard to the upper flange:

z G1

2
2

ceff2
he2 he1
ceff1 d1

+
t ceff2 d2 hp
+ hp (be22 d2 + be21 ) + he2 hp
+

2
2
2
2

=
Aeff

z G1 = 98,44 mm
Position of the centroidal axis with regard to the bottom flange:
z G2 = hp z G1 = 198 98 ,44 = 99 ,56 mm

of

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in compression

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped


channel section in compression
SX023a-EN-EU.doc

Quality Record
RESOURCE TITLE

Example: Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed


lipped channel section in compression

Reference(s)
ORIGINAL DOCUMENT
Name

Company

Date

Created by

V. Ungureanu, A. Ruff

BRITT Ltd. Timisoara,


Romania

05/12/2005

Technical content checked by

D. Dubina

BRITT Ltd. Timisoara,


Romania

08/12/2005

1. UK

G W Owens

SCI

12/4/06

2. France

A Bureau

CTICM

12/4/06

3. Sweden

B Uppfeldt

SBI

11/4/06

4. Germany

C Mller

RWTH

11/4/06

5. Spain

J Chica

Labein

12/4/06

G W Owens

SCI

11/9/06

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Created on Friday, February 20, 2009


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