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Alkaline earth metal elements

Alkaline earth metal elements are metallic elements belonging to group 2 of the
periodic table. Those elements are beryllium, magnesium, clcium, strontium, barium
and radium.
Generally, the properties of alkaline earth metal elements are as follows:
1. Alkaline earth metals are strong reducing agents. It is indicated by the
electrode potential value of the alkaline earth metals which is low
( negative ).
2. Alkaline earths metals are reactive enough, but the reactivity of the alkaline
earth metals is less than that of the alkali metals.
3. Alkaline earth metals are rather brittle, but in a certain condition the alkaline
earth metals are malleable and extrudable.
4. Alkaline earth metals are good conductors because they can conduct
electricity well.
5. When the alkaline earth metals are heated, they can burn readily in air.
6. From beryllium to barium, the atoic radii are increasingly larger; the ionization
energy and the electronegativity are increasingly smaller; and the reduction
power is increasingly stronger.
7. The valence electron configuration of alkaline earth meals is ns 2, so they are
easy to release the valence electrons to achieve a more stable configuration
in the form of X2+ ions. ( X= alkaline earth metal atoms )
8. The alkaline earth metal crystals are denser and harder than that of alkali
metals.
Specifictly:

Beryllium ( Be )
Beryllium is one of alkaline earth metals which is gray and brittle. The
important data are as follows:
It was found by Louis Nicolas Vauquelin in 1798 and it was
successfully isolated by Friedrich Wohler and Antoine AlenzandreBrutus Bussy in 1828 independently.
It has atomic mass of 9.01218 amu
It has atomic number of 4
It has atomic radius of 1.12

It has electron configuration of 2 2 or [He] 2s 2


In its compounds it has oxidation number of +2
It has atomic volume of 5.0 cm3/mol
The crystal structure is hexagonal.
It has boiling point of 2,4710C
It has melting point of 1,2870C
It has density of 1.65 gr/cm3
It has heat capacity of 1.825 J/gK

It
It
It
It
It
It

has
has
has
has
has
has

electrode potential of -1,85 volt


electronegativity of 1.57
electric conductivity of 25x106ohm-1cm-1
heat conductivity of 200 W/mK
value of formation enthalpy of 11.71 k J/mol
the value of evaporation enthalpy of 297 kJ/mol

It has the first ionization energy of 900 kJ/mol


It has the second ionization energy of 1,800 kJ/mol
Beryllium ranks about 51s in the abundance among the elements in earths
crust. In the nature, beryllium is found in the form of ores which is often
present with aluminium.

Magnesium ( Mg)
Magnesium is one of alkaline earth metals which is silvery white and is
relatively unreactive. The important data are as follows;
It was found by Joseph Black in 1755
It has atomic mass of 24.305 amu
It has atomic number of 12
It has atomic radius of 1.60

It has electron configuration of 2 8 2 or [Ne] 3s 2


In its compounds it has oxidation number of +2
It has atomic volume of 14 cm3/mol
The crystal structure is hexagonal
It has boiling point of 1,090 0C
It has melting point of 6490C
It has density of 1,74 gr/cm3
It has heat capacity of 1.02 J/gK

It has electrode potential of -2,37 volt


It has electronegativity of 1,31
It has electric conductivity of 22,4x106ohm-1cm-1
It has heat conductivity of 156 W/mK
It has the value of formation enthalpy of 8.95 kJ/mol
It has the value of evaporation enthalpy 127.6 kJ/mol
It has the first ionization energy of 740 kJ/mol
It has the second ionization energy of 1,450 kJ/mol
Magnesium ranks eighth in the abundance among elements in crustal rocks. It
is only found in the form of its compounds, especially as the minerals
dolomite, magnesite, and carnallite. Magnesium is also found in many rockforming silicates, and as salts, for example magnesium chloride. Besides,
magnesium is present as constituent of animal and plant tissue.

Calcium ( Ca )
Calcium is one of alkaline earth metals which is reactive and silvery white.
It is found in the earths crust In amount of about three percent.
The important data are as follows:
It was found by Humphry Davy in 1808
It has atomic mass of 40,078 amu
It has atomic number of 20
It has atomic radius of 1.97

It has electron configuration of 2 8 8 2 or [Ar] 4s 2


In its compounds it has oxidation number of +2
It has atomic volume of 29.90 cm3/mol
The crystal structure is fcc
It has boiling point of 1,4840C
It has melting point of 8420C
It has density of 1,55 gr/cm3
It has heat capacity of 0.647 J/gK

It has electrode potential of -2,87 volt


It has electronegativity of 1
It has electric conductivity of 31.3x106ohm-1cm-1
It has heat conductivity of 200 W/mK
It has the value of formation enthalpy of 8.53 kJ/mol
It has the value of evaporation enthalpy 154.67 kJ/mol
It has the first ionization energy of 590 kJ/mol
It has the second ionization energy of 1,150 kJ/mol
Calcium is one of abundant elements in this nature. It is fifthe in
abundance among the elements in earths crust. Because calcium is
a reactive element, it is often found in nature in the form of its
compounds, such as calcium carbonate ( CaCO 3) of which calcite,
marble and limestone are composed; calcium sulfate (CaSO 4) in
alabaster or gypsum ;calcium fluoride (CaF 2) in florite;calcium
phosphate ( Ca3(PO4)2 in rock phosphate. And in many silcates.

Strontium ( Sr )
Strontium is one of alkaline earh metals which is soft, yellow or silvery
white, reative, malleable, and ductile. The important data are as follows:
It was found by Humphry Davy in 1808
It has atomic mass of 87.62 amu
It has atomic number of 38
It has atomic radius of 2.15

It has electron configuration of 2 8 1 8 8 2 or [Kr] 5s 2


In its compounds it has oxidation number of +2
It has atomic volume of 33.7 cm3/mol

The crystal structure is fcc


It has boiling point of 1,3830C
It has melting point of 7770C
It has density of 2.54 gr/cm3
It has heat capacity of 0.3 J/gK

It has electrode potential of -2,89 volt


It has electronegativity of 0,95
It has electric conductivity of 5.0x106ohm-1cm-1
It has heat conductivity of 35.3 W/mK
It has the value of formation enthalpy of 8.2 kJ/mol
It has the value of evaporation enthalpy 136.9 kJ/mol
It has the first ionization energy of 550 kJ/mol
It has the second ionization energy of 1,060 kJ/mol
In this nature, strontium ranks about 15th among the elements in
abundance in earths crust. Strontium is usually found in the form of
its compounds, among others are as strontianite (SrCO 3) and
celestite ( SrSO4).

Barium ( Ba )
Barium is one of alkaline earth metal which is soft, silvery, highly reactive,
toxic. The important data about barium are as follows.

It was found by Humphry Davy in 1808


It has atomic mass of 137.33 amu
It has atomic number of 56
It has atomic radius of 2.22
It has electron configuration of 2 8 18 18 82 or [Xe] 6s 2
In its compounds it has oxidation number of +2
It has atomic volume of 39 cm3/mol
The crystal structure is bcc
It has boiling point of 1.8970C
It has melting point of 7270C
It has density of 3.59gr/cm3
It has heat capacity of 0.204 J/gK

It has electrode potential of -2,90 volt


It has electronegativity of 0.89
It has electric conductivity of 2,8x106ohm-1cm-1
It has heat conductivity of 18.4 W/mK
It has the value of formation enthalpy of 8.01 kJ/mol
It has the value of evaporation enthalpy 140.2 kJ/mol
It has the first ionization energy of 500 kJ/mol
It has the second ionization energy of 970 kJ/mol

Barium makes up 1/2000th parts of earths crust and is only found in the
form of compounds, such as barium carbonate ( witherite ) and barium
sulfate.

Radium ( Ra )
Radium is one of alkaline earth metal which is highly radioactive, reactive,
and silvery white. The important data are as follows.
It was found by Marie Curie 1898
It has atomic mass of 226.0254 amu
It has atomic number of 88
It has atomic radius of 2.23

It has electron configuration of 2 8 18 32 18 8 2 or [Rn] 7s 2


In its compounds it has oxidation number of +2
It has atomic volume of 45.2cm3/mol
The crystal structure is bcc
It has boiling point of 1,1400C
It has melting point of 7000C
It has density of 5.0 gr/cm3+
It has heat capacity of 0.094 J/gK

It has electronegativity of 0.89


It has electric conductivity of 1.0x106ohm-1cm-1
It has heat conductivity of 18.6 W/mK
It has the value of formation enthalpy of 8.37 kJ/mol
It has the value of evaporation enthalpy 136.82 kJ/mol

The reactions of alkaline earth metals


From beryllium to barium the reactivity of alkaline earth metal elements rises
increasingly.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

The
The
The
The
The
The
The

reaction of alkaline earth metal elements


reaction of alkaline earth metal elements
reaction of alkaline earth metal elements
reaction of alkaline earth metal elements
reaction of alkaline earth metal elements
reaction of alkaline earth metal elements
flame colour of alkaline earth metals

to
to
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water
oxygen
nitrogen
halogen
hydrogen
acids and bases