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Annotated Bibliography

Is 3D Printing a Step Into the Future?

Brett Morgan
Professor Malcolm Campbell
English 1103

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Annotated Bibliography
Committee on Small Business, United States House of Representatives. The Rise of 3D
Printing: Opportunities for Entrepreneurs. Hearing Before the Committee on Small
Business, United States House of Representatives, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress,
Second Session, 12 Mar. 2014. Web. Feb 2014.
This article, which is from a congressional hearing on 3D Printing and its applications,
offers several great points about how this technology can affect our society now and in
the future. It first explains that 3D Printing is essentially the process of creating objects
from a digital model (typically through the deposit of a material layer upon layer until an
object is formed. It also states that 3D Printing is becoming more affordable, as well,
with some devices only costing a little over a thousand dollars and with analysts
predicting an ever further price drop. They have practical uses for small businesses,
including prototype production. Patrick ONeill, CEO of olloclip, a company that
manufactures small clip-on camera lenses for iPhones and other smartphone devices,
used a 3D printer for his original production and continues to use them even at a larger
stage. He stated that development for products would take months if it werent for the
printers, but it can now be completed in a week (3). Another business owner, Jonathan
Cobb, EVP of Stratasys, a 3D printer manufacturer, says, it will not replace the typical
manufacturing process, but serve as another tool for manufacturers (5). Along with
Cobb, Peter Weijmarhausen, CEO of Shapeways (a 3D printing marketplace), and Jan
Baum, Executive Director of 3D Maryland (an organization designed to increase
engagement between businesses and the 3D printing process) testified about how
impactful the process is with their organizations. The information given in this text is as

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reliable as it gets, simply because it is in front of the United States Congress. This
government source seems to provide great insight on some of the practical uses for 3D
printing. The source is going to give me a large part of the information I need for my
research. It will appear in the project because of the wealth of useful content that it
contains. Although it does not explain the process of 3D printing, it shows the
applications effectively.
Gibson, Ian, David Rosen, and Brent Stucker. Additive Manufacturing Technologies: 3d
Printing, Rapid Prototyping, and Direct Digital Manufacturing. New York: Springer,
2015. Print.
This text effectively summarizes the process of additive manufacturing, or 3D printing.
The process begins with a software model typically made on a CAD (Computer-Aided
Design) program. The model is then converted to STL format, which is accepted and
recognized by nearly every 3D printing machine on the market (4). The machine then
takes the file and prints it, using certain polymers or other materials as the ink. The text
also goes into depth about every type of process, from design all the way down to
application. This is a strictly unbiased, informative source, so there is a wealth of useful
information. Compared to the Congressional source, this provides information on the
processes involved with 3D printing rather than the practical applications for it and does
not include testimonials. The source is going to be very helpful for my project because it
provides in-depth information on how additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, works. I
wont use every bit of the information, primarily because there is almost too much to use.
Although it is nice to know exactly how it works, I dont need to know every single
method and material exactly.

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Hickey, Shane. "Chuck Hull: The Father of 3D Printing Who Shaped Technology." The
Guardian. Guardian News, 22 June 2014. Web. 26 Feb. 2015.
This article from the Guardian News talks about Chuck Hull, who is essentially the
inventor of the 3D printer. Originally referred to as Stereolithography, 3D printing has
revolutionized modern technology. Hulls idea came to him while working for a company
that used light to put layers of plastic veneers onto furniture. He wanted to use this
process in order to speed up the process of prototyping designs, which could take months
at the time. He came up with an invention that could place thousands of layers of this
veneer and then etch shapes with UV light and patented the idea in 1986. Soon enough,
automotive manufacturers began using 3D printers in the manufacturing process and
from there things took off. The article also discusses how he thought that the printers
wouldnt make their way into practical use for another 30 or so years, which he was
correct about. One major point to consider from the article is of 3D printed weapons.
With 3D printing technology, people have been able to successfully produce fully
functioning guns, which should draw big attention. Although Hull mentioned that the
government has the responsibility of dealing with these types of things, it is still a
significant danger involved with 3D printing. From the content of the article, Chuck Hull
seems to have revolutionized modern production. This article seems to be very reliable as
it is from a well-known and popular news source. Compared to the other sources, it
focuses on one specific person and their contribution, rather than a wide range of
information. It does offer insight on the origin of 3D printing, however, which is quite
useful. Ultimately, I will use all of the information in this source.

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"What Is 3D Printing?" 3D Printing. 3D Printing.com, 2015. Web. 26 Feb. 2015.

This website is dedicated to explaining all there is to know about 3D printing, including
how the process works, the methods, and its applications. It explains that the process
begins with a CAD program and is inputted into a printer, which uses hundreds or
thousands of horizontal layers of polymer to create the design. It also talks about the
different methods of printing, including selective laser sintering (SLS), fused deposition
modeling (FDM), and Stereolithography (SLA). SLS uses a laser to fuse materials into
the desired shape. FDM uses a plastic or metal wire that unwinds to form the shape using
a heated nozzle. SLA is the most common process, which lays polymer layers and molds
them into the desired shape using a UV ray. The website explains the applications of 3D
printing like prototyping and manufacturing. This seems like it is a credible website
because it matches the information from other articles, but doesnt necessarily list
citations for information. I will be able to use all of the information because the website
provides a wide variety about mostly everything to do with 3D printing.