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FACULTY

MANUAL

(Mathematic

s)

THE SKILLS, CONCEPTS AND ABILITIES ARE TESTED IN THE FOUR CONTENT AREAS BELOW:

ARITHMETIC TOPICS INCLUDES

1. properties and types of integers

2. Test of divisibility

3. Concept of factorization

4. Concept of prime numbers

5. Concept of remainders

6. Concept of odd and even integers

7. Arithmetic operations

8. Concept of exponents and radicals

9. Concept of estimation

10.Concept of percent

11.Concept of ratio, Proportion and variations

12.Concept of rate

13.Concept of absolute value

14.The number line

15.Concept of decimal representation

16.Concept of sequences of numbers

ALGEBRA TOPICS INCLUDES

1. Operations with exponents

2. Factoring and simplifying algebraic expressions

3. Concept of relations and functions

4. Equations and solving linear and quadratic equations and solving simultaneous

equations

5. Inequalities and solving linear and quadratic inequalities

6. Setting up equations to solve word problems

7. Graphs of functions, equations and inequalities.

GEOMETRY TOPICS INCLUDES

1. Lines angles and polygons parallel and perpendicular lines

2. Circles

3. Triangles including isosceles, equilateral and 30-60-90 triangles quadrilaterals,

other polygons, congruent and similar figures, the Pythagorean theorem and angle

measurement in degrees.

4. Quadrilaterals

5. Solid Geometry three-dimensional figures, area, perimeter, volume, the ability to

construct proofs is not tested.

6. Coordinate geometry, including slopes and intercepts of lines

COMBINATORICS TOPICS INCLUDES

1. Basic descriptive statistics

2. Mean

3. Median

4. Mode

5. Range

6. Standard deviation

7. Elementary probability

8. Probabilities of compound events

10.Random variables

11.Probability distributions

12.Normal distributions

13.Counting methods

14.Combinations

15.Permutations and Venn diagrams.

SESSION-1 (MODULE-1-ARITHMETIC)

Topics to be covered

Number Tree

Primes

Decimals, Divisibility Rules

HCF/LCM

1. Properties and types of integers

(i)

Natural Number (counting numbers)

(ii)

Whole Number (counting numbers including zero)

(iii)

Integers

(i)

Positive Integers

(ii)

Negative Integers

(iii)

Neither Positive non Negative Integer (Zero)

(iv)

Properties of Integer zero such as multiplication, division, addition and

exponent with zeros

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

(ix)

(x)

(xi)

(xii)

0

, , , , 00 , 0 ,1

0

and explain

why these are not defined but do not go for proof.

Explain what is the meaning of not defined

Explain what is infinite

Definition of positive infinite

Definition of negative infinite

Explain why infinite is not defined

What is the difference b/w infinite and not defined

Do you think all infinites are not defined or all not defined or infinite

3. Irrational Number (define with examples)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

What is basic difference b/w rational and irrational numbers?

What is the significance of rational and irrational numbers?

Explain how decimal and not terminating recurring decimal numbers are

rational numbers.

(v)

Explain why non terminating and non recurring decimal numbers are

irrational numbers

(vi)

Explain why square root and cube root of any non perfect square and non

perfect cube integer in not a rational number

4. Real Numbers

(i)

Definition of real numbers with examples

(ii)

Tell to students by default any numbers considered as real number until

and otherwise it is specially mention the type of numbers. This is the guide

line given by ETS.

(iii)

Explain Number tree

(iv)

Tell to students in general ETS do not use word Natural Number, Whole

Number, Rational Number and Irrational Number. They use positive integer

for natural number, non negative integer of whole number and fraction for

rational and irrational number.

5. Concept of odd and even integers

(i)

Define even and odd integer with examples

(ii)

Give general terms for even and odd integers in terms of integer N

(iii)

Explain why zero is an even number

(iv)

Give formula for sum of first N even positive number

(v)

Give formula for sum of first N odd positive number

(i)

2+4+6+ + (2N) = N(N+1)

(ii)

1+3+5+ ... +(2N-1) = N2

N N 1

2

(iii)

1+2+3+ . + N =

N N 1 (2 N 1)

6

(iv)

12 +22 +32 + N2 =

6. Concept of prime numbers

(i)

Define prime numbers with examples

(ii)

Let them identify only even prime number is 2

(iii)

Number of prime number in the given range such as 1-50 (Hint 15), 1-100

(Hint 25), 101-200 (Hint 21), 201-300 (Hint 17) and 1-1000 (Hint 168)

(iv)

Define co-prime with examples

(v)

Properties of prime numbers

(i)

Any prime number greater than 3 divided by 6, always leaves

remainder either 1 or 5 but converse may not be true.

(ii)

Square of any prime number greater than 3 divided by 12 or 24,

always leaves remainder 1

7. Composite Numbers

(i)

Define composite numbers with examples

(ii)

0 and 1 is neither prime nor composite.

(iii)

Explain why zero is not a composite number

8. Test of divisibility

(i)

Discuss test of divisibility condition for 2, 4, 8, 16

(ii)

Discuss test of divisibility condition for 3, 9

(iii)

Discuss test of divisibility condition for 5, 10

(iv)

Discuss test of divisibility condition for 11

(v)

Discuss test of divisibility condition for some composite numbers such as

6, 12, 15, 18 and 20

9. CONCEPT OF FACTORS

(i)

Define factor with example such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 are factors of 12.

Closer look, one and number itself is a factor for every numbers.

(ii)

Explain what is the significance of factor, I mean to say how 1, 2, 3, 4, 6

and 12 comes as factor of 12

(iii)

Give special formula to calculate factor for a given big number.

N a x .b y .c z .....

Here a, b, c must be prime number

Number of positive integer factors for N would be (x+1)(y+1)(z+1)..

(i)

Explain logic to count total number of factors

(ii)

Explain logic to count total number of odd factors

(iii)

Explain logic to count total number of even factors

(iv)

Explain logic to count total number of different prime factors

(v)

Explain logic to count total number all possible prime factors

(vi)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(i)

HCF

There

(ii)

Explain Common Factor

Explain Highest Common factor (HCF)

Explain Multiple

Explain Common Multiple

Explain Least Common Multiple (LCM)

Let students know HCF is also known as GCD (Greatest Common Divisor)

are two ways to fined HCF

(i)

Factorization Method

(ii)

Long Division Method

(iii)

Explain both method with example

(iv)

Explain which method is suitable in which case

There are two ways to fined LCM

(i)

Factorization Method

(ii)

Long Division Method

(iii)

Explain both method with example

(iv)

Explain which method is suitable in which case

Chapter 5: Q2, 26, 32, 44,117

Chapter 6: Q7, 27

1- What is the lowest positive integer that is divisible by each of the integers 1 through 7,

inclusive?

(A) 420

(B) 840

(C) 1260

(D) 2520

(E) 5040

2- If the sum of five consecutive positive integers is A, then the sum of the next five

consecutive integers in terms of A is:

(A) A+1

(B) A+5

(C) A+25

(D) 2A

(E) 5A

3- The sum of the even numbers between 1 and k is 79*80, where k is an odd number,

then k=?

(A) 79

(B) 80

(C) 81

(D) 157

(E) 159

4- AB + CD = AAA, where AB and CD are two-digit numbers and AAA is a three digit

number; A, B, C, and D are distinct digit. In the addition problem above, what is the

value of C?

(A) 1

(B) 3

(C) 7

(D) 9

(E) Cannot be determined

5- If s and t are positive integer such that s/t=13.12, which of the following could be the

remainder when s is divided by t?

(A) 2

(B) 10

(C) 13

(D) 19

(E) 45

6- How many positive integers less than 10,000 are such that the product of their digits is

210?

(A) 24

(B) 30

(C) 48

(D) 54

(E) 72

7- If x is an integer and 9<x2<99, then what is the value of maximum possible value of x

minus minimum possible value of x?

A. 5

B. 6

C. 7

D. 18

E. 20

8- The numbers {1, 3, 6, 7, 7, 7} are used to form three 2-digit numbers. If the sum of

these three numbers is a prime number p, what is the largest possible value of p?

A. 97

B. 151

C. 209

D. 211

E. 219

9- If n is a positive integer and p is a prime number, is p a factor of n!?

(1) p is a factor of (n+2)!-n!

(2) p is a factor of (n+2)!/n!

10-If p is a positive integer, what is the remainder when p 2 is divided by 12?

(1) p is greater than 3.

(2) p is a prime.

11-If a and b are integers and a.b=2, is a=2?

(1) b+3 is not a prime number

(2) a>b

12-If a, b and c are integers, is a.b.c an even integer?

(1) b is halfway between a and c

(2) a = b c

13-If x and y are integers, is x a positive integer?

(1) x*|y| is a prime number.

(2) x*|y| is non-negative integer.

14-If 6a=3b=7c, what is the value of a+ b+ c?

(1) ac=6b

(2) 5b=8a+4c

15-If x and y are integers, is y an even integer?

(1) 4y2+3x2=x4+y4

(2) y=4-x2

Answer Key

1. E

2. C

3. E

4. D

5. E

6. B

7. D

8. D

9. C

10.C

11.E

12.B

13.A

14.B

15.A

Homework Assignment: Official Guide 12th Edition (Given as CD with 13th Edition)

Number System

Problem solving:

1,2,3,6,7,8,11,15,22,23,24,26,28,29,30,32,35,36,37,38,40,42,43,44,45,46,50,51,54,56,58,59,

60,63,65,68,

70,72,73,74,75,77,79,81,82,83,87,89,90,91,95,98,100,104,106,107,108,110,112,114,117,120

,122,127,

129,133,135,136,137,138,140,141,142,143,148,150,155,159,161,163,164,165,169,172,175,1

76,181,182

185,186,188,190,195,196,198,200,203,204,208,211,213,216,217,218,219,220,224,225,226,2

27,230.

Data sufficiency:

1,5,6,8,9,12,13,15,16,17,22,23,24,25,26,27,30,31,32,35,36,40,41,43,44,46,51,54,57,60,61,62

,64,65,66,

69,70,72,73,76,82,83,85,86,90,91,95,96,98,99,100,101,103,106,108,110,115,118,119,120,12

1,123,125

128,130,133,137,138,139,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,158,161,162,165,167,168,170,171,1

72,174.

SESSION -2 (MODULE-1-ARITHMETIC)

Topics to be covered

Cyclist

Remainder

Percentages

Profit, Loss and Discount

1. CONCEPT OF UNIT DIGIT

(i)

form of exponent.

(ii)

Show the process of finding unit digit in expansion of

(i)

2N

(ii)

3N

(iii)

4N

(iv)

5N

(v)

6N

(vi)

7N

(vii) 9N

To do these use the concept of cyclist process

2. REMAINDER OF REMAINDER

(I)

(II)

(III)

(IV)

(V)

(VI)

Explain formulae (Dividend = Divisor x Quotient +Remainder)

Explain how the product of decimal part of quotient and divisor is equal to

remainder.

Let them understand remainder cannot exceed divisor

Let them know remainder cannot be negative in general

Let them know remainder is always is always lesser than divisor

p

17.24

q

(iii)

Note1: If

where p and q are positive integer, remainder would be

0.24*q when p is being divided by q.

Give quick idea about remainder theorem

Note2: Remainder theorem tells either we perform operations (addition,

subtraction, Multiplication or exponent) then divide or first divide then

perforation operations (addition, subtraction, Multiplication or exponent)

remainder would be the same in both cases.

Example:

89

7

is 2. General approach perform

operation multiplication 8*9=72 and 72 divided by 7 remainder is 2.

8 9 1 2

2

remainder 2

7

7

7

Here division performed first. I.e. if 8 and 9 divided by 7 the remainder are

1 and 2 are respectively.Work Out Examples

Two different positive integer x and y divided by 6 leaves remainders 3 and two

respectively. Find remainder when

1. x y is divided by 6

2. x y is divided by 6

3. y x is divided by 6

4. x y is divided by 6

5. x4 is divided by 6

6. y4 is divided by 6

3.

PERCENTAGES

Define percentage with basic information such as fraction whose denominator

is 100. Percent means per 100, out of 100, or divided by 100. For

example, 25% = 25/100 = 0.25 and 0.3% = 0.3/100 = 0.003. In terms of

money, 50 cents out of a dollar is 50 cents out of 100, which is 50/100 of a

dollar or 50% of a dollar.

(ii)

Explain how to find percentage

Note1:

To find a percentage of something, the percents must be converted

to decimals and then multiplied by some number.

Note2:

Never directly add and/or subtract percents; you must first multiply

them by something.

(i)

(iii)

To convert a decimal to a percent, move the decimal point two places from

left to right and add a % sign. For example, 0.8 = 80% and 0.02 = 2%.

(iv)

fraction with denominator 100 and reduce the fraction. For example, 40% =

40/100 = 4/10 = 2/5.

(v)

and move the decimal point two places to the right.

Use the following is a list of percents and their fraction and decimal

equivalents which should be committed to memory:

(i)

0.01= 1/100= 1%

(ii)

0.1= 1/10= 10%

(iii)

0.2= 1/5= 20%

(iv)

0.25= 1/4= 25%

(v)

0.33=1/3=33.33%

(vi)

0.4=2/5=40%

(vii) 0.5=1/2=50%

(vi)

(viii)

(ix)

(x)

(vi)

0.6=3/5=60%

0.75=3/4=75%

0.8=4/5=80%

If the question is like that x is what percent of y, our answer would be

y 100 %

Value ( x )

100 %

Base ( y )

is BASE in the question being asked.

(vii)

(i)

Increase by some percentage again increased by some other or same

percentage.

(ii)

Increase by some percentage again decrease by some other or same

percentage.

(iii)

Decrease by some percentage again increased by some other or same

percentage.

(iv)

Decrease by some percentage again decrease by some other or same

percentage.

( x ) ( y ) ( x ).( y )

%

100

Note:

This is the special formulae which include all four cases mentioned above. I am

sure all of us are aware of this special formula. For any clarification please

contact me.

(i)

(i)

CP (Cost Price)

(ii)

SP (Selling Price)

(iii)

MRP (Max Retail Price)

(iv)

MP (Market Price)

(v)

LP (List Price)

(vi)

Briefly explain the difference between MRP and MP

(vii) Briefly explain why LP

(viii) Markup

(ix)

Revenue

(x)

Profit

(xi)

Margin

(xii) Loss

(xiii) Discount

(xiv) Successive Discount

(xv) Why Margin

100 Pr ofit %

100

SP CP

(ii)

Discuss

100 loss %

100

SP CP

(iii)

Discuss

100

100

SP CP

(iv)

Discuss

profit made in some same transaction)

100

100

SP CP

(v)

Discuss

made in some same transaction)

100 Discount %

100

SP MP

(vi)

Discuss

100

100

SP MP

(vii)

Discuss

(This is in case of

successive discount made in some same transaction)

(i)

Define what is Interest

(ii)

Define Simple Interest

(iii)

Define Compound Interest

Examples: Official Guide 13th Edition

Chapter 5: Q 11, 58

Chapter 6: Q2, 55, 62

1) Find the unit digit or last digit of (782)87?

A) 2

B) 4

C) 8

D) 6

E) 1

2) What is unit digit of 6666 5555

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

E) 5

3) What is the units digit of (13)4 (17)2 (29)3?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

E) 5

4) A chemist has 10 liters of a solution that is 10 percent nitric acid by volume. He wants to

dilute the solution to 4 percent strength by adding water. How many liters of water must

he add?

A) 5

B) 10

C) 15

D) 20

E) 12

5) An insurance company provides coverage for a certain dental procedure according to the

following rules: the policy pays 80% of the first $1,200 of cost and 50% of the cost above

$1,200. If a patient had to pay $490 of the cost for this procedure himself, how much did

the procedure cost?

A) 1200

B) 1500

C) 1700

D) 2000

E) 1900

6) The organizers of a fair projected a 25 percent increase in attendance this year over that

of last year, but attendance this year actually decreased by 20 percent. What percent of

the projected attendance was the actual attendance?

A) 32%

B) 64%

C) 45%

D) 50%

E) 25%

7) If 18 is 15 percent of 30 percent of certain number, what is the number?

A) 200

B) 400

C) 800

D) 1000

E) 500

8) If Mel saved more than $10 by purchasing a sweater at 15 percent discount, what is the

smallest amount the original price of the sweater could be, to the nearest dollar?

A) 60

B) 75

C) 67

D) 80

E) 90

9) If 25 percent of p is equal to 10 percent of q, and pq = 0, then p is what percent of q?

A) 10%

B) 20%

C) 30%

D) 40%

E) 50%

10) Positive integers y is 50 percent of 50 percent of positive integer x, and y percent of x

equals 100. What is the value of x?

A) 200

B) 600

C) 300

D) 500

E) 700

11) In country C, the unemployed rate among construction workers dropped from 16

percent on September 1, 1992, to 9 percent on September 1, 1996. If the number of

construction workers was 20 percent greater on September 1, 1996, than on September

1, 1992, what was the approximate percent change in the number of unemployed

construction workers over this period?

(A) 50% decrease

(B) 30% decrease

(C) 15% decrease

(D)30% increase

(E) 55% increase

12) Marys income is 60 percent more than Tims income, and Tims income is 40 percent

less than Juans income. What percent of Juans income is Marys income?

A) 50%

B) 70%

C) 40%

D) 80%

E) 96%

13) A factory has 500 workers, 15 percent of whom are women. If 50 additional workers are

to be hired and all of the present workers remain, how many of the additional workers

must be women in order to raise the percent of women employees to 20 percent?

A) 25%

B) 35%

C) 50%

D) 60%

E) 65%

14) The cost price of 20 articles is same as the selling price of x articles. If the profit is 25%,

then the value of x is?

A) 12

B) 14

C) 16

D) 20

E) 24

15) In certain store, the profit is 320% of the cost. If the cost increase by 25% but the

selling price remains constant, approximately what percentage of the selling price is

profit?

A) 70

B) 30

C) 100

D) 150

E) 250

16) A jewelry dealer initially offered a bracelet for sale at an asking price that would give a

profit to the dealer of 40 percent of the original cost. What was the original cost of the

bracelet?

(1) After reducing this asking price by 10 percent, the jewelry dealer sold the bracelet at

a profit of $403.

(2) The jewelry dealer sold the bracelet for $1,953.

17) In a certain packinghouse, grapefruit are packed in bags and the bags are packed in

cases. How many grapefruit are in each case that is packed?

(1) The grapefruit are always packed 5 to a bag and the bags are always packed 8 to a

case.

(2) Each case is always 80 percent full.

18) If the price of a magazine is to be doubled, by what percent will the number of

magazines sold decrease?

(2) For every $0.25 of increase in price, the number of magazines sold will decrease by

10 percent of the number sold at the current price.

19) For a certain bottle and cork, what is the price of the cork?

(1) The combined price of the bottle and the cork is 95 cents.

(2) The price of the bottle is 75 cents more than the price of the cork.

20) Last year an employee received a gross annual salary of $18,000, which was paid in

equal paychecks throughout the year. What was the gross salary received in each of the

paychecks?

(1) The employee received a total of 24 paychecks during the year.

(2) The employee received a paycheck twice a month each month during the year.

Answer Key

1. C

2. A

3. A

4. C

5. C

6. B

7. B

8. C

9. D

10.A

11.B

12.E

13.B

14.C

15.A

16.A

17.A

18.C

19.C

20.D

Homework Assignment:

OG 12

Problem solving: 10, 13, 17, 19, 47, 55, 64, 84, 92, 94, 111, 115, 123, 131, 139, 151, 187, 202

Data sufficiency: 2, 7, 33, 37, 52, 55, 63, 77, 88, 142, 143

SESSION-3 (MODULE-1-ARITHMETIC)

Topics to be covered

Ratios

Proportions & Mixture

Averages

1. RATIO

(i)

Define Ratios

Note: Ratios, like fractions, decimals, and percents, are just another way of

expressing division. Every fraction is a ratio and every ratio is a fraction. A

fraction is just the ratio of the numerator to the denominator. The ratio 1: 2

(read 1 to 2) is equivalent to the fraction 1/2 or the decimal 0.5 or 50% or

just 1 divided by 2. On the GRE, ratios may be expressed in any of the

following ways:

(i)

x/y

(ii)

the ratio of x to y

(iii)

x is to y

(iv)

x:y

(ii)

Anytime you see a ratio, treat it just like a fraction. Anything you can do to a

fraction, you can also do to a ratio, including cross-multiplying, reducing,

finding common denominators, etc.

(iii)

Let students know ratio can be given only for similar units variable or numbers

(iv)

Properties of Ratio

(i)

Any ratio multiplied by a constant term ratio remains unchanged

(ii)

Any ratio divided by any non zero constant term ratio remains unchanged

(iii)

Any ratio added by a constant term ratio may changed

(iv)

Give tips how to club two individual ratio to make a combine ratio

Hint1: If a:b and b:c is given how to find a:b:c

2. PROPORTION

(i)

Define Proportion

Note: The GRE often contains questions in which you must compare two

ratios which are proportional. These questions take a given ratio, or

relationship, and project it onto a larger or smaller scale while leaving

out one piece of information.

Example: If 10 baskets contain a total of 50 eggs, how many eggs

would 7 baskets contain? (a) 10 (b) 17 (c) 35 (d) 40 (e) 50

(ii)

(COMPONENDO AND DIVIDEND)

Quick review of continued proportion

Quick review of mean proportion

Explain the logic behind proportion, I mean why we use proportions.

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

3. VARIATIONS

(i)

Define variation with some real life examples.

(ii)

Explain all kinds of variations

(i)

Direct variation with real life examples

(ii)

Inverse variation with real life examples

(iii)

Joint variation with real life examples

(iv)

Explain why this is known as joint variations

(v)

Show the importance of variation applications

(i)

Concept of variation can be used in Time Speed and Distance

problems

(ii)

Concept of variation can be used in Time and work problems

(iii)

Explain how this is related to rate concept

4. AVERAGES

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Note: In mathematics, an average is a measure of the "middle" or "typical"

value of a data set

Give more info about average

Note: In the most common case, the data set is a list of numbers. The

average of a list of numbers is a single number intended to typify the

numbers in the list. If all the numbers in the list are the same, then this

number should be used. If the numbers are not the same, the average is

calculated by combining the numbers from the list in a specific way and

computing a single number as being the average of the list.

Just give the idea to students in GRE testing average and arithmetic mean

both is same

Note: Arithmetic mean

Average

(iv)

(v)

Sum of observations

Total Number of observations

The mean is neither less than the minimum value nor greater than the

maximum value of given observations.

Explain how average effect if each observation is..

(i)

Increased by any constant term k

(ii)

Decrease by any constant term k

(iii)

Multiplied by any constant term k

(iv)

Divided by any constant term k

(v)

Give complete clarity about combined average which is very

important. It is not that we are giving just formulae let them have

clear view on this. (The arithmetic mean of several sets of data may

be combined into a single arithmetic mean for the combined sets of

data)

Examples: OG 13th Edition

Chapter 5 : Q16, 30, 113

Chapter 6: Q81, 153

1) The weight of every type A widget is same, and The weight of every type B widget is

same, and The weight of every type C widget is same. If the weight of 8 types A widget

is equal to the weight of 3 type B widget, and the weight of 5 type B widget is equal to

the weight of 7 type C widget. What is the ratio of the total weight of 1 type widget A

and 1 type widget B to the total weight of 1 type B widget and 1 type C widget? (Ans.

D)

A) 75/97

B) 25/21

C) 16/15

D) 77/96

E) 96/77

2) At a certain school, the ratio of the number of second graders to the number of fourth

graders is 8 to 5, and, the ratio of the number of first graders to the number of second

graders is 3 to 4. If the ratio of the number of third graders to the number of fourth

graders is 3 to 2. What is the ratio of the number of first graders to the number of third

graders? (Ans. A)

A) 4:5

B) 5:4

C) 2:3

D) 1:2

E) 12:7

3) The ratio of marketing to finance majors at Empire Business School is 5:8. The ratio of

finance to accounting majors is 3:2. If there are 240 marketing majors, how many more

accounting majors than marketing majors are there? (Ans. E)

A) 20

B) 12

C) 24

D) 25

E) 16

4) The ratio, by volume, of soap to alcohol to water in a certain solution is 2:50:100. The

solution will be altered so that the ratio of soap to alcohol is doubled while the ratio of

soap to water is halved. If the altered solution will contain 100 cubic centimeter of

alcohol, how many cubic centimeters of water will it contain? (Ans. B)

A) 400

B) 800

C) 1000

D) 1200

E) 1500

5) A crate of apples contains 1 bruised apple for every 30 apples in the crate. Three out of

every 4 bruised apples are considered not fit to sell, and every apple that is not fit to

sale bruised. If there are 12 apples not fit to sell in the crate, how many apples are

there in the crate? (Ans. C)

A) 400

B) 500

C) 480

D) 640

E) 740

added to a container holding 8 ounces of a solution that is 1 part alcohol to 3 part

water. What is the ratio of alcohol to water in the resulting solution? (Ans. A)

A) 3:7

B) 10:3

C) 5:2

D) 12:5

E) 2:3

7) If

1

2

of mice, and

1

3

1

9

1

8

what is the ratio of the number of white mice to number of gray mice? (Ans. E)

A) 4:3

B) 2:3

C) 3:2

D) 5:7

E) 3:4

8) A certain company that sells only cars and trucks reported that revenues from car sales

in 1997 were down 11 percent from 1996 and revenues from truck sales in 1997 were

up by 7 percent from 1996. If total revenues from car sales and truck sales in 1997

were up 1 percent from 1996, what is the ratio of revenue from car sales in 1996 to

revenue from truck sales in 1996? (Ans. A)

A) 1:2

B) 5:3

C) 3:5

D) 2:1

E) 1:4

9) In a certain district, the ratio of the number of registered Republicans to the number of

registered Democrats was 5 . After 600 additional Republicans and 500 additional

Democrats registered, the ratio was 5 . After these registrations, there was how many

more voters in the district registered as Democrats than as Republicans? (Ans.B)

A) 200

B) 300

C) 400

D) 500

E) 600

10)

Four staff members at a certain company worked on a project. The amounts of

time that the four staff members worked on the project were in the ratio 2 to 3 to 5 to

6. If one of the four staff members worked on the project for 30 hours, which of the

following CANNOT be the total number of hours that the four members worked on the

project? (Ans.D)

(A) 80

(B) 96

(C) 160

(D)192

(E) 240

11)

The integer n is greater than 7. The average of a group of n numbers is a. when

3 of the numbers are removed; the average of the remaining numbers is b. which of the

following expressions is the average of the 3 numbers removed? (Ans. B)

A)

na

n3

B)

n ( ab )+3 b

3

C)

n ( ab )+ 3 b

n3

D)

n ( a+b ) +3 b

3

E)

n(ab)

3

12)

There are x numbers in list L where x is a positive integer, and There are y

numbers in list M, where y is a positive integer. The average of numbers in list L is p

and the average of all the numbers in both list L and M is q. which of the following

expressions is the average of the numbers in list M? (Ans. A)

A)

( q p ) x +qy

y

B)

( q p ) x +qy

P

C)

( q p ) x +qy

q

D)

( q p ) p+qy

y

E)

( q p ) x +qy

pq

13)

List S consists of 10 consecutive odd integers, and list T consists of 5 consecutive

even integers. If the least integer in S is 7 more than the least integer in T, how much

greater is the average of the integer in S than the average of the integers in T? (Ans. B)

A) 14

B) 12

C) 10

D) 15

E) 20

14)

Last year Department X had a sales total for December that was 4 times the

average of the monthly sales total for January through November. The sales total for

December was what fraction of the sales total for the year? (Ans. A)

A) 4/15

B) 15/4

C) 2/5

D) 1/2

E) 5/3

15)

The average of the integers from 200 to 400, inclusive, is how much greater than

the average of the integers from 50 to 100, inclusive? (Ans. D)

A) 220

B) 230

C) 240

D) 225

E) 500

16)

If a rope is cut into three pieces of unequal length, what is the length of the

shortest of these pieces of rope?

(1) The combined length of the longer two pieces of rope is 12 meters.

(2) The combined length of the shorter two pieces of rope is 11 meters.

17)

Foo

d

S

T

Number

of

Calories

per

Kilogra

m

2,000

1,500

Number of

Grams

of Protein

per

Kilogram

150

90

The table above gives the number of calories and grams of protein per kilogram of

foods S and T. If a total of 7 kilograms of S and T are combined to make a certain food

mixture, how many kilograms of food S are in the mixture?

(1) The mixture has a total of 12,000 calories.

(2) The mixture has a total of 810 grams of protein.

18)

The cost to charter a certain airplane is x dollars. If the 25 members of a club

chartered the plane and shared the cost equally, what was the cost per member?

(1) If there had been 5 more members and all 30 had shared the cost equally, the

cost per member would have been $40 less.

(2) The cost per member was 10 percent less than the cost per person on a

regularly scheduled flight.

19)

Did United States carriers use more than 10 billion gallons of jet fuel during

1983?

(1) United States carriers paid a total of $9.4 billion for the jet fuel used in 1983.

(2) United States carriers paid an average (arithmetic mean) of $0.90 per gallon for

the jet fuel used in 1983.

20)

What was Bills average (arithmetic mean) grade for all of his courses?

(1) His grade in social studies was 75, and his grade in science was 75.

(2) His grade in mathematics was 95.

Answer Key

1. D

2. A

3. E

4. B

5. C

6. A

7. E

8. A

9. B

10.D

11.B

12.A

13.B

14.A

15.D

16.E

17.D

18.A

19.C

20.E

SESSION-4 (MODULE-1-ARITHMETIC)

Topics to be covered

Time, speed and Distance

Time & Work

1. RATE

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

Explain concept of motion

Define speed with help of example

What are the units used to measure motion components like time speed and

distance?

Explain by taking real life example how distance is related to speed if time is

constant.

D1 S1

D2 S2

(v)

Hints

Explain by taking real life example how distance is related to time if speed is

constant.

D1 T1

D2 T2

(vi)

Hints

Explain by taking real life example how speed is related to time if distance is

constant.

T1 S2

T2 S1

(vii)

Hints

Explain by taking real life example how distance is related to speed and time.

D1 T1 S1

D2 T2 S2

(viii)

Hints

OR Distance = Time x Speed

Define average speed

(i)

Give fundamental formula to calculate average speed

Average Speed

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(viii)

(ix)

(x)

Total Time Taken in Journey

Hints

Let students understand average speed does not mean that always

arithmetic mean of given different speeds

Explain if distance is constant how average speed can be calculated

Explain if time is constant how average speed can be calculated

(i)

Take real life example such train or cars to understand relative speed

(ii)

Let them understand the different between speed and relative speed

(iii)

Relative speed if speeds of moving bodies are different

Hints Relative Speed = Sum or Difference of speeds

(iv)

Relative speed if speeds of moving bodies are same and moving in same

direction.

Hints Relative Speed = 0

(v)

Relative speed if of moving bodies are moving is same direction

Hints Relative Speed = Difference of speeds

(vi)

Relative speed if of moving bodies are moving is opposite direction

Hints Relative Speed = Sum

Explain Relative Speed in case of Circular Motions (Brief Idea)

Explain Relative Speed in case of boats and stream (Brief Idea)

(i)

(ii)

Give more clarity on assumption made in concept time and work

Hints: Let us take an example 10 men can paint 10 walls in 10 days working 10

hours a day.

(1) Assumption1: All ten men are equally efficient

(2) Assumption2: All ten men are doing same amount of work every day which in

reality may not be possible

(3) Assumption3: All walls are identical until exclusively given they are different

in dimensions

(4) Assumption4: Every day work done by all men together are same

(iii)

Hint: Work done is directly proportional to Men

(iv)

Give individual relation between Work done and number of days spent on work

done. Hint: Work done is directly proportional to number of days spent on work

(v)

Give individual relation between Work done and number of hours work done in a

day. Hint: Work done is directly proportional to number of hours work done in a

day

(vi)

Give individual relation between Work done and efficiency of working people. It

could be Man, Women, Children or Boys, Machine and Pipes

(vii)

(viii)

(ix)

Give idea to students most of the cases work done are same but it may differ

also

Give very clear explanation to students why this concepts known as rate

Discuss Master Formula to solve most of time and work problem which include all

above relations

W1

W2

Master Formula

MMan Power

DNumber of days

TNumber of hours

W Work done

EEfficiency of working people or objects (work rate)

(x)

Discuss how to find total number of days required finishing a task if two or three

people working together and their individual time required to finish the task is

given.

(xi)

Discuss how to find total number of hours required of filling or emptying a tank if

two or three pipes together filling or emptying a tank and their individual time

required to finish the task is given.

(xii) It is very important to discuss reciprocal of one day or one hour work is total time

required to finish the task.

Examples:

OG 13 Chapter 5 Q 81,103,119,139,144

Chapter 6 : Q 12, 68

1. A, B, and C were to be paid in proportion to the part of work they did while working on

the same piece of work. A and B individually can finish the piece of work in 12 days

and 15 days respectively. They worked together for five days and then C completed the

remaining work all alone. If $720 was the net sum to be paid for the entire work, what

was the average daily wage of B?

(A) $144

(B) $90

(C) $60

(D) $54

(E) $48

Answer = E

2. Mr. Peter used to be late by 30 minutes every day to reach to his office. On a particular

day he reduce his speed by 25% hence late by 50minute. By what percent he has to

increase his speed in order to reach on time?

(A)

300%

(B)

150%

(C)

100%

(D)

(E)

50%

25%

Answer = C

3. At 12 pm a train left a station at 60 m/h. 60minute later another train left the same

station at 70 mile/h but in the opposite direction. At what time will the two trains be

710 miles apart?

(A) 5pm

(B) 6pm

(C) 7pm

(D)12am

(E) 1am

Answer = B

4. Fanny and Alexander are 360 miles apart and are traveling in a straight line toward

each other at a constant rate of 25 mph and 65 mph respectively, how far apart will

they be exactly 1.5 hours before they meet?

A. 25 miles

B. 65 miles

C. 70 miles

D. 90 miles

E. 135 miles

Answer = E

5. In racing over a given distance d at uniform speed, A can beat B by 20 yards, B can

beat C by 10 yards, and A can beat C by 28 yards. Find d, in yards.

A. 58

B. 72

C. 100

D. 116

E. 120

Answer = C

6. Zander drives to work at an average speed of 40 miles per hour and returns home

along the same route at an average speed of 24 miles per hour. If his total travel time is

4 hours, what is the total number of miles in the roundtrip to and from work?

(A) 48

(B) 60

(C) 96

(D) 120

(E) 144

Answer = D

7. Machine A produces 100 parts twice as fast as Machine B does. Machine B produces

100 parts in 40 minutes. If each machine produces parts at a constant rate, how many

parts does Machine A produce in 6 minutes?

(A) 30

(B) 25

(C) 20

(D) 15

(E) 7.5

Answer = A

8. Bottle X is 2/3 full of water, which is half the capacity of Bottle Y. Bottle Y is 3/4 as full of

water and has twice the capacity of bottle Z which is 1/4 full of water. If all the water

from both Bottle X and Bottle Z were poured into Bottle Y, Bottle Y would then be filled

to what fraction of its capacity?

(A) 29/24

(B) 7/8

(C) 5/6

(D) 3/4

(E) 2/3

Answer = C

9. A pool which was 2/3 full to begin with, was filled at a constant rate for 5/3 hours until it

was until it was 6/7 full. At these rates, how much time would it take to completely fill

this pool if it was empty to begin with?

A. 8 hrs 45 min

B. 9 hrs. 0 min

C. 9 hrs 30 min

D. 11 hrs 40 min

E. 15 hrs 30 min

Answer = A

10.Lindsay can paint 1/x of a certain room in one hour. If Lindsay and Joseph, working

together at their respective rates, can paint the room in one hour, what fraction of the

room can Joseph paint in 20 minutes?

A. 1/3x

B. x/(x-3)

C. (x-1)/3x

D. x/(x-1)

E. (x-1)/x

Answer = C

11. Carmen currently works 30 hours per week at her part-time job. If her gross hourly wage were to increase by $1.50,

how many fewer hours could she work per week and still earn the same gross weekly pay as before the increase?

(1) Her gross weekly pay is currently $225.00.

(2) An increase of $1.50 would represent an increase of 20 percent of her current gross hourly wage.

Answer = D

12. At what speed was a train traveling on a trip when it had completed half of the total distance of the trip?

(1) The trip was 460 miles long and took 4 hours to complete.

(2) The train traveled at an average rate of 115 miles per hour on the trip.

Answer = E

1

1

2

13. A certain employee is paid $6 per hour for an 8-hour workday. If the employee is paid

times this rate for time

worked in excess of 8 hours during a single day, how many hours did the employee work today?

(1) The employee was paid $18 more for hours worked today than for hours worked yesterday.

(2) Yesterday the employee worked 8 hours.

Answer = C

14. Chan and Micko drove separate cars along the entire length of a certain route. If Chan made the trip in 15 minutes,

how many minutes did it take Micko to make the same trip?

3

4

(1) Mickos average speed for the trip was

(2) The route is 14 miles long.

Answer = A

15. Water is pumped into a partially filled tank at a constant rate through an inlet pipe. At the same time, water is

pumped out of the tank at a constant rate through an outlet pipe. At what rate, in gallons per minute, is the amount

of water in the tank increasing?

(1) The amount of water initially in the tank is 200 gallons.

(2) Water is pumped into the tank at a rate of 10 gallons per minute and out of the tank at a rate of 10 gallons every

1

2

2

minute.

Answer = B

Homework assignment:

EGE Workbook Chapter 5 -Time, Speed, Distance & Time & Work

SESSION-5 (MODULE-2-ALGEBRA)

Topics to be covered

Indices

Linear Equations

Simultaneous Equations

Quadratic Equations

Quadratic Expression

CONCEPT TO BE TESTED IN ALGEBRA

(i)

Equations (Word Problems)

(ii)

Inequalities and Absolute Values

(iii)

Sequences and Set Theory and Its Applications

(iv)

Function and Defined functions application of algebra

1. INDICES AND SURDS

(i)

Before you begin the concept just brush up basic algebra formulae

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

Explain the difference between indices and surds

Let students know that in GRE testing most of the cases ETS Tests

question from indices.

Explain Index Notations

Index Notations Negative Base

Index Notations Laws

Hints

Note 1:

If a x a y

Then x y ; provided a 1

Because

13 15 but 3 5

Note 2 :

If a x b x

Then a b ; provided x 0

Because

30 50 but 3 5

2. POLYNOMIALS:

(i)

Just give brief idea about polynomial

Hints: A polynomial is an expression having terms with decreasing powers of x,

like this: 2x3 + 3x2 - x + 6. Polynomial is an equation of constants and only

variable with different degree. ax n+bxn-1+cxn-2+dxn-3+ + k =0

Note1: nth order polynomial will have n roots (roots means value of variable

which satisfy given equation)

3. LINEAR EQUATIONS:

(i)

Define Equations

(ii)

Definition of simple equation

(iii)

Degree of equation

(iv)

Method to solve equations

(v)

Definition of linear equation

(vi)

Explanatory examples to explain the above concepts

(vii) Definition of independent equation, dependent equation, quadratic

equation, linear equation in two variables Introduction to the concept of

system of linear equations and the two methods to solve simultaneous

linear equations, namely, solving by substitution and solving by

elimination

(viii) Different types of solutions to a system of linear equations

(i)

Unique Solutions (with example)

(ii)

No Solution (with example)

(iii)

Infinite Solution (with example)

(ix)

Special cases in linear equations

(x)

Discussion of word problems.

4. QUADRATIC EQUATIONS:

(i)

Define quadratic equation

Hints: Quadratic Equations or equations of the second order where the

variables have a power of 2 is tested. Solutions, roots, types of roots of

quadratic equations are tested. Factorizing a quadratic equation to find its

solutions is also tested in GRE. Introduction to quadratic equations and

roots of quadratic equations

Note: Let students know for some cases this known as binomial

Concept of discriminant of quadratic equation

Method to calculate the sum, difference and product of roots.

Method to form a quadratic equation, if roots are given.

Method to determine nature of roots (real, rational, equal, imaginary),

using value of the discriminant

5. DISCUSS QUADRATIC EXPRESSION

(i)

Explain what is quadratic expression

(ii)

Explain the difference between quadratic equation and

quadratic equation

(iii)

Let students know, now a day GRE testing this type of

question also.

(iv)

Give formula to find minimum and maximum value of a

given quadratic expression.

Hints:

(xi)

(xii)

(xiii)

(xiv)

f ( x ) ax 2 bx c

Case 1: a 0

f ( x ) Max

4ac b 2

4a

Case 1: a 0

f ( x ) Min

4ac b 2

f ( x ) Max

4a

f ( x ) Min

Chapter 5: 37

Chapter 6: Q86, 99, 132

1- This year Trek will save a certain amount of his income, and he will spend the rest. Next

year Trek will have no income, but for each dollar that he saves this year, he will have 1

+ r dollars available to spend. In terms of r, what fraction of his income should Trek

save this year so that next year the amount available to spend will be equal to half the

amount that he spends this year?

(A) 1/(r+2)

(B) 1/(2r+2)

(C) 1/(3r+2)

(D) 1/(r+3)

(E) 1/(2r+3)

Answer = E

2- The price of a bushel of corn is currently $3.20, and the price of a peck of wheat is

$5.80. The price of corn is increasing at a constant rate of 5.x cents per day while the

x. 2 x

cents per day where number

of is days. What is the approximate price when a bushel of corn costs the same amount

as a peck of wheat?

(A) $4.50

(B) $5.10

(C) $5.30

(D) $5.50

(E) $5.60

Answer E

3- In an ensemble of gongs, all gongs have a diameter of either ten inches, or twelve

inches or fifteen inches. In the collection there are 18 ten inch gongs. Half of the gongs

in the collection are Tiger gongs. Of the Tiger gongs, there are equal numbers of ten

inch, twelve inch and fifteen inch gongs. Half of the twelve inch gongs are not Tiger

gongs, and half of all gongs are fifteen inches in diameter. How many gongs are there

in the collection?

A. 18

B. 54

C. 72

D. 90

E. 108

Answer: E.

4- The rate of a certain chemical reaction is directly proportional to the square of the

concentration of chemical A present and inversely proportional to the concentration of

chemical B present. If the concentration of chemical B is increased by 100%, which of

the following is closest to the percent change in the concentration of chemical A

required to keep the reaction rate unchanged?

A. 100% decrease

B. 50% decrease

C. 40% decrease

D. 40% increase

E. 50% increase

Answer: D.

5- A certain city with population of 132,000 is to be divided into 11 voting districts, and no

district is to have a population that is more than 10 percent greater than the population

of any other district. What is the minimum possible population that the least populated

district could have?

A. 10,700

B. 10,800

C. 10,900

D. 11,000

E. 11,100

Answer: D

6- Eight litres are drawn off from a vessel full of water and substituted by pure milk. Again

eight litres of the mixture are drawn off and substituted by pure milk. If the vessel now

contains water and milk in the ratio 9:40, find the capacity of the vessel.

A. 21 litres

B. 22 litres

C. 20 litres

D. 14 litres

E. 28 litres

Answer D

7- If b is an integer, is

1)

is an integer

2)

an integer?

Answer = B

8- If a and b are positive integers what is the value of a+b?

1) a/b = 5/8

2) The greatest common divisor of a and b is 1

Answer is C.

9- What is the remainder when the positive integer n is divided by the positive integer k,

where k>1?

1) n = (k+1)3

2) k = 5

Answer Is A.

10-Question 3: If there are more than 2 numbers in a certain list, is each of the numbers in

the list equal to 0?

1) The PRODUCT of any 2 numbers in the list is equal to 0

2) The SUM of any 2 numbers in the list is equal to 0

Answer is B.

11-Is y an integer?

(1) y3 is an integer

(2) 3y is an integer

Answer = C

12-Of the 58 patients of Vertigo Hospital, 45 have arachnophobia. How many of the

patients have acrophobia?

(1) The number of patients of Vertigo Hospital who have both arachnophobia and

acrophobia is the same as the number of patients who have neither arachnophobia nor

acrophobia.

(2) 32 patients of Vertigo Hospital have arachnophobia but not acrophobia.

Answer: A.

13-A certain fruit stand sold total of 76 oranges to 19 customers. How many of them

bought only one orange?

(1) None of the customers bought more than 4 oranges

(2) The difference between the numbers of oranges bought by any two customers is

even

Answer: D.

14-There is at least one viper and at least one cobra in Pandora's box. How many cobras

are there?

(1) There are total 99 snakes in Pandora's box.

(2) From any two snakes from Pandora's box at least one is a viper.

Answer: B.

15-Linda has $15, which is enough to buy 11 muffins and 7 brownies, is $45 enough to

buy 27 muffins and 27 brownies?

(1) $15 is enough to buy 7 muffins and 11 brownies.

(2) $15 is enough to buy 10 muffins and 8 brownies.

Answer: D

Answer Key

1. E

2. E

3. E

4. D

5. D

6. D

7. B

8. C

9. A

10.B

11.C

12.A

13.D

14.B

15.D

Homework Assignment: EGE Workbook

Chapter 2 Q1-26 Q41-49

SESSION-6-(MODULE-2-ALGEBRA)

Topics to be covered

Inequalities

Absolute Value

Sequences

1. NUMBER LINE

(i)

(ii)

(i)

(ii)

Explain most important aspect of line

Numbers on number line are in ascending order only. All left side

number are always lesser than right side number irrespective of their

sign

Hint: 10>6 but (-10)<(-6)

All numbers on number line are real number

(iii)

(iv)

Any number right side to zero are positive and left to zero are always

are negative

Zero is neither positive nor negative number

2. INEQUALITIES (basics)

(i)

Define Inequalities

Hint: An inequality is comparison between or amongst two statements with different

values.

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

3.

Define Quadratic Inequalities

Explain how inequalities differs from equation

Explain what is finite solution of any linear in-equation

Explain what is infinite solution of any linear in-equation

Properties of inequalities

(i)

How inequality changes if a positive number added both side

(ii)

How inequality changes if a positive number subtracted both

side

(iii)

How inequality changes if a positive number multiplied both

side

(iv)

How inequality changes if a positive number divided both side

(v)

How inequality changes if a negative number added both side

(vi)

How inequality changes if a negative number subtracted both

side

(vii) How inequality changes if a negative number multiplied both

side

(viii) How inequality changes if a negative number divided both side

INEQUALITIES (Fundamental)

(i)

Explain the meaning of strictly lesser inequality

(ii)

Explain the meaning of lesser inequality

(iii)

Explain the meaning of strictly greater inequality

(iv)

Explain the meaning of greater inequality

(v)

Discuss how to solve and write the answer of strictly lesser

linear in-equation

(vi)

Discuss how to solve and write the answer of lesser linear inequation

(vii) Discuss how to solve and write the answer of strictly greater

linear in-equation

(viii) Discuss how to solve and write the answer of greater linear inequation

(ix)

Discuss how to solve and write the answer of strictly quadratic

in-equation

(x)

Discuss how to solve and write the answer of lesser quadratic

in-equation

(xi)

Discuss how to solve and write the answer of strictly greater

quadratic in-equation

(xii) Discuss how to solve and write the answer of greater quadratic

in-equation

Case 1

If ( x a )( x b) 0 and it is given a b

Then solution is...

x ( a , b)

Case 2

If ( x a )( x b) 0 and it is given a b

Then solution is...

x a,

Case 3

If ( x a )( x b) 0 and it is given a b

Then solution is...

x ( ,

a ) (b,

Case 4

If ( x a )( x b) 0 and it is given a b

Then solution is...

x ,

a b,

5. ABSOLUTE VALUES

(i)

(ii)

The absolute value of x equals

(i)

(ii)

0 when x equals 0

(iii)

-x when x is less than zero (this "flips" the number back to positive)

minimum value of any absolute is zero.

Absolute Value means...only how far a number is from zero:

and "-6" is also 6 away from zero.

So the absolute value of 6 is 6,

and the absolute value of -6 is also 6

Example: Absolute Value Symbol To show you want the absolute value of

something, you put "|" marks either side (called "bars"), like these examples:

|7| = 7

|-5| = 5

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

(ix)

(x)

(xi)

(xii)

(xiii)

(xiv)

Lets students understand how inequalities and absolutes values are

closely related.

Let students know the solution of IxI=-3 is not defined because absolute

of anything cannot be negative

Let students know the solution of IxI<-3 is not defined because absolute

x 3

of anything cannot be negative

Let students know the solution of

is not defined because absolute

x 3

of anything cannot be negative

Let students know the solution of

is real number because

absolute of anything cannot be negative which means all values will be

x 3

greater than -3

Let students know the solution of

is real number because

absolute of anything cannot be negative which means all values will be

x a

x2 a

greater than -3

x

a

Let students know

means a x a

2

a x a

Let students know x ameans

2

Let students knows x a means a x a

Let students knows

means

Explain how to solve absolute values related problems in different cases

Case 1

Case 2

If x k then Solution is ...

x (k ,

Case 3

k)

x k ,

Case 4

If x k then solution is...

x ( ,

Case 5

a ) (b,

x ,

a b,

Case 6

If x y then solution is...

x y

or x y

6. SEQUENCE

(i)

Define Sequences

Hints: This covers simple and the typical series including arithmetic progression and

geometric or multiplicative progression and Harmonic progressions with formulae to find

the nth term of progression and the sum of n terms of progression.

(ii)

(iii)

(i)

(ii)

Let students know that some of the cases ETS tests user defined sequence

Hint: A user defined sequence is they will give relations from one term to

another and then they frame questions.

Let students know that some of the cases ETS tests standard well defined

sequence

Arithmetic sequence

Geometric Sequence

(v)

(i)

The number patterns

(ii)

Sequences of numbers

(iii)

Arithmetic sequences

Hints: In arithmetic sequence next term sequence is always increase or decrease

by a constant term from its previous term and this constant term is known as

common difference. A finite portion of an arithmetic progression is called a finite

arithmetic progression and sometimes just called an arithmetic progression.

(vi)

(vii)

Geometric sequences

Hints: In geometric sequence next term of the sequence is constant times

Properties:

(i) Positive, the terms will all be the same sign as the initial term.

(ii) Negative, the terms will alternate between positive and negative.

(iii)Greater than 1, there will be exponential growth towards positive

infinity.

(iv)

1, the progression is a constant sequence.

(v) Between 1 and 1 but not zero, there will be exponential decay

towards zero.

(vi)

1, the progression is an alternating sequence (see alternating

series)

(vii) Less than 1, for the absolute values there is exponential growth

towards positive and negative infinity (due to the alternating sign).

NOTE: Geometric sequences (with common ratio not equal to 1, 1 or 0)

show exponential growth or exponential decay

(viii)

(iv)

ab

2.a.b

a.b

2

ab

1. AM>GM>HM i.e

2. AM=GM=HM (If a and b are equal)

7. SETS

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

(ix)

(x)

(xi)

Explain how to represent the sets

Discuss cardinal number of sets

Discuss finite sets

Discuss infinite sets

Discuss Singleton sets

Discuss null sets

Discuss Universal sets with example and let students know how to

represent Universal set

Let students know Universal set on sets with examples

Discuss operation on sets

1. Union

2. Intersection

3. Difference

Discuss Theorem for sets

2. Addition Theorem of sets three sets (most of the cases ETS test for two

sets only)

3. Addition theorem of sets for disjoint sets

Examples OG 13th Edition Chapter 5 : Q14, 192

Q82, 85, 92

Chapter 6:

GMAT/SESSION 5

Topics to be covered

Inequalities

Arithmetic Progression

Geometric Progression

In Class Problems

(1) p + 3 < q 1

(2) -2p > 2q

2. If (xy) = xy, what is the value of x + y?

(1) x = -1/2

(2) y is not equal to 0.

3.

Is x > y?

(1) x2 > y

4. Is d negative?

(1) e + d = -12

(2) x < y

(2) e d < -12

I.

x3 < x2

II.

x5 < 1 x

III.

x4 < x2

a. I only

b. I and II only

c. II and III only

d. I and III only

e. I, II and III

6.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

7.

896

963

1008

1792

2016

In a sequence of terms in which each term is three times the previous term, what is the

fourth term?

(1) The first term is 3.

(2) The second to last term is 310

(1) x > 1

(2) n > 0

9.

(1) 4x1 < 4x 120

(2) x2 = 36

(1) y x = 3

(2) x3 < 0

11.A square is drawn by joining the midpoints of the sides of a given square. A third square

is drawn inside the second square in the same way and this process continues

indefinitely. If the side of the first square is 4 cm determine the sum of the areas of the

squares.

A. 32 sq. units

B. 48 sq. units

C. 64 sq. units

D. 12 sq. units

E. 120 sq. units

12.A ball is dropped from a height of 120 feet and bounces back to 3/4 th of its height

whenever it touches the ground, till it comes to rest. Find the total distance travelled by

ball.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

240

480

840

960

None of the above

A. 5

B. 27

C. 125

D.135

E.225

14. Patrick is cleaning his house in anticipation of the arrival of guests. He needs to

vacuum the floors, fold the laundry, and put away the dishes after the dishwasher

completes its cycle. If the dishwasher is currently running and has 55 minutes

remaining in its cycle, can Patrick complete all of the tasks before his guests arrive in

exactly 1 hour?

(1) Vacuuming the floors and folding the laundry will take Patrick 36 minutes.

(2) Putting away the dishes will take Patrick 7 minutes.

Answer key

1. B

2. C

3. C

4. C

5. E

6. C

7. A

8. C

9. C

10.B

11.A

12.C

13.D

14.B

SESSION-7 (MODULE-3-GEOMETRY)

Topics to be covered

Lines & Angles

Polygon

Triangles

1. LINES ANGLES PARALLEL AND PERPENDICULAR LINES

(i)

Define lines

(ii)

Line segment

(iii)

Intersecting Lines

(iv)

Parallel Lines

(v)

Perpendicular Lines

(vi)

Define Angles

(vii) Discuss units to measure angles ( mainly degree)

(viii) Discuss different kinds of angles

(ix)

Zero Angle

(x)

Acute Angle

(xi)

Right Angle

(xii) Obtuse Angle

(xiii) Reflex Angle

(xiv) Straight Angle

(xv) Complete Angle

(xvi) Complementary Angles

(xvii) Supplementary Angles

(xviii) Opposite Angles

(xix) Vertically Opposite Angles

(xx)

Directly opposite angles in polygon like hexagon and octagon

(xxi) Linear pair Angles

(xxii) Co-initial Angles

(xxiii) Co-terminal Angles

(xxiv) Adjacent Angles

(xxv) Different kinds of angles if two parallel lines intersected by a transversal line

(xxvi) Exterior Angles

(xxvii) Interior Angles

(xxviii)

Corresponding Angles

(xxix) Interior Alternate Angles

(xxx) Exterior Alternate Angles

2. POLYGONS

(i)

Define polygon (Closed Geometrical figure formed by three of more line segment

meeting at their end points known as polygon)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

(ix)

(x)

(xi)

(xii)

(xiii)

(xiv)

(xv)

(xvi)

1800 ( n 2)

n

number of sides.

n( n 3)

2

(xix)

(xx)

(xxi)

3600

n

where n is the

of sides.

3. TRIANGLES including isosceles, equilateral and 30-60-90 triangles other polygons,

congruent and similar figures, the Pythagorean theorem and angle measurement in

degrees.

(i)

Hints: Triangle A closed figure consisting of three line segments linked end-toend.

(ii)

(iii)

Give some Idea of Vertex (The vertex (plural: vertices) is a corner of the triangle.

Every triangle has three vertices)

(iv)

Give some Idea of Base (The base of a triangle can be any one of the three sides,

usually the one drawn at the bottom)

1.

2.

triangle.

3.

(v)

(vi)

perpendicular from the base to the opposite vertex).

(vii)

(viii)

Give some Idea of Median (The median of a triangle is a line from a vertex to the

midpoint of the opposite side. Each median divides the triangle into two smaller

triangles which have the same area)

(ix)

(x)

Give some Idea of Angle Bisectors ( A line segment which bisect given angles of

a triangle and meeting to opposite side of that angle)

(xi)

(xii)

(xiii)

(xiv)

(xv)

Discuss trigonometry identities such as Sin, Cos and Tan for particular values like

00, 300, 450, 600 and 900

(xvi)

A right triangle where the angles are 30, 60, and 90.

This is one of the 'standards' triangles you should be able recognize on sight. A fact you

should commit to memory is: The sides are always in the ratio

Notice that the smallest side (1) is opposite the smallest angle (30), and the longest side (2)

is opposite the largest angle (90).

A right triangle where the angles are 45, 45, and 90

This is one of the 'standards' triangles you should be able recognize on sight. A fact you

should also commit to memory is: The sides are always in the ratio

. with the

being the

hypotenuse (longest side). This can be derived from Pythagoras' Theorem. Because the base

angles are the same (both 45) the two legs are equal and so the triangle is also isosceles.

(xvii) Explain and give complete idea about in-center (Intersecting point of angle

bisector)

(xviii) Explain and give complete idea about circum-center (Intersecting point of

perpendicular bisector of side)

(xix)

Explain and give complete idea about orthocenter (Intersecting point of heights)

In right angle triangle vertex at right angle will be orthocenter

(xx)

Explain and give complete idea about CENTROID (Intersecting point of medians).

Two-thirds of the length of each median is between the vertex and the

CENTROID, while one-third is between the CENTROID and the midpoint of the

opposite side.

(xxi)

1. SSS property

x

y

(If two similar triangles have sides in the ratio

x2

y2

Then their areas are in the ratio

3. AAA Property (All three angles are equal)

(xxii) Mid Segment of a Triangle a line segment joining the midpoints of two sides of a

triangle.

(xxiii) Properties of Mid Segment of a Triangle

1. The mid segment is always parallel to the third side of the triangle.

2. The mid segment is always half the length of the third side.

(xxiv) A triangle has three possible mid segments, depending on which pair of sides is

initially joined.

Dont forget to tell triangle inequality (let assume a, b and c are sides of a

triangle)

1. a+ b <c

2. a-b>c

(xxv) Relationship of sides to interior angles in a triangle

1.

2.

(xxvi) Discuss different structure of triangles, and their properties such as how to find

their areas and perimeters.

1. Scalene Triangle (All sides are unequal)

2. Isosceles Triangles (important structure) Isosceles triangle two sides are equal

in length. An isosceles triangle also has two angles of the same measure;

namely, the angles opposite to the two sides of the same length. For an

isosceles triangle with given length of equal sides right triangle (included

angle) has the largest area.

3. Equilateral Triangles (very important structure)

(xxvii) Discuss Geometrical Relationship

1. For a given perimeter equilateral triangle has the largest area.

2. For a given area equilateral triangle has the smallest perimeter.

3. With an equilateral triangle, the radius of the in circle is exactly half the

radius of the circum circle.

4. In a right triangle, the midpoint of the hypotenuse is equidistant from the

three polygon vertices

5. Right triangle with a given hypotenuse has the largest area when it's an

isosceles triangle.

6.

If M is the midpoint of the hypotenuse, BM is half of AC. One can also say

that point B is located on the circle with diameter AC. A right triangle

inscribed in a circle must have its hypotenuse as the diameter of the circle.

The reverse is also true: if the diameter of the circle is also the triangles

hypotenuse, then that triangle is a right triangle.

7. Circle inscribed in right triangle:

8. Given a right triangle, draw the altitude from the right angle.

Then the triangles ABC, CHB and CHA are similar. Perpendicular to the

hypotenuse will always divide the triangle into two triangles with the same

properties as the original triangle.

Examples : OG 13th Edition Chapter 5 Q210

(1) S is a set of 10 numbers.

(2) T is a set of 100 numbers

1

(1) y = 50

(2) z = 130

is parallel to line

(1) the product of BD and AC is 20

(2) x = 45

4.

(1) x + y = 13

(2) xy = 36

(1) x = 90

(2)The perimeter of ABC is 24.

6. The area of the right triangle ABC is 4 times greater than the area of the right triangle KLM.

If the hypotenuse KL is 10 inches, what is the length of the hypotenuse AB?

(1) Angles ABC and KLM are each equal to 55 degrees.

(2) LM is 6 inches.

7. In the figure above, Line l and m are parallels. If v = 2w, which of the following must be

equal to q ?

(A) v + t

(B) v t

(C) t

(D) 2v

(E) s + t

8. Triangle ABC is a right angled triangle. Also AC = 25, CB = 24 and angle ADB is a right

angle. What is the length of DB?

(A) 6.72

(B) 4.8

(C) 4.5

(D)2.4

(E) 2.2

(A) 22

(B) 18

(C) 9

(D)4.5

(E) 3

10.In the figure above, x > 900 and y = z + 1. If z is an integer, what is the greatest

possible value of y?

(A) 300

(B) 440

(C) 450

(D) 610

(E) 890

11.If k is an integer and 2 < k < 7, which of the following could be the value of K if there is

a triangle with sides of lengths 3, 7 and k?

(A) 3

(B) 4

(C) 5

(D) 7

(E) 9

12.If l1, l2 and l3 are lines in a plane, is l1 perpendicular to l3?

(1) l1 is perpendicular to l2.

(2) l2 is perpendicular to l3

(1) The area of triangular region ABD is equal to the area of triangular region DBC.

(2) BDAC and AD = DC

14. If the area of triangular region RST is 25, what is the perimeter of RST?

5 2

(1) The length of one side of RST is

15. In the figure above, line AC represents a seesaw that is touching level ground at point A. If

B is the midpoint of AC, how far above the ground is point C?

(1) x = 30

Answer Key

1. E

2. D

3. A

4. A

5. D

6. D

7. E

8. D

9. D

10.C

11.C

12.C

13.B

14.B

15.B

Homework Assignment:

EGE Math workbook: Chapter 3 Q1-15, 34, 36, 37, 38, 40-46

SESSION-8 (MODULE-3-GEOMETRY)

Topics to be covered

Quadrilaterals

Circles

QUADRILATERAL

(I)

(II)

1. Rectangle

2. Square

3. Parallelogram

4. Rhombus

5. Trapezium

1. A 4-sided polygon where all interior angles are 90

3. The diagonals bisect each other

4. The diagonals are congruent

5. A square is a special case of a rectangle where all four sides are the same

length

6. It is also a special case of a parallelogram but with extra limitation that the

angles are fixed at 90

7. The two diagonals are congruent (same length)

8. Each diagonal bisects the other. In other words, the point where the diagonals

intersect (cross), divides each diagonal into two equal parts

9.

Each diagonal divides the rectangle into two congruent right triangles.

Because the triangles are congruent, they have the same area, and each

triangle has half the area of the rectangle

Diagonal d l 2 b 2

10.

the rectangle.

Perimeter p 2(l b)

12.

13.A square is a special case of a rectangle where all four sides are the same

length.

14. It is also a special case of a parallelogram but with extra limitation that the

angles are fixed at 90.

(iii)

1. A 4-sided regular polygon with all sides equal and all internal angles 90

2. If the diagonals of a rhombus are equal, then that rhombus must be a square

3. The diagonals of a square are (about 1.414) times the length of a side of the

square

4. A square can also be defined as a rectangle with all sides equal, or a rhombus

with all angles equal, or a parallelogram with equal diagonals that bisect the

angles

5.

If both a rectangle (right angles) and a rhombus (equal edge lengths), then it

is a square. (Rectangle (four equal angles) + Rhombus (four equal sides) =

Square)

6. A square has a larger area than any other quadrilateral with the same

perimeter

7. Like most quadrilaterals, the area is the length of one side times the

perpendicular height. So in a square this is simply: area = s 2, where s is the

length of one side.

8. The "diagonals" method. If you know the lengths of the diagonals, the area is

half the product of the diagonals. Since both diagonals are congruent (same

Area of Square

d2

2

diagonal

9. Each diagonal of a square is the perpendicular bisector of the other. That is,

each cuts the other into two equal parts, and they cross and right angles

(90)

a 2

10.The length of each diagonal is

11.A square is both a rhombus (equal sides) and a rectangle (equal angles) and

therefore has all the properties of both these shapes, namely: The diagonals

of a square bisect each other.

12.The diagonals of a square bisect its angles.

13. The diagonals of a square are perpendicular.

14.Opposite sides of a square are both parallel and equal.

15.All four angles of a square are equal. (Each is 360/4 = 90 degrees, so every

angle of a square is a right angle.)

16. The diagonals of a square are equal

17.A square can be thought of as a special case of other quadrilaterals, for

example

a rectangle but with adjacent sides equal a parallelogram but with adjacent

sides equal and the angles all 90 a rhombus but with angles all 90

(V)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Parallelogram and h is its height.

8.

of

Its diagonals

9. A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel and congruent.

It is the "parent" of some other quadrilaterals, which are obtained by adding

restrictions of various kinds

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

A square is a parallelogram but with all sides equal in length and all angles

fixed at 90

1.

A quadrilateral with all four sides equal in length

2.

A rhombus is actually just a special type of parallelogram. Recall that in a

parallelogram each pair of opposite sides is equal in length. With a rhombus, all

four sides are the same length. It therefore has all the properties of a

parallelogram

3.

The diagonals of a rhombus always bisect each other at 90.

4.

There are several ways to find the area of a rhombus. The most common is:

Area of R hom bus

(VI)

d1 d 2

2

Discuss the Tips of Trapezium

1. A quadrilateral which has at least one pair of parallel sides

2. Base -One of the parallel sides. Every trapezoid has two bases.

3. Leg - The non-parallel sides are legs. Every trapezoid has two legs.

4. Altitude - The altitude of a trapezoid is the perpendicular distance from one

base to the other. (One base may need to be extended)

5. If both legs are the same length, this is called an isosceles trapezoid, and

both base angles are the same

6. If the legs are parallel, it now has two pairs of parallel sides, and is a

parallelogram

7. Median - The median of a trapezoid is a line joining the midpoints of the two

legs

8. The median line is always parallel to the bases.

9. The length of the median is the average length of the bases

10.The median line is halfway between the bases.

11.The median divides the trapezoid into two smaller trapezoids each with half

the altitude of the original

12.Area - The usual way to calculate the area is the average base length times

altitude. The area of a trapezoid is given by

1

Area of Trapeziod h (a b)

2

(i)

or

Define circle (A line forming a closed loop, every point on which is a fixed

distance from a center point. Circle could also be defined as the set of all points

equidistant from the center)

(ii)

1. Center -a point inside the circle. All points on the circle are equidistant (same

distance) from the center point

2. Radius - the distance from the center to any point on the circle. It is half the

diameter

3. Diameter -t he distance across the circle. The length of any chord passing

through the center. It is twice the radius

5. Area - strictly speaking a circle is a line, and so has no area. What is usually

meant is the area of the region enclosed by the circle

6. Chord - line segment linking any two points on a circle

7. Tangent -a line passing a circle and touching it at just one point. The tangent

line is always at the 90 degree angle (perpendicular) to the radius of a circle.

8. Secant a line that intersects a circle at two points

9. A circle is the shape with the largest area for a given length of perimeter (has

the highest area to length ratio when compared to other geometric figures

such as triangles or rectangles)

10.To form a unique circle, it needs to have 3 points which are not on the same

line

11.Chord- a line that links two points on a circle or curve

12.Discuss the formula to find circumference of semi-circle

13.Discuss the formula to find area of semi-circle

14.Discuss the formula to find perimeter of semi-circle

(VII) Discuss the properties and theorem of circles

1.

2. Any diameter of a circle subtends a right angle to any point on the circle. No matter

where the point is, the triangle formed with diameter is always a right triangle

3. In a circle, a radius perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord. Converse: In a circle,

a radius that bisects a chord is perpendicular to the chord, or in a circle, the

perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the center of the circle

4. Given two points A and C, lines from them to a third point B form the inscribed angle

ABC. Notice that the inscribed angle is constant. It only depends on the position of

A and C

5. A central angle is an angle AOC with endpoints A and C located on a circle's

circumference and vertex O located at the circle's center. A central angle in a circle

determines an arc AC

6. The Central Angle Theorem states that the measure of inscribed angle is always half

the measure of the central angle

7. An inscribed angle is exactly half the corresponding central angle. Hence, all

inscribed angles that subtend the same arc are equal. Angles inscribed on the arc

are supplementary. In particular, every inscribed angle that subtends a diameter is a

right angle (since the central angle is 180 degrees)

(VII)

(VIII) Major and Minor Arcs Given two points on a circle, the minor arc is the

shortest arc linking them

(IX)

(X)

(XI)

Power of a Point Theorem (Given circle O, point P not on the circle, and a

line through P intersecting the circle in two points. The product of the

length from P to the first point of intersection and the length from P to the

that intersects the circle. This constant is called the "power of point P")

Discuss the formulae for different cases

1. If P is outside the circle: (intersecting secants)

2. If P is inside the circle: (Intersecting chords)

Chapter 5: Q36, 165, 213

Chapter 6 : Q119, 122, 145, 152

1. In the figure above, the length of CD to ED is 4:3, and the length of each side of

quadrilateral ABCE is same but a whole number. Which of the following could be the

area of quadrilateral ABCD?

(A) 532

(B) 416

(C) 102

(D) 28

(E) 22

2. In the figure above, regular pentagon ABCDE is divided into three non overlapping

triangles. Which of the following must be true about the three triangles?

(A) They have equal areas.

(B) They have equal perimeters.

(C) They are similar.

(D) They are isosceles.

(E) They each have at least one angle of measure 60.

3. In the figure above, the radius of the circle with center R is twice the radius of the

circle with center P. What is the radius of the circle with center R?

(A) 5

(B) 6

(C) 7

(D) 8

(E) 10

4. In the figure above, the circle with center O is inscribed in square WXYZ. What is the

area of the shaded portion of the figure?

(A) 8 2

(B) 8

(C) 4 2

(D) 2 (-2)

(E) 4 3

5. Point O is the center of both circles in the figure above. If the circumference of the

large circle is 36 and the radius of the small circle is at half of the radius of the large

circle, what could be the length of the darkened arc?

(A) 10

(B) 8

(C) 5

(D) 4

(E) 2

6. A circle (not drawn) passes through point A in the figure above. Which of the

following cannot be the total number of points of intersection of this circle and

ABC?

(A)

1

(B)

2

(C)

3

(D)

5

(E)

6

7. What is the perimeter of rectangle R?

(1) R is a square.

(2) The area of R is 36.

8. The figure above shows the circular cross section of a concrete water pipe. If the inside

radius of the pipe is r feet and the outside radius of the pipe is t feet, what is the value of

r?

(1) The ratio of t - r to r is 0.15 and t - r is equal to 0.3 foot.

(2) The area of the concrete in the cross section is 1.29 square feet.

9. The figure above shows the present position on a radar screen of a sweeping beam that is

rotating at a constant rate in a clockwise direction. In which of the four quadrants will the

beam lie 30 seconds from now?

(1) In each 30-second period, the beam sweeps through 3690

(2) r = 40

10. What is the area of rectangular region R?

(1) Each diagonal of R has length 5.

(2) The perimeter of R is 14.

11. The circular base of an above-ground swimming pool lies in a level yard and just

touches two straight sides of a fence at points A and B, as shown in the figure above. Point

C is on the ground where the two sides of the fence meet. How far from the center of the

pool's base is point A?

(1) The base has area 250 square feet.

(2) The center of the base is 20 feet from point C

12. The figure above shows the shape of a flower bed. If arc QR is a semicircle and PQRS is

a rectangle with QR > RS, what is the perimeter of the flower bed?

(1) The perimeter of rectangle PQRS is 28 feet.

(2) Each diagonal of rectangle PQRS is 10 feet long.

13 Is quadrilateral RSTV a rectangle?

(1) The measure of angle RST is 90 degrees

(2) The measure of angle TVR is 90 degrees

14

(2) The diagonal of rectangle R is 10.

15.Quadrilateral RSTU shown above is a site plan for a parking lot in which side RU is

parallel to side ST and RU is longer than ST. What is the area of the parking lot ?

(1) RU = 80 meters

20 10

(2) TU=

meters

Answer key

1. B

2. D

3. B

4. D

5. D

6. E

7. C

8. A

9. A

10.C

11.A

12.C

13.E

14.A

15.D

Homework Assignment:

OG 12th Edition

Chapter 5: 4, 16, 18, 33, 48, 53, 62, 102, 113, 134, 145, 147, 152, 160, 177, 189, 197, 209,

212

Chapter 6 : 18, 20, 29, 34, 42, 47, 56, 74, 109, 114, 117, 122, 132, 135, 140, 144, 148, 149,

157, 160, 173

SESSION-9 (MODULE-3-GEOMETRY)

Topics to be covered

Coordinate Geometry

Solid Geometry

1.

CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY

(i)

Discuss what the use of using coordinate geometry?

(ii)

Discuss the definition of coordinate geometry (Coordinate geometry, or Cartesian

geometry, is the study of geometry using a coordinate system and the principles

of algebra and analysis)

(iii)

Discuss coordinate plane (The coordinate plane is a two-dimensional surface on

which we can plot points, lines and curves. It has two scales, called the x-axis

and y-axis, at right angles to each other)

(iv)

Discuss X axis (The horizontal scale is called the x-axis and is usually drawn with

the zero point in the middle. Values to the right are positive and those to the left

are negative)

(v)

Discuss Y axis (The vertical scale is called the y-axis and is also usually drawn

with the zero point in the middle. Values above the origin are positive and those

below are negative)

(vi)

Discuss Origin (The point where the two axes cross (at zero on both scales) is

called the origin)

(vii) Discuss Quadrants (When the origin is in the center of the plane, they divide it

into four areas called quadrants)

(viii) Discuss Point (The coordinates are written as an "ordered pair". The letter P is

simply the name of the point and is used to distinguish it from others)

(ix)

Discuss the formulae for distance between two points

(x)

Discuss Vertical and horizontal lines (If the line segment is exactly vertical or

horizontal, the formula above will still work fine, but there is an easier way. For a

(xi)

(xii)

horizontal line, its length is the difference between the x-coordinates. For a

vertical line its length is the difference between the y-coordinates)

Discuss Distance between the point A (x, y) and the origin

Discuss Midpoint of a Line Segment (A line segment on the coordinate plane is

defined by two endpoints whose coordinates are known. The midpoint of this line

is exactly halfway between these endpoints and its location can be found using

the Midpoint Theorem, which states:

1.

The x-coordinate of the midpoint is the average of the x-coordinates of the

two endpoints.

2.

Likewise, the y-coordinate is the average of the y-coordinates of the

endpoints

(xiii)

(xiv)

Let students know, Lines and its properties is main concept tested by ETS.

Discuss Lines (Every straight line in the plane can represent by a first degree

equation with two variables)

(xv) Discuss General form of line (t he general form of the equation of a straight line

is ax + by + c = 0)

(xvi) Discuss slope intercept form line of line which is y = m.x + c. Where m is slope

and c is intercept on y axis.

(xvii) Discuss point form of line and its slope. Slope in terms of angle subtend between

x-axis and line in anti-clockwise direction.

y y1

Here

y2 y1

( x x1 )

x2 x1

y2 y1

m tan Slope

x2 x1

y y1 m ( x x1 )

(xix)

Equation of line having int ercept a and b on x axis and y axis respectively

x y

1

a b

(xx)

(xxi)

Discuss slope direction (the slope of a line can be positive, negative, zero or

undefined)

the right. The slope will be a positive number)

(xxii) Negative slope (y decreases as x increases, so the line slopes downwards to the

right. The slope will be a negative number)

(xxiii) Discuss Zero slope (y does not change as x increases, so the line in exactly

horizontal. The slope of any horizontal line is always zero. The line below goes

neither up nor down as x increases, so its slope is zero)

(xxiv) Discuss undefined slope (When the line is exactly vertical, it does not have a

defined slope. The two x coordinates are the same, so the difference is zero is

the situation of not defined slope)

(xxv) Give closer look for slope and quadrants

1.

If the slope of a line is negative, the line WILL intersect quadrants II and IV. X and Y

intersects of the line with negative slope have the same sign. Therefore if X and Y intersects

are positive, the line intersects quadrant I; if negative, quadrant III

2.

If the slope of line is positive, line WILL intersect quadrants I and III. Y and X intersects

of the line with positive slope have opposite signs. Therefore if X intersect is negative, line

intersects the quadrant II too, if positive quadrant IV

3. Every line (but the one crosses origin OR parallel to X or Y axis OR X and Y axis themselves)

crosses three quadrants. Only the line which crosses origin OR is parallel to either of axis

crosses only two quadrants

4. If a line is horizontal it has a slope of 0, is parallel to X-axis and crosses quadrant I and II if

the Y intersect is positive OR quadrants III and IV, if the Y intersect is negative. Equation of

such line is y=b, where b is y intersects.

5.

If a line is vertical, the slope is not defined, line is parallel to Y-axis and crosses quadrant

I and IV, if the X intersect is positive and quadrant II and III, if the X intersect is negative.

Equation of such line is x = a, where a is x-intercept.

6. If the slope is 1 the angle formed by the line is 450degrees

(xxvi) Discuss how to find the equation line which parallel to a given line

(xxvii) Discuss how to find the equation line which perpendicular to a given line

(xxviii)

Discuss formula to find the distance between a line and a point

ax1 by1 c

a 2 b2

(xxix) Discuss the formula how to find angle between two intersecting lines

tan

m2 m1

1 m1m2

m2 m1

(xxx) Discuss the condition if lines are parallel

m1m2 1

(xxxii) Briefly discuss the circle on a plane (In an x-y Cartesian coordinate system, the

circle with center (a, b) and radius r is the set of all points (x, y) such that :)

( x a ) 2 ( y b) 2 r 2

2.

SOLID GEOMETRY

(I)

Define and explain solids (Solid geometry is concerned with threedimensional shapes. Some examples of three-dimensional shapes are

cubes, rectangular solids, prisms, cylinders, spheres, cones and pyramids.

We will look at the volume formulas and surface area formulas of the

solids)

(ii)

Kind of solid this is tested by ETS (There are two types of solid one is plane

surfaces other is curved surfaces?)

(iii)

sides.

If s is the length of one of its sides

The area of each side of a cube is s2. Since a cube has six square-shape

sides, its total surface area is 6 times s2.

Surface area of a cube = 6s2

Lateral Surface Area of cube = 4s2

Volume of the cube = s3

s 3

(iv)

(v)

Longest Diagonal

Discuss complete information about Rectangular Solids or Cuboids

A rectangular solid is also called a rectangular prism or cuboids. (In a

rectangular solid, the length l, width w and height h may be of

different lengths)

Total area of top and bottom surfaces is lw + lw = 2lw

Total area of front and back surfaces is lh + lh = 2lh

Total area of the two side surfaces is wh + wh = 2wh

Surface area of rectangular solid = 2lw + 2lh + 2wh = 2(lw + lh + wh)

First let students know what lateral surface area is and then give its formula

Lateral Surface Area = 2(lh + wh)

l 2 w2 h 2

Longest diagonal d=

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

Discuss about Cylinders and its properties (A cylinder is a solid with two

congruent circles joined by a curved surface)

If in the radius of the circular base is r and the height is h. The volume

of the cylinder is the area of the base height.

Surface area = 2 area of circle + area of rectangle. Surface area of

cylinder = 2r2 + 2rh = 2r (r + h)

First let students know what is lateral surface area and then give its

formula Lateral Surface Area = 2rh

Discuss about Sphere and its properties (A sphere is a solid with all its

points the same distance from the center)

4

Volume V r 3

3

Surface Area S 4 r 2

(vi)

(vii)

Discuss about semi Sphere and its properties (A sphere is a solid with

all its points the same distance from the center)

2

Volume V r 3

3

Surface Area S 2 r 2

Total Surface Area S 3 r 2

(viii)

(ix)

Discuss about right circular cone (A circular cone has a circular base,

which is connected by a curved surface to its vertex. A cone is called a

right circular cone, if the line from the vertex of the cone to the center

of its base is perpendicular to the base)

(x)

Give brief idea about Pyramid in two minute (A pyramid is a solid with a

polygon base and connected by triangular faces to its vertex. A

pyramid is a regular pyramid if its base is a regular polygon and the

triangular faces are all congruent isosceles triangles)

Volume of pyramid V

(xi)

(xii)

1

Area of base height

3

radius and height are r and h respectively

1

Volume V r 2 h

3

Lateral Surface Area S rl

Total Surface Area S rl 2 r 2

(i)

From all 3-D figure with given volume, sphere is one of which has least surface

area

(ii)

From all 3-D figure with given surface area, sphere is one of which has greatest

volume

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

Chapter 5 : Q7, 28, 202, 211

Chapter 6 : Q 30, 35, 155

Q

S

O

T

equations will yield a graph such that the area of triangle SOT will be half the size of

triangle QOR?

I. y = -0.25x + 1

II. y = -0.25x + 2

III. y = -x + 2

(A) I only

(B) II only

(C) III only

(D) I and II only

(E) I and III only

Y

A

x

O

2. In the rectangular coordinate system above, if OA < AB.Is the area of region OAB

greater than 48?

(1) The coordinates of point A are (6, 8).

(2) The coordinates of point B are (13,0).

3. In the rectangular coordinate system, which quadrant, if any, contains no point (x, y)

that satisfies the inequality 2x 3y -6?

(A) None

(B) I

(C) II

(D) III

(E) IV

4.

E (4, 4)

O

D

F (4, -1)

In the rectangular coordinate system above, if the area of right triangle DEF is 15, then

which of the following are the coordinates of point D?

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

(4, 1)

(2, 1)

(2, 4)

(1, 1)

It cannot be determined from the information given.

5.

y

o

On the coordinate axes shown above, the graph of y = 4x + 20 would cross the x-axis

at the point where

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

x

x

x

x

x

=

=

=

=

=

5 and y = 0

0 and y = 5

0 and y = 5

0 and y = 20

5 and y = 0

6. Points (a, b) and (c, d) are in quadrants I and III, respectively. If abcd 0, then the

point (bd, bc) must be in which quadrant?

A. I

B. II

C. III

D. IV

E. It cannot be determined from the information given.

7. In the figure above, if line k has slope of -1, what is the y-intercept of k?

A. 4

B. 5

C. 6

D. 7

E. 8

8. For any triangle T in the xycoordinate plan, the center of T is defined to be the point

whose xcoordinate is the average (arithmetic mean) of the xcoordinates of the

vertices of T and whose ycoordinate is the average of the ycoordinates of the vertices

of T. If a certain triangle has vertices at the points (0,0) and (6,0) and center at the

point (3,2), what are the coordinates of the remaining vertex?

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

(3,4)

(3,6)

(4,9)

(6,4)

(9,6)

9. In the xyplane, at what two points does the graph of y = (x+a) (x+b) intersect the

xaxis?

(1) a + b = 1

(2) The graph intersects the yaxis at (0, 6).

10. Circle C and line k lie in the xyplane. if circle C is centered at the origin and has

radius 1, does line k

Intersect circle C?

(1) The xintercept of line k is greater than 1

(2) The slope of line k is 1/10.

11. In the xy plane, what is the yintercept of the line l?

(1) The slope of the line l is 3 times its y intercept.

(2) The xintercept of line l is 1/3

12. Line l is defined by the equation y 5x = 4 and line w is defined by the equation

10y + 2x + 20 = 0. If line k does not intersect line l, what is the degree measure of the

angle formed by line k and line w?

A. 0

B. 30

C. 60

D. 90

E. It cannot be determined from the information given.

13. Point K = (A, 0), Point G = (2A + 4, (2A+ 9)). Is the distance between point K and

G prime?

(1) A2 5A 6 = 0

(2) A > 2

Answer Keys

1. E

2. A

3. E

4. B

5. A

6. D

7. B

8. .

9. .

10..

11..

12..

13..

14..

15..

Homework Assignment:

EGE Math Workbook

Chapter 3 (All remaining Questions)

Chapter 5 - Geometry

SESSION-10 (MODULE-4-COMBINATORICS)

Topics to be covered

Permutations

Combinations

1. COMBINATORY

(i)

Explain the meaning of combinatory (Combinatory is branch of mathematics that

deals with collections of objects that satisfy specified criteria)

(ii)

What comes under this concept

1. Counting theorems

(i)

Multiplication Theorem of counting

(ii)

Addition Theorem of counting

2. Permutations

3. Combinations

(I)

Discuss Factorials

(II)

Let students know 1! And 0! Both has same value as 1

(III)

Let students know factorial of any negative integers is always not defined. Give

little explanation with one or two examples

(IV)

Discuss Multiplication Theorem of counting with at least 5 examples

Hints: If any task A can be done in m ways, task B can be done in n ways and

task C can be done if and only if task A and task B both have already done then

total number of ways of doing task C can be obtained by using Multiplication

Theorem Counting

Total number of ways of doing task C = m x n ways.

(V)

Hints: If any task A can be done in m ways, task B can be done in n ways and

task C can be done if one of the task A or task B have already done then total

number of ways of doing task C can be obtained by using Addition Theorem

Counting.

Total number of ways of doing task C = m + n ways

(VI)

combinations with examples

Hints1: Total number of arrangement of r things from n different things if

nr

repetitions of things are allowed =

Hints2: Total number of arrangement of r things from n different things if

repetitions of things are not allowed

n!

n (n 1)(n 2)....( n r )!

np

n (n 1)( n 2)....( n r 1)

r ( n r )!

( n r )!

(VII)

1. Total number of arrangement of n different things in which k particular

r !.(n r 1)!

2. Total number of arrangement of n different things in which k particular

n ! r !.(n r 1)!

(VIII) Discuss in details with examples about repeated permutations

Hints: Total number of arrangement of n different things in which p things, q

n!

p !.q !.r !

things and r things are identical=

(IX)

permutations.

(X)

permutation and linear permutations are correlated and what the main difference

is.

Hints: there are two cases of circular-permutations:1.

If clockwise and anti clock-wise orders are different, and then total number

of circular-permutations is given by (n-1)!

2.

If clock-wise and anti-clock-wise orders are taken as not different, then

(XI)

Discuss the combinations with examples

(XIII) Give some standard results to remember

(n 1)!

2

n p nc r!

r

r

n!

(i ) nC

1

0

0!( n 0)!

n!

(ii ) nC

n

1

1!( n 1)!

n!

n( n 1)

(iii ) nC 2

2!( n 2)!

2

n!

n( n 1)( n 2)

(iv ) nC

3

3!(n 3)!

6

(VIV) Discuss application of combinations

App-1 Total number of selection of r different things from n different in which k

(n k )

C( r k )

r=

Take some examples to give more clarity on this application

App-2 Total number of selection of r different things from n different in which k

(n k )

Cr

Take some examples to give more clarity on this application

App-3 Number of ways of selecting zero or more things from n different things

= 2n

nC nC nC 2 nC ..........nC 2n

0

1

n

3

Take some examples to give more clarity on this application

App-4 Number of ways of selecting at least one thing from n different things

nC nC 2 nC ..........nC 2 n 1

1

n

3

Take some examples to give more clarity on this application

App-5 Number of ways of selecting zero or more things from n identical things = n+1

App-6 Number of ways of selecting at least one things from n identical things = n

1

n

3

App-7 Total number of ways of dividing m + n different things into two groups of m

(m n)

Cm

(m n)

Cn

( m n )!

m !.n !

Take some examples to give more clarity on this application

App-8 Total number of ways of dividing 2 n different things into two groups n things

(2n )!

2!.n !.n !

each

Take some examples to give more clarity on this application

App-9 Total number of ways of dividing m + n + p different things into three groups of

( m n p )!

m !.n !. p!

Take some examples to give more clarity on this application

App-10 Total number of ways of dividing 3ndifferent things into three groups n things

each

(3n )!

3!.n !.n !.n !

Combinations)

1. A code to a certain lock consists of digits that cannot be repeated. If the code is

known to consist of at least 8 digits and it takes 12 seconds to try one combination,

what is the amount of time, in minutes, necessary to guarantee access to the lock?

(A)

5

2

8!

5

(B)

8!

2

(C)

8!

(D)

10!

2

(E)

10!

2. Melons clothing store uses a bar-code system to identify every item. Each item is

marked by a combination of 2 letters followed by 3 digits. Additionally, the three-digit

number must be even for male products and odd for female products. If all apparel

products start with the letter combination AP, how many male apparel items can be

identified with the bar code?

(A)

200

(B) 405

(C)

500

(D)

729

(E)

1000

3. How many two-element subsets of {1, 2, 3, 4} are there that do not contain the pair

of elements 2 and 4?

(A)

One

(B) Two

(C) Four

(D)

Five

(E) Six

4. SHERLEY needs to choose 3 flowers for her sister from a group of 10 roses, 6 of

which are red and 4 of which are white. What is the ratio of the number of choices

Sherley has to select only red roses to the number of choices she has to select only

white roses?

(A) 30:1

(B)

10:1

(C)

5:1

(D)

3:2

(E)

1:5

5. If 6 fair coins are tossed, how many different coin sequences will have exactly 3 tails,

if all tails have to occur in a row?

(A)

4

(B)

8

(C)

16

(D)

20

(E)

24

6. In how many ways can a teacher write an answer key for a mini-quiz that contains 3

true-false questions followed by 2 multiple-choice questions with 4 answer choices

each, if the correct answers to all true-false questions cannot be the same?

(A)

62

(B)

64

(C)

96

(D)

126

(E)

128

7. How many parallelograms are formed when a set of five parallel lines intersect

another set of four Parallel lines?

(A) 120

(B) 60

(C) 36

(D) 20

(E) 10

8. There are 5 students and 3 teachers. In how many ways can a team of 5 be formed

so that there is atleast one teacher but not more than two teachers in the team?

(A) 450

(B) 180

(C) 60

(D) 45

(E) 30

9. Find the sum of all four digit numbers that can be formed using the digits 0,1,2,3

without repetition?

(A) 39996

(B) 38664

(C) 36664

(D) 19332

(E) 18332

10. Harry receives guidelines from 12 customers and uses color coding to identify each

customer. If either a single color or a pair of two different colors is chosen to represent

each customer and if each customer is uniquely represented by that choice of one or

two colors, what is the minimum number of colors needed for the coding? (Assume that

the order of the colors in a pair does not matter.)

(A) 4

(B) 5

(C) 6

(D) 12

(E) 24

11. Right triangle ABC is to be constructed in the xy -plane so that the right angle is at

A and AC is parallel to the x-axis. The x and y coordinates of A, B and C are to be

integers that satisfy the inequalities 6 x 5 and 8 y 18. How many different

triangles with these properties could be constructed?

(A) 110

(B) 1,100

(C) 9,900

(D) 10,000

(E) 12,100

12. (A) How many different numbers between 100 and 1000 can be formed using the

digits 0,1,2,3,4,5,6 without repetition?

(A) 120

(B) 150

(C) 180

(D) 720

(E) 5040

(A) 36

(B) 50

(C) 55

(D) 60

(E) 1008

13. George is setting up an aquarium and must choose 4 of 6 different fish and 2 of 3

different plants. How many different combinations of fish and plants can George

choose? Ans (D)

(A) 8

(B) 12

(C) 18

(D) 45

(E) 90

14. Six students compete in a table tennis tournament. Each student plays each of the

other students four times. What is the total number of games played in the

tournament? ANS (D)

(A) 15

(B) 30

(C) 45

(D) 60

(E) 120

15. Six students compete in a table tennis tournament. Each student plays each of the

other students four times. What is the total number of games played in the

tournament?

(A) 6

(B) 8

(C) 9

(D) 12

(E) All of the above

Answer Key

1. D

2. C

3. D

4. C

5. A

6. C

7. B

8. D

9. B

10.B

11.C

12.(I) C

12(II) C

13.D

14.D

15.E

Homework Assignment

EGE Math workbook

Chapter 4 : Q26-50

SESSION-11 (MODULE-4-COMBINATORICS)

Topic to be covered

Probability

1. PROBABILITY

(i)

Define probability (The probability of an event occurring is the likelihood of it

happening expressed in mathematical terms. The likelihood of an event

occurring is the number of ways that particular event can occur divided by the

number of ways any possible outcome can occur.)

(ii)

Discuss what is the exact meaning of probability (briefly)

(iii)

What is the use and importance of probability in real life (briefly)

(iv)

Before begin real probability concepts lets discuss the concepts related to

probability

(v)

Hints: Happening of anything if result is uncertain, known as experiment. For

example, tossing a coin, tossing a dice, picking a number of cards from a well

shuffled pack of 52 cards etc

(vi)

Hints: Individual result of an experiment is known as outcome

For example, getting even number on a toss of a single dice

(vii)

Hints: Total number of all possible outcomes is known as sample space. For

example, Sample space is 2 if a single coin tossed. Sample space is 4 if two coins

are tossed. Sample space is 8 if three coins are tossed. Sample space is 2 n if n

coins are tossed.

(viii)

Hints: An outcome to a random occurrence (one or more possible outcome of an

experiment). For example, the following are events: drawing a black card from a

52-card deck, a coin landing on heads, rolling an even number on a 6-sided die.

(ix)

Hints: An event with single outcome. For example, getting head in a single

thrown of a coin

(x)

example, Probability of getting a number less than equal to six on a tossed of a

dice

(xi)

Hints: If an event is certainly is not going to happen is known as impossible

event.

For example, Probability of getting a number greater than six on a tossed of a

dice

(xii)

Hints: P(AB) - When two events are fulfilled simultaneously. For example, the

intersection of the events "rolling an even number" and "rolling a number less

than three" is rolling a 2 since rolling a 2 fulfills both events (i.e., 2 is both even

and less than 3).

(xiii)

Hints: P(AB) - When either of two events is fulfilled. For example, the union of

the events "rolling an even number" and "rolling a number less than three" is

rolling a 2, 4, 6 (an even number) or rolling a 1, 2 (a number less than three).

(xiv)

Hints: An event whose probability of occurring is influenced by other event or

events

For example, the probability of drawing a red card from a pack of 52-card deck

after you draw another card from the 52-card deck without replacing this other

card is a dependent event. The probability of the second card you draw being red

depends on what card was drawn the first time.

(xv)

Hints: Two events are independent if the occurrence of one event does not affect

the probability of the occurrence of the other.

For example, the probability of flipping a coin twice and the coin landing on

heads the second time is not affected by (i.e., is independent of) whether the

first coin flip turned up heads or tails.

(xvi)

Hints: Two events are mutually exclusive if they cannot occur together.

For example, the events "rolling an even number" and "rolling an odd number"

are mutually exclusive since by definition rolling an even number means you

cannot roll an odd number.

Hints: The event that is composed of all the outcomes those are not in another

event. For example, the complement of flipping a coin and it landing on heads is

flipping a coin and it landing on tails. The complement of rolling an even number

is rolling an odd number. The complement of drawing a heart is drawing either a

spade, club, or diamond.

(xviii) Give little clarity about graphical representations of union of events, intersection

of events, and difference of events and also complement of an event. Let

students understand this concept is somehow similar to sets concepts.

(xix)

Hints: Probability is a measure of the expectation that an event will occur or a

statement is true. Probabilities are given a value between 0 (will not occur) and 1

(will occur).The higher the probability of an event, the more certain we are that

the event will occur.

(xx)

P ( A B ) P ( A) P( B ) P( A B )

(xxii) Discuss addition theorem of probability for mutually exclusive events

(xxiii) Discuss addition theorem of probability for non-mutually exclusive events.

(xxiv) Discuss multiplication theorem of probability for independent events (two or

more)

(xxv) Discuss multiplication theorem of probability for two independent events and

both events are being success.

P( A B ) P ( A).P( B )

(xxvi) Discuss multiplication theorem of probability for two independent events and

both events are not being success.

P( A B ) P ( A). P( B )

(xxvii) Discuss multiplication theorem of probability for two independent events and

neither both event success and both events failure.

P ( A B ) P ( A).P( B )

P ( A B ) P ( A).P( B )

(xxviii)

P( A B ) P( A B )

Explain what the use of using DEMORGANNS of probability and let students

know even without using this law we can sole the probability problems. Give

some example for this

(xxix) Discuss ratio of odds favor of an event

p

q

q

p

Hints: In probability and statistics, a probability distribution assigns a probability

to each of the possible outcomes of a random experiment

Examples: OG 13th Edition

Chapter 5: Q68

Chapter 6: Q125

1. The probability of pulling a black ball out of a glass jar is 1/X. The probability of pulling

a black ball out of a glass jar and breaking the jar is 1/Y. What is the probability of

breaking the jar?

A. 1/(XY).

B. X/Y.

C. Y/X.

D. 1/(X+Y).

E. 1/(X-Y).

2. In jar A there are 3 white balls and 2 green ones, in jar B there is one white ball and

three green ones. A jar is randomly picked, what is the probability of picking up a white

ball out of jar A?

A. 2/5.

B. 3/5.

C. 3/10.

D. 3/4

E. 2/3.

3. Out of a box that contains 4 black and 6 white mice, three are randomly chosen. What

is the probability that all three will be black?

A. 8/125.

B. 1/30.

C. 2/5.

D. 1/720.

E. 3/10.

4. Danny, Doris and Dolly flipped a coin 5 times and each time the coin landed on

heads. Dolly bet that on the sixth time the coin will land on tails, what is the

probability that shes right?

A. 1.

B. .

C. .

D. .

E. 1/3.

5.

In a box there are A green balls, 3A + 6 red balls and 2 yellow ones. If there are

no other colors, what is the probability of taking out a green or a yellow ball?

A. 1/5.

B. 1/2.

C. 1/3.

D. 1/4.

E. 2/3.

6. In a jar there are 3 red balls and 2 blue balls. What is the probability of drawing at least

one red ball when drawing two consecutive balls randomly?

A. 9/10

B. 16/20

C. 2/5

D. 3/5

E.

7.

In Rwanda, the chance for rain on any given day is 50%. What is the probability that it

rains on 4 out of 7

consecutive days in Rwanda?

A. 4/7

B. 3/7

C. 35/128

D. 4/28

E. 28/135

8. A Four digit safe code does not contain the digits 1 and 4 at all. What is the probability

that it has at least one even digit?

A.

B.

C.

D. 15/16

E. 1/16

9. John wrote a phone number on a note that was later lost. John can remember that the

number had 7 digits, the digit 1 appeared in the last three places and 0 did not appear

at all. What is the probability that the phone number contains at least two prime digits?

A. 15/16

B. 11/16

C. 11/12

D.

E. 5/8

10.How many diagonals does a polygon with 21 sides have, if one of its vertices does not

connect to any diagonal?

A. 21

B. 170

C. 340

D. 357

E. 420

11.

A drawer holds 4 red hats and 4 blue hats. What is the probability of getting

exactly three red hats or exactly three blue hats when taking out 4 hats randomly out

of the drawer and returning each hat before taking out the next one?

A. 1/8

B.

C.

D. 3/8

E. 7/12

12.

In a department store prize box, 40% of the notes give the winner a dreamy

vacation; the other notes are blank. What is the approximate probability that 3 out of 5

people that draw the notes one after the other, and immediately return their note into

the box get a dreamy vacation?

A. 0.12

B. 0.23

C. 0.35

D. 0.45

E. 0.65

13.

The probability of having a girl is identical to the probability of having a boy. In a

family with three children, what is the probability that all the children are of the same

gender?

A. 1/8

B. 1/6

C. 1/3.

D. 1/5.

E.

14.

One person won the lottery this week, what is the probability that it was a woman

over the age of 40?

(1) 55% of all the lottery participants are male.

(2) 60% of all the lottery participants are over the age of 40.

15.

If a kid is chosen randomly from his class, what is the probability that he would

have blue eyes?

(1) The class is in Denmark, where 95% of the population has blue eyes.

(2) 5% of the class has brownish eyes.

16.

In a bulb factory there are different kinds of bulbs, what is the probability that a

bulb chosen randomly is a halogen?

(1) There are three times as many halogens than any other bulb in the factory.

(2) The ratio between the halogen to all the other bulbs is 2 to 7.

Answer Key

1. B

2. C

3. B

4. B

5. D

6. A

7. E

8. D

9. B

10. B

11. C

12. B

13. E

14. E

15. E

16. B

Homework Assignment: EGE Math workbook Chapter 4 Q1-25

SESSION-12 (MODULE-4)

Topics to be covered

Statistics

Data Interpretation

1. STATISTICS

(I)

Define statistics with examples

Hint: statistics is study about data or Statistics is the study of the collection,

organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. It deals with all

aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of

surveys and experiments.

(II)

Discuss briefly why to use statistics

Hints: Statistics are useful for huge data base analysis. The concept of

correlation is particularly noteworthy for the potential confusion it can cause.

Statistical analysis of a data set often reveals that two variables (properties) of

the population under consideration tend to vary together, as if they were

connected.

(III)

Let students know below statistical measures may be tested by ETS in basic

descriptive statistics. Give Formula to calculate all measures. Measures are

1. Mean

Hints: The mean (or average) is the most popular and well known measure of

central tendency. It can be used with both discrete and continuous data. The

mean is equal to the sum of all the values in the data set divided by the number

of values in the data set. So, if we have n values in a data set and they have

x

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

values x1, x2, ..., xn, then the sample mean, usually denoted by

(pronounced x

bar)

Median

Hints: The median is the middle score for a set of data that has been arranged in

order of magnitude.

Mode

Hints: The mode is the most frequent score in our data set.

Range

Hints: In the descriptive statistics, the range of a set of data is the difference

between the largest and smallest values. It is the smallest interval which

contains all the data and provides an indication of statistical dispersion

Standard deviation

Hints: This is most important area to be tested in statistics. In statistics and

probability theory, standard deviation (represented by the symbol sigma, )

shows how much variation or "dispersion" exists from the average (mean, or

expected value). A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to

be very close to the mean, whereas high standard deviation indicates that the

data points are spread out over a large range of values.

Variance

Hints: In probability theory and statistics, the variance is a measure of how far a

set of numbers is spread out. It is one of several descriptors of a probability

distribution, describing how far the numbers lie from the mean (expected value)

Inter quartile range

Hints: inter quartile range (IQR), also called the mid-spread or middle fifty, is a

measure of statistical dispersion, being equal to the difference between the

upper and lower quartiles IQR = Q3 Q1

Q. D

8. Quartile Deviations

Q3 Q1

2

(i)

Let students know some time ETS tests high difficulty level of questions for

statistics

to handle such problems these special tips are required.

(ii)

|Median-Mean| <= SD

(iii)

(iv)

If Range or SD of a list is 0, then the list will contain all identical elements. And

vise versa: if a list contains all identical elements then the range and SD of a list

is 0. If the list contains 1 element: Range is zero and SD is zero.

(v)

SD is always >=0. SD is 0 only when the list contains all identical elements (or

which is same only 1 element)

(vi)

Symmetric about the mean means that the shapes of the distribution on the

right and left side of the curve are mirror-images of each other

(vii)

(viii)

Mean will increase or decrease by the same constant.

SD will not change

(ix)

(x)

(xi)

(xii)

Changing the signs of the element of a set (multiplying by -1) has no effect on

SD.

(xiii)

The SD of any list is not dependent on the average, but on the deviation of the

numbers from the average. So just by knowing that two lists having different

averages doesn't say anything about their standard deviation - different

averages can have the same SD.

(I)

company or any other aspect which really exist this universe known as data)

(II)

and refer to the same table, graph or other data presentation. These questions

ask you to interpret or analyze the given data. The types of questions may be

Multiple-choice (both types) or Numeric Entry.)

(III)

1. Interpretation of data in tables and graphs (explain with your choice of

examples)

2. line graph (explain with your choice of examples)

3. Bar graphs (explain with your choice of examples)

5. Box plots (explain with your choice of examples)

6. Scatter plots (explain with your choice of examples)

(IV)

(V)

1. Scan the data presentation briefly to see what it is about, but do not spend

time studying all of the information in detail. Focus on those aspects of the

data that are necessary to answer the questions. Pay attention to the axes and

scales of graphs; to the units of measurement or orders of magnitude (such as

billions) that are given in the titles, labels and legends; and to any notes that

clarify the data.

2. Bar graphs and circle graphs, as well as other graphical displays of data, are

drawn to scale, so you can read or estimate data visually from such graphs.

For example, you can use the relative sizes of bars or sectors to compare the

quantities that they represent, but be aware of broken scales and of bars that

do not start at 0.

3. The questions are to be answered only on the basis of the data presented,

everyday facts (such as the number of days in a year) and your knowledge of

mathematics. Do not make use of specialized information you may recall from

other sources about the particular context on which the questions are based

unless the information can be derived from the data presented.

The most important point to understand for students is to use approximation

techniques to answer DI problems. Give detail idea about approximation

techniques by taking some examples.

Examples: OG 13th Edition

Chapter 5: Q101, 112, 132, 185, 201

Chapter 6: Q20

1) There are 1000 people of whom 60% are from Maharashtra. 50% are Graduate. 20% of

Maharashtra is Graduate. Find the number of people who are non Maharashtra and non

graduate?

A) 20

B) 40

C) 60

D) 480

E) 300

children during the school picnic and 11 volunteered both to supervise children during the

picnic and to bring refreshment to the picnic. If the number of parents who volunteered to

bring refreshment was 1.5 times the number of parents who neither volunteered to

supervise children nor bring refreshment, how many of the parents volunteered to bring

refreshment?

A) 24

B) 36

C) 54

D) 50

E) 60

3) In town X, 64 percent of the population are employed, and 48 percent of the population

are employed males, what percent of the employed people in town X are female?

A) 15%

B) 35%

C) 20%

D) 25%

E) 10%

4) Thirty percent of the members of a swim club have passed the life saving test. Among the

members who have not passed the test, 12 have taken preparatory course and 30 have

not taken the course. How many members are there in the swim club?

A) 40

B) 50

C) 60

D) 70

E) 80

5) If 75 percent of a class answered the first question on a certain test correctly, 55 percent

answered the second question on the test correctly and 20 percent answered neither of

the questions correctly. What percent answered both correctly?

A) 50%

B) 25%

C) 75%

D) 80%

E) 60%

6) Three hundred students at college Q study a foreign language. Of these, 110 of those

student study French, and 170 study Spanish. If at least 90 students who study a foreign

language at college Q study neither French nor Spanish, then the number of students who

study Spanish but not French could be any number from.

A) 50 to 100

B) 100 to 130

C) 130 to 190

D) 60 to 100

E) 50 to 100

7) A marketing firm determined that, of 200 household surveyed, 80 used neither Brand A

nor Brand B soap, 60 used only Brand A soap, and for every household that used both

Brands of soap, 3 used only Brand B soap. How many of 200 household surveyed used

both Brands of soap?

A) 10

B) 15

C) 25

D) 40

E) 50

8) If m is the average of the first 10 positive multiples of 5 and if M is the median of the first

10 positive multiples of 5, what is the value of M m?

A) 5

B) 0

C) 5

D) 25

E) 27.5

9) If Q is an odd number and the median of Q consecutive integers are 120, what is the

largest of these integers?

A)

Q1

2

B)

Q

2

+ 119

C)

Q

2

+ 120

D)

Q+120

2

E)

Q+120

2

+ 120

10) For the positive numbers, n, n + 1, n +2, n + 4, and n + 8, the mean is how much

greater than the median?

A) 0

B) 1

C) n + 1

D) n + 2

E) n + 3

11)

List L: 3, 7, 24, 26, x

If x < 5, which of the following describes all the values of x such that average of list L is

less than the median of list L?

A) X < - 45

B) X < - 25

C) 45 < X < - 25

D) 25 < X < - 10

E) X < - 5

12) The integers v, w, x, y, and z are such that 0 < x < w < x < y < z. The average of these

integers is 36, and the median of these 5 integers is 28. What is the greatest possible

value of z?

A) 128

B) 130

C) 140

D) 132

E) 120

13)

List i: 3, 6, 8, 19

List ii: x, 3, 6, 8, 19

If the median of the numbers in list one above is equal to the median of the numbers in

list second above, what is the value of x?

A. 3

B. 5

C. 7

D. 8

E. 10

14)

5,6,5,6,7,5,5,n,6

For the numbers listed above, the only mode is 5 and the median is 6. Each of the

following could be the value of n EXCEPT?

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

15)

6

7

8

9

10

3, k, 2, 8, m, 3

The arithmetic mean of the list of numbers above is 4. If k and m are integers and k

A) 5

B) 2

C) 3

D) 7

E) 10

16) The numbers of cars sold at a certain dealership on six of the last seven business days

were 4, 7, 2, 8, 3, and 6, respectively. If the number of cars sold on the seventh business

day was either 2, 4, or 5, for which of three values does the average number of cars sold

per business day for the seven business days equal the median number of cars sold per

day for the seven days?

I.

2

II.

4

III.

5

(A) II only

(B) III only

(C) I and II

(D)II and III

(E) I, II, and III

17) An Olympic diver received the following scores: 6.0, 5.5, 7.0, 6.5, and 5.0. The standard

deviation of these scores is in which of the following ranges?

A) 0 1.9

B) 2 3.9

C) 4 6.9

D) 7 7.9

E) 8 9.9

18) A certain characteristic in a large population that is symmetric about the mean m. if 68

percent of the of the distribution lies within one standard deviation d of the mean, what

percent of the distribution is less than m + d?

A) 16%

B) 32%

C) 48%

D) 84%

E) 92%

19)

.How many integer values are within three standard deviation of mean?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

E) 5

20)

I. 72, 73, 74, 75, 76

1

8

III. 62, 74, 74, 74, 89

The data sets I, II, and III above are ordered from greatest standard deviation to list

standard deviation in which of the following?

A) III, I, II

B) III, II, I

C) II, I, III

D) I, II, III

E) II, III, I

Answer key

1. A

2. B

3. D

4. C

5. A

6. D

7. B

8. B

9. A

10.B

11.B

12.E

13.C

14.A

15.C

16.B

17.A

18.D

19.A

20.

Homework Assignment:

OG 12th Edition

Statistics: Problem solving: 69, 199, 210

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