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HISTORY

THE

OF

RELIGION

ARTICLES RECENTLY PUBLISHED IN


"THE MONIST" AND "THE OPEN COURT"
BABEL AND BIBLE.

A Lecture Delivered Before the German Emperor.

fusely Illustrated from the Best Assyriological Sources.


DELITZSCH, Professor io the University of Berlin.
McCORMACK.

Reprinted in Book Form.

TH MYSTERIES OF MITHRA.

Pro

By DR. FRIEDRICH

Translated by THOMAS J.

50 Cents net (2s. 6d.).

History of Their Origin, Their Dissemina

tion aod Influence in the Roman Empire, Their Doctrines and Liturgy, Their
Struggle with Christianity, etc.

Illustrated.

in the University of Ghent, Belgium.

By FRANZ CUMONT, Professor

Translated by THOMAS J. McCORMACK.

Now Appearing in Serial Form in Tiu Open Court, Beginning with February,
1902.

Price per Number, 10 Cents (6d.).

THE FIRST PHILOSOPHER.

Soon to be published in book-form.

Interpretation and Translation of a Fragment

of Egyptian Hieroglyphic Writing of the Sixteenth Century Before Christ,


Expounding the System of Thought of a Memphite Priest that Foreshadows
the Philosophy of Greece.
sity of Chicago.

By JAMES H. BREASTED, Professor in the Univer

Tlie Jlfonist, April, 1902.

EGYPTIAN RELIGIOUS CONCEPTIONS.

Price, 50 Cents (ls. 6d.).


By DR. PAUL CARus.

A Series

of Articles to be Published in Tiu Open Court,


BABYLONIAN AND HEBREW VIEWS OF MAN'S FATE AFTER DEATH.
By DR. PAUL CARUS.

Tlze Open Court, Vol. XV., No. 6.

THE FAIRY-TALE ELEMENT IN THE BIBLE.


The Cuneiform Tablets of the Marduk Myth.
Dragon.

The Two Hebrew Creation Stories.

the Queen of Heaven.

Song of the Well.

The Jlfonist for April and July, 1901.

10 cents (6d.).

Babylonian Cosmogony.
Yahveh's Fight With the

Deluge Legends.

Etc., Etc.

Worship of

By DR. PAUL CARUS.

Price, 50 Cents (2s. 6d.) Each.

These

Two Numbers Also Contain Articles on the Resurrection of Christ, by the


REV. WILLIAM WEBER; on the Earliest Chapter of History (Babylonia and
Assyria), by PROF. JMES A. CRAIG; and on the Authenticity of the Tao 1ek
.A:"lng, by DR. PAUL CARUS.
A STUDY OF JOB AND THE

JEWISH THEORY OF SUFFERING.

PROF. JAMES A. CRAIG, University of Michigan.

By

The Monlst, Vol. IX., No. 4.

50 cents (2s. 6d.).


THE POLYCHROME BIBLE.
of Breslau.

By PROF. CARL HEINRICH CoRNILL, University

The Jlfomst, Vol. X., Nos.

THE TWO ACCOUNTS OF HAGAR.


sity of Berlin.

and 3.

50 cents each (2s. 6d.).

By PROP. HERMANN GUNKEL, Univer

Tlze Jllonist, Vol. X., No. 3.

50 cents (2s. 6d.).

(r)

The Cross in

Central America: 12) The Cross Among the North American

Indians; (3)

THE CROSS AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE.

Also Essays on:

Plato and the Cross; (4) The Cross of Golgotha; (5) Staurolatry, or The His
tory of Cross Worship; and 16) The Crucifix.

By DR. PAUL CARUS.

Open Court, Vol. XIII., Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, and II.

The

10 cents (6d.) each.

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY


324 DEARBORN STREET, CHICAGO
LONDON: K&GAN PAUL, TRENCH, TROBNER & Co., LTD.

The

Creation-Story of Genesis

Sumerian Theogony and Cosmogony

By

DR.

HUGO^RADAV

CHICAGO
THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY
LONDON
Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner

<&= Co.,

Ltd.

Copyright by

The Open Court Publishing


1902.

Co.

TO

MISS NELLIE

I.

MADER

AFFECTIONATELY
DEDICATED
BY THE AUTHOR

PREFACE.

THE

Right Rev. D. S. Tuttle, Bishop of Missouri, in delivering a sermon bebody of theological students on " Hovy to make the people contribute

fore a

Although somewhat vulgar, yet the simile

The more we

of the study of the Bible.

more

it

will yield

more milk they

the oftener you milk them, the

The more and

milk of

life,

"You must

Church," remarked:

liberally towards the support of the

cows!

fits

The same

the case exactly.

study

it,

the brain

was

also expressed

by Dr. Martin Luther who compared the Bible

fruitful tree.

The more and

its fruit,

the

it,

The same

and

we pluck

true

is

more we draw from

the

both for the soul and


the oftener

milk the

will give."

idea

to a beautiful

more

the

will

it

give us.

But not everybody knows


pluck the fruits."

If

there are

nor does everybody know

to milk,"

may become

the "plucking of the fruit"


If

how

"

some who thus

from the

fell

was the

dangerous,

we may

"the plucker "

tree's fault that

dare to say that

not,

on the contrary, the plucker's own carelessness, his own fault


Exactly so

Bible,

it is

"^

with the

and carelessly applied

however, for

a " higher critic."

it,

it

will

there are

true higher critic's

methods as given by

Criticism.'''

remain undaunted,

Understand

The Bible when

Higher

to the Bible, will

And how many

higher critics!

UNDERSTAND
ical

it

it

aim

historically.

"history.'''

from the

fall

to

tree

Higher

but

for

is

to

it

criticism,

and must be hurtful

who want

Was

down ?

fell

who

tree while trying to pluck its fruit,

will

lessly

"how

done carelessly and thoughtlessly, the "milking" as well as

if

thought-

not for the

him who aspires

to

be

be what they cannot be:

not to destroy the Bible, but to

Thus he

will

apply the higher

In history the divine

zuill is

criti-

carried out

thus "read in the light of history" will yield fruits of which no-

body ever dreamed,

fruits ripened in ages past and saved for our present times to

gather.

Indeed, the Bible

been engrafted on

it

is

a wonderful tree with manifold fruits: tiny shoots have


to

time by different gardeners,

soil.

These gardeners belonged

from time

other trees raised on foreign

shoots taken

not surrounded by a "Chinese Wall," nor were they blind, deaf, or

had eyes and saw, ears and heard, mouths and spoke.

from

to a people that

And what

dumb.

was

They

they saw and

heard and spoke they deposited

in the Bible.

the "higher critic" to trace these

from whence they were taken and by

And

if

we

itic soil,

Thus

whom and

find that this or that little shoot

wonderful beauty

to

have traced with the help of

native soil

is

Shall

we

not,

becomes

at

at

once the task of

soil

and

soil,

does

And

one of these tiny shoots

to its

on the contrary, admire

"little clay tablets"

part of the following pages appeared in

(Vol. XII., pp. 568-625).

it all

the

more

It

was found necessary

The Monist

for July, igo2

in order to explain certain "at-

tributes " of the gods to touch shortly

upon the Sumerian cosmology.

Old Arabian pantheon has been taken

in

Kosmologie and Jastrow's Religion


to the author,

T.

J.

many

Israel-

the tree lose thereby

the joy of the author.

The greater

It

to inquire

what time they were engrafted.

was taken from North or South

from Egyptian, Babylonian, or Persian

its

it

shoots to their original

little

Also the

byway of "corroboration." Jensen's


of Babylonia and Assyria were not accessible

and therefore could not be quoted.

only remains for the author to thank most cordially Dr. Paul Carus and Mr.

McCormack,

editors of

The Open Court and The Monist, not only

valuable suggestions and corrections

but also for the promptness with which

it

when preparing

the

MS.

for their

for the press,

has been printed.

Hugo Radau.
Waterloo,

III., June, 1902.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

I.

A SUMERIAN THEOGONY AND COSMOGONY.


1\

lYTHS

^^^

IN

THE BIBLE is

a subject which has recently re-

ceived the greatest attention from Biblical scholars.

fessors

GunkeP and Zimmern^ have

various aspects, and Dr. Paul Carus^ has discussed


that hardly anything

The

is left

it

is

its

so thoroughly

which has not been adverted

following investigation

Pro-

investigated the subject in

to

by them.

based upon a direct study of the an-

though the results reached by

my

predecessors and a thorough acquaintance with their method of

in-

cient Babylonian inscriptions,

presupposed here.

vestigation

is

however,

may

myth

of completeness,

be permitted to recapitulate in a few words the

chief data brought out

here to the

For the sake

by

of the first

their investigations,

confining myself

chapter of Genesis.

The original account of Gen.


must have contained the soJahveh-Tehom myth found in other parts of the Old Testament. This myth represents Jahveh as fighting with a dragon,
called either Rahab or Leviathan or serpent.
Jahveh overcomes
i.

called

dragon, divides

this

it

and forms out

of the

two halves "the waters

that are above the firmament" and "the waters that are below the

firmament."

The

Biblical

dragon has been identified with the

Schoffujig und Chaos in Urzeit und Endzeit. Gottingen, 1895. Also his
new Commentary on Genesis (the Introduction has been published by the Open
^

Court Publishing Co., Chicago).


^

Heft
3

1901.

" Biblische und Babylonische Urgeschichte


3.

"

in

Der

alte Orient, Vol II.,

Leipzig, 1901.

"The

Fairy-Tale Element in the Bible," in The Monist for April and July,

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

I.

Babylonian Tiamat, a monster which was overcome by the god

Marduk, the god

and which was likewise divided

of light,

in twain.

Further the fight of Marduk with Tiamat was recognised as the

Jahveh with Tehom

original of the fight of

a fight of the light

The darkness having been overcome by the


became possible. The following striking sim-

against the darkness.


light, the creation

ilarities

were found to exist between the Biblical and Babylonian

myths ^:
According

both traditions there was in the beginning noth-

to

ing but the chaos under the form of the primeval ocean

was thought
That

in

Gen.

Biblical

Tehom was

this

i.

it is

simply called

Tehom

this

is

Tehom and

treated as a "proper

is

not ha-Tehom.

is still

name"

In both myths

represented as a dragon or serpent, either with one

or several heads, presumably seven as in Revelation, chapters

and

was

The Babylonian name of


Tehom or Leviathan-Rahab.'*

considered a mythical being

evident from the fact that the word

it

be a terrible monster.

to

was Tiamat, the

that monster

This ocean, when personified

having been created.

eternal, not

xii.

xiii.

Besides the chief monster there appear in both traditions others:


In the Babylonian creation-story there are opposed to

its helpers.

these monsters the "great gods"

to

among whom Marduk

have been, besides Jahveh, other divine beings, as

from Gen.

i.

"Let

26:

Marduk who

it is

make man."

us

Marduk

is

played by Jahveh.

The "helpers"

Leviathan-Tehom.

According

to

is

See Zimmern,

of

/.

c,

p. 15.

Tiamat are treated more

both myths the monster


:

into the

The upper waters

the lower waters.

Both are armed with

done with the helpers

cording to the Babylonian account

is

of

Ixxxix. 9

fif.

Tp

Ixxiv. 13

Is.

li.

f.

ac-

upper waters and into

are kept back by a kind of

Gunkel, Commentary,

ff.

Rahab

divided

p.

85

f.

Carus, The

nist, April, 1901, p. 428.


'^il>

evident

with his sword Tiamat, Jahveh Rahab-

kills

kindly by Marduk, precisely as

by Jahveh.

is still

In the Babylonian account

takes up the fight with Tiamat; in the Biblical

account the same role


a sword.

takes the

Also in the Biblical account there seem

and foremost place.

first

Job

xxvi. 12

ff.

ix.

13

fif.

Mo-

"

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS


watchmen, who are "not

barrier and by

According

I.

to let out the waters."

account Jahveh divides the Tehom, the

to the Biblical

primeval ocean, also into two parts, by putting a firmament be-

Thus the Tehom came

tween them.

restrial ocean, or as

it

be a heavenly and a

to

ter-

said in the Bible, "waters which were

is

above the firmament" and "waters which were below the firm-

Even

ament."
are

watchmen who

the

still

preserved in Job

"Am

By
to both

12

vii.

are to guard the waters of

a sea or sea-monster that thou settest a watch over

thus dividing the primeval ocean there

myths the

visible heaven.

Babylonian account

heaven

me

created according

is

In the Bible as well as in the

this fight with the

dragon

closely connected

is

with the creation of the world, in such wise that the former pre-

cedes the

In both accounts

latter.

Tehom Fight Division


The above

is

a r^sumd of

investigations, and

we have

Heaven

the following sequence:

what scholars have arrived

may

think their conclusions

at in their

be accepted as

But, far as they have gone, they have by no means as yet

true.

exhausted the subject.

There are

still

certain difficulties in

left

the Biblical as well as in the Babylonian account which are not yet

And

satisfactorily explained.

we

with these unsolved problems

are concerned here.

Before

we

consider these problems

it

would seem necessary

say a few words about the structure of Gen.

The

first

chapter of Genesis

The word
account
runs

that

is

is

ascribed by

(commonly abbreviated P.)

Priestly school

(Elohim)

D^-l^s

built

is

all

and

used throughout for

up according

to

i.

scholars to the
is

hence

late.

"God" and

to a certain formula.

the

This formula

"And Elohim

said:

let

was good.

And

there

it

According

there be

and there was.

And Elohim saw

was evening and there was morning the

to this skeleton the creation of the

world

as having taken place within a space of seven days.


of seven

count.

days
It

is

not original,

was inserted by

P.

it is

is

day."

described

This system

not found in the Babylonian ac-

This follows from the fact that on

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

I.

the third and sixth day two tasks were done, and that on the sev-

enth day, which was intended to be a day of


finish

the work of the sixth day: nwr

and

he finished

if

he had to work on

\i,

not yet done on the sixth day


is

why

another reason

still

*\t^ "in^xb):

But, as

it,

we

it

Elohim had

rest,

"i^^DiiTi

CVD C^n^X

was not

at

to

bs"'!^

an end,

shall shortly see, there

the system of seven days cannot have

belonged originally to the account of the creation.


Furthermore,

should like to point out here the

which we encounter when trying


used in three different senses
pression, y-ixn nxi

mos,"

D^?2S'n

it is

nx,

our word "cosmos."

day.

first

And

here therefore

"earth."

Bearing

as follows

"In
mos)

v.

it is

10 yix

the

is

same

this in

it

is

is

It is

In the exof

"cos-

simply the Hebrew term for


of v. 2, yix

yiNrT),

the cosmos as

it

existed before

explained by ^2?D^ "the dry ground"

as that

which we should understand by

mind, we ought

to translate verses

the beginning of the Elohim's creating^ heaven and earth

the

difficulty

yiNn.

used to express our idea

the expression, nn*n

In

stands for the chaotic mass


the

in the first ten verses.

"heaven and earth"

for

word

to translate the

(i.

e.,

the cos-

chaotic mass existed,^ namely,* as a tohu vabohu, and darkness was

upon Tehom and the

spirit of

Elohim nDm?2 upon the waters

then Elohim said

etc.

With
tio

ex

the

first

theory

theory of a crea-

this translation, of course, falls also the

Indeed, a creation out of nothing

nihilo.

chapter of Genesis.

Not

a single

is

word

not implied in

indicates such a

not even the word xiD for we have instead of xid

25, 26, the

verb

nt?!?-

It

in verses

was the chaotic mass coeternal with the

Creator out of which everything was created, made, developed,


evolutionised.

After the primeval ocean has been divided into the

waters above and below the firmament, the earth or dry land

made

to

Gen.

Or,

"appear out

ii.

"In

of the

waters under the firmament":

2.

the beginning

3nri%"l=: "existed," not

*Sc. at that time,

i.

e.,

when Elohim was about


'^n''")

or "became."

"in the beginning."

to create.

is

'INini

: !

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS


nti'DTl

the birds are developed or take their origin from out

Even

ocean

of this terrestrial

.-)ir"i

" Let the waters

We
one

is

I.

n^n tz: yit n^?:n

swarm with swarms

see then, that one thing takes

the parent of the other

there

lij-i^''^

of living creatures

giving birth of one thing to another,

and with birds."

its

origin out of the other,

is,

so to speak, a continual

genealogy.'^

Having thus cleared our way, we must now consider


ences
tion,

between the Biblical and the Babylonian account

differences

true that Gen.

Tehom, we must be

able to account not only for

be

omission, but

Marduk-Tiamat myth.

According

to the

Babylonian account, the creator Marduk was

himself borne by Tiamat,

he therefore was not coeternal with Tia-

mat, he was, so to speak, her child


the other hand, exists from
first act of the
e.

its

If it

Jahveh with

just these differences are, for our consideration, of the highest

importance

i.

of the fight of

differences from the Babylonian

also for its

And

made use

the differ-

of the crea-

and marked.

that are certainly strange

originally

>

The

The Creator

Babylonian creator

is

of

Tohom

Gen.

herself

i,

on

The

the "division of the Tiamat,"

the creation of "the upper waters" and "the lower waters"!


first

Elohim

act of

Now, what
^

eternity like

all

Gen.

i.

of

Gen.

is

the creation of the nix or light.

the significance of this nix in Gen.

is

It

is

20.

Psalm civ. 24 ff. was, no doubt, later than P., since for him
Tehom-Leviathan seemed to have been impossible. Jahveh alone
hence Leviathan had to become a creature, for we read (R. V.):
could be eternal,
2

The

writer of

the eternity of

"

Lord,

how manifold are thy works


made them all

In wisdom, thou hast

The

earth

is full

of thy creatures.

Yonder is the sea, great and wide.


Wherein are things creeping innumerable,
Both small and great beasts.
There go the ships,
There is Leviathan, whom thou hast formed
to take his

The

original significance of

creature of Jahveh

Hence

creatures and the sea with

its

pastime therein

Leviathan

is

also the succession

creatures,

"
!

lost here,
:

he

has become a mere

creation of the earth with

among them Leviathan

its

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

neither the sun nor the


all

created later

I.

moon nor any of the stars, for they were


And yet it is said in v. 4 that

on the fourth day

Elohim by thus creating the "light" divided the "light from the
darkness"; the former he called "day," the latter he called "night."

Now

this

i.

and

in direct contradiction to v. 14

is

great luminaries,"

the sun and the moon, "to rule over the day and over the

e.,

night and to divide the light from the darkness''


daily experience and observation,

"the
be

light

it

According

it

day

follows that the statement in

And

wrong.

is

so

it is

We

The

writer of Gen.

nights and days or simply

however,

in

saw above that the

from the darkness."

three days,

the days,

In doing

first

looked

it

was

^'

added,

light'' itself,

in the various

the explanations given,

not explain

he manufactured the

this,

And because

first

of the

follows that

it

But

this*

con-

created by

God

Here

commentaries

they

if

may

Babylonian account helps

agg^in the

the god of light, Marduk,

was the

an ex-

for

be called such, do
us.

Accord-

ing to that account Tiamat brings forth "the great gods,"

whom

had

created,

"to divide the

day.

In vain have
planation,

does not belong to this account.

all of v. 5

sideration does not yet explain the

on the

in v. 4

namely, which preceded the creation

sun on the fourth day.


4 and

to the creation

order to fabricate his

"days" before the sun was

add some such expressions as those found

light

V.

i,

this

If

4 about the "light"

v.

system of seven days does not originally belong


story.

to our

the sun which conditions

is

and the darkness" or "the day and the night."

then

true,

of the first

to

where we are

v. 18,

"two

expressly told that Elohim created the

chief one,

and

overcomes Tiamat and thus creates the heavens.

among

this

In Gen.

latter
i

the

monotheistic idea predominates; the conception of divinity that


the writer had, did not suffer the Greater himself to be created,

hence what did the writer do


nated, the creator

made

Marduk was

Well, "the great gods" were elimicalled

Elohim

(or Jahveh)

and was

coeternal with Tiamat and placed with her at the beginning,

but only the


his attribute

name, the nomeii proprium of the creator was

was kept: the attribute

because the writer needed

it

to

make

^'

light"

And

out his days

it
!

refnoved,

was kept

Hence

the

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS


because

"light" of Gen.

i, 4,

nor any of the

stars,

god

neither the sun nor the

moon

can be only the attribute of Marduk, as the

and the foremost

of light

is

it

I.

The

of all gods.

"light," then,

must

be afwther, and the most important, mythological element taken

from the Babylonian account by the writer


the

"god

of light," is the "conditio sine

of

Gen.

Marduk,

i.

qua non" without which the

would have been impossible, the writer thought. The


name Marduk had to be given up, but his attribute could be kept
and was kept and made the first 7vork of Elohim.
From these considerations we get the following sequence
creation

Babylonian

{a)

Tiamat

"the great gods," and Marduk, the god of

light

fight division heaven.


{b) Biblical:

Tehom light

fight

division heaven.

In the Babylonian zcconnt the primeval ocean

double sex

and

a masculine

androgyn, for we read

\s

2.

monster

one person,

a feminine in

of

a kind of

"E-nu-ma
shap-lish

e-lish la

na-bu-u sha-ma-mu

ma-tum shu-ma

la zak-rat

apsu-ma rSsh-tu-u za-ru-shu-un

mu-um-mu

ti-amat mu-al-li-da-at gim-ri-shu-un

me-shu-nu

That

is

ish-ti-nish i-chi-qu-u-ma."

When

"

above

the heavens were not yet

Below the earth

When

the ocean, the primeval

Tidmat, the deep,

Their waters

Then

According

in

named

no name as yet bore

one

the
|

mother

their begetter
of

them

all

had joined together

the great gods were created."

to this the

primeval waters consisted of the apsu,

the begetter, or zaru,^ and the Tidmat, the mother or mualHdat.


a result of the "joining their waters in one,"

The primeval ocean,

the gods were created.


to be the first parent

From

the root

ni

who brought

" seed

"

i.

e., of

then,

forth the gods.

As

cohabitation,

was considered

What

does the

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

The

Bible say to this?

verse which speaks about the primeval

waters consists of three clauses

the

clause gives the descrip-

first

mass and the other two

tion of the primeval waters or chaotic

membrorum.

clauses stand in the so-called parallelismus


^^'

">''

1,-121

D^^n

That

inn

^tn^-i

'^:s"7r nsn-i):

"the chaotic mass

is,

existed as a tohu-vabohu

it

the

Hebrew Tehom

exactly the

same

rem): the Tehom.

was

'a darkness'

is

upon

the ivaters.'"

But

"the waters" are the

if

God" must be it too! This


Hence "the spirit of God" of Gen.

The word ncm^


its full

is

but

meaning

shadow." Thus we get here a striking

plays
e.,

means and stands

cTrto-Kcra^ctv,

parallel to

he

in

i.

e.,

for

"to over-

"the Holy Ghost

ncm):, then, expresses the

we

i.

do not think that that

nsni):

does the Babylonian "joining their waters


i.

follows
i.

declared by the newest com-

same "idea" expressed by the Greek

overshadowing Mary."

!)

as

equal to the Bab3donian Tiamat, then

mentators to mean "to brood over"

then even in Gen.

upon the Tehom

role as the apsu of the Babylonians,

translation exhausts

the

nni

spirit of

from the parallelism.

reads

yixni

c^-i"':'S

"the waters" must be the "apsu."


"apsu," then "the

It

(or primeval waters, ocean see above

well as a 'spirit of god' that nsnT?:


If

I.

one."^

same thing
If this

as

be true

find the thought expressed that the pri-

meval waters or ocean are parents, who beget and would bring
forth

Thus here we have another


ing

its

great difference

counts of the creation

androgyn, male and female

of

who

first

The

writer of Gen.

notwithstand-

the Biblical and Babylonian ac-

In both accounts the primeval waters were

thought to be a kind
thus became the

striking similarity

between

i.

in

one person,

parents.

who apparently

did not believe in an an-

drogynous monster, retained the Tiamat or Tehom, but substituted


for the
1

apsu "the Spirit

From

this

it

of

Elohim"2as

the life-giving power of

also follows, of course, that the expression has nothing to do

with the world-egg theory, which some scholars want to find here.
2

The

expression " spirit of Elohim" seems to stand in P. for the same idea as

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

He

everything.

wanted,

it

Again

the

if

Tehom

= Tiamat too.

with Tiamat

Thus

is
it

the result we know.

= Tiamat, then

darkness) must

r^tn (the

was rightly said that the

nothing more or

is

the androgynous

true, to eliminate

is

character of the primeval ocean

be

I.

than a fight of the

less

Mardnk

fight of

light against

the darkness.

But we have seen above

that the

god Marduk was called Elo-

him and made coeternal with Tehom, and


was retained by the writer

We

cating his days.

Gen.

of

also

e., TiS

help him to fabri-

have seen that the functions

are in contradiction to those of the sun,


i.

that simply his attribute

in order to

i.

of the tIN

and thus must be spurious,

does not belong to the original account of Genesis

it

we would restore Gen.


to its original text.
Bearing this in mind the account of Genesis
contains

be left

02it,

if

7nust

i.

i.

connected genealogy, which

as follows

is

a well

Tohu-vabohu
"waters" Tehom
Elohim" darkness

"spirit of

" waters

which are above the firmament

'the firmament of

moon

"

" waters

heaven " or " heaven "

the two great lights,


" the

"

i.

e.,

" the sun " and

and "the stars"

which are below the firmament "

" the dry ground "


or " earth "

" grass," " herbs," " fruittrees," " animals,"

and

"

swarms

"beasts"

would draw the reader's attention here

"fishes"

to the fact that

waters above and below the firmament" are said to

Tehom,

of living

creatures," "fowls,'

"the

come from

the

or the darkness,''^ a peculiarity which will be explained

later on.
the

N"l?3"')3

of the

Targums

"anthropomorphic idea"
'

But
him

If

this
!

it

did

it

ought

to

would again be

of

It was used
God.

in order to avoid as

much

as possible the

be made coeternal with Jahveh-Elohim, as Marduk was.


for in that case it would not be the first act of Elo-

fatal

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

lO

From

the analogy above given

the "creation of
i.,

man,"

know whether he was

firmament" or
latter the

learn

him"

i.

we do

e.,

tv 8ia Bioiv,

"creatures" took their origin.

its

"man was

All

we

created in the image and likeness of Elo-

which

tells

man

us that

The Babylonian account

him.^

side,

"waters above the

"the waters below the firmament," from which

of

"earth" and

this

is

a descendant of the

or

the account of Gen.

cannot be referred either to one or to the other

not

"man"

will be seen that

it

we take our stand on

if

I.

tells

The

divine blood mixed with earth.

looks exactly like Elo-

us that

man was made

writer of Gen.

i.

out of

with his

monotheistic idea could, of course, never admit that the "blood of

another god" was

spilt

because there

But

existed no other god.

man was

he apparently accepted the idea that

in

some way or

an-

made him to be created


Elohim.
The account given in the
however, for "image and likeness"

other connected with the gods, hence he


in

the image and likeness of

second chapter of Genesis has,

the "breathing into man's nostrils the breath of life," which

done by Jahveh.

In blood there

is life,

and

life is

a breath,

was

was

the faith of the Jahvistic writer. Accordingly he substituted for the

blood of

God

the "breath of God," thus connecting

"man"

again

with his creator.

We

have seen then that the

fight of the light against the dark-

ness does not belong originally to the account of Gen.

may
of

rightfully ask,

does not,

if it

how

such a fight to be found in Gen.

this question

it

will

i.

But, one

are the apparent indications

to

be explained?

To answer

be necessary for us to examine the Babylonian

account of the creation and see whether the original form of that
account contained the fight of Marduk with Tiamat or

That the Babylonian creation story had


required time to assume the shape in which

course self-evident.
in the

'

i,

e.,

development

If

of

we

the

ception

below.

is

Hebrew

we now know

it,

is

of

literature

by employing

critical

'^'"S''^ Nin-Gir-su
is said "to be a man,"
man." This, no doubt, is the older conthe men to whose tribe or nation they belong.
See

said to look " like a

gods always look like

not.

development and

are able to trace the different threads

Comp. here Gudea's dream where


where a god

its

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS


methods,

think

we ought

to

be able also to trace the threads,

and flimsy though they

delicate

are,

early Babylonia put into our hands.


try to

show

II

I.

which

the inscriptions of

In the following then

shall

that even the Babylonian creation story did not origi-

nally contain

such a myth as the fight

of

Marduk with Tiamat.

We

have now

indulgence for a rather

to crave the reader's

may seem

technical discussion of a few points which at

first

indifferent; but this course of procedure

is

indispensable for an

analysis of the creation-story of Genesis.

Having established

sight

the

we shall be better
Hebrew Genesis and

genealogical order of the Babylonian divinities,


able to understand the kinship between the
the Sumerian cosmogony.

Before entering on our investigation,

few words about the meaning

of

it

NIN, EN,

necessary to say a

is

LUGAL,

and DIN-

GIR.
In the "trilingual
1.

list

gods," II

of

59,

we read

in Col

I,

48:
dineirjyiuL

'^'"^^NIN-DIN-TIR-'''

DIN-TIR-'^'

"^'"^'^AMAR-UD

The '^'"^'^AMAR-UD
But

lon.

and

EN

rian" column
the

EME-SAL

NIN

important

NIN.

but

column by U,

must mean here

Marduk

Marduk. Marduk was the city-god

is

this is

e.,

is

NIN

This
i.

= belu or

as the city-god of

he

rightly transcribed in

is

1.

17,

we read

Hence

This does not prove that

He

Babylon became a "feminine."

tained his gender and remained a male deity, for in the


Col. II,

"Sume-

MUL or UMUN = lord.

"lord."

Baby-

of

not called in the

same

re-

list,

din^ir^UL (fem.!) DIN-TIR-'''

^-^'^NIN-DIN-TIR-'^'

""Be-lit
|

^'"Bab-ilu-'^'

NIN,
of a city,^

then, in this connection,

may

i.

e.,

when used with

stand either for belu or beltu,

Forming with the name

of the city a

!!

e.,

the

name

for his lordship,

"proper name" as

or standing in apposition as in K. B. IIP. pp. 24, 46.


nu-nir-*^'

i.

in "^'"&"'Nin-Gir-su

dingirOun^u-zi-zu-ab, nin Ki-

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

12

we

In most cases

or her lordship.

will

I.

be able to determine ex-

actly the gender either from the syllabaries or from the "apposi-

may

tion" that

follow such a name, as for instance, '''"^"'NIN-EN-

explained

LIL-'^' is

in the

very same

The '^'"^''NIN-GIR-SU

is

list

"the mighty prime minister"

scriptions the ur-sag or ur-sag lig-ga,


of Bel,

hence the city-god of Gir-su must have been a male divin-

It

ity.

is

indeed strange that male gods, when becoming gods of

certain cities, should be called


for

NIN

used

by "the wife of Ninib."

called in the oldest Babylonian in-

either

EN

or

NIN

we should expect
far as I

of course

know

is

never

LUGAL, see, e. g., the name


The EME-SAL texts distinguish clearly

connection, but only

in this

^'"2'^LUGAL-ERIM-'''.

between the gender by using two

Sumerian

EN as

LUGAL.

different signs, but not so the

of the lists or bilingual inscriptions,

and also not the

when intending to make the gender


LUGAL
absolutely certain, uses for NIN the word LUGAL.
then always denotes a male, while NIN may stand either for a male
This

old Sumerian.

What may possibly

or a female divinity.
of this

latter,

be the reason for the use

NIN?

We

know

that in Babylonia every city

had

its special

As

god.

long as the city was in possession of her patron she enjoyed inde-

But

pendence.
the city,"

i.

e.,

case the

in

when

the god

"god

left

the city," or

"went out

was carried away captive by

ous king, the city lost her independence.

The

of

a victori-

city-god, then,

was

be defended and protected, which had to

something which had

to

be fostered and cared

for,

but which could also be "taken," either

by force, inclination, or otherwise, which could be chosen, betrayed


or

given

woman

feminine;

away,

which could be

Even we
note,

sold,

all

characteristics of

are in the habit of personifying our nations as

for

example: Helvetia, Bavaria, Borussia, Ger-

mania, Britannia, and Columbia

Nin-Gir-su is no
From this also follows that a name like
proper name but a surname or attribute. This is even grammatically
indicated in the oldest inscription, for we find very often after the
name '""^''Nin-Gir-su the double postposition KA-GE. In this re'''"^'"^

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

spect Galet
e.

Eannatum.

.a-sum-ma

power was given by

'^'"K"'^

i.

e.,

Eannatum.

names

not proper names at

.to

whom

common,

yes,

we

gods we know are really

of the

but attributes or appellatives.

all,

establish this,

Girsu."

or attributes of gods are very

rightly say that all the

To

Nin-Gir-su-ka-ge,

(ge) the lord of (ka)

Such surnames

may

Compare,

especially interesting.

is

such expressions as these:

g.,

"

Eannatum^

of

13

I.

may be allowed

few more ex-

to cite a

amples.

The name

cannot be a proper name, for

"^'"^'"Innanna

the double postposition after

we

find

were a proper name, only one

If it

it.

postposition would be expected.

"Eannatum.
Eannatum.

Hence we cannot

.mu-shag-sa-a '"^^'''Innanna-ka-ge."'

.dam

ki-ag

(=Bel) and

Innanna-ka-ge.*"

translate the inscription of Lugaltarsi otherwise

than has been done in E. B. H.


lands

'^'"g'"'

for

p.

1253, viz.:

For the king

of the

Innanna, the mistress of the divine Innanna,

etc.

Among
zu-ab,

'^'"^'-

"gods" which

other names for

may

postposition

be mentioned:

Pa-sag,'^ gal

are used with a double

'*'"^'''Nin-char-sag,^

+ (ga)lu +

'^^''^'^

'''"^''

Erim,^ and even

Dumu-zi-

<^'"s'^En-ki,'J

etc., etc.

p.

83

See

my Early

Babylonian History (afterwards

-For other examples see

Entemena^E.
^E. B. H.
Innanna.
*

to

be referred

to as E. B. H.),

ff.

Dec

B. H.
p.

84

it

97

ff.,

col. VII, 9; V, i; VI, 16; VII, 16 Cone of


V, 5 et fassim.

ibid.,
col.

Eannatum.

11,9: "

3 B', col.

Innanna. Thus

p.

.who was called by the heart of the goddess

Eannatum .... the beloved husband

has to be translated

of the goddess of

preceded by: Eannatum


both sentences have to be separated on

In this passage

of

it is

Gal 4- ga-lu-Erim,
If we do not, then Lugal-Erim would become the damki-ag of Innanna.
That kings often do call themselves a " dam " or husband of a
certain goddess is evident from E. B. H. pp. 230, 231, and notes.
....ku-li ki-ag

'^'"g'''

account of the parallelism.

A = E.

Galet

Z. c, col.

^Z. c,

p. 84,

to this analogy

B. H. p. 84, col.

1.

7.

II.

^Z. c,

II, 9.

dingirEQ.jji

we ought

3; corap. Dec.
p. 85,

1.

XLIV.,

becomes thus the divine

to expect also,

/.

c.

Col.

I.

col.

IV.

10.

8Z. c.,1.

II.

1.

6,

EN
for

of KI.

13.

According

mu-pad-da

'i'"2''En-

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

14

I.

names of cities may NIN stand


There are quite a good many " names of gods" composed

Not

only, however, before the

for belu.

NIN, which can signify male gods only. In the composition


names the NIN seems to mean as much as "possessor of"

with

of these

To

=r Arabic dhu, dhat.


''"Sir

lowing

Nin-a-gal,i

dingir]sjin-gir,*

this class belong,

Nin-dar-a

'""*^'-^

Nin-dub lugal-en,^

"'"^'^

Nin-sar

way NIN may standiox

If in this

among

lugal-en,'-^

'-^'"s"

others, the fol-

Nin-gish-zi-da,^

gir-Ial '^'"s'^Nin-Gir-su.^

have, in order to determine the gender of the gods,

compounded with NIN,

are

to

may

or other attributes which

whose names

pay great attention

or

we

belu as well as for beltu,

may

us in most cases whether the god in question

is

to the titles

They

not follow.

will

show

either a male or a

female.

The
i.

titles

or attributes stand almost always in apposition,

have

LULAL
LUGAL

(2)

With regard
suffice

EN

or

NIN

on the one hand and;

on the other.

as well as (2) the following examples

to (i)

we

and

NIN

and

In these appositions

of the god.

between

to distinguish

(i)

name

the

e., ih.e.y follow''

may

Ur-Gur** dedicates an inscription to


lugal-a-ni,

i.

'''"^''

En-lil, lugal-kur-kur-ra

Bel, king of the lands, his king.

e., to

lil-ge^'^'"2'''En-lil-ka-ge.

however,

En-lil,

"The

king of

have not yet found with a double

postposition.
'

note

K. B. III^

*,

20

p.

" the possessor of great power,"

takes according to

K. B. Iir.

p. 24.

II.

R. 58, 58, to be "

24, 28, 46,

"K. B. IIP. pp.

28, 46,

"

The
R.

^I.
''E.

als

whom

Jensen,

/.

c, p. 21,

Gott der Schmiedekunst."

E. B. H. 182, 185.

2K. B. IIP. pp.

Ea

and E. B. H.

"the possessor

1821, ct

passim.

of the tree of life."

possessor of the gir," see below.

5.

XXIII.

Gudea

Cyl.

VI.

5,

" the possessor of the tablet."

B. H. pp. 52, 54 (corrected! see below, p. 23,

6).

Exceptions where the attributes precede the names are rare, but they occur.
Comp., e. g., en ^'ngir Nin-Gir-su "the lord Nin-Gir-su in Gudea Cyl. A. and B.
'

"Am

pass.

glorious
'''"S'r

Nin-gish-zi-da
*

p.

Shir-pur-la-*''

"my

E. B. H. p. 222.

74-78-

azag '''"g''^Ga-tum-dug" "the mother of Shirpurla, the

Gatumdug," Gudea, Statue B. VIII,


god N."

/.

c,

56,

col. IX., 4,

K. B.

Ill', p. 46.

dingir-ra-mu

and probably a few more.

For other examples, see E. B. H. passim and K. B.

III.'

:.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

"king"

the lands" and Ur-Gur's

The former

god.
to

Bel by virtue of his being a

is

his attribute, the latter expresses his relation

is

Ur-Gur. Rim-Sin^ dedicates an inscription to

....

gal-lal

Nin-shach

I5

I.

'^'"^'^

Nin-shach en-

The "en-gal-lal" expresses

lugal-a-ni-ir.

that

which

by virtue of his being a god, the lugal-a-ni-ir expresses

is

the relation in which he stands to Rim-Sin.

From

we may draw

these two observations

Every male god when brought


others

who

No.

No. (2) expresses the

relation of

gods

LUGAL-EN

this to

while

6,

by virtue

of her being

men

always

a.

gods as gods.

men!
lay

g., to

e.

be true

down another

The

rule

LUGAL-EN

NIN-

'^'"s'^Nin-dar-a^ is called

has the apposition

'''"^i^Nina

(kings, or

always ^female god, or goddess.*

correspond,

to

Indeed we find

to

we may

in apposition indicates

Thus there ought

is

into relation to

(i) expresses the titles of

observation be true

If this

EN.

may be

men

LUGAL or "king," but by virtue


either a "LUGAL or king" or an

when brought

or "mistress."

NIN when

Every goddess, however,

or lord."

a goddess 2 as well as

NIN^

always

is

being a god, he

of his

"EN

dedicate)

the following rule

into relation to

NIN-EN^

or

NIN-EN-NA.8

We

have seen above that even the name '''"^''EN-KI must be

composed

two separate names on account of the double post-

of

position which

EN

it

'

= K.
2

I.

X ^ K.

R. 3 No.

B. Iir. p. 96,

behind

suffer

E. B. H.
i.

e.,

in

et

En-lil.

passim.
the

name

NIN Ki-nu-nir-*^', in this case

name

itself of

CITY or place
See p. 11, i
NIN may be doubtful ! Further

of a

the god must explain the gender in this case

p. 193.

K. B. III^

p. 24.

Lugal-en probably

E. B. H. pp. 193, 224, note

See,

= the

"lord of the

"the highpriest."

^E. B. H.
^

LUGAL^

For a similar case see IV. R. 35 No. 6

3.

4,

Nin-en probably

"the highpriestess."

e..

'''"^'^EN-KI is as the

Also read ^ingirNin-si-a.

priests,"
^

222

Except when NIN stands be/ore

attributes or the

The

it.

followed also by

6.

p. 125.

dingirj;)mjju.2i.zu-ab

B. IIP. p. 94,

is

See below the attributes of the wife of

'E. B. H.

i.

may

indicates a 7nale god, hence

e. g.,

p.

87 note.

lugal zu-ab, Dec. 4 B^, col. IV,

3.

= " the mistress of the priests,"

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

l6

The counterpart

apposition.

name

Babylonian Inscriptions.^

We

Here, then, we have another peculiarity.

GAL + X
"EN" in
"NIN "

for the

such names as """^'"EN-KI indicates the

LUGAL = king

The answer

i.

LU-

while

the reason

male or masculine gods are

men
EN, when compared

from the standpoint of

course, also belong, but


their wives,

is

mascult?ie,

What maybe

indicates thefefninine gender.

same

do not find

male god, as we might expect, but always EN.

for THIS peculiarity?

the

NIN-KI, which

^'"^r'^

of '^'"g'^EN-KI is

also to be found in the Earliest

is

I.

whom

to

kings, of

with their equals,

"the husband-god" and the "wife-god," are on

e.,

by themselves, but when brought

level considered

relation with jnen the

"husband-god

"

seems

into

to enjoy a greater pre-

rogative; nay, the kings considered themselves equal to a goddess,

"dam"

hence they sometimes called themselves the

or

husband

of this or that goddess.

To

the

same

class with '^'"^'''EN-KI belong

among

others also

dingir^N-LIL, '""g'--EN-ZU,3^""*^'^EN-GUR,'' ^""^''EN-Ba-u," etc., etc.

In

all

NIN

If

in

'''"gi'-RI

hence

the

EN

EN, we should have the


name of '""^''EN-KI

for

the real proper

or

order to distinguish the

"Mr." from

corresponds to our "husband," or

were substituted

"wife" or "Mrs."

would be

"EN "

names the

these

"Mr."

the "Mrs."^

NIN
'^

having been put before the KI

ht^sbafid"

from the "wife,'' or the

In course of time these

be looked upon as real proper names, and only


their

grammatical construction betray

'E. B. H.

p. 8i,

note

''See above, p. 13, 4.

names came

to

now and then does

to us the true fact,

i.

e.,

that

i.

This

fact also

probably contributed somewhat to the

"divine character" of the kings.


^

See E. B. H. Index, gods,

So

443 sub E.

p.

Thureau-Dangin

far not found in the oldest inscriptions.

Janvier, p. 82, note

2,

proposes

XII. 38128. Rev.

18

compared with

^Thus

it

1.

happened

to

read the sign


II.

R.

GUR = Engur,

in C.

R. 1902,

referring to C. T.

58, 53a.

that in course of time the deity

was differentiated,

i.

e.,

the deity was originally a self-perpetuating being, a kind of androgyn, and later on
was separated or thought to exist as " husband " and "wife." Comp. the '''"stirQUR,

dingirEN-GUR,

'''"S'^

made "from one

NIN-GUR

of the ribs,"

and

i.

e.,

also

Gen.

ii.

21,

where Eve

better "sides" of

Adam.

is

said to have been

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS


they are names composed out of

EN

NIN

resp.

I7

I.

the real name of

the god.

The

last point

DINGIR

which we have

to discuss is the use of the

very careful to put the '""^'^sign before the

names

for

name

"god." The oldest Babylonian inscriptions are always

or

name

of a god.^

The

god Anu^ and Gu-la^ are probably the only ones which

generally occur without the dingir-sign.*

The negligence
gods begins

in

omitting the sign dingir before the names of

time of the

at the

have seen that every

city

favored deities
either

LUGAL

that of

lil,^

whom

Not only the

god.

its

ever, but also the different kings

they termed dingir,

^'"s-'Dun-gur^ or also written ^'"^'^Dun-gur-an

god

of

'""^'^Nin-gish-zi-da" that of

how-

while the others were

NIN.

^'"^'Nin-a-gaPo is the

cities,

and patesis (priest-kings) had their

The god of Urukagina was


Eannatum,^ and Entemena :^
or

Above we

dynasty of Babylon.

first

had

'^'"^''Nin-shul-

;'^

Ur-Ba-u

Gudea

'""s'^Lugal-banda^^ t^at of Sin-gashid, etc., etc.


If

cities

and kings and patesis had

more than probable

that also the

"families" and "tribes," in

>

fact,

their special gods,

it

is

"lands" and "countries," the


every "person," had his

Except when the name of a god occurs in a name of a city:


for din&irEN-LIL-'^'.
But see E. B. H., Index, Gods.

e. g.

own

EN-LIL-'''

= Nippur,

Anu is mostly written ANNA,


(Gudea, Statue B, VIII. 45
K. B. IIP. p. 46), An-nu-um, ""Annu-um, and dingir ;^jsj occur, see E. B. H, Index, Gods, p. 442. Here also belongs,
2

In the Old Babylonian inscriptions the god

but also

AN-E

of course, his wife An-nat.

'SeeE. B. H.
4 dingir

Ba.y^

p. 443.

when

in

proper names and written " Ba-bi," has never the sign of

dingir,

5E. B. H.

p. 51.

'E. B. H.

p. 108.

"^E.

K. B. nil.

9E. B. H. pp. 115, 116, 118.

"E.
IX.

4).

p. 72.

B. H. p. 92.

E. B. H.
i

p. 92.

Ur-Ba-u V.

B. H. pp. 196, 199, 207.


K. B. Iir. pp. 28, 46
Cyl. A. XVIII. 15 et passim.

4, 5

(=

= K. B. Iir.
Statue B,

p. 24.

III. 4, 5.

^^K. B. nil. p. 84.


Lugal-banda is the husband of Nin-sun, who again is the
mother of Nin-gish-zi-da (Cyl. B. 23, 5", 6"), and this latter is said to be a dumu-ka
An-na-kam (Cyl. B. 1. c). For dumu-ka
descendant," see E. B. H. pp. 14,

="

15-

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

l8

inscriptions so far accessible to scholars do not

The

special god.

I.

shed much light upon this question, yet there are

at least

two examples that countries had their special gods:

"the god

of the

Westland,"

e., of

i.

the Ammorites.

Babylonian inscriptions, Babylonia, when spoken of

when South and North Babylonia

i.

e.,

'*'''^''

Ki-en-gi-ki-Urdu

are meant,

'^'"^'"^

one or

Mar-tu,

In the old

in its totality,

is

called:

(BUR-BUR).

Urdu (BUR-BUR)-zi occurs in an inscription of Ninkagina^


and in Cyl. B of Gudea.^ The ZI in the name of this god is, no
doubt, the same as that in the name ^""^'^ EN-LIL-ZI, which latter
name is explained by nu-banda (?)''"Bel (EN-LIL),M. e., "the
Urdu-zi then is the "servant" of "god
servant of Bel." The
'"''*^''

Urdu," and as '""^'^EN-LIL

the city-god of Nippur, so probably

is

Urdu (BUR-BUR), which

jgdingirurdu the country-god of

"KI"or

again with

" place " sign before or after

country "Akkad." In like manner,

GI

we

we might

EN-GI and EN-GI

land (KI) of

being

it,

latter

signifies the

explain Ki-en-gi as the

= "husband" or

should have here another god of a country,

"Mr."

viz., that

of

Shumer.^

The

results of our investigation so far

NIN

would be as follows

before or in composition with the

may

deified attributes

the

god,^

names

of cities

and

stand either for a male or female

context or syllabaries or other texts must be

taken in to decide the gender of each respective god.

LUGAL

before or in composition with the

or deified attributes stands always for a

NIN

in apposition or as attribute of a divinity

that that divinity

LUGAL
1

E. B. H.

names

male

p. 411.

or

EN

is

is

feminine

if it

of cities

divinity.

always shows

be masculine the word

used.

Here belong,

of course, the deified attributes

dingir

Lug^l-

kur-kur-ra, '''"g'''Nin-char-sag, etc.

2E. B. H.

p.

186,

^cyj

IX. 13.

= Gir-su

*II. R. 59 col.

I.

20.

H. p. 216 f.) be correct,


the dingii-Nin-Gir-su, the surname, would stand for the god GI or better for "^'"e'"
K. B. IIP. p.
EN-GI. Such a ^'"'fir EN-GI seems to occur in IV. R. 35 No. 6
^If

my

explanation of

Shumer

(see E. B.

96

6.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

NIN

EN

and

I9

I.

proper names for gods correspond to our

in

The

"Mr." and "Mrs."

name

real

god being

the

of

always expressed by the sign that follows the Nin or

EN

respectively.

Bearing this
different

may now

mind, we

in

consider the names of the

gods themselves.

The god LIL.

I.

down

Mr. LIL, according to our rules laid


^'^^"

to be called

EN-LIL

and Mrs. LIL,

in the oldest inscriptions.^

This attribute has become


to

'''"'^'"EN-LIL

which the sign dingir was prefixed

kur

would follow from the analogy

not yet seen an inscription where

EN-LIL

but

is

is

'*'"*^''Nin-char-sag.^

This

and

am

(var.

and

dingir-ri-ne

is

goddess

latter

"""sir

So

EN-

far

have

called nin-kur-kur,

NIN-LIL

nin-an-ki.^

same

as the

'^'"^"'^

the

is

also the attribute of

different writings

and

dingir-

Lugal-dingir-e-ne.^^
'""^''^

am kalam-ma

called

jg

am

also called

is

g^-lil has the title: ab-ba din-

is

NIN)-in-si-na^2

For the

of the case

NIN-LIL

If

a nin-kur-

the "mistress of heaven and earth" but also

tur-tur-ne,^ while

gir-dingir-ru-ne,^

Am

must have been

called also lugal-an-ki,^ and

Not only NIN-LIL


ri-ne^

called lugal-kur-kur.^

'^'"^''Lugal-kur-kur.^

a lugal-kur-kur, then his wife

this

is

course of time even a proper name,

in

LIL was
;

above, would have

NIN-LIL both occur

'^"^'^

Nin- tu."

zi-gal

for references see E. B.

'''"srirgal

kalam gim-

H. Index, gods, sub.

E. and N., pp. 443 and 445.


2

"King

of the lands," E. B.

^E. B. H.

note 3

p. 125,

H. pp.

p. 132,

1.

131, 134, 151 et

passim.

14.

" King of heaven and earth," Stele of Vultures, London 23580,

"Mistress of heaven and earth," E. B. H.

^ E.

B. H. p. 199 and note

'" Mother
*

"Mother

^E. B. H.
Obelisk 1. 4.

of the gods,"

iIV. R.
35i

"E.
'2

note

III. 8

H.

= K.

B.

Ill', p. 22.

198 and note

p.

"father of the gods," cp. the a-bu

= K.

B. Iir.

p. 78,

B. H. p. 199, and note

See also <i'"S'annanna

col. II. 10.

i.

5.

Ur-Ba-u

of the children," E. B.
p. 97,

p. 125,

dingir

"the king

I.

3.

ilani

banu

in

Shalm.

II.

of the gods."

5.

f^jQ.an (gjc

not dingir)-si-an-na E. B. H.

p. 273.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

20

gim-me^ and dumu-sag an-azag-ga.^

common

with

'^'"^''

dumu-sag AN-NA^, but


azag-gi tu-da.^

am

known under

i.

name

the

and the nin-kur-kur

is

'^'"^'^

EN-LIL was

I^*"

this

'^'"2"

Innanna are: nin

Sometimes
is

coupled with

iden-

called lugal-kur-kur,

being

Nin-char-sag

'^'"'^'"^

me^'^

"Mother

later

Other

attri-

and nin azag-nun-na.^*

^'"^irNin-lil,!^

or <''"2irinnanna,i<' or ^'"^'^Nin-char-sag"

'^'"^''En-lil.

From

all this it

2E. B. H.

who

of the world (or people),

p. 202,

the

is

made

follows that the above

given goddesses were originally the same as "Mrs."Lil or

E. B. H.

also

is
is

Especially interesting

latter attribute

on a proper name, thus becoming


butes of

Lagash," the former

Innanna.^^

Innanna nin-char-sag^^

'^'"*^''

of

Nin-an-da-gal-ki,^ as such again she

with '""^'''Nin-char-sag

tical

dumu AN-NA^ or
is called dumu an-

as well as '""^'"'Ga-tum-dug^ are called

"mother

e.,

has in

latter title she

called

is

also '''"^'"'Ga-tum-dug

'""^''Ba-u'^

Shir-pur-la-''',

This

who again

Ba-u,^

I.

note

I.

p. 202,

NIN-

created the creatures of the world,"

i.

note

I.

"the firstborn

of An-azag-ga,

i.

e.,

= K.

B.

the glorious

AN."
3E. E. H.

209: Gudea, Statue H.

p.

*E. B. H. /. c.
"childof AN-NA."
5

Gudea,

Gudea, Cyl. A.

St.

27

col.

II.

= K. B.
46. Cyl. A. XX.
= Thureau-Dangin, Le songe de Goudea,

B. VIII. 59
II.

col. I. 6.

Gudea, Statue G.

col. I. 3.

Ill', p.

Ill',

p. 58,

19.

p. 6,

"child

born of the glorious AN.


'E. B. H.
pi.

VII. No.

p. 21.

But see

also Dec. p.

XXXIII. and Revue archeol,

= K.

Gudea, Statue B. VIII.

"Mistress of the wide heaven and earth," E. B. H. 206, and note

'^

See above,

" "Mistress
p. 201, col.

13

56,

57

B. IIP. p. 46.

of the lands," E. B.

H.

p.

199

= Gudea,

Statue C.

and

= K.

B. IIP.

p.

98 (Rim-Sin): " Innanna the mistress

mountain."
"Mistress of battle," Gudea,

St.

B. VIII. 61.

E. B. H. p. 125, note

8.

Jensen, K. B. III^. p. 22.

i.

1^
E. B. H. p. 125, note 2 here after '''"s'"^ Lugal-kur-kur, which
shown above, p. 19, 3, a name for '^''"S'^ EN-LIL.
:

1'

col. II. 2,

IV. 10.

i*]"-The glorious exalted mistress," Ur-Ba-u IV.


15

12.

p. 19, 6.

i2p. S. B. A. XIII. i59


of the

1886,

I.

Gudea, Statue B. VIII. 47

= K.

B. Ill',

p. 46.

is

here, as

was

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

LIL, who

is

NIN-LIL

in

dam

expressly called the

21

I.

They represent

'^'"^''En-lil.i

her different capacities and are "deified" attributes

LIL.

of the wife of

Such

a "deification" of attributes

have been almost endless and began

seems

to

the very earliest times of

at

Babylonian history.

Not

only, however, the attributes contributed greatly to the

multiplicity of a single

god or goddess, but

also the places

such a god or goddess might be worshipped.


'^'"^''Innanna-edin,2 a

and

(= the

Innanna-Erin-'''

goddess of Susa),

times the Ishtar of Arba-ilu, of Nina, and Kidmuri.

in later

There seem

'''"^'^

where

Thus we have

have been even

to

from such expressions as

"^'"^ir

different

EN-LILs,

as

Enlil or Bel" in contradistinction to another B^\.

other name* for

EN-LIL,
AN-NA,
e.,

the wife of

'^'"^'^Nin-lil,

sometimes also the dumu-sag of

AN-NA.
name of the

i.

is

apparent

"the Nippurian

g^-lil En-lil-'^'-a^

'^'"^''Ba-u,

the

is

an-

dumu

or

the "child" or

"firstborn child" of

What was

the

father of

EN-LIL? The

old

Baby-

lonian inscriptions do not give an answer to this question, but from

we know that Bel (the Semitic Babylonian


mar reshtu shame, e., "the firstborn
The Assyrian shame translates the Sumerian

Assyrian inscriptions
for

EN-LIL) was

called the

child of heaven."

AN

or

AN-NA, hence

AN. This
born
wife

it

important

follows also
'""^'"^Ba-u as

both are brother and

sister

EN-LIL was
well as

'^'"^^^

the firstborn of

En-lil are a first-

but at the same time husband and

(2)

is

i.

The children of EN-LIL.


(a) The god ZU.

"The

wife of Enlil," E. B. H.

p. 125,.

See E. B. H. Index, gods.

^E. B. H.

p.

272 et fassiTU.

*On account

of the writing "Ba-bi," see the proper name Ur-Ba-bi and the
E-Ba-bi in E. B. H. pp. 237, 326, and 365. I consider " Ba-u " to be a Semitic
name. In later inscriptions occurs also the writing d'"g'"'Ba-bur. Ba-bi
geni-

and Ba-bur^ dative (sic !) is in Sumerian impossible. Ba-bur is formed in


Semitic and Sumerian fashion, as the r (=ra or ru) shows.
In good Sumerian

tive,

the postposition " ra "


lugal-a-ni-ir

This

*See above,

is

shortened to

'''"g'-'Ba-u

p. 20, 4. 5.

only after

has of course nothing

ni, cp
do with the

as in

to

dingir-ra-ni-ir,
in'2 in

Gen.

i.

2.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

22

ZU

is EN-ZUi and Mrs. ZU is NIN-ZU.


The latter is
me only from the proper name Ur-'^'"*^'' Nin-zu, "the serNIN-ZU. "2 Another, later, name^ for EN-ZU was

Mr.

known

to

vant of

<^'"s'^

Uru,^ or mostly written

This

name

Uru-ki

^'"s'^

'^'"sirgn-zu

and as

he

Uru-ki.*

'*'"^''

the dumu-sag

is

known

is

'^'"^'^

amar-banda

The

'^'"^'''En-lil^
'""^''

wife of

Uru-

Uru-ki or En-zu had several

NJn-gal.^

chil-

a.

dingiru)^9 ^j^q jg called

dingir^.^
/?.

UD,

i.

UD

dingif

of

"sib tu-da

so far not found in

is

'^'"^'annanna nin char-sag


dingirUD probably

With

For the

Uru-ki. "i"

TUR-SAL

The

'^'"^"EN-ZU-NA."

"the child

This god

of UD.''^'^

He

known

is

to us

which he occurs see E. B. H., Index, gods,

inscriptions in

wife

texts.

closely connected the "'"^'''AMAR-

of UD/'i'^ or

"the ox

e.,

is

'^"*?'--

Old Babylonian

does not^* occur in the oldest inscription.


1

Under the

'^'"^^'^En-Iii-laL^

also as the

Uru-ki as the amar-banda An-na.''

'''"^''

ki is also called

dren

I.

p.

443

sub E.
-

from

E. B. H. 412,

To

J.

read Nin-a-zu for Nin-zu

EN-ZU

later inscriptions that

name must have been


^

Which was

'^'"g''^

"The

I.
^

Ill', p. 78.

D^c. 4 B^. V.

'i R.
8

B.

No.

"The

I.

R.

R.

J.

= K.

not necessary, for

if

he had, her real or original

EN-ZU.

No. I. 4 (K. B. IIIi. p. 76 No. 3),


No. XX (K. B. IIP. p. 92, 1. 21).

= puru iqdu,

B. nil. p. 76,

great mistress,"

R.

2,

" the strong ox

I,

we know

is

p.

firstborn of Enlil."

5 (K.

and

445 sub U. The ki at the end probably is only


Comp. also Uru-nung-i^'-ma, not Uru-ki-nung-^'ma.

the prolongation syllable.


5

zuife,

Nin-zu.

originally an attribute of

*See E. B. H., Index, gods,

No.

had a

remu iqdu

R.

of En-lil.

3.

No. VI,

(K. B. Ill', p. 86,

^)\

2,

No. IV

(K. B. Iir. p. 90, d).


"

Generally read

10

"The

^'"s'"'

Utu.

shepherd, born by Uru-ki."

" "Innanna,

R.

2,

No. VI.

(K. B. Ill*, p. 86, j.)

the mistress of the mountain .... the daughter of

'^'"e'''

En-zu,

Comp. also Ishtar's descent, IV. R. 31, ^


P. S. B. A. XIII. 159 (K. B. nil. 98;.
For the writing EN-ZU-NA for EN(K. B. VI. 81): ii"Ishtar TUR-SAL ""Sin.
ZU,

see also E. B. H. p. 317,


'2

Comp.

the

''">
,

"amar banda"

''Comp. the proper

name

Ur-'i'"e'^En-zu-na.

above, note

''"s'-'AMAR

6.

'1'"^''

EN-ZU = Bur-Sin

According to the analogy of


also be translated by "an ox is UD or Shamash."
E. B. H.

p. 266,

'^The cities
prove anything.

note

2.

Tu-tu-''' (E.

OBI

B.H.

No. 87.

I.

this

is

II.,

King

AMAR-UD

of

Ui

might

B. H. p. 302. xi) do not


''^"e'^UMU and not rfi"K:rSHID (E. B. H. p.

p. 174), Su-kur-ru-*^' (E.

30

name

"

THE CREATION-STORY OK GENESIS


only since the time of the

first

23

I.

dynasty of Babylon, about 2400

B. C.

somewhere belongs

In this line

banda, and Nin-sun, see above

Another child

b.

How

this

we do

not

of Girsu.

name

was,

of

-phe

is

'^'"^'^

god was originally

know

wife of '^'"^''^Nin-Gir-su was


dingirj^-j^^

En-lil

'*'"-^'''

also Nin-gish-zi-da,

as yet.^

'^"^''^Ba-u.*

dumu-ush-7

Lugal-

p. 584, 12.

'*'"^''

Nin-Gir-su,^ the city-god


called, or

what

his real

He is a male divinity.^ The


A sister of '^'"^^'''Nin-Gir-su is

Ba-u-me banda en

^'"^'^

Nin-Gir-su-

ka-me^ are hardly the sons of En-lil and Ba-u but of Nin-Gir-su

be read according to Br. Mus. 82-8-16, j, 1. 45: Shuhad probably also another pronunciation. Strange, very
strange, is that Bur-Sin II., whose name is written '^'"^'AMAR ''"^'''EN-ZU, should
be worshipped after his death as the MUL-AMAR-UD (E. B. H. p. 316). He, being while alive a "child of Sin," becomes sometime after his death a "child of
Su-kur-ru-"^' should

133).

ru-up-pak.

Shamash
>

"
!

Cyl.

VIII. 21

Tu-tu-'''

of

Gudea.

dumu

col.

gn

dingirjvfiQ.gii-su

^'"2'^

dumu

col. II. 3

ff.

(K. B. IIP.

Ba-u the wife

of

^ingir

See below sub

^'"^'''En-lil-lal-ka.

Nin-Gir-su, cp. also ibid. IX.

See, however, above, p. 18.

4dingirj^iQ.Qii..gu.ge

VII. 5

dingirEQ.iij.iai

Ibid.,

3.

See above,

p. 12.

g^-u dumu An-UE dam ki-ag-ga-ni. Gudea, Statue G,


This dingirga-u is of course the same as the <i'"2'^
58).

dingir

p.

En-lil.

'
'

god KI.

"

The 7 sons of Ba-u the banda of lord Nin-Gir-su." Gudea, Cyl. B. XI. 11,
The sign ush after dumu is not quite clear. The 7 is plainly written. Ac12.
cording to my transcription which I made from Price's text, there seem to be menWhere is the seventh ? The six mentioned are the following
tioned only 6 sons.

(1.

1.

4-10):
4. <i'&i'Za-za-ru.

1.

5. dingirlnj.pa-uxi-du.

7.

(=ishdu)-kalam-ta-ud-du-a.
dingirGhe(GAN)-gir-nun-na.

8.

'iingirGhe(GAN)-shag-ga.

g.

dingirKa-ur(^ishdu)-mu.

6. lir

10. dingir^a-ar-mu.

Uru-ka-gi-na in his Barrel-Cylinder, E. B. H.


ing gods

II. 10. '''"^'''Za-za-ru,

p. 53,

mentions also the follow-

11. '^'"s^'^Im-pa-ud-du, 12. "^'"s'l-Gim-nun-ta-ud-du-a.

Niu-Gir-su (so read also E. B. H, p. 52, 1. 23, where


mentioned too, and comp. for this reading Dec. p. XLIX, copie de F.
Thureau-Dangin). There can hardly be any doubt that '^'"ei'- Gim-nun-ta-ud-du-a
is
ur-kalam-ta-ud-du-a, hence we ought to read above 1. 6 ^'^'"^"Ur-kalam-taud-du-a.
For the formation of the name comp. dingirE.sHIT-LAM-ta-ud-du-a
14. dingirNiQ.gar gir-lal ^'ngir

Nin-sar

Nergal.

is

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

24

A child of
He must be a male

and Ba-u.
ga.^

tion to

'^'"^^'^

him

dumu

alim

According

of Nin-Gir-su

was

and Mrs.

not found at

down

all.

above,

'
'

Mr. "

AN

would

AN NIN-AN.

proper names, as

far only in

e.

The EN-AN occurs


EN-AN-NA-tum.^ NIN-AN

g.,

That there indeed existed

"Mr." and

so
is

"Mrs."

evident from the Semitic Inscription of An-nu-ba-ni-ni, where

they are called An-nu-um and An-nat respectively.^

which month was therefore called "the month

He was

An-na. "^

AN?

At the time

dynasty of Ur the eleventh month was sacred to him,

of the fourth

of

'^'"^'^Gal-

'''"'^''Nin-Gir-su.'*

to our principle laid

EN-AN

be called

is

Dun-shag'^''"^'"

Another child

ki-ag-ga-ni en

'^'"^''

Gudea dedicates the inscripHe probably is the same as the

The god AN.

3.

AN

Nin-Gir-su was also called


god, because

as his "king."^

Ghe(GAN)-shag-ga.^

I.

of the festival of

EN-LIL.^ But who was the father


question, we shall have to consider

the father of

Before we answer this

the god KI.


4.

The god KI.

Mr. KI again
occur already

KI was
'

a-ni

in

EN-KI and

is

Mrs. KI NIN-KI.

'""^''Dam-gal-nun-na,^^

E. B. H. p. 195, 196

^'"s''

i.

"the great wife

e.,

Dun-shag-ga

dumu

Both names

Another name

the oldest inscriptions.^*^

of

of Mrs.

Nun." From

ki-ag '^'"S'''Nin-Gir-su-ka lugal-

Gudea.
2

See above,

Gudea

See preceding page, note

p. 18.

6.

Cyl. B. VI. 22: " Gal-alim his beloved child of Nin-Gir-su."

See
H. pp. 49, 51. He is menwhich the other sons of Nin-

also Statue B. II. 18. 19 (K. B. Ill', p. 28), and^E. B.

tioned by Uru-ka-gi-na in the

same

inscriptions in

Gir-su occur

^For the

different writings see above, p. 17,

^See E. B. H., Index, proper names,


'E. B. H.

^See above,
10

Itu

Ezen An-na.

p. 81.

For EN-KI see E. B. H. Index, gods,

p. 81,

note

2.

436 sub E.

p. 177.

^E. B. H. pp. 296, 299, 302

H.

p.

I.

The

p.

443 sub. E., and for

NIN-KI

E. B.

an unknown pronunciahave not yet found in the oldest texts.

later writing '''"S'''EN-KI-ga with

tion (Jensen, K. B. IIP. p. 21, note f) I


Comp. here, however, the name NUN-'''= Urudug-'^' or Eridug-'''^ Eridu.
:

" E. B. H. p
Damkina. II. R.

224.
55, 53.

In the later Assyrian texts

54d (comp.

1.

16)

<^'"S''

Dam-gal -nun-na became

(Ea) Dam-ki-na ashshati-shu.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS


this

follows, that

it

EN-KI had

KI could not have been


is

called

name NUN,

also the

"the great wife

of

This would presuppose a

called lugal zu-ab.^

NIN-KI; I have, however,


Mrs. KI.
And because EN-KI

for

25

I.

EN-KI

"nin zu-ab "

title

not yet found this latter


the lugal zu-ab

is

NIN-

or else

NUN."

that the """^'"^Dumu-zi-zu-abj^ also shortened to '""^''Dumu-zi,^

EN-KI.

a son of

Of the

'''"^'^

Dumu-zi the

doubt a simple contraction.^ To


time of Sargon

and

I.

Tammuz

""

Dumu-zi was dedicated

'''"2''

on also

later

later

for

title

probable

it is

was

is

no

at the

time of the fourth dy-

at the

nasty of Ur, the sixth^ month, which was called "the festival of

d'"e''Dumu-zi."*
^'"2''

she

called

is

"a

"""^'^

epithet nin-en of

Nina

To

have seen, a lugal-en, and


"

The king

e.,

Gudea

Eridu.

calls her:

K AL-LA

^""g'"-

of the zu-ab,

i.

e.,

is

found also

in other inscriptions^

must correspond, as we

the nin-en

this is the epithet of '""^''Nin-dar-a,^


the apsu or abyss."

^For references see E. B. H. Index, gods,


^See E. B. H.

of

'^'"g'''En-lil-gim nam-tar-tar-ri.^

but always after Nina


'

i-

'li^gi'KAL

nin-en nin-me

(hence also a brother

In the old Babylonian texts

Nina. ^

child of NUN-""',"^

nin

The

EN-KI

daughter of

Dumu-zi-zu-ab) was

Dec. 4 B-.

p. 442, sub.

col.

IV.

3.

D.

p. 298.

*Thus we ought

to number and not as it was done in E. B. H. pp. 287 and


306 (List of months, the first two columns). The itu Ezen She-il-la, instead of being
See Thureau-Dangin's review
the first, ought to be the last (12th or 13th) month
!

of

my

E. B. H. in Z. A.

XV.

The

p. 409.

Tammuz was

festival of

celebrated in

Phcenicia and Palestine, likewise originally in the 6th month, see Ezekiel

In later times, beginning with the

(Masoretic Text).

about 2400 B.
zu,

i.

e.,

C,

Tammuz

the

month

of sowing

SHU-KUL-NA

E. B. H. p. 306

or the 4th month.

^Itu Ezen ^ingirDumu-zi, E. B. H. p. 288, 306


6

IV. R.

I,

7dingirNina

NUN-ki

is

first

viii.

i.

dynasty of Babylon

became the month Du-'-u-

(list

of months).

(list).

col. II. 38.

dumu NUN-ki, Gudea,


NUN or EN-KI

XX.

Cyl. A.

16.

Comp.

ibid. col. II. 15,

the city of

^Mistress of the priests, mistress of the decrees

then^shib

for

me

!)

of the '^'"girKAL, mistress

who

(?

ME or

better divinations

like En-lil decrees the fates.

Gudea, Cyl. A. IV. 8, 9. Comp. also Thureau-Dangin, Songe de Goudea, C. R.


en-me-li (=enshi), Cyl. A. II. i, 16, III. 26;
1901, p. 119, and the other epithet
IV. 12 et passim.
:

'E. B. H. pp. 193, 224 note


10

E. B. H. p. 193.

4,

Ur-Ba-u,

87 note.
col.

V. 2 (K. B. IIP. p. 24).

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

26

who becomes

thus the husband of

I.

Of him we know

'''"s'^Nina.

in

other respects nothing.

name

setond

husband

of the

lord of the tablet (writing),"

Nidaba appeared unto Gudea

Nina was

of

who

'^'"^''

Nin-dub, "the

together with Nin-Gir-su and

dream, and who presented

in his

unto Gudea the "plan of the temple E-ninnu."^ In another place^

he

is

called "lugal-en"

and

'^'"^''Nin-dar-a,

third

name

and has therefore exactly the same

thus identical with the

is

of Nin-dar-a

calls himself the nitagh ki-ag,

My

reason for identifying

was

title

as

latter.

Lugal-Erim-'''.^

Ur-Ba-u

"the beloved servant" of

this god.*

'""'='''

'''"^''Lugal-Erim-'^'

with

'""''

Nin-dar-a^

'^'"s'''Nin-dub='""^'"'Ud-ma-Nina-'''-shurit-ta (see below) is this

La-

gash or Shirpurla consisted of four suburbs, each suburb being


called after the

name

These suburbs were

of a god, or better,

being dedicated to a god.

with

Nin-Gir-su as

god.

1.

Gir-su-""',

2.

Uru-azag-ga with the wife of Nin-Gir-su:

'^'"^''

its

'''"^''Ba-u

as

its

patroness.
3.

Nina-'''

with

4.

Erim-'''

with

It

^'"eir

"'"^'^

Nina, and
Lugal-Erim-'''.

seems probable that

Nina-'''

('''"^'

relation to Erim-'^' ('""s'^Lugal-Erim-''')

Ba-u) to
here

Gir-su-"'' C""^''

Nin-Gir-su).

"two couples," each couple

These couples are

also "brothers

pressly calls '""^''Nin-Gir-su


true,

then

'""s''

In this case,

R.

XXIII.

5,

3E. B. H.

of

('^'"^'^

we would have

and sisters"

brother.^

If

for

this

'""s"'

Nina ex-

observation be

Nina and

= Winckler,

p. 113.

Jensen,

Gudea, Cyl. A. V. 17 and

(where he

Ill', p.

20 (Ur-Ba-u

c.

11.

is

not mentioned with

p. 121.

AUbabylonische Keilschrifltexte,

Jensen, K. B.

/.

same

consisting of husband and wife.

'See Gudea, Cylinder A. col. VI. 5 and V.


name) and Thureau-Dangin, Songe de Goud^a,
2 I.

in the

as does Uru-azag-ga

Lugal-Erim-''' would be

husband

(i) the

my

Nina) stands

See below,

p. 27, 5.

col. II.

1.

p. 4,
2).

No, iia.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS


(2) the brother of Nin-Gir-su,

descendants

of

^"'^

KI and thus be

Other attributes
ri-ne;3

and

"my

'''"^'^Nidaba

Nina are

of

nin-in-dub-ba>

'^'"s''

Nina

he would belong to the

e.,

i.

a son of ^'"^''EN-KI.^

en-me-li-azag^ or en-me-li dingir-

calls

'^'"^"

Nin-Gir-su

'^"'^'^Nina is

sister."*'

'''"^'^Ud-ma-Nina-'^'-shurit-ta."

may

It

''"s'^Ud-ma-Nina-'^'-shurit-ta be a

1']

I.

"my brother,"^
NIN of

also called the

not be impossible that this

name

/^?//-//^

of her

husband ^

'''"^'''

Nin-dar-a.

The firstborn of Nina was '^'"^'^Nin-Mar-'^'.^


Gal-dim-zu-ab.^*^
To KI's line belongs, no doubt also
From Old Babylonian inscriptions we cannot as yet make
'""s'"'

the father or the mother of


that "^'"sirQUR

EN-KI

was the mother

out

himself, but a later text tells us

god

of

Who

Ea-''^^

or

what

is

this^-^-GUR?
' It should be observed
here, that the husband of a wife is at the same time
alzvays her brother! Comp. 'i'"g''^EN-LIL and dingirg^-u. See also Winckler,

M. V.

A. G. 1901,

4, p.

14

ff.

^Gudea, Cyl. A. II. i III. 16. For en-me-li to be pronounced enshi, see Br.
Hom. S. L. p. 97) I. 21. Thureau2918. Br. Mus. 82-8-16, I (=A. W. p. 54 f.
Dangin translates it by " divineresse," Songe de Goudea, p 116.

^Gudea, Cyl. A.
*

IV. 12.

II. 16,

"Mistress of tablet writing," Gudea, Statue B. VIII.

^Shesh-mu

Gudea, Statue D. IV. 2-3 (K. B.


coupled together.
^

Gudea, Cyl. A. V. 25

'Gudea, Cyl. A.

Nin here

of

the sign

IV.

!).

(E Kisal ^^ins'^Ud-ma-Nina-k'-shurit-ta).

E. B. H. p. 193 (where instead of


syllable.

NIN " Mrs." or "wife of"; see above,


Nina was called E-Ud-ma-Nina-^' -shurit and was situated
Shirpurla-Lagash, E. B. H. p. 193.
In this case

'Ur-Ba-u V. 10
dingirjsiiij^^

10

(K.

B.

Ill',

p.

<''"&'

24):

p. 16.

The temple

in Nina-''', a

Nin-Mar-''' sal-shag-ga

suburb

dumu-sag

See also Gudea, Statue B. IX.

(K. B. Ill', p. 46).

E. B. H. p. 106.

"IV. R.

GUR

tag^

TAG = shurit

Nin-Mar-''' (the mistress of Mar, a city), the gracious lady, the

firstborn of Nina.

GIN

For

292).

S'^
^

of

nin (notice the sign for nin)-mu '^'"sirNidaba.

II. 1, 17, III. 27,

= sister? (notice

p. 52),

E. B. H. 193.

17,

must be read on account of the prolongation

shurit

see

Ill',

53.

comp. with 1. 11. See also


where Nina and Nin-Gir-su are

Nin-Gir-su, Gudea, Cyl. A. V.

'^"e"'

I,

col. II. 36.

+ inserted GHAL,
instead of

GUR

the

The god Ea
same

is

"EN-KI."

The

as in Ur-Gur, king of Ur.

see above, p. 16, note 4

sign GUR is
NIFor the reading EN-

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

28

Hommeli

for his supposition.

he brought

"reasons" was

in just seveti

introduces his seven reasons thus


'
'

Da Bel,

at

The very

able to

fact that

He

once a bad omen.

(p. 220):

wie der Eigenname -E-KUR-dumu--nunna

(d.

i.

Igur Sohn Nunna's)

Sohn des Himmelsoceans von den Babyloniern aufgefasst wurde

auch noch Ursp.,

Bel mSr rishtu shami), so

S. 37, Z. 6 v. u.

typen Folge Anu, Bel, Ea,

mehr

Sohn Bel's

und dass

lilla),

He was

identified <^'"e''GUR with '''"^'^Ba-u.

adduce seven "reasons"

beweist, als

I.

betrachteten"^

dass

als zuahrscheinlich,
in der

Ea (Gun-kia oder Dugga), Merodach,

Reihe

Anum

ist

es

nach der

auch den

sie

(vgl.

stereo-

Ea

als

(Nun, anna), Bel (Gun-

die alteste babylonische Gottergenea-

logie vorliegt."

His argument about the sonship

of

Ea, then,

account of the stereotyped sequence Anu, Bel, Ea,


probable that

Ea was

Upon

the son of Bel!"

is

unquestionable fact of proof, his whole argument

But

let

He

"Anum

hat keine Gemahlin.

.das

welche

schriften von Tello noch nirgends


I

is

built up.

says

erst eine spatere Abstraction,

This,

more than

this pillar of truth,

this

us go on.

"On

this:

it is

Fem. Anatu der

lexicalischen Listen

den alten bilinguen Texten wie

in

in

(ist)

den In-

vorkommt."

suppose, he probably will no longer maintain now, be-

cause the " An-nat" of Annu-banini will be


banini lived even before Sargon

" An-nat" or the wife

of

I.,

i.

e.

Anu was known

known

Annu-

to him,

before 3800 B.

C,

as early as that.

hence
He

then

speaks of the wives of Enlil and enumerates the Nin-lilla and the

Nin-ghar-sagga and says


" Ein anderer

(viz.,

name

of the wives of Enlil)

sprochene Himmelsoceansgottin, welche


Gottes

Ea"

{also

zeichnet wird

(4

demnach

R.

i.

als

in

to

als "

Mutter des

Gemahlin des Vaters des Ea, eben des Bel)^ be-

36 b)."

Because Ea was declared on account of

Anu Bel Ea,

war *dingirQUR,< eine ausge-

den bilinguen Texten

the stereotyped sequence:

be the son of Bel, and because '''"e'^GUR

is

the

"Die Identitat der altesten babylonischen und agyptischen Gottergenealogie


und der babylonische Ursprung der agyptischen Kultur, in Transactions of the
LonInternational Coyigress of Orientalists." Von Prof. Dr. Fritz Hommel.
'

don, 1893.
^

Given

in

cuneiform

signs.

^Italics are mine.

Given

in

cuneiform

signs.

''

Italics are

mine.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS


mother
Bel

He

Ea, hence he follows '^'"^''GUR must be also the wife of

of

This argument, then,

goes on

"AlsGottin aber

sr/i^/w^' ^'"g'-^GUR'
.

Himmels,'

ist

nicht die Aussprache

.das geht aus folgenden.

Die Gottin Ba-u heisst

I.

again built upon the sequence merely.

is

haben, sondern Ba'u.


"

2g

I.

in

GUR

.Griinden hervor

den Gudea-Inschriften

gehabt zu

stets

'

Tochter des

also eine Schwester, resp. (was in der babylonischen

logie oft dasselbe ist)

Gemahlin des Gottes

Bel,

demnach

Mytho-

identisch mit

der Gottin Nin-lilla oder der id'"&'''GUR,' welche letztere ja Mutter des

Gottes

Ba-u

who

Ea

heisst."

the wife of Bel, hence the

is

GUR,

but takes

any arguments
tion

Hommel

the mother Ea.

is

He

it

continues

2378

-|-

Auch

Ba-u wird

die

dingirQUj^

without

Hommel's argumenta-

(4

wird

'

4) ist die

'dingirQUR

Augenweh leidenden.

.in

die Helferin

einem ahnlichen

unmittelbar nach der Gottin Nin-agha-kuddu

sie

als

R. 29, No.

Herrin der reinen Gewasser,' nin a-gub-ba

I'l-la.

und Augenweh zu-

H., K. T. 11. xxvi) gegen Kopf-, Herz-,

and Ba-u are invoked

in case of sickness

especially

the eyes are diseased, twice they are coupled together with

Nin-agha-kuddu,
indeed
la,

'""*^''

Nin-agha-kuddu und Gula angerufen."

gleich mit

when

224,

erwahnt
(in

= Nin-lil,

der Kranken, besonders solcher an

exhibition of

fair

"2. In einer Zauberformel

....Text,

as Nin-lil or "^'"^'^GUR,

for granted that '''"-'^GUR is

of his,

(der Schwester Ea's)

same

wishes to prove that Ba-u

hence

a later

name

for Ba-u,

he might have substituted

we can prove

tations

Die

'

'

'^'"^''

For the same reason

3.

' '^'"&'''

speciell der

GUR
Ba-u

is

for

GUR ^ Ba-u, a

strong argument,

Hommel might have

argued that Gu-

= Nin-agha-kuddu =
Ba-u the Gu-la

'''"^'''

GUR, for

By such argumen-

?wihing, absolutely nothing, afid everything /


^

tragt

den Beinamen

heilige Stadt ist

'

mit reinen (azagga)

URU '-azagga,

d.

i.,

Handen

'

die

'reine Stadt' (wol

gleich Nipur)."

Because the word "azagga, pure," occurs

"hands"

in

"city"

in case of Ba-u,

ment

unnecessary.

is

hence

Given

in

"""^'"^

Uru-azagga

Shirpurla.
'

connection with

in

case of '^'"^''GUR and in connection with

cuneiform signs.

GUR = Ba-u

is

URU

or

Further com-

not Nippur, but a suburb of

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

30

"4. Das Ideogramm

GUR'

'Himmel'

driicklich als

The

And

daughter

(notice, not '^'^sirQUR)

GUR = Ba-u
add
quR =

may

own daughter

Wie

as einen Gott
urspr. aber wol

einen Gott
67, 57.

dass

man

'^'"^'''GUR'-ra,

s"'*

is

The heaven

and has,

ment

Hommel

spater allerdings i^ingirQURi

refers to a note

vgl.

auch

R.

Gurra

las,

Anm.

was aber

natiirlich fiir

Wie

es einen alt-

i).

so gab es auch

Ba-u."

Ur-'^'"g'''i

is this:

^ingir

>

NIN-' GUR'-ra, woraus zugleich hervorgeht,

that follows

is

too great to be reproduced here,

Hommel

suppose, been given up by

Sohn der

als

babylonischen Konigsnamen Ur-id'"g'''GURi gab


einen

be-

Kosmol., S. 245), so gab es auch

die alte Zeit nichts beweist] Urspr., S. 19,

The nonsense

Ba-u

"
'

= heaven, Ba-u =
= daughter of
of heaven = heaven =

dingirEN-GUR' (=:Ea, dann

dingirgN i-Ba-u [here

'

.'
.

= Bel) gibt (Jens.

die

is

Splendid argumentation

und

27),

or heaven

'''"^ir

GUR,'

"5.

R. 50,

'Tochter des Himmels.

i)

heaven, one follows from the other

of

his

= shamu) erklart (2

oben unter No.

heaven, hence

of

heaven!

comes

GUR

sign

daughter

wird von den babylonischen Gelehrten aus-

(ziku

heisst stets (siehe schon

I.

GUR := Ba-u

His argu-

himself.

(which he wants to prove, mark ye

!),

"Gleiches zu Gleichem zugesetzt giebt Gleiches, und Gleiches von

we add

Gleichem abgezogen giebt Gleiches."

If

a dingirEN

abstract from

we

get the same, and

if

we

<i'i>KrEN-Ba-u, a dingirgN vve get again the

and

supposes that

prove by
'6

this

GUR
No.

idingirQURi

IS

already

= Ba-u,

ist

bei den Aegyptern die

1 <i'"g'^

Weise zur Gemahlin Nirgal's

Morgendammerung

as proven,

GUR
(4

R.

wishes to

(siehe unten)

which he has not

in spaterer Zeit in

'

3|,

col. 3,

Gemahlin Nindar's) wie andererseits ...

Ningirsu (=:Nirgal) wird (Statue G.


irtinffi'Nina'

in

2. 6),

30; vgl.

ist."

cuneiform signs.

2,

die Ba-u, zur

ganz gleicher
46,

5,

17)

die

Gula

Gemahlin des

wahrend doch sonst

(Ghanna) die Schwester (Gudea, Cyl. A.

des Ningirsu-Nirgal

Given

but this pre-

Hommel

which

"7. Endlich wird die Gottin

'

same

and Ba-u
dingir^N.GUR

R. 55, 49b)."

(3

Here Hommel takes something

als

GUR

wie bei den Babyloniern die Bau-u

yet proved

to

die Gottin

und Gemahlin

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

Hommel
argument

presupposes or takes for granted without any further

of his that

Ningirsu

= Nirgal.

is

then we shall want to answer him.

this,

girsu to be

3I

I.

= Ninib,

He

e.

see K. B. IIP. p. 23, note

know as yet who this Ningirsu is


The best, however, follows

takes Nin-

g.,

We

*"|'.

But see below

must prove

first

Jensen,

do not

" Aus

GUR^

Hommel,

diesen Anfiihrungen," says

all

dingir2

and

Ba-u reine Syiionyma

bezeichnen} und

A.z.^%

sind,

ganz

" geht hervor,"'^ dass

hochst zuahrschcinlich'^ auch die gewohnliche Aussprache

yQQ 2dingirQU]^2 Ba'u war, wahrend

die andere

unpersonificirten mythologischen Begriff

GUR

'

Aussprache gur offenbar nur dem


(ohne Gottheitsdeterminativ) eig-

Ich habe dies deshalb so ausftihrlich und eingehend hier

nete.

weil in einem viel citirten

Buche

die betreffende Identification eine

Begriindung entbehrende' genannt worden

And

have taken

ist

BEWIESEN,'
'

auch jeglicher

(Jensen, Kosmologie, S. 245)."

this trouble to present

Hommel,

splendid proofs of Professor


are.

-'^'"8''^

von Haus aus

dieselbe Gottin

to the

public the

show what nonsense they

to

do not possess Jensen's Kosmologie, nor

is

it

accessible to

me, hence do not know what arguments Jensen adduces to disprove

Hommel.

But arguments are not necessary

above-gw&u "reasons"

every

man

see instantly that they are nonsensical.

Wer

"

so einen

All seven
of

"reasons"

Anu, Bel, Ea, which

son of Bel,

as

^ingir

ga-u

B. Col. VIII. 45

here

by the wife
^

Italics

Hommel
to

ff.:

Ea

drucken lassen

zu werden verwirkt."

upon the sequence

are built

prove for him that

must have been the wife

The only passage

And

of

sufifices

schliesslich

genommen

of

^'"S'''

of Bel,

Ea was

GUR

he

the
fol-

and thus the

the sequence Anu, Bel,

KI.

and because Ea was also the son

lows, that '^'girQUR

same

little

Unsinn denken, schreiben und

kann, der hat iiberhaupt den Anspruch ernst

at all to disprove the

common sense will


To quote HommeP again

with a

in the

old Babylonian inscriptions,

Ea may

An-e

that of Gudea, Statue

dingirEn-lil-li, ^ingir

Nin-char-sag dingirEN.

or ^ingirEN-KI

of the latter

where

is

be found

In

and capitals are mine.

all

is

divided from Bel or

dingir

En-lil

the other oldest inscriptions the

Given

in

cuneiform signs.

^Hommel, Die Sudarahischen Alterthiimer des Wiener Hofmuseums,


Aufsdtze und Abhandlu?igen, II. p. 140.

p. 12

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

32

I.

sequence of the gods seems to be without any special order, as one


can easily convince himself, by examining the inscriptions with

Furthermore the celebrated

regard to this point.

EME-SAL,

gods,^ written in

trilingual list of

Sumerian, and Semitic Babylonian,

Ea

does NOT give the names of the gods in the sequence An, Bel,

which

would have undoubtedly done,

it

Hommel

Bel, as

supposes

same arrangement,
61"

but

Ea had been

in the order

Anu, Ea, Bel

viz.:

if

is

the son of

The

Anu,^ Ea, Bel.

found again

in IV. R.

i,

Hence, the sequence Anu, Bel, Ea would not prove any-

ff.

thing at

And

all.

does not, then

it

if

say the least, nonsense, that

Anu, Bel, Ea, mehr

Ea

auch den

Anum,

And

logie vorliegt."

anything, then

it

the wife of Bel or

sons" (Griinde)

Hommel's statement,

dass

Bel's betrachteten

Merodach, die

Bel, Ea,

is

= Ba-u

Hommel

in der

Reihe

alteste babylonische Gottergenea-

also follows that <^^sirGUR

of

(the Babylonians)

sie

und dass

Ea

the sequence Anu, Bel,

if

to

"nach der stereotypen Folge

als wahrscheinlich,

Sohn

als

is

it

The

does not prove

not proven to be

is

other seven arguments or "rea-

are so foolish as to require no further

refutation.

But who then was ^ingirQUR?


tion

god KI

The

AN

sign

is

Both signs occur very often together

En-lil (lugal-an-ki^)

doubt stand

is

II.

Anu

is

in the

Hommel,

called in the

Semitic

that the writing

e.,

That the
of

original

meaning

KI not

so

much

lastly that of

the

"god"

or the

See above,

S. L. p. 46).

EME-SAL

i[-lum],

i.

AN-E

and

i.

evident from the following considerations:

R. 59 (see

irtsitu,

in the attributes of

and Nin-char-sag (nin-an-ki^), where they no

"heaven and earth."

for

was not so much "heaven" and that

"earth"

and

and

translated in Semitic Babylonian generally by

"heaven," and the sign KI generally by

e.,

i.

"earth."

AN

AN

shamu,

of

In order to answer this ques-

necessary to inquire into the meaning of god

is

it

e.,

column

the god

= dim-me-ir

/car'

eSox'iv.

in the

From

this

Sumerian AN
it would follow
:

il-tum,
might also be read dingir-e, and that of AN-tum
NI-NI-tum =i-ri-tum, but in every case it would signify either
"goddess" Kar' e^oxvv, i. e., Anu and his wife Annat.

p. 19, 4. 5. 6.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

GISH

(i)

"Heaven"

(2)

In the expression AN-ta=:elish and

Sumerian means

in

33

I.

and

in

EME-SAL:

mu.^

AN

stands simply for "that which

which

name

Thus

below."

is

who

is

AN

name

that the

or

it

This idea

of

was unten

EN-AN^ would
of that

have

which

to

is

ered to be the heaven thus

came

it

be translated by "he

is

no doubt

is

above" was consid-

is

in course of

and KI "being that which

If this

of the case

above."

"being above" and "being below"

the original one, and because "that which

for heaven,

= Ea.2

ist"

would follow from the analogy

above" or by "lord

the

"that

for

happened that Jensen explained the

it

<i'sirEN-KI by "Herr, dessen

explanation be correct,

Kl-ta^ shaplish,

above" and the KI

is

time that

AN

stood

to

mean

below" came

"earth."
3. En-lil, we have
E-KUR-dumu-nunna,
be true, then AN, the

shame) must also have


4.

But

e.,

wife of

name

in later inscriptions also called

E-KUR,*

been, or

been

or Mr.

this

called, a

KI was

of his wife

NUN." What

the son of Nunna.

father of Bel (see above

'iigi'^EN-KI

parent from the

was

seen,

i.

'^''^ft'"'

NUN

If

this

Bel mar reshtu

NUN

NUN

also called

as

is

ap-

j^^m-gal-nun-na, "the great

means we know

the zu-ab

it is

or apsu, the ocean.

Thus we

KI

AN

see instantly that

was "the upper ocean" and

the "lower ocean," or ^^the heavenly ocean'' and "M(? terrestrial

ocean,'' or as the

Bible calls

it,

"the waters above the firmament"


This specific meaning of

and "the waters below the firmament."

AN

god

and god KI has been recognised already by other scholars,

even by Hommel, although

do not know what arguments he

employed.

Having thus established the

original

and KI respectively, we may turn

'Trilingual

2K. B. Iir.

^Comp.
*

list

of gods, II. R. 59, col. II.

p. 21,

the proper

E-KUR

is

note

meaning

of the

words

to the relationship of

1.

47.

f.

name EN-AN-NA-tum and

originally the

name

see above, p. 24, 6.

of the temfle of En-lil at Nippur.

AN

AN
and

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

34
KI,

KI was the son of En-lil and thus


AN, or whether he was something else.
Assyrian we have a word achu which means "brother" and
inquire whether god

e.,

i.

^^

the grandson of

In

also "side."
of achaiu)

same

it

If this

very same word

is

written achu (contracted out

means "enemy." Both words no doubt go back

Achu, or achaiu,

to Nippur,"

"the other,"

i.

opposition to the ego,"


is

opposed

to

a person or a god

AN.

the

If

AN

My

explanation

is this:

" he who or that which belongs

is

"who

ego

called

opposed

is

"my

is

to the ego,"

"AN,"

then he

and the one

"my enemy

brother" and

who

his

is

as such he is "in opposition

to''

!"

If

achu had

(an achu

means the "heavenly ocean" and KI the

we have here an achu

ocean,"

trial

my

"KI" and

be called

means

of Nippuraiu, "he who belongs


"a Nippurian." But "a brother" is in every
e., the "one who is not the ego," "who is in

e.,

i.

literally

comp. Nippuru out

to the brother,"

that

to the

But how then could the word achu possibly get the

root.

meaning "enemy" and be written achu?

case

I.

to
to

!)

"terres-

both an

in so far as they are

ocean, hence also of the same stock or parents, but also an achu in
so far as the

KI

is

opposed

AN, "the

to the

"the heavenly ocean." Comp.' here also

SAR

they are achu, as

And now,
ki, it follows,

dingirQUR

and KI they are achu

^ingirQUR

if

because

/wwJ/

AN

terrestrial

AN-SAR

is

EN-KI

called the
is

mother

ocean"

^
!

god Ea or En-

of

the achu and achu of god

be the mother of^odAN too.

to

and KI-SAR; as

AN

AN,

that

and KI being

the "heavenly and the terrestrial ocean," <^'g'''GUR can only be

the "primeval ocean."

And

it is

more than mere accident

that

we

should have handed down to us the following three writings of this

'

See also Winckler,

who has

vestigations are in quite another

partly anticipated
field,

who says

in

me

here,

M. V.

although

A. G. 1901,

4,

his in-

part

i,

which has just come to hand: " Mythologisch und damit im Zusammenhang der ganzen Weltauffassung erscheint das Brudermotiv wie alle
also in den zwei Gegensatzen, denn jedes Ding schlagt schliesslich in sein GegenWir haben
theil um, wie es der Kreislauf der Natur vorschreibt und bedingt.
Dioskuren, Mond und Sonne
die unzertrennlichen und doch getrennten Briider
Winter und Sommer, die beiden SonLicht und Finsterniss
Nacht und Tag
nen und Naturhalften. Diese sind d\& feindlichen'&xviA^v, deren einer den anderen totet Eteokles und Polyneikes, Baldr-Hodur (dessen Blindheit Mondmotiv
p. 15,

note

I,

ist.)

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS


deity:

quR,

dinger

'^i"^''"

EN-GUR,
GUR, e.,

and

D^?0,

or for

for

i.

and

rjt'n

NIN-GUR.

<^igi"-

stand for Mr. and Mrs.

D^1r'X

mi

35

I.

The

last

two

apsu and tiamat, for

mm

dingirQUR on the

respectively.

other hand signifies only go'^GUR, without laying special emphasis

upon the male


becomes

or female part, or husband

the primeval ocean,

^'

NIN-GUR

EN-GUR.

or

only a god KI,^

and

Kar'

e^ox^;/".,

^^'ng'^QUR thus

wife.

and

is

as such older than

This also proves that we had originally

because the heavenly

god KI became a wife

earthly, this

and

"

is

only a reflex of the

NIN-KI, "Mrs. KI"; and

from the husband, or better,

in order to distinguish the wife

order to avoid misunderstanding, the husband was called

Mr. KI

KI

^e''^

for

doubtful whether
or whether

it

?-^

alone,

might expect)

is

if

used also of Mr. KI, would leave

if

it

male and femalewere meant,

KI

stood for

Furthermore,

in

EN-KI,

as a whole

EN-KI

only.

dingirQUR (notice not dinRirNIN-GUR, as we

EN-KI, we may

called the mother of

see in this a

striking parallel to the Babylonian creation story as well as to the


Biblical,

according

to

both the heavenly and terrestrial ocean

take their origin from the tiamat or tehom,

i.

e.

the descent was

reckoned through the mother.^

Tehom and

tiamat even in later times are used for

^'

ocean''

without any special reference to a mythological being as consisting of

two genders: the male and female gender; so

may have been

this mythological conception of being


to generate
all

and perpetuate

itself.

May

it

male and female, thus able

However

made here

suggestions that might be

guesses.

suffice therefore to

this

may have

generation

gether with

GUR

two

sons

AN

been,

are at the very best only

have shown that ^JngirQUR

was the primeval ocean who brought forth by process

notice

GUR

primarily the ocean and only in later times acquired

and KI, who

of generation

later

on were

thought to be male and female, and thus able

to-

to

own lines respectively. Having made this probwe can now explain the succession Anu, Bel, Ea as well as

perpetuate their
able,

Anu, Ea, Bel.

See above pp.

In this latter sequence the two brothers are men-

13,

15

ff.

^See above

p, 9.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

36
tioned

first,

I.

then follows Bel as the son of Anu.

In the former

Anu together with his son Bel, and


the/aM^r'j brother, who plays such an important role

sequence we have the father

Ea

the 'am,

is

in old

Arabic inscriptions that even the word

the

god 'Am.^

Arabs

call a raht,

= Anu,

of

which

triad, as

tion of the

shamu

became

Babylonian pantheon as well as

we have

head or "abu"

of a

nephew^ Bel, who

form the

in the Assyrian,

Sumerian concep-

seen, goes back to the

originally the

"heavenly ocean," became

in later

or "heaven," thus KI, originally the "terrestrial

later

on the

and KI became
and "the god

The "god

community consisting

a god,

theogony and cosmogony.

As AN,
the

e.,

i.

became

itself

thus proven to be what the

is

an 'am:=Ea, and of a

triad in the

first

Anu, Bel, Ea,

of

in

irtsitu or

of earth"

We

"earth."

consequence of

would expect that

"god

this also the

But

respectively.

heaven and earth" was Bel,

for

times

ocean"

of

AN

heaven"

this is not the case.

he

repeatedly called

is

"Heaven and

the "lugal-an-ki, "the king of heaven and earth."

earth" were thus considered to be closely connected, yes, to be

and what

one,

this one thing

was

called,

we

shall see,

come to speak of <^'"g*'^ En-lil.


And if "heaven and earth" were considered
course, natural, that we should not find a god
theogony who is called LUGAL-KI, shar irtsiti
Hence, there does not seem

earth."

to

be one,

to

this

in

among the Semitic peoples.


The god KI had sons and daughters,

it is,

of

Sumerian

" the king of the

have existed

the Sumerians a so-called "ba'al of the soil,"

when we

who

at the

time of

plays such an

important role

met already above.

The

It

sign by which Nina

"abode," with inserted


another sign,

may be

is

ler,

of

whom we

have

is

or "fish."

composed
Signs,

of

ESH or AB =

when

inserted into

either an indicator of the pronunciation or an

The

latter

take to be the case here.

See Hommel, Die sudarabischen Alterthumer des Wiener Hofrmiseums,

Munchen,
^

expressed

CHA

indicator of the sense.

'

all

only remains here to explain their names.

1899, p. 28

ff.

See also Proksch, Die Blutrache bei den alien Arabern,

M.

V. A. G., 1901, 4, p. 16.

p. 23,

and Winck-

"

"

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

The

sign "fish"

may

either stand for "fish" itself, or for "plenty."

Nina then would be either

the goddess of grain," as even the

dingir]3mi^y.2i

it.^

goddess of plenty.

a fishgoddess, or a

The goddess Nidaba^ "was


Ideogram indicates

37

I.

= ""Du-'-u-zu,

because

because to him was dedicated originally the sixth and

month

the fourth

SHU-KUL-NA

called

must have been "the god

or

"month

some such

or "grain

"
;

signification as

this

however cannot be made out

"clay," then "clay tablet,"

"the god

of the

show

us that

for Nina's

'^'^eir

as yet.

may make

names

of Nina,

<^^gr

to contain the earth

who

of either

of the

was thought

i.

e.,

he was "the waters which contained

have produced sons or

are the gods of

know from

the Gilgamesh epic

firms

we

it,

as

tically the

shall see

whole

when

that Eridu

of the specific

or NUN-''', the city of

on the Persian Gulf, while to-day

it is

See Br. 7453, and comp. Trilingual


called the "wife of '^'"g''' Lugal-ki-sa (di)-a.

list

or

was

its origin.

a seaport

town

one hundred and thirty miles

For references see E. B. H. Index, gods,

Ea

from which prac-

Babylonian religion took


written,

We

investigation con-

of the oldest cities of Babylonia,

was

have had "a

phenomenon?

and our present

the Gilgamesh epic

Eridu,

As

the earth''!

to

soil "Kar' e^ox??v.

possibly be the reason for this

EN-KI was one

"what the

gjsj.KI, the "terrestrial ocean,"

also,

dry land or

What may

been,

suffice to

be true then

"the produce of
already said above, the Sumerians do not seem
god

not

If this

the dry ground," or else he could not

daughters

may

may have

Dumu-zi, Nidaba,

we have to see in them the gods


"what the sea produces."

follows that the

It

that god to have been orig-

earth produces" or
it

husband

Nin-dub, because dub means

clayground." However this

the significations of the

sowing"

of

"verdure," or "fishes," or "plenty,"

be impossible that the name

inally

and

times

of verdure."^

According to the analogy we should expect


also

in later

p. 444, sub.

N.

of gods, 2 R. 59,

I.

24,

where she

is

^In the sixth month the festival of "the dying of the verdure," while in the
month that of "the new life of the verdure" was celebrated. The former

fourth

was the

festival of the wailing for Taramuz, the latter that of


See also Dr. Carus, The Monist, July, 1901, pp. 528 ff.

his resurrection.

38

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

from the coast

line.

Here the Sumerians

I.

saw how new

of old

earth or dry land was added year by year to the already existing

Hence

dry ground.

it

was quite natural

"the earth was contained

also necessary for vegetation

the dry ground, were

ocean are also

made

fishes, etc.,

be a son of EN-KI.

will

for

may

It

of the

or Bel

or also called dngirUru-ki.

Semitic-Babylonian by Nannar,^

was god

may become

Sin.

And "Sin"

is

This
i.

e.,

translates the

"ilu Na-nir shame-e irtsi-tim,"

heaven and earth."

= Uru-ki == Sin =
we cannot

tell.

i.

e.,

dingirEN.

translated into the

e.,

Sumerian EN-ZU.

we have

In

god called

"the god the luminary^

of

Hence there can be no doubt that EN-ZU is


Nannar = Moon. What the name ZU means

It

is

may be probable

explained in the syllabaries by "to know/'

that

Gudea^

of old

mu-ni galu-nu-gab-ne

has ever disclosed,

etc., etc.

was obliged

all

to confess

his name no man


because he Sin

"Sin

understood, explained,"

treading his quiet path for


of time a

i.

times

heaven and earth, "^

of

II.*

"to be wise," "to learn," "to understand,"

of Sin: <^'sirEn-zu

this omission,

in future

"the luminary." The "na-an-

the Monolith Inscription of Shalmaneser

It

At the present

ZU,

the god
latter is

"the luminary

irtsitim," or

of

ba'al of the soil"

this question.

gods not yet identified

shame-e u

In the

very well be possible that future

upon

"a god of the soil.''^


The firstborn of EN-LIL

na-ri

EN-KI.

be best not to put too great an emphasis upon

any

ZU

^^s"

is

verdure of

and thus Nina the fishgoddess became

investigations will shed light


it

But water

also, vegetation,

be children of

to

to think that

ocean."

Thus we would expect "the

necessity his child.


to

Hence

them

for

in the terrestrial

those ages past acquired in course

wisdom and knowledge

so great that they cannot be

1 Does
perhaps the 'i'"e'''Dun-gur-(an) belong here, who is called the ''"S''Entemen-[an] (E. B. H. p. 118, note i) ? The temen-an, the " foundation of heaven,"
would be the earth." But a ba'al of the soil is quite different from a ba'al of
See however below!
the earth.

IV. R. 9

"Die

f-^a.

^V. R. 64,

18.

*III. R.

gottliche Leuchte," or " der gottliche Leuchter."

^Gudea, Statue B. VIII. 49 (K. B.

Ill', p. 46).

7, col. I. 2.


THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS
disclosed, for he

many

heard

saw many things which nobody

things which no

man

39

I.

else has seen

ever could have heard

and

in short

"Sin was the god who not only could not be disclosed, or under-

who

stood, but

also did not disclose, open, betray anything him-

self."

UD
is

This god

"who

and

Innanna. The god

'^ng'''

passes our understanding" had two children,

UD

dor,"^ and

mash

is

"the bright, or shining one,"


"the king

called in the oldest inscriptions,

filled

with splen-

identified in the later inscriptions with the

or "the sun."

oldest inscriptions 2

His

nanna was we cannot

is

sister or wife

for that

the

is

What

the "goddess of Innanna."

tell

She was

as yet.

god Sha-

same

in the

the In-

on identified with

later

the "evening star" as well as with "the morning star," the former

being the precursor of the moon, the latter that

"morning

star,"

which leads the king out

of the sun.

to battle, she

As

was con-

sidered in later times to be a male god, but retained her feminine

name and was


This
she
It

is

may

called either Ishtar or A-nu-ni-tum belit tachazi.^

latter title

called

she had already in the oldest inscription, where

"nin me,"*

i.

e.,

hence feminine /

mistress of battle

not be impossible that even in the oldest time

was assigned

to both functions, viz., to that of

<^*sir

Innanna

"the evening

star,"

thus becoming "the goddess of love," and to that of "the morning

such being called the mistress of

star," as

then would express the function


the evening star.

one

common

This function

in

battle.

both

to

The Innanna

the morning and

every case must be a double

the morning star announces the end of the night but also the

beginning of the day; the evening star in like manner shows that

iSee,

e. g.,

B. H. p. 76
2

sister,

et

Gudea, Statue B. VIII. 63 (K. B. IIP.

p. 46): lugal-zal-sig-ga.

E.

passitn.

both

See above Enlil and Ba-u


but also husband and wife.

"the

firstborn of An," hence brother

and

A good example of this may be found in Nabu-na'id, Thoncylinder aus SipA.-W. Keilschrifttexte, p. 42, col. III. 1. 23 ff., where A-nu-ni-tum is treated
both as a masculine and a feminine deity.
'

par,

Gudea, Statue B. VIII. 61 (K. B. IIP.

p. 46).

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

40
the day

and that the night

close

is at its

we have

of

god ZU,

brother" of

Who

is

i.

e.,

this

En-lil, hence, a

Sin or the moon, hence also, the

brother

the "father's

''am,

Nin-Gir-su?

identified

him with Nergal. Jensen, ^ with Ninib, the

the following consideration

was

built for Nin-Gir-su

called

not

same conclusion by
The temple which Ur-Ba-u and Gudea

In another place* he reaches the

of war.

number

ding'r

name we do

UD.

Hommel^
god

seen, a son of

The god
know

beginning,^

is

Nin-Gir-su, the city-god of Girsu, whose real


as yet, was, as

I.

and ninnu

fifty,

called E-ninnu,

is

i.

the temple of the

e.,

This E-ninnu was also

again := Ninib. ^

E '^'g>''Im-gig-ghu-bar-bar. From this Jensen concludes (/.^.):

(tdingirjm- etc. ist einc

ZU deuten

Die Gruppe

Erweiterung des Namens.

(des Gottes) welcher den finstern (gig)

moge

erhellen (bar-bar)

und

(ghu),

spielt auf

Himmel

Ninib

als die Friih-

This explanation was also accepted by

sonne an."

ist

(im)

me

in

my

E.

B. H6.

Thureau-Dangin,' on the other hand, separated the


ini-gig-ghu and bar-bar,

'''^Kir

into

name

latter

"the divine bird Im-gig"

e.,

i.

and "bright," the bird he identified with the eagle, the well-known

emblem

of Shir-pur-la

Heuzey, Origines
cylinder

is

Girsu,

referring at the

orientales,

p.

published which

is

same time

where an imprint

41,

in his celebrated

dream.

account of the importance of the passage in Gudea's dream


to

examine

Gudea has

it

more

dream ^

in

M.

said to contain a representation of

Nin-Girsu as described by Gudea

seem well

to

of a seal-

On

it

might

"man."

The

closely.

which appears

to

him

"man" is given in all its details. Gudea does


"man" who had commanded him to build the temple

description of this

not

know
1

this

See the sign

nsiD IV.

SUCH (= Innanna) V.

^Identitat, etc., p. 222.

See above,

p.

p. 19,

note **, where he quotes

*K. B. Iir.

p. 23,

note *t.

See

14. 15,

1.

30 sub

^K. B. III^

p. 182,

szimmern,

XV.

R. \\,

and H.

W.

B. p. 541 sub.

I.

p. 50.

note
Z.

A.

p. 185,

III.

7.

II.

^V. R.
note

232-235.

10.

'

Z. A.

E. B. H.

So7ige de Goud^a, C. R., 1901,

p.

p. 112.

R, 57, 74.
37, 18.

XV.
189.

p. 52.

Thureau-Dangin, Z. A.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

He

E-ninnu.
of the

4I

I.

therefore addresses goddess Nina for an explanation

man was

dream, and she informs him that that

her brother

"Nin-Girsu."

The

Gudea

description which

gives of "the man," reads ^:

14.

shag ma-mu-da-ka (ga)lu-I-a-an an-gim RI-BA-ni

15.

ki-gim RI-BA-ni

16.

A-NE

17.

id-ni-ku dingiflm-gig-ghu

18.

sig-ba-ni-a-ku

sag-ga-ni-ku dingir-ra-an

dam

A-MA-SHUB-kam

UG ni-nad-nad

19.

zi-da gub-na

20.

e-a-ni ru-da

21.

shag-ga-ni nu-mu-zu

ma-an-dug

Which might

be translated

.^

my dream (behold): A man like


his RI-BA

14.

In the midst of

15.

like the earth

16.

A-NE

17.

At his sides there was

18.

At whose feet there was an

A-MA-SHUB

19.

At the right and his

UG

20.

His house

21.

Him

above him

(lit.

surely a god

to build

his heart)

<i'g''^

was couched

he commanded
I

RI-BA

Im-gig-ghu,

an

left

the heavens his

me

did not know.

The goddess Nina, when explaining

Nin-Gir-su the mean-

to

ing of this dream, uses the following words*


an-gim

RI-BA

ki-gim

13.

(ga)lu

14.

sag-ga-ku dingir id-ni-ku

15.

dingir

I jn.gig.ghu-ku

RI-BA-ku

sig-ba-a-ni-ku

A-MA-SHUB-ku

'See especially Thureau-Dangin, Z. A. XV.


2

51.

Gudea. Cyl. A. IV. 14-21.

^Thureau-Dangin,

"Au

c, and Song-e de Goudia, p. 119, translates:

I.

milieu de (mon) songe, un

than the

'

Grand comme
Sur

homme

la taille egalait

(Z. A.

la tete de qui etait

dont

'

comma

grand

(Z. A.

gauche de qui un lion


sa maison

M'a ordonne de construire


Je ne

I'ai

pas reconnu."

*Cyl. A. V. 13-18.

no doubt better

for tiare) divine

IM-GIG

pieds de qui etait un ouragan

la droite et a la

(so

in Z. A.) le ciel.

la taille egalait) la terre

une tiare

cote de qui etait I'oiseau divin

Aux

dont

^tait

couche

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

42
gub-na

UG ni-nad-inad-ia

i6.

zi-da

17.

shesh-mu

18.

esh E-ninnfl na-ru-ba za-ra ma-ra-an-dug.

The man

14.

With

ga-nam me-a-an

<i'"sirNiii-Gir-su

Which when
13.

translated

like the

that head

would read

heavens

in

RI-BA

15.

with a dingirim.gig.ghu,
at the right

17.

my

18.

the house -ninnu to build he has

and

at his feet

his left an

we would draw
do

to

like the earth in

RI-BA

it

with an

A-MA-SHUB

UG being couched

brother 'i'g''^Nin-Gir-su surely

would have

-."^

the god at his sides

16.

If

I.

is

he,

commanded

a picture

thee.

"man"

of the

we

Nin-Gir-su,

as follows

A-NE
'"g'^m-gig-ghu

dingirim.gig.ghu

galu=

UG\

/UG
A-MA-SHUB

Intentionally

some words were

left

untranslated above, be-

cause on the right interpretation of them depends everything.

A-MA-SHUB

Thureau-Dangin^ has shown, the Semitic-

as

is,

Babylonian a-bu-bu, "stormflood."


dingir

ij^.gjg.ghy^

if

translated

word

for word,

would mean

8^

cloud, dark or black, bird or flying.

su

The two words


when appearing

to show us that "the man" or Nin-GirGudea was upon a "stormfiood" and sur-

sufifice

to

rounded by "flying dark clouds. "


1

as

is

The

inscription gives

apparent from above,

If

bar-bar be added to

SA-SA, which, no doubt,

col.

is

E-<^ineirini-

a mistake for

NAD-NAD,

IV. 19.

-Thureau-Dangin, Songe, p. 120, translates:


13. I'homme grand comme le ciel, grand comma

la terre

15.

sur la t6te de qui etait (une tiare) divine, a cote de qui


etait loiseau divin IM-GIG, aux pieds de qui etait un ouragan

16.

a droite et a gauche de qui

14.

17. c'est
18.

il

mon

frere,

un

NIN-GIR-SU

lion etait

couche

t'ordonnait de construire sa demeure, I'E-ninnfl

3Z. A. XV.

51,

notes.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

name

we
And because

gig-ghu,

get the

Gir-su.

gig-ghu-bar-bar,

the E-ninnu

clouds" are or

The UG, which


feet will

UG

UD

may have

is

alone would

UG

mean "wind"

"man"

of this

UG-GAL

Now,

And

or

do not

by "lions,"

Thureau-Dangin^ himself

UD

UD-GAL."

"storm"

UG-GAL

or better

The A-NE

too.^

might be taken either as the plural

A + BIL,

i.

is

UQ

or "great wind."^

"rain," "waters," or probably better as

at the

of A,

e.,

i.

"water

e.,

What this fire was we shall see directly.


The remaining RI-BA has been translated by Thureau-Dangin
his ''Songe de Goude'a'' quite correctly.
It no doubt means that

and

in

surname

flying dark

est identique a

umu and means "storm"

translated by

dingir Ij^-

also a

UG

right in translating

that meaning.

has also the reading

head

name was

and must signify a similar thing.

"II est probable que

says:

called the temple of

are at the left and the right side of "the

think that Thureau-Dangin

although

is

follows that the latter

it

43

temple E-ninnu dedicated to Nin-

From this it also follows that "the


may become sometimes "very bright"

of Nin-Gir-su.

man's"

of the

I.

the

fire."

man was

and

as large or great as the heavens*

earth, extended

over heaven and earth; his course^ was so wide and so large that

went

Thus

the description might be interpreted as follows

appeared a

"man"

to

me who was

extended as the heavens and earth.

Rain and

is

forced to exclaim

a god

fire

Surely

it is

made upon him. At

fire

XV.

such

his sides were,

and

were above him

i.

is

impression this rain


e.,

he was surrounded
"stormflood," and

^Delitzsch, H.

p. 49.

There

completely awe-stricken and

by "flying dark clouds" and was carried by


iZ. A.

as regards his size as large

At the sight of which Gudea


and

it

over the heavens and the earth.

all

W.

B.

p.

33.

Ur-sag ug zig-ga gab-shu-gar nu-tug <i'"*f'' Nin-Gir-su, I would


9
translate accordingly
Ob warrior, Oh furious tempest, who has no rival. Oh Nin'Cyl.

II.

also Cyl. A IX. 21 (Nin-Girsu) ur-sag-gal ki-'J'"s'^En-liMal-ka


en gab-ri nu-tug, " the great hero in the domain of En-lil, the lord without equal."

Gir-su

Comp.

etc.

*See also Cyl. A. VII. 4, 5, en-na shag an-gim sud-du-ni ^ing'"^ Nin-Gir-su dumu
i. e.,
"the lord whose heart is as extended as the heavens: Nin-

d'agi^En-lil-lal,

Gir-su, son of En-lil."


5

Ri-ba

= rib-ba (Thureau-Dangin,

1.

c. p. 51.

note

3)

= pnN.

H. W. B.

p. 159.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

44

were two "storms" or "tempests."

at his feet there

whom

such a description

fits is

of course

following considerations

Rammdn.

Ramman

Gir-su cannot be any other but

1.

I.

The only god


That

this

Nin-Gir-su has a special servant: the god Nin-sar

called the gir-lan'gi''Nin-Gir-su-ka.i

Nin-Gir-su thus

who

is

Gir is=birqu, "lightning,"

"thunderbolt," and lal^nashu, "to

"to pour out."

Nin-

corroborated by the

is

lift

up, carry," or

= shapaku,

not only the god of rain and

is

storm, but also the god of lightning, or else he could not have a

"thunderbolt carrier," who occasionally may "pour out" the thunderbolts.

In old Babylonian times there also existed a ^ingirNin-

Gir,2 who,

no doubt,

means the "lord


derbolt"

Even

is

same

the

is

as the

"^'^eir

Nin-sar, for Nin-Gir

The GIR

of the Gir or thunderbolts."

Nin-GIR-su

also contained in

would read

for

unto Gudea in
2.

A-NE^= A-BIL.*

rain, storm,

The "dream"

The opening

of

Cylinder

Gudea. And what

honor

is

god

ghu-bar-bar

= gir-lal

'^'"^f'''

i.

e.,

why

appears

flashes of lightning.
for our interpretation.

come

an end by some pious deed of

to

for

Gudea than

of rain, storm,

to build a

temple

and lightning, that the

And this god is Nin-Gir-su = ^'"sir im.gjg.


who promises thereupon that the drought

as Dec.

Nin-sar

been

= E.

XLIX.

B.

H.

p. 52,

clearly shows),

gir-lal '''"g'''Nin-su-gir-ra,

See the proper

built. ^

(For

ur-'^'n^'^Nin-Gir-

p. 66, note.)

lUrakagina, D^c. XLIX.


shag-lal

fire,

also

is

Ramman

= Ramman,

= ikkaru see below,

read:

describes the terrible drought of Girsu-

shall cease after the temple has

su

Nin-Gir-su :=

Gudea speaks

more natural

of just the

drought might cease

and

itself of

Shirpurla, which can only

in

GIR-su

the bar-bar of '^'ng'rjm.gig.ghu.ljar-bar indicates the bright-

ness and flashes of the lightning or thunderbolts.^ This


I

or "thun-

as well as in

name Ur-

'^'"&'''

Nin-gir,

23 (where we have to read for


so also E. B. H. p. 51 1. 14 ff.

and see already above,

B. H.

p. 23, 6.

p. 413.

See also Cyl. A. XI. 3, where E-ninnu is called '^'"s;'' Im-gig-ghu an-sar-ra sheg"the Im-gig-ghu that flashes over the whole heaven," and comp. with this
Thureau-Dangin, Songe de Goudia, p. 14, note i.
^

gi-gi,

Notice also that ^ flame (BIL)

is

Nin-Gir-su's sign.

^Thureau-Dangin, Songe de Goudea,

by a wind,

ibid.

col.

XI.!

The

Cyl.

XII. 10.

rains will be

announced

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

my

If

3.

doubt about

correctness

known ideogram
of

dingir

Now we

4.

Ramman

for

juj.gig.ghu

qj. dingir

and there can hardly be a


would explain the dingirlM^ the well-

interpretation be correct

its

be simply a further abbreviation

to

jjn.gig.g^ju.bar-bar respectively.

also understand the so-called second triad of the

X = Nin-Gir-su,

Babylonian gods; they are ZU, UD, and


Semitic; Sin, Shamash, and

quence

and

son,

which they occur.

in

we have

Ramman

is

it

The two

If

would be

brothers mentioned

first,

Babylonian history

at the

se-

the head or abu,''

Shamash

his

the enumeration be

Here then

Ramman,

Sin,

and then the son

of the former.

i.

e.,

the two

Babylonian pantheon are two rahts and

they go back to the oldest times of the

another proof

age of the Sumer-

for the great

'^'^g'"'

Nin-Gir-su, had seven sons,*

same time the "banda"of Nin-Gir-su.^

"seven sons" stood

hard

for, is

be taken into consideration

They represent

(i)

is

is

Ea, Bel,

dingirga-u, the wife of

were

common

This

parallel to Anu,

triads of the

parallel to each other

ian civilisation

Sin

or in

the

Ramman.

the 'am, the "father's brother."

the other raht

Shamash,^

45

I.

Three

to tell.

What

possibilities

who
these

might

the seven planets.^

The seven Igigi, or spirits of heaven.


(3) The seven winds or evil spirits, who are
with Ramman.^
(2)

For references see E. B. H., Index, Gods,

He

is

443 sub

I.

called in the celebrated Moon-hymn (IV. R. 9)


the head, for this means " abu " here, of the raht. The abu
father

^This fact explains why Sin


abu.

p.

closely connected

is

See also Winckler, M. V. A. G., 1901,


In later inscriptions the following gods are called abu ilani Bel, Ashur
4, p. 20.
Anu, Ea and Sin. See H. W. B. sub. abu, p. 3.
(of the gods) is En-lil, as

was seen above.

As

e. g.

in the

*See above,

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser

p. 23,

note

6.

II.

11.

6,

7.

Gudea, Cyl. B. XI. 4-12.

That the Babylonians knew also of seven planets besides sun and moon, and
Winckler thinks, alzuays of five only (with sun and moon= seven), is evident from the figures of the Kudurru of Nabu-shum-ishkun, now in the Berlin
Museum. There we have the sun, " the moon, " the morning star, " and the
*

not, as

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

seven planets."
''See, e. g.,
ler,

Der

IV. R.

5,

29

f.,

Alte Orient, III. p. 95.

Delitzsch, H.

W.

B. p. 33 sub. flmu, and Winck-

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

4
I

myself would rather see in them the seven winds, cp.

name

the

who

Ur-kalam-ta-ud-du-a,

third son

of the

goeth forth (ud-du) out of

(a)

of the earth (kalam), as

building

(GIM)

of the

(ta) the

who goeth

forth out of the

Both would

wind," as coming from the Persian Gulf.

GHE

are also mentioned the Za-za-ru'^ or

same

as the

GAN)-gir-nun-na

(or

is

"^'"^eir

the one

Gan)-GIR-nun-na
ga probably

is

is

would

first

This

son, the
I

take

Nin-gir but also as the

^'^^^"

the

is

latter

"thunderbolt

gir-lal,

the "lord of the thunderbolt," and the third

has at least something to do with the

have seen,

signify the '^east-

accompany Ramman.

Im-pa-ud-du^ or second son,* and the Nin-sar.

carrier," the other

as the

abode or

Nin-sar, too,

for the winds, storms, lightnings, that

to be not only the

^ ishdu)

same

the

indicates."

The

GIR

fifth

name Ghe

as the

Ghe

son

"a

Ka-6r-mu, the

son of Nin-Gir-su."^

and Za-ar-mu, the seventh son, are known

to

me

(or

GAN)-shag-

(or

identical again with the Dun-shag-ga, who, as

called

g.,

NUN (or ocean)," mentioned already by king

Uru-ka-gi-na at about 4500 B. C.^

By Urukagina

is

e.

"the one

e.,

i.

foundation (ur

such he, no doubt,

Gim-nun-ta-ud-du-a, "the one

speak

I.

we

sixth,

only from this

passage.

The

'^''ig'''

Gal-alim, from

a great scepter,"^

Gir-su,

would

whom Gudea

like to identify

to say

ceived a scepter like that of Nin-sar,

means

of

which he was able

is

to reign

i.

by
e.,

"dominion and

also a son of Nin-

with Nin-sar the

Gudea, no doubt, wants

Gir-su.

receives

and who, as we have seen,

gir-lal of

"a

Nin-

he has

this, that

re-

thunderbolt," by

and put down,

if

necessary,

his enemies.

That some
IE. B. H.

of the sons of

'^'eir

2EB.

p. 54.

H.

Ba-u are mentioned already by


p. 53.

3E. B. H.

p. 53.

<Is this Im-pa-ud-du perhaps identical with the Dun-pa-ud-da, E. B. H.

3142

p. 312,

See also Gin-'i'"sirDun-pa-ud-du and Ur-<''"g''Dun-pa-ud-du.

^The name of this god is also found in a shortened form, see E. B. H. p. 52,
where we have to read according to D^c. XLIX. ['ii"e''GH]e {or[GA]N)-gir

27.

ki-ag d>ngir]sjin.Gir-su-ka-ra.
<*E.
^

B. H. pp. 195, 196.

Gudea, Statue B.

(K. B. IIP. p. 28).

II. 18, 19:

nam-ner-gal pa-magh

sum-ma

'''"g'^

Gal-alim-ka-ge

"

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

47

I.

Uru-ka-gi-na,i shows that the whole system of the Babylonian the-

ogony was

developed as early as 4500 B. C.

fully

This Nin-Gir-su, this god of lightning, thunder,

and

rain,

storm, was "the warrior," or "mighty hero" 2 of Bel or En-lil.


En-lil has indeed a strong hero

ever Bel appears, he

company with

pears in

appears

company

in

of

this follows, that

when-

Bel ap-

e.,

i.

And who

and clouds.

lightning, thunder,

does not think instantly of the

we

From

accompanied by Nin-Gir-su,

is

Old Testament who too

mn*' of the

such an "ur-sag lig-ga?"

Exod.

xiv. 19

ff.

read (R. V.):

"And

behind them

and

it

came between

Can we possibly have


Gir-su ur-sag lig-ga

sponds to "the

the

more

En-lil

<^'s*''

camp

of

Egypt and the camp

i.

Nin-Gir-su

cloud.

e.,
is

it

light

by

The

of Israel

night.

striking parallel to the

Nin-Gir-su

angel.'^

the "angel of God,^'

here under a

removed and

of Israel,

and the fihar of cloud removed from before them and stood

and there was the cloud and the darkness, yet gave

we have

camp

the angel of God, which went before the

went behind them

'^'^e'''

Nin-

ur-sag or "warrior" corre-

the ur-sag of En-lil, and here

is

mn*'

But "the angel" appears

called

^'^sir

im,

i.

"the

e.,

cloud.'"

The "cloud removed from before them and stood behind them."
dingir

Nin.Qij-.gu

ness

and

^^

light,

jg

Called

" ih^ flying Im-gig." This cloud was dark-

Nin-gir-su

called "^'^^'''Im-gig-ghu-bar-bar,

is

dark cloud flying, flashing up, or very

God"

not be any doubt that "the angel of

and thus a striking parallel


this

it

also follows that

to the old

nin''

himself

Winckler'* think, but the storm-god

Nin-Gir-su,
Bel,

who accompanies

"the Lord"

ko-t

iioxvv

is

Hence

bright.'"

'^''^s''^

is

is

niD"'-

" or the ur-sag,

En-lil or

Were

it

niiT is

not for the fact that the "barrel-cylinder"


it

all

niH''

is

i.

e.,

the

must therefore necessarily be accom-

dering and lightning dark cloud," hence


'

But from

no storm-god as Stade^ and

panied by his special "ur-sag" or "angel" and this

found mentioned on

e.,

the ur-sag of t^t^

Nin-Gir-su.

"the angel

En-lil or

i.

there can-

seven sons.

The

Geschichte des Volkes Israels, Vol.

Geschichte Israels, Vol.

ur-sag, or ur-sag lig-ga, see above, pp. 23, 12.

I., p.

37

ff.

I.,

429

ff.

is

is

"the thun-

usually represented
broken,

we might have

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

48

company

as

coming

of

heaven and earth" and "king

in the

through his ur-sag,

such a cloud. ^

of just

e., lit.

i.

I.

of the

En-lil as

"king

gods" speaks and acts only

translated "head-servant," "prime-

minister,"^ so nifT "the lord of hosts" speaks also through his

"head-servant" or "prime minister": the

"prime minister" says

Hence we read Psalm


my

In

6.

And

He

xviii.

my

n):]"

what

this

or En-lil.

upon the Lord,

my God

voice out of his temple,

And my cry before him came into his


Then the earth shook and trembled,

7.

and

(R. V.):

ff.

distress I called

cried unto

heard

T\i<b)2

or does, that says or does

ears.^

The foundations also of the mountains moved


And were shaken, because he was wroth.
There went up a smoke out

8.

And

fire

out of his

Coals were kindled by

He bowed

9.

And^

it,

and came down.*

the heavens also

thick

darkness^ was under him,

And he rode upon

10.

of his nostrils,

mouth devoured

a cherub, and did^jy,'

Yea, heflezu'' szui/tly upon the wings'^ of the zuind,^

See,

e. g.,

Isaiah xix.

and

Compare

"the whirlwind."

(swift cloud, R. V.);

also Acts xiv. 11, 12

and the different passages about


Zeus and Hermes (= Barnabas

Paul).
2

See here especially Gudea, Cyl. A.

II.

dingrirNin-Gir-su zu-ab-a.

En-lil-ki-a

(?)

ner-gal

11, 12
.

(?)

{Songe de Goudea, p. 116).


6 Nin-gir-su, toi qui dans I'abime.
toi qui a Nippur es au premier rang.
the city of Enlil, and there Nin-gir-su has "the premier rang,"

Which Thureau-Dangin

translates

Nippur
he

As soon as

the ur-sag.

him,

is

the ur-sag or

is

TjXT'TS,

the " head-servant" or " prime-minister

mn" En-lil

The

"

i.

e.,

of Bel-Enlil.

hears the crying, he dispatches his "prime-minister,"


En-lil, because he acts for

ur-sag, taking here the place of mn*'

comes under thundering and lightning.


*The

ur-sag, so far thundering above,

^The ur-sag
Gudea of old

is

approaches the earth.

upon the earth, the poet sees him and describes him,

*Comp. thea-ma-shub
'Comp. the GHU,

or

"storm

flood,"

"flying," in Gudea's

*Comp. the UG, "storm,"

" tempest,"

and the IM-GIG

of Nin-Girsu,

Imgig-GHU.
which are

at

Nin-Girsu's

feet.

like

. .

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS


11.

He made

12.

At the brightness* before him

13.

The Lord^

49

I.

darkness his hiding-place, his pavilion round about him,'

Darkness- of the waters,^ thick clouds of the

skies.

his thick clouds passed.

Hailstones and coals oi/ire*

And

also thundered in the heavens,

the Most

High uttered

Hailstones and coals of

And

14.

his voice

fire.

and scattered them

sent out his arroxvs

he''

Yea, lightni7igs manifold, and discomfited them.

That

this description

not of mn" himself,

is

must be understood

of the niD"

evident from the "angel of

god"

in

T^xb^S

and

Genesis

who speaks and acts like


and who (he is
upon Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone
nin*' nxp. 7
This "from heaven" is no gloss, as

chapters i8 and 19,

rf^'PT'

called here simply mn") rains

and ^r^

D?P^'l!

some commentators want


where

else,

it,

but indicates that mn^ himself

while acting through his prime-minister or

therefore, as his (Jahveh's) representative,

A
A

IX.

further corroboration of this

may be found

A-MA-SHUB,"

where the "lugal

5,8

is

The Im-gig-ghu

^Comp.
'

called mn*' too

20 X.

the stormflood,"
*

is

*Comp.

in

some-

who

Gudea,

Cyl.

the "king of

said to be dingirgn-lil or Bel.

or " the flying dark clouds " surround Nin-Gir-su.

the a-ma-shub or "storm-flood," and the

Comp. the

is

'nNfTO,

or "water " which

the BIL, "fire," that

is

'
'

"

above

IM-GIG

"above" Nin-Gir-su, and

is

of Nin-Girsu.

Nin-Gir-su.
the bar-bar in Im-

gig-ghu-bar-bar.

^mn*' or En-lil through the "ur-sag."


*

The

'
'

ur-sag

"or " angel " or " prime-minister " makes use of


him to pour out or send out (shapaku) his gir

of dingirNin-sar, bids

his gir-lal,

i.

thunderbolts."
^

Gen.

xix. 24.

^Translated by Thureau-Dangin, Songe de Goudea,


IX. 20. Moi je suis Nin-Gir-su qui ecarte.
.

21. le

grand heros aupres de Bel,

22.

seigneur sans rival

temple

(est)

arm

SHAR-UR

2.

" LE

MAITRE DE L'OURAGAN (EST) BEL

3.

"son

24.

25.
26.

le

I'E-ninnu ou moi.

qui sous son pouvoir reduit les contrees

IGI-GHUSH qui n'epargne rien au monde,


DA-BAT a qui personne n' echappe
(This line reads

follows:

mon
mon
mon
mon

23.

X.

le

p. 125, as

oeil irrite

(i.

e.,

the

A-KU-mu nam-gal
(!

IGI-GHUSH)

ki-ag-da)

!)"
n'

e.

or "lightnings,

epargne rien au monde"

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

50

I.

The "weapons"^ used by Nin-Gir-su and which


in the

There can

bolt, etc., etc.

act counterpart in

"^'^e'r

who

but "the lord

is

dingirEn.jil to

and that the

Thus

accompanied

But what or who

is

l>y

^^^nr'

KUR-GAL,

^''^^^^

of

is

LIL = zaqiqu 3 =

This

latter

he derives

Against this might be said

not yet "air," and that in later (Assyrian)

always translated, not by shar

is

On

shade, but always ''"bel matati.^

accout of this latter transla-

The main

taken to signify "the lord of the lands."

attributes of Enlil were, as

we have

seen,

"the king

"the king

earth," "the king of the lands,"

As time went

father of the gods."

takes

Nin-char-sag and the surname of Bel

inscriptions the lugal-kur-kur

LIL was

HommeP

in lugal-kur-kur as signifying

"the great mountain."*

that a zaqiqu or wind

the

is

a difference

ni,T?

"die Berge des Luftreichs, dieWolken."

from the signification

has his ex-

ur-sag

not a "god o/sform,"

is

der Luft," because

Sturmwind, wind, and the kur-kur

niH''

latter's

the storm,"

this ^ingirEn-lil

"Herr

be the

no doubt that

be, then,

gn-lil,

Old Testament.

mn"' ^xb?2 of the

tion

are mentioned

above-given passage, are no doubt the lightning, thunder-

of

heaven and

gods," "the

of the

on, these specific attributes of

Enlil were applied even to other gods according to the influence

they were able to exercise over the inhabitants of early Babylonia.

Thus

happens

it

arrogant

that,

e.

""

moon-god Sin had the following

the

Sin be! ilani sha shame-e u irtsi-tim

shar ilani

'

4.

'

ili

(written ilu -f pl-) sha il^ni

shame-e rabute.^

a-shi-ib

Nin-Gir-su guerrier de Bel

de ces noms seront nommes.

5.
1

g.,

titles

See also Gudea, Cyl.

VII. and Statue

V. 37

VI. 49 et passim.

^Identitat, etc., p. 219.


^

Ungar.

Ibid., p. 220.

See,

anima,

lei

tiirk. yel,

"Wind," Hommel,

Obelisk of Shalmaneser

e. g.,

II.,

1,

'"

ibid.

bel-matati

'"

Bel, also p. 59, 2!

" Sin, the lord of the gods of heaven and earth,


the king of the gods, the god of gods
that inhabit the great heavens."

Nabfl-nS'id, Thoncylinder aus Ur.


in as far as

he

is

the

"head"

A.

W.

p. 43. col.

I.

28

ff.

Sin

or ab of the second triad or raht.

is

the bel ilSni

But the

titles

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS


Yes,

when god Marduk occupied

the most supreme place in

know how

the Babylonian pantheon, Nabu-na'id does not

by calling him <^'g''^EN-LIL

more than

him

5I

I.

(AMAR-UD),^ which

and no doubt intended signification however

na'id

wanted

:)

By thus terming

Marduk. "

to

show

honor

Marduk

generally transcribed ''"bel ilani ''"Mar-

is

duk, and translated "the lord of the gods, Marduk,"

the gods (viz.

to

'"

ilani

Marduk

that

is

his

the original,

"the

EN-LIL

of

supreme god, Nabu-

EN-LIL

takes the place of

of

old.

Above we have seen


require only

i?^^

and earth," then

god

be closely connected, so closely as to

to

and

name LIL. The

god

one

for

must have been considered

AN-KI,

e.,

i.

"heaven

as one. This

when thus looked upon


when enumerated has mostly

has,

first triad,

the sequence Anu, Bel, Ea,


father and his

was only

there

if

this latter

one thing, this heaven-earth,


as one the

"heaven and earth" were considered

that

by the old Babylonians

Bel

is

mentioned between

That

'am "father's-brother. "

just

i/u's

his

sequence

should have become a stereotyped one must have a meaning.

The

AN

"the

explanation of this sequence no doubt

is

the following:

heavenly ocean," and KI "the terrestrial ocean" are separated according to the Bible (Gen.

i.)

by the so-called

translated by "firmament," which latter

the waters of the heavenly ocean."

only one-sided.
is

kept back by a

r''pn,

by what

"Am

is to

{raqia) generally

there "to keep back

ask,

if

the terrestrial ocean kept back?

of a

settest a

watch over me,"

"heavenly sea or sea-monster" that

be guarded, but of an earthly sea or sea-monster.

would necessarily expect

is

the heavenly ocean

a sea or a sea-monster

That thou

he did not think so much

is

:?ip-|

This conception however

For we may very well

And when Job^ complains

is

that there

was

also a

:?*pn

Thus we

for the terres-

"god of the gods" (with ili (=pl !) comp. also the pluralis majestaticus D^nfN)
and "king of the gods" are attributes of En-LIL. Seep. 19, 9. 10., and Deut. x. 17.
'

Nabu-na'id, Thoncylinder aus Sippar, A.-W.

Chap.

vii.

12.

p. 40, col. I.

1.

21.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

52

I.

trial ocean.
The ^^'p") of the heavenly ocean is called "heaven.'
The " heaven "1 or "the firmament of heaven "^ keeps back the
waters above.
The la^r^t^n r^p") itself proves that there must have

been also another


would, to say the

besides that of heaven

r'^pn

or

was under the impression that there existed

we may conclude

course, as

"heaven," so the other

r^pi

a yixn

a^Tito'D V^p'i

As the one

y""p"i.

still

and, of

r^pi

is

the

This one yp-| that

the "earth."

is

else the D^TO^'n

Thus, even P.

be quite unnecessary.

least,

stands between the heavenly and terrestrial ocean, and keeps back
the waters above the firmament as well as below the firmament

by the Sumerians

called

Thus we understand

Ea

stands for

it

the succession

the heavenly ocean by the

pened that according


(D''?2^n

TCr\

which

to

is

the

the

at the

Thus

earth.'"

P^ the heaven had

to

it

it

had likewise to have some exits through

From

was "kept back" but

also the terrestrial oces.n

And EN-LIL

form the y^pi or LIL.

and KI,

i.

e.,

exits are the

this is also evident that not only the

the heaven and the terrestrial by the earth

"the heavenly and

and earth

hence he

"the king

is

the

that stands between the

AN

heavenly by

heaven and earth thus

standing between the

terrestrial

of

According

to the

Sumerian conception the earth

r^plb a^nbN Xlp^l, Gen.

^D-^TS^n P^p-|D mX?2, Gen.


^

Gen.

vii.

of the

COSMOL-

Sumerians.

EDIFICE consisted of three parts


^^r:,t

the heaven

heaven and earth," or

and KI

AN

ocean," becomes thus

This consideration gives us also an insight into the


of the

"wells" or

heavenly ocean

the ypi, and the latter again under a twofold aspect

also hap-

have "windows"

time of the flood, and the "terrestrial ocean"

Dinn as he calls

mrr72.

OGY

terrestrial

the ''heaven'' and the ter-

is

which the waters might come, and these

p-'pT

or Anu, Bel,

the

they also are kept back,

it

^^

u'^pi

nDIX) through which the waters of the heavenly ocean could

pour down
the

jj^pl

by the r^pl which

AN-LIL-KI

the heavenly waters

ocean, by the r^pT they are divided, by

restrial ocean,

is

LIL.

ii.

i.

14.

i.

8.

as a

world

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

I.

53

(i) The heavenly ocean or AN.


(2)

(3)

The
The

ocean or KI.

terrestrial

LIL, which stands between the

or

r''p"i

These three parts were assigned


Sumerian pantheon,
longs the world

e., to

i.

was considered

To

Anu, Ea, Bel.

these as such be-

a terrestrial ocean, so the

also

under a double aspect

jj-'pi

or an

(a)

As

a heavenly

((^)

As

a terrestrial

or ki

r"'p"i

The former keeps back


trial

and KI.

edifice.

As there existed a heavenly and


or y^pi

AN

to the first triad or raht of the

LIL

= shamu,
or "heaven."
=
yix or "earth."
a"')02)

irtsitu,

the heavenly and the latter the terres-

ocean.

This

latter consideration gives us the so-called

world

sion of the earth as


(i)

Of the upper

the heavenly

(2)

According

edifice.

-world,

which

AN-ta

is

twofold

divi-

to this

it

consisted

= elish,

i.

e.,

above:

i.e.,

below:

world;

Of the lower world, which

is

= shaplish,

Kl-ta

the terrestrial world. ^

The heavenly

and

r^pl appears in

circle" or better "plate"

of the

is

and as the heavenly

is

form of a "halfonly the reflex of

the terrestrial, this latter was considered to be the other half of the
circle as a whole,
circle

i.

the

e., of

ypi

And

as such.

if

the

i?^p-i

be a

then the heavenly and terrestrial ocean must also form a

circle.

The world

edifice

either in or within the

is
i?^p-|

The inhabitants which dwell


ZU, UD, Innanna, Nin-Girsu. Thus

inhabited.
are

they had to become necessarily

his,

LUGAL

i.

e.,

LIL's children.

LIL

ABZU, UD, Innanna are the moon,


Thus we find that even according
sun, morning or evening-star.
to Gen.
14 the stars are put c^TOffn 2?^p"iD. Each one of these stars
thus becomes not only the

BA

or "king," but also the

or "father" of the gods.

i.

'

This twofold division

is

mentioned by Diodorus

"Himmels- und Weltenbild der Babylonier {Der


these

words

"Von

diesen beobachten die Halfte

II. 30,

translated in Winckler,

aite Orient, III.), p. 62, with


(sc.

of the 36 gods) die tiber-

irdischen, die andere Halfte die utiterirdischen Stiitten, indem sie iiber das bei

den Me7ischen und den Gotterti geschehende gleichzeitig wachten."

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

54

has his abode and special sphere not only


also in the heavenly

but

visible,

when

when

them by the

"the dam

e.,

i,

of

(I)

YiKn-:5r Txnba

(3)

D^:^i n^Ti^bi D^inisbiennxb

No.

2,

i.

done by the

i.

heaven."

14, 15 threefold:

i.

T7{'\^

"the dividing between the day and the night"

e.,

He

sun.

but

we

divides what

"day"

call

on these two days


these two days

Where

it

the East and where he sets

is

is

just as

West becomes

many hours

he

visible as

thus the two points in the

earthly and the heavenly touch,

i.

and thus also the whole world

y-'p-),

is

^j-'pi

the sun rises

sun to

for the

or in other

invisible.

as a

words

of the terrestrial

heavenly and

of the

"earth" he

The
South,

^^

i.

world
vice

whole where the

East and West divide the ypi

e..

edifice into

sets for the

two equal halves

however

at the

when

for

same time the

into

The
West

the sun rises for the

"heaven."

nether world" or

e.,

is

versa,

East and

the upper or heavenly and into the lower or terrestrial world.

East

On

the West.

is

many hours

takes therefore just as

travel over the heavenly as over the earthly

the sun

is

into two equal

he does only on two days during the whole year,

this

the vernal and the autumnal equinox.

e., at

for

times

later

in

functions of the stars, especially those of the two great

luminaries are according to Gen.

halves

The road

invisible.

was marked out

jjipi

which was called

so-called zodiac,

shupuk shame,'^

The

heavenly

in the

the terrestrial^ but

in

they are in the latter they are

former they become

in the

they had to travel

When

yp.

I.

Hades was considered

under that point

"earth" or

of the

to lie in

the

terrestrial jj-pl

e., " Shamash-abode " or Larsa


'The abode of UD, e. g., is Ud-unug-'''
ZU or Uru Uru-unug-'''-ma, e., Nannar (or Sm)-abode = Ur that of
,

that of

Innanna
2

/.

c,

p.

62

Innanna-unug-''')

Gen.

give light upon the earth.

*To

divide between the day and between the night.

To be

And

cially

for signs.

i.

15.

Gen.

i.

14.

This expresses the astrologic signification of the

and for days and years. On the course


on that of the sun and moon the calendar is based.
for seasons

etc., etc.

f.

^To
*

Innanna-ab-''' (or also to be read

See Winckler,

i.

i.

stars.

of the stars, espe-

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS


where the sun stands

at

I.

55

noon during the equinox.

Also the upper

world has a Hades which likewise was considered


South,

e.,

i.

under the same point

of the '^heaven'' or

We

indicated by the sun at noon during the equinox.

be in the

to

heavenly

ij-'pi

would get

thus in the world edifice as a whole two points for East, West,

and South

The opposite

of the

South

is

the North.

If

we would

prolong the two points indicating the South towards the North they

would

meet

(i)

and

in one

the East and the

West

the

same point

which connects

of the line

or which divides the world edifice into the

upper and lower world,

(2) divide the lower as well as the

world again into two equal halves.

upper

The point where they meet

is

The North becomes thus not only the centre of the


which, as we saw, was considered to be a circle, but also that

the North.
ijxp-i,

Here

of the

whole world

"dwelt

the gods,'' there also the

edifice.

this North,

in

" mountain 0/ the

in this centre

gods,''

"der Gotter-

berg" was situated.

Now we

understand the name for the North.

called ishtanu or iltanu,

e.,

i.

" the only one"

tradistinction to all the other points, of each of

There

same

is

In Assyrian

thus

which we have two.

only one North in the world edifice, this North

for the heavenly as for the terrestrial world.

name IM-SI-DI, which

the North has the

" gerade Richtung,"

"heaven and earth


If

sun,

i.

e.,

is

the

In Sumerian

Delitzsch^ translates by

the radii of the great periphery of

all

" are directed

moon, and the

it is

called in con-

towards

stars are in the

it

as the centre.''

r^p-|,

to

what god has

be assigned the region around the centre of the world

edifice,

i.

to
e.,

"heaven and earth"?

the space between

Speaking from our present standpoint the space between

"heaven and earth"

is filled

out by the air

clined to assign that region to the


der Luft."

But there does not seem

or in Assyrian, or in

word

is

"god

known

iR. W. B.

to

Sumerian

me.

hence we might be

of the air" to the

to exist

a word for

The Hebrew

nil

in-

" Herrn

either in Hebrew,

"air," at least no such

does not mean "air," but

p. 152.

See also the E-pa e-ub-7-na


Ub ^= kibratu, ''Weltgegend, -richtung," i. e.,
"the temple of the seven regions." Gudea, Statue D, ii, 11. (K. B., tii', p. 50,)
-

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

56

"wind,
zaqiqu,

spirit,
i.

= the Assyrian
= sharu, which again means

The Sumerian LIL

breath."

IM

"wind, storm," and

e.,

is

I.

is

"wind."

This latter word gives us the right solution.

were able

to assign all

world

One

edifice.

ki

= y"lX,

irtsitu

this J'''p1 is to

sun, the

Rammfin

AN, Anu

D*'?DU),

or earth

{c

(<;>)

is

c')

no such

Ramman.

i.

had

W,

S') the heavenly world

{E) East

of

e.,

KI, Ea;

(c)

Terrestrial T^p"!

LIL

On

or Bel.

the road which the

(d) the domain of Nin-Gir-su

etc.,

(',

to travel;

(c')

The domain

be found the shupuk sham6,

(M^')

{E,

West

W, S) the

terres-

of the heaven

trial

world

W)

divide the world edifice into two equal halves, and signify the

of the earth

we

in the

whom

Terrestrial ocean

shamfl or heaven

moon,
;

far

Nin-Gir-su or

god, however, remained to

sphere has been assigned as yet, and this

(a) Heavenly ocean


Heavenly 2?*'p"l an

So

gods to a special sphere or function

(E,

East and West where the sun rises and sets at the equinox (N)
North, the centre of the world edifice; (S, S') the terrestrial and
;

the heavenly Hades.

He

is,

as

we have seen

rain, thunder, lightning,

sarily

above, not a star, but the

"god

of storm,

and clouds," and must therefore neces-

belong to the region between the heavenly and the terrestrial

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

57

I.

With this, of course, agrees also Gudea's description of Nin= Ramman, who is said as regards his RI-BA to be like
Ramman, the thunderer, fills all the space beheaven and earth
ypl

Gir-su

tween heaven and earth and thus reaches from the lower

To

upper "firmament."

this

They

signed the seven sons of Nin-Gir-su.

winds"

their

We

abode between heaven and

are thus able to

edifice given

draw the picture^

kur.'^

" king of

the moufitains^' ox

are possible.

If

" king of

the lands.

" heave?i" as well as the lower

when looked upon from


Lugal-kur-kur,

literally

king of the

^^

now, one

It is

i.

^^

r^p"l-

The upper

mounii^p-|

or

earth" appear as a mountain

the North or center of the whole world

when taken

in

this sense,

would mean

Abraham and

his wife

and Lot came with

from Ur of the Chaldees. This Ur was, as we know

of the chief

e., to

or

r-^pi

Babylonian

pecially celebrated on account of

god,

translations

TWO mountains.''

informs^ us that
his father

Both

'^

the former translation be accepted, "the

tains" would be the t7vo halves of the

Lugal-kur-kur might thus be translated either by

land" (matu).

Terah

Sumerian world-

of the

(See the explanations there

on the preceding page.

God EN-LIL or Bel is called very often the '^ lugal-kurKur may mean either "the mountain" (shadu) or "the

I.

edifice

too have as the "seven

earth.

This picture explains also the following points

given).

to the

space must, of course, also be as-

EN-ZU

cities in early times,

its

temple dedicated

being es-

it

to the

EN-LIL

or Uru-ki, the first-born of

Abraham

generally supposed that Terah together with his son

worshipped or were followers

of this

stopped on their way to Canaan

in

moon-

or Bel.

very moon-god, because they

Harran, where there was an-

other celebrated temple of the moon-god.

This view, no doubt,

is

who

true of Terah, for

it

ought to be remembered that he

Ur and goes

to

Harran, simply taking with him his son Abra-

leaves

it

is

ham. Terah, therefore, and not Abraham, puts himself again under
the protection of his old god while in Harran

From

another

'

For another picture see Jensen, Kosmologie der Babylonier, Anhang, Tafel

Gen.

III.
xi. 31.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

58

we know whom Abraham worshipped.

place, however,
vi.

2, 3

which also belongs to P we read

"And God

I.

Exodus

In

spake unto Moses, and said unto him,

am Jahveh

and

peared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob as El Shaddai, but by

Jahveh

was not known

From
Abraham

this

to

ap-

my name

them."

passage we learn that the same god appeared unto

as well as unto Moses, but unto the latter under a differ-

The name had been changed,

ent name.

Moses, but the essence

it is

true, at the

time of

god was and remained the same

of that

Who, then, was this ^t^'^>^, El Shaddai?


The common translation "lord or god almighty" is simply
based upon the LXX. iravTOKpaTwp and the Vulg. "omnipotens,"
and

is
1.

Two

as such merely a guess.

Shaddai

explanations seem possible.

derived either from the root shadad (m^), "to

is

be dense, to be or to make tight," or


2.

comes from shadah

It

be high," from which we

''to

(m^!?),

have the Assyrian shadu, "mountain."


If

No.

be accepted, shadad would be a synonym of raqa' (rpl)

from which we get the raqfa,


dense, tight,

i.

e.,

something which

hence our word firmament

The god

of the

EN-LIL

or Bel.

the god (el) of the two

two firmaments,

Bel, the father of

at at

or

is

is

made

the end rep-

El shaddai would mean according to

resents the old dual ending.


this explanation

The

i.

(ai)

e., of

firmaments or raqfas.

heaven and

Abraham would thus become


the moon-god Sin.

The second etymology, however, seems

to be

of earth, is

worshipper of

much

better and

was given already by Delitzsch^ who, however, translates El shaddai on the basis of the Assyrian ilu shadu'a by "god is my mounThis translation

tain."
ai at

which occurs,

ing,

na-ai tsi-ri-shi-na,
iox dj,

do not think can be maintained.

The

the end of Shaddai must be taken again for the old dual end-

i.

e.,

e.
i.

g., in

e.,

Shalmaneser

whose back

II.:

is double.'"

the y assimilated itself to the

The Hebrew Language,

d."^

"the camels sha

s/17/-

The double ^stands


El Shaddai would

p. 48.

For such a retrogressive assimilation of

they'

comp. among others bunju

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

two mountains,"

thus become "the god of the

EN-LIL, who was

kur or

mountain or heaven and

"god

i.

59

El Shaddai then

earth.

Above we have seen

of the Sumerians.

is

much

as

is

the

EN-LIL

that even mn"' was

LIL, because both when they appear are accompanied by


minister or angel

ga dmgir]sjin-Gir-su,

niH"

by

e.,

i.

his

and

riUbli

as

Thus even according

etymology the El Shaddai of the patriarchs

to this

the lugal-kur-

e.,

the god of the upper and the lower

heaven and earth," or lugal-an-ki.

of

I.

EN-LIL

^EN-

a prime-

by his ur-sag

lig-

they appear always under thunder and

The statement

lightning and surrounded by clouds.

of P, there-

that niiT appeared unto the patriarchs only under another

fore,

NAME,^

viz.,

before,

is

thus shown to be fully

proved

to

be an Assyrian name which translates simply the Sume-

El Shaddai, remaining however the same god as

title

a worshipper of Bel or

lugal-kur-kur however

is

Babylonian inscriptions always by bel

EN-LIL

the lugal-kur-kur

"lord of the lands."

mdtdti,'^

pressed here would be that Bel as the firmament embraces

"lands" on the

terrestrial as well as

"lands" are situated

himself

is

called

scribed by shad^

nin*'

e.,

the
the

or shadu rabu,

The

of as a char-sag

of the lands,"
e.,

i.

Such a word

and Bel

"the great moun-

as shaddu, given

writing SHAD-di-e,

by Del.

ought to be transhadu //5 tzvo phonetic complements.

not exist.

i.

all

for

name taken from

myself would see

in

etc.,

the Kenites or not, would not affect


name for " rock," i. e.,

mn'' simply another

who is, was, and will be," the "rock" that will not pass away nor
Comp. here the proper name ""i!'i'"'11U "my rock is Shaddai," the KUR-

" he

change.

GAL

'^'-'=,

sometimes spoken

is

"the mountain

^ zimmu = zimu.

Whether miT* was

our argument.

Bel

of

?ndtdti as

KUR-GAL^

bunnu^bunu: zimju
H. W. B. p. 642 does

on the heavenly ypi

in the v^n-

The dominion

kalam-ma or shad

translated in the later Semitic

transcription and translation be correct, then the idea ex-

If this

2.

thus

the Sumerian pantheon was fully developed and

becomes thus

The

is

Abraham coming from


known

rian "lugal-kur-kur" or "lugal-an-ki"!

Ur where

El Shaddai

justified.

(the great rock)

and the char-sag kalam-ma

mountain

of the lands) of

KUR-KUR.

Or should we

(the

the Sumerians, and see below.


2

See

e. g.

Shalmaneser

transcribe here also " shadai


^

See Jensen, K. B.

II.
"

Obelisk,

1.

3: ""b^l

Ill', p. 16,

note

3,

and E. B. H.

p. 65,

note

i.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

6o
Bel

tain."

is

the god of the r-pi, which

as

r^p") is,

we saw,

a circle

In this mountain or circle as a whole the "lands of

or a tnountain.

heaven and earth" are


great

I.

Bel becomes thus not only "the

situated.

mountain" or "circle," the

u''p"i,

but also the ''mountain of

the lands."

Later inscriptions speak of a so-called "mountain of the

3.

sun" and

rise of the

which mountains

"mountain

of a

the East and

lie in

being considered as the

on any other

part.

The

4.

The

respectively.

loiver half of the great circle called

of course, at its extremities,

horizon than where

of the setting of the sun,"

West

i.

the East and

e., in

The earth seems


we stand.

to

West

earth

2'*'p'i

is,

higher than

be always higher at the

earth as world edifice in the form of a circle or better

globe ^ explains the whole system of the Sumerian reckoning, according to which the ciixle was divided into 360 degrees, the year
into 360 days, etc., etc.
It

5.

removes

all

his conception of the

the difficulties which Winckler

still

finds in

Babylonian cosmology.^

Having traced the genealogy


their specific meaning,

we

are

of the

now

gods and inquired into

able to establish the pedigree

tabulated on the opposite page.

Of

dingirNin-ib the pa-te-si-gal dingirgn-lil-lal-ge,^

known under
lugh-magh
them,

if

tions.

'

the

^ingir

name

dingirghit-lam-ta-ud-du-a,^

we know

E^-lil-laP

we want

to

do

it

too

little to

Nergal* or also

and Nusku the

be able to classify

according to the Old Babylonian inscrip-

Nabu does not occur

at all.^

Consisting of two halves or plates

the

upper being put or resting upon the

lower.
2

See Winckler, " Himmels- und Weltenbild der Babylonier," Der alte Orient,

III. (igoi) pp. 59-65.

3E. B. H.

p.

258^2.

Written ^ingirGIR-UNUG-GAL, for this reading, and not Nir-unug-gal, see


Thureau-Dangin, Z. A. XV. p. 47, and note 2. For references see E. B. H. p.
*

2263.

^E. B. H. 13330. 224, 227j.


'

The

"^E.

B. H.

p. 223,

note

3.

inscription of Ardi-Na-bi-um belongs to a later (Canaanitish or Aramaean)

period, as the

name

la-lu-un-a-sar shows.

E. B. H.

p. 229.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS


If

Gen.

i.

6i

I.

we translate this genealogy and compare


we would get the following result

with that of

it

In the beginning there was a chaos which was thought to be a


male dind female, perhaps in one person.

The

Biblical

chaos was tohu-vabohu, but as male and female

it

"waters" and "Tehom," or "Spirit

"

of

Elohim

name

was

for this

called either

and "darkness."

GUR
EN-GUR_NIN-GUR

= (apsQ)
AN

= tiamat)

{=Anu)

KI

EN-AN_*NIN-AN

(,

= Ea)

EN-KININ-KI
Nun
Dam-gal-i

An-num^,An-nat
I

LIL(=5?/)

EN-LILNIN-LIL
Lugal-kur-kur
Lugal-dingir-e-ne

Nin-char-sag
Ba-ul
Nin-tu
Sal (Nin)-in-si-na

Ga-tum-dug
Nin-an-da-gal-ki

Innanna

ZU = Sin)
EN-ZUNIN-ZU
(

x= {-Ramman)
Nin-Gir-su

[Ba

Im

Dumu-zi-zu-

Nin-dar-a

Dumu-zi

Nin-dub
Lugal-Erimki

Nin-gal Im-gig-ghu-(bar-bar)

Uru-(ki)

Ud-mJi-Nina-ki-shurit-ta

UD {=Skamask)

x={ = Ishiar]
Innanna

(i)

Za-za-ru,

Nin-Mj

(2)

Im-pa-ud-du,

(2)

=Dun-pa-ud-du?,

(3)
(3)

Ur-kalam-ta-ud-du-a,
Gim-nun-ta-ud-du-a,

(4)

Ghe(GAN)-gir-(nun-na)

(4).

Nin-sar,

(4)

Nin-gir,

Gil-alim,
Za-ar-mu.
(4)

(5)

Ghe(GAN)-shag-ga,
Dun-shag-ga

In the Babylonian account the

(6)

Ka-iir-mu,

(7)

names apsu and tiamat

are used,

while in the original Sumerian the chaos was simply called

which

at

GUR

one time or another was differentiated and became "Mr.

Other names for Ba-u to be found in Old Babylonian inscriptions are Da-mu,
Dun, Gu-la, Ma-ma, Nin-din-dug (probably to be read, however, Innanna-edin,)
Za-ma-ma. See E. B. H. Index.
1

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

62

Gur" and "Mrs. Gur,"

EN-GUR

e.,

i.

or

I.

NIN-GUR. From

parents everything in heaven and upon earth took

first

EN-GUR

NIN-GUR

and

AN

had two sons:

its

and KI,

i.

begot the "heavenly ocean" and the "terrestrial ocean."

Babylonian-Semitic account the two sons were called

KI-SAR, who again probably correspond


chamu. Genesis

i.,

on the other hand,

to the

calls

these

origin.

they

e.,

In the

AN-SAR

and

Lachmu and La-

them "waters

that are

above the firmament" and "waters that are below the firmament."
According

to all three accounts, these waters take their origin

Tehom,^

e.,

i.

AN,

the descent

the "heavenly ocean," has a son called

The Sumerians reckoned

or firmament.

3>"'pT

also the "earth," for


for the

"king

LIL,

one

"heaven and earth," which served

as barriers

ocean, are the dominion of the

terrestrial

heaven and earth",

and the Sumerian theogony.

;"

in reality

it

does not

we compare

If

alogy of Genesis

of

e,

i.

EN-LIL.

The

Biblical creation

difference, however, is only

"a seeming

exist.

the Sumerian theogony as given above on p. 6i with the gene-

on

i.

the

e.,

firmament

Here then we should have a marked difference between the


story

i.

to this

heavenly and

of

from

reckoned through the mother.

is

p.

we

will find that

EN-LIL

corresponds

to the Biblical

"heaven," "earth," and "ocean or waters," of the creation of which we read


verses 6-10.

On

account of the importance of this difference

it

in

would seem neces-

sary to examine verses 6-10 more closely.

Wellhausen

thinks that in Gen.

having taken place, not in


that the

"formula

of

six,

i.

the creation of the world

but in seven days.

approval":

DiW"*'5

upon the following days

a^ribx N121^

is

repeated seven

1.

The

division of the darkness by the creation of the light

2.

The

division of the waters

(v.

6-10).

(v.

11-13).

3.

The

creation of the plants

4.

The

stars

(v.

14-19).

6.

The fishes and birds (v.


The animals and beasts

7.

Man

5.

(v.

recorded as

20-23).
(v.

24-25).

26-31).

'

See above, pp.

Die Composition des Hexateuchs,

"And God saw

35, 9.

that

it

was good."

times,

According' to him the single works

in verses 4, 10, 12, 18, 21, 25, 31.

viz.,

is

This he bases upon the fact

p.

188

ff.

(v.

3-5).

fall

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

We

see, then, that

one work

finds in verses 6-10 only

Wellhausen

63

I.

the division

of the zuaters!
This scheme of seven days

A week of seven
which P belongs.
1.

to

The

2.

by Budde

for the following reasons

'

impossible for the time

is

verses 6-10 do not speak of the division of the waters only but of the

creation of heaven on one

And on account

hand and that

of the important role

Babylonian cosmogony,

considered by

to

more than probable

it is

not original, yet

is

it

and the ocean on

of the earth

which the division

be one day's work by

Budde's objection sub. No.


seven days

rejected

is

working-days without a sabbath

the other.

of the tiamat plays in the

heaven was

that the creation of

itself.

Although the system of

must be maintained.

was introduced by P with the

intention'^ to de-

scribe the creation of the world as having taken place in six days, while the creator

But when Budde maintains that

rested^ on the seventh day.

the division of waters only but

Verses 6-8

tell

tween them.

said

mistaken.

is

"heaven." Verses

calls

is

made

to appear,*

the dry land earth

and the gathering-place

Elohim saw

was good."

that

The waters

it

10 literally translated read

9,

and

was

it

And Elohim

so.

What

one place !

shall gather themselves together utito

in existence

to put gb before

pear."

But

ga and read

the waters obeyed the

" Let the waters

command, then

it

make

the creation of " the ocean "

creation of

Gen.

('D'')?l!'\ is

"appearing of the earth."

of the

i.

"heaven and earth,"

e.,

i.

of the

only

it

but merely the result

6-10 we read only of the

The

Bel's taking his place

them " the division

of the

is

Urgeschichte, pp. 489-491.

See above pp.

That P did not succeed

*Read

H^^lO].

f.,

Tiamat was the

also the first act

and below
in

i.

e.,

is

waters"

by EN-

between Anu and Ea.

division of the primeval waters or

the division of the waters

Thus

LIL.

Wellhausen therefore

which division was made possible by the creation of the T^p"!

LIL'S or

one con-

also follows that

as a whole, the

6-10 agrees exactly with the Sumerian theogony.

correct in connecting verses 6-10 and seeing in

this

itself,

in verses
3?*'p~l

Hence

follows ipso facto that the

From

not a task by

Hence even

place?

the dry ground to ap-

waters had to recede, had to gather themselves together unto one place,

and thus ga becomes superfluous.

And

or else

(!),

the waters could not gather themselves together unto one place or " ki"

we have

called

he called ocean.

of the waters

This expression presupposes that the earth was already

ditions the other,

Let the waters under the heaven gather themselves unto one

place so that the dry land

if

6-10 not

in verses

tasks are recorded, he

us that Elohim divided the primeval waters by putting a l?^p1 be-

This ^''pT he

"And Elohim

two separate

of Elohim,

for

first

act of

Marduk

we have seen above

p. 64.

making

this

very clear,

we saw

above,

p. 4.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

64

that the creation of the " light"

was simply introduced

I.

in order to help

in fabri-

cating his days.

Marduk-Elohim then accomplished the following


waters, or the creation of the

plants
of

the stars

(3) of

On

man.

is still

EN-LIL,

Elohim

i?"'!?"!

(i)

the division of the

(2)

the creation of the

of animals

(5)

and beasts

(6)

rested.

According

difiBculty.

or " heaven and earth,"

heavenly oces.n," while according


or dry ground

and birds

another difference and

the

tasks:

or " heaven and earth "

of the fishes

the seventh day

But there
theogony,

(4)

^''p'l

is

to the Biblical text, as

it

Sumerian

to the

the son of Anu,

i.

e.,

" the

stands now, the earth

born by the terrestrial ocean, or " the waters under the heavens,"

is

by EN-KI.

i.e.,

P,

knew

no doubt, wanted

that

to elucidate

He

here more fully the Sumerian theogony.

" the heaven and earth

LIL was

"

or

as a whole

I?"*pT

thus born by

Anu but he also knew that the verdure (Tammuz), grain (Nidaba), etc., were not
born by EN-LIL as we should expect but by KI, the terrestrial ocean. He

knew

further that the Sumerian "ki

"

means

the difiBculty in the Sumerian theogony where

" earth."

EARTH," and yet where " the produce of the earth"

EN-KI, the god


halves,

made

of the terrestrial ocean,

the upper

may

is

in

order to get over

the god of

is

not born by

"heaven and

EN-LIL

but by

divided the T^pl as a whole into two

be born by the heavenly and the lower by the

See also what has been said on

restrial ocean.

It

T'^p")

Thus

EN-LIL

ter-

p. 37.

not be impossible, however, that

LIL was

thought to

for both oceans were thought to


this being simply
be joined together beyond the firmament or

be a son of both

of

AN

and KI,

r^pi,

the natural observation that the heaven rests upon the earth, and
mutatis mutandis: the heavenly ocean

upon the

terrestrial.''^

The god LIL, by virtue of his being the r^pn or "heaven" and
"earth," became the "father"' and the "king of the gods of heaven
and earth,"
'

the gods, however, but also of

all

other

This probably explains why Marduk, who was, as we have seen, identified
or Bel, is called the aplu r^shtfi sha Ea, II. R. 64d, comp. with 17c.

EN-LIL

with
d.

not only of

and

in

Damascius

tov

rff

'Aov

(i.

e.,

Ea)

kul AavKTic

(i.

e.,

Damkina) wof

Bylog

Marduk). See also Carus, The


Monist, April, 1901, p. 406. That one son should have two fathers is not strange,
it merely would presuppose polyandry with descent reckoned through the father.

(i.

e.,

acoording

to later

times the Bel

kot' i^ox'/v

For a classical example see here the Minean inscription Hal. 504 ^= Hommel, Siidarabische Chrestomathie, p. 94. Comp. also above, pp. 33,3 and 21
!

Ba-u together with LIL, her husband, are said to be


"the firstborn" of AN, surely an evident trace that the differentiation of the
If LIL was the firstborn, then also his wife had to
sexes was comparatively late.
be the firstborn both are thus husband and wife, and brother and sister.
-

Remarkable

also

is

that


THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

may be

creatures, as

who

"the mother

called:

is

created the creatures of the world. "^

who

the one

seen from one of the attributes of his

still

wife: Sal (Nin)-in-si-na

65

I.

of the world,

And

as the attri-

LIL

butes of the wife belong also to the husband, hence god

was,

according to Sumerian conception, the creator or father of the gods

and

The

of the creatures of the world.

LIL

are

ZU

thunderer" or simply "cloud," who again

Shamash, the sun-god, and Innanna


evening

By Ba-u

star.

We

the stars" belong to the y^pn.^

i.

are begotten

is

the

'am

names,

their

"sun"

the

for

UD

of

again are born the

"the two great

lights

now understand why P

He

and the moon.

or

the morning or

awfully afraid of naming these two great lights by name.


that they were the sun

by

or Nin-Gir-su, "the

or Ishtar,

Ramman

the wife of

Also according to Gen.

seven winds.

who

gods

Ramman

moon-god,

or Sin, the

and

is

so

He knew

did not want to mention

he did then he would have had to use for

if

Hebrew

(Shemesh), which apparently was too

S'^a)

closely related to the Semitic-Babylonian Shamash and might have

betrayed a heathenish origin of his (P's) whole cosmogony.

same may be

one

said of Ishtar or

of \\i& principal gods,

was blotted out by P

the moon-god,

is

while Sin

i.

Shamash was

and whatever

The

at the time of

smelled of heathenism

is

to

be found here between the Biblical account

Sumerian theogony. According

the firstbor7i of

In Gen.

sun-god.

strange difference however

of the creation and the

"inri?

to the latter Sin or

EN-LIL, and hence precedes Shamash

16 on the other

hand Shamash

is

EN-ZU,

or

UD the

called " ihe greater light,"'

" the lesser light,"* thus the former apparently precedes the

is

named

is

the reason for this

latter.

What

Winckler^ confesses

"

Das babylonische Pantheon

sondern den Mondgott an the Spitze

gott,
is

this

As the chaos preceded the cosmos,

preceded the day, and Sin^ being "he

>

E. B. H.

bin^D niN?2n.

p. 202,

note

I.

*pp,-l

uuarum,

ist

nicht den Sonnen-

as the darkness the light, thus the night

who governs

the night," must necessarily

'^T:S''m7^ r'*p-|D

i.

-^y^n.r^.

stellt

noch unklar." The reason

5 -

Gen.

i.

14.

Himmels- und Weltenbild,"

etc., p. 65.

^Sin precedes Shamash also in the old Arabian pantheon. Our investigation
enables us to identify that pantheon with the second triad or raht of the Sumerians.
Wadd, Sin, 'Amm, Haubas all names for the Sumerian EN-ZU or Uru-ki,
the moon-god, have been correctly identified.
The same is true of Athtar and

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

66
precede Shamash,
times the

"day

who governs

evening and there was morning, the


the Sumerian conception of the day

Shams

the

former

dingiruD, the sun

This

the day.

consisted of " night and day "

"

is

is

I.

also the reason

why

accepted even by P

day."

This

latter,

in early

" there was

no doubt,

is

for among the Sumerians Sin was

a relic of

i\y%

father

the '^'"^''^Innanna, the morning or evening-star, the latter

with

the difference, however, that Athtar has become a mascuand Shams a feminine. Even in later Semitic Babylonian inscription Ishtar
"the morning-star" was, as was pointed out above, p. 39, considered to be a

line

as

masculine deity.

Arabian pantheon represents the gods of the second


AnbSj, and Almaqu-hfi
must be Nin-Gir-su or RammSn. Hommel, Die sildarabischen Altertilmer des
Wiener Ho/museums, p. 28 ff., identified them either with Nebo, because (i) "AnbSj " is a broken plural of Nabiju, which stands for the older Nabi'u
(2) Chaul
^*n " Phoenix" ("der ja vom Weihrauchlande, Hadhramot, her nach Aegypten
"
fliegt, also ein richtiger TjK'PTS oder Gotterbote ist"), or with the
Sternenheer "
AlmSqu-hfl.
With regard to an-Karich he is in doubt, thinks however, that this
god is " wohl auch " := Nebo.
Above we have seen that Nin-Gir-su is the ur-sag of EN-LIL, hence a T]KT'?3
or minister, just as Chaul
Chaul is here the minister of Sin, because
t'ln is.
Sin is the chief-god, who was even in Assyrian times identified with B61 (see above
If the old

triad or raht of the Sumerians, then an-Karich, Chaul,

hence might also have an ur-sag


But it is not necessary at all to identify
Chaul with the bird Phoenix (see Job xxix. 18 and Herodotus ii. 73) the signification which the root tJln gives on hand, is a much better one.
51(1 or also TT^ is
used in Jerem. xxiii. 19 xxx. 23 of the storm and has the signification zvirbel?id
losbrechen hernieder auf etivas (c. 51?). See Gesenius-Buhl sub voce. Even in
Assyrian we have a root ^Tl with the signification "beben, erbeben," and a chilu
The god Chaul would become thus
or Hochjlut, see Del. H. W. B. pp. 274, 273.
the "god of the stormflood!" and might be read Chawil.
Almfiqu-hfi thus read by Hommel is derived from the root pTSf "to deI
stroy," "to beat." Ramm^n as the god of lightning destroys the wicked.
would like to see in this word a surname of Ramm^n and read " almagu-h(l," i. e.,
"his (sc. Sin's) chief destroyer or warrier
ur-sag ligga. To this explanation fits
also an-Karich from the root DID, Del. H. W. B. p. 352, b: "in Not bringen."
AnbSj too is not a broken plural of Nabiju := Nabi'u why should there be
but also an
2i;plural for the name of a god, seeing that this god is only a shajflm?
elative form (like almaqu-hu !) from the root HDj and has to be rediA^anbaju.
HDj I would like to take in the sense of NDj, Del. H. W. B. p. 442, b. " hervorsfirudeln, hervorquellen" from which we get the namba'u, "Quell, Wasserguell," and the imbfi'u, " vegetation," and especially nib'u " Spross, Fruchtertrag
u. dergl."
Ramman would thus become as the "god of rain" he who produces
vegetation hence he is called by Shalmanesser II., Obelisk, 1. 7: [''"Rammjan
p. 50)

gish-ru shu-tn-ru b^l che-gal-li,

abundance or riches
the

name

(sc.

i.

e.,

the strong one, the powerful, the lord of the

of the fields).

ur-''"'^'' Nin-Gir-su,

With

which name

is

this agrees quite

J)atesi{see E. B. H. p. 441 for references), but which also

gual texts by ikkaru or

wonderfully also

not only that of an early Babylonian


is

translated in the bilin-

farmer, husbandrnan, Landtnann, Ackerbauer, Land-

Ur-'''''^^''- Nin-Gir-su literally translated


H. W. B. p. 58 sub voce.
RammSn
would mean the "dog or servant of Nin-Gir-su." But Nin-Gir-su is

Tvirt, see Del.

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS


The precedence

of Shamash.

P lived

at a time

Shamash represents thus

of

when Shamash had been put before

67

I.

a later stage

But

Sin.

if

shows

it

the day began

with the evening or night, then the year must have begun with the -winter, and

March

the beginning of the year could not have been the 21st of

but must have been the 21st of September (the

which

signifies

month Ezen

"beginning," corresponds, as was shown in E. B. H.

which was

ding>rBa-u,

month of the year}

\h& first

sponds to the month

New- Year's month

into P's formula.

was impossible

It

thunderings, lightnings, storms, etc.

they zuere

good ! "

Good"

"

Thus not wishing

havoc.

thing of what he created

first

Tishri

is

is still

also

the

month

time of the Sumerians.

The reason
:

is

apparent.

And Elohim

and there were.

said

He

did not

" Let there be

And Elohim saw

lightnings, storms, etc. cause quite a

"good"

that

deal of

imply that the Creator might have destroyed some-

to

the

the god of thunder, lightnings, rain,

to say
.

festival."

month, ^ and Tishri

present Jewish New-Year's

to the

= Rammdn,

Nin Gir-su

storm, and clouds has been omitted by


fit

the

The

Jews of to-day.

thus goes back to the most ancient times


creation of

p. 295, to

(about 3300 B. C.)

According to another nomenclature Tishri corre-

which means "New- Year's

A-ki-it,

of the

Gudea

at the time of

still

= the Canaanitish D*'2nN which again was


The

(the ist Nisan),

This month Tishri,

ist Tishri).

left

out the creation of the storm and lightning alto-

gether.

The

ocean according to the Sumerian cosmogony

terrestrial

begets the fishes, the verdure, grain,


It

etc.

ought to be noticed here that Nina or the fish-goddess

Nin-Gir-su, hence stands with

given above,

we would

to be the son, of both

the

same

is

AN

due

to the fact that

side.

called the sister of


to the

genealogy

would have been called the

LIL

is

the son, or

and KI, thus standing between the

and ZU, Ramman, and Nina on the other

is

According

level.

expect, however, that she

This, no doubt,

of LIL.

him on

See above,

latter

sister

was considered
two on one side

p. 64.

who as the god of rain is also the god oi fertility ! And what is more natural than
than that the farmer should be called "the servant or dog of the god of fertility" ?
Ramman
This latter name not only proves that our identification of Nin-Gir-su
is

may nay,

correct, but also that anbaju

With

this then is

must,

=
have this signification here.

proven the Babylonia?: origin of the old Arabic pantheon,

which was accepted at a time when Sin had become identified with Bel (above p.
That the Babylonians indeed influenced the ancient Arabians is proved by
50).
the fact that even Semitic Babylonian zvords are found in old Arabic inscription,
labanu (this latter is found in one of the oldest hadhralibittu, p!'
as e. g. T\y>
mushkenu, |?Ji=sunqu, see Winckler,
motic inscriptions from Obne), "j3nr?3

M.

V. A. G., 1901,
^

New

4, p. 70.

Gudea. Statue

E V

i,

G.

III. 5, 6:

Year's day, the festival of Ba-u."


-

Kings

viii. 2.

E. B. H.

p. 298.

ud zag-mu ezen

^'"S''^Ba-u

"on

the

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

68

Also according to

the verdure, fishes, etc., etc., derive their

origin from "the waters

from KI

I.

which are below the firmament,"

i.

e.

In the Sumerian theogony there are no


are also not to be found

in the

'^

angels

^\

hence they

account of P.

Considering these striking similarities between the Biblical

account of the creation story according to


rians,

there can be no doubt,

P and

that the former

that of the

is

Sume-

derived from the

latter.

We

would have

to distinguish, then, in

Genesis

i.

three differ-

ent sources
1.

F source.

The

To

this

belongs the system of seven days, the

formula given above and the different changes that were necessary

make

in order to

The P

the whole agree with the notions of P.

source again was based upon


2.

The

otherwise

of

nated from

This

Semitic-Babylonian Creatiofi Story.

only in so far as

All that

P.

was against

While thus

it.

creation story,

agreed with the conceptions

it

latter

was

P's conception

"criticising'' the

was used

theological

and

elimi-

Semitic-Babylonian

quite unconsciously retained so

much

of

it

that

he reproduced or came very near to the original


3.

Sumerian Source, which source represented the creation not

as the result of a fight, but as a natural process of generation and


perpetuation.

Traces of No.

2 are:

the conception of the original chaos as

the dividing of the

whom is opposed "the spirit of Elohim ";


Tehom into the waters above and below the fir-

mament, and

but not

Tehom

or darkness unto

Marduk.
and

last

To No.

least, the -nx or light,

the

earth, for the writer expressly says himself that

given in chapter one

is

a yixni

petuation of heaven and earth.

D^li'ii'n

m-i:'in,

that Gen.

i.

is

In this sense

not a " creatio ex

what he has

a generation

nihilo,'"

of

has to

our state-

but a generation and

perpetuation, a development out of the primeval chaos,


tion.

and per-

n'lT'in toledoth

be understood, and thus we get a further corroboration

ment

attribute of

belongs the toledoth or genealogy of heaven

an evolu-

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

Thus the

Biblical creation-story of P.

is

69

I.

proved to be the

re-

daction of a Sumerian Theogony and Cosmogony.


is Marduk?
We have seen already above, that
known in Babylonia before the time of the first dy-

But where

Marduk

not

is

He

nasty of Babylon or about 2400 B. C.

which was

that dynasty

was probably

then was imported by

of Canaanitish origin.

He was

a Canaanitish god.

Marduk

a god of

therefore

The

light.

Canaanites seeing that there were in the Sumerian pantheon sev-

Marduk
him

ing

Ramman, Ishtar, etc., made


of Shamash or UD
call-

gods of light as Sin, Shamash,

eral

to

be an ''attendant," an

AMAR-UD

AMAR

This name expressed on one hand as nearly

as possible the ''nature'' of the god, as well as on the other

When

own "Marduk.'"

the sound of their

hand

the Canaanites had in

made Babylon their


Marduk became the head of all

course of time subdued Babylonia and had


capital with

Marduk

as the patron,

gods, "the king and father of the gods of heaven and earth," yes,

he was called even '^^'"^'^EN-LIL,^ thus he not only became identiwith god LIL, but

fied

inally,

EN-LIL

attributes belonging to

all

were now ascribed

to

EN-LIL

Marduk.

seen, also the "father of all creatures

was, as

and their creator"

hence

Marduk became

the creator too, and he being at the

god

happened that the Creation was conceived

of light,

it

be

later times to

z.

fight between

ness or

Tehom.

hom

Tiamat becomes thus a

or

Marduk

Marduk, the god

orig-

we have

same time the


of in

the Creator and the dark-

of light,

and his

fight

with Te-

specific Babylonian-Semitic-Cana-

anitish production, hence also one of late origin.


P.

by thus

critic.

If

criticising

and eliminating the mythical element

Marduk and Tehom, becomes thus

fight of

this

he did not succeed

in

presenting to us the original pure

Sumerian Theogony and Cosmogony,


he

criticised

with a purpose

count to adopt

it

to his

this

criticised

own

p. 51.

to the fact that

and thus for his laws and


the greatest possible age.

ordinances connected with the Sabbath

See above,

was due

the Babylonia?! Semitic ac-

theory of the Creation in seven days in

order to establish for his Sabbath

of

the first higher

all

THE CREATION-STORY OF GENESIS

70

But

made

it

let

US be thankful to this

first of

all

I.

higher critics

possible for us to follow up his account and trace

he has
it

to its

Thus we have another striking example of P. 's


He lived in Babylonia, was therefore able to acquaint

original source.
late age.

himself with Babylonian ideas and gave us an account of the Creation

which together with

his

"lo antediluvian fathers" may be

traced to the very oldest sources at our disposal

Cosmogony and Theogony.

to the

Sumerian

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