0 évaluation0% ont trouvé ce document utile (0 vote)

119 vues8 pagesSteel Making Processes

Apr 30, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT ou lisez en ligne sur Scribd

Steel Making Processes

© All Rights Reserved

0 évaluation0% ont trouvé ce document utile (0 vote)

119 vues8 pagesSteel Making Processes

© All Rights Reserved

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

and skin-pass rolling technology

Improvements have been

made in the surface quality,

flatness and surface finish of

skin-passed or temper rolled

strip. The use of the drytemper mill, contoured work

rolls, 2-stand skin-pass mills

and improved mill set-up and

control, aided by advances in

modelling, provide a powerful

millennium steel2k3

Norman Eisenkck and Georg Keintzel

VOEST-ALPINE Industrieanlagenbau

GmbH & Co (VAI)

202

products is the final forming step of the production

route in which material properties, flatness and

surface morphology of cold-rolled flat products are

tailored to meet stringent customer requirements.

Prior to temper or skin-pass rolling, the sheet is

subject to a long chain of process steps that involve

considerable conversion costs. For this reason it is

worthwhile to carefully treat the substrate and final

product and not waste valuable material in the form

of scrap.

The potential for yield losses are manifold. It is a

common occurrence for large portions of sheet to

remain on the pup coils as a result of problems in

handling and often the required consistency of

material properties or surface morphology is not

met throughout a coil. Another issue is incorrect strip

shape or surface deterioration as a result of wet

temper agent remaining on the strip.

Surface aspects

The key criteria in skin-pass rolling are surface

cleanliness and roughness, which are important for

subsequent painting, welding and deformation

processes. Rolling influences include the type of roll,

rolling schedule, elongation (degree of deformation),

roll surface cleaning and the agent applied to the roll

and strip surfaces.

Dry-temper process

The development of the dry-temper process has

been marked by substantial improvements in recent

years. The staining problem has been resolved to a

great extent, although modern mills must still offer

parallel wet tempering, mostly to safeguard the skin

passing of coated material. In any case, the issue is

to keep the surface of the rolls clean in order to

prevent particles being imprinted into the strip

surface in the roll gap.

With the dry-temper process (Figure 1), this is

achieved by a combination of brushes, which rotate

and/or oscillate while being lightly pressed against

the roll surfaces, thereby cleaning all particles that

stick to the roll surface. The dirt is collected by a

system of exhaust nozzles.

The conventional wet system (Figure 2), applies fluid

(a water-agent mixture), either into the entry of the mill

bite or onto the surface of the backup rolls. A blowoff system at the exit of the mill ensures a dry strip

surface.

Both systems are designed so that application of

both is possible.

Even with such an effective blow-off system,

residuals of the agent remain on the surface which

can cause the well-known spot rust or brown streaks.

Nitrite residuals cause problems during coating

processes, which make it necessary to clean the strip

prior to coating. Additionally, the agent is very costly

FINISHING PROCESSES

Figure 2 Wettemper

equipment

Attribute

Type of mill

Capacity

Strip thickness

Strip width

Coil weight

Coil diameter

Main-drive power

Mill speed

Rolling force

Work roll diameter/

barrel length

Backup roll diameter/

barrel length

Elongation

Data

4-high

900 kt/a

0.33 mm

6001,620 mm

Max. 30 t

11002,000 mm

2 x 400 kW

Max. 900 m/min

14 MN

602587 mm/1,700 mm

15201,405 mm/1,700 mm

Max. 3%

Operational results

Excellent product quality:

Nitrite-free surface

50 per cent less spot rust

No brown streaks

No stains from liquid drops.

Service life of rolls:

No change compared to the wet process

Backup rolls 40,000 t

Work rolls 800 t.

Lifetime of brushes:

For work rolls 160,000 t

For backup rolls 160,000 t

(cleaning during back up roll change).

Technological effects:

Increase of rolling force (1015 per cent)

Temperature increase of roll surface (change in

work-roll crown, higher bearing temperature).

Benefits

Suitable for highest quality demands (ie, exposed

automotive sheets)

millennium steel2k3

to its aggressive nature.

The first application at voestalpine Stahl, Linz/Austria

is shown in Figure 3, with plant details given in Table 1.

203

FINISHING PROCESSES

up to 20,000 kN per mill stand together with the wear

plates to guide work and backup rolls within the mill

stand create a total force of up to 150 kN.

A solution to this problem is to introduce several

strategies that together make a low friction mill to

keep the actuators for flatness control as precise as

possible (Figure 4).

Application of axial shifting of work rolls and

conventional work-roll bending in combination with

the recently developed SmartCrown system by VAI, is

an effective solution for enlarging the adjustment

range of the flatness controller.

disposal costs)

Environmental improvement (no aggressive

agent)

Reliable technology voestalpine Stahl has used

dry skin-passing exclusively since January 1999 on

its Sheet Skin Pass mill

No restrictions regarding roughness transfer.

millennium steel2k3

dry skin-pass and exhaust equipment.)

204

voestalpine Stahl, Linz, Austria

HADEED, Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia

BETHLEHEM STEEL, Sparrows Point, MD, USA

SALZGITTER Flachstahl, Salzgitter, Germany

DUNAFERR, Dunajvrosz, Hungary.

Flatness

A wide spectrum of parameter variations such as

thickness, width and yield stress, leads to a high

number of work-roll crowns, and results in costly

logistic measures and a large number of required

SmartCrown

SmartCrown is a new type of roll contour that applies

lateral shifting of the work rolls to adjust the unloaded

and loaded roll-gap contourm to adjust the working

range of roll bending, and to match the relative crown

of the incoming strip. The SmartCrown contour

(Figure 5) can be described as a sum of a sinusoidal

and a linear function. Coefficients of this function are

chosen such that at an arbitrary roll-shifting position,

the resulting unloaded roll-gap profile is always

cosine-shaped. Therefore, continuous shifting allows

for continuous adjustment of the roll-gap profile.

The contour of the roll gap can be expressed by a

cosine function. The unloaded roll gap contour

corresponds to a certain portion of a cosine curve

around its vertex. The position of the barrel edge

corresponds to a certain angle, the contour angle.

By fine-tuning this angle, the transverse profile of the

resultant roll gap can be adjusted in such a way that

quarter buckles can be avoided (Figure 6). This is a

result of the fact that the local thickness reduction in

the quarter-buckle-sensitive area is decreased, since

the unloaded roll gap height is somewhat larger in

this region. A smaller local reduction results in a

reduced tendency towards longitudinal compressive

stresses in the strip, which are responsible for the

occurrence of strip buckling. The benefits of

SmartCrown are shown in Figure 7.

Modelling approaches for skin pass and

temper rolling

Respective improvements in the technological controls

for elongation and flatness counteract inconsistencies

born of a variety of process disturbances, resulting

mainly from the incoming material, in addition to other

factors such as acceleration/deceleration and slippage.

However, even rapid and accurate controls are not able

to immediately compensate for errors from setup

deviations. The more frequently changes in sheet sizes

are made, the more important this becomes.

Even today, almost all skin-pass and temper-mill

setups are created using offline calculations and trialand-error procedures during operation. Sophisticated

FINISHING PROCESSES

function of the contour angle

Hitchcock. [J Hitchcock, Roll Neck Bearings, ASME

Research Publication, Appendix 1, (1935)].

It is also assumed that relative slip between rolls

and the strip exist throughout the roll gap with the

exception of neutral point where the slip changes

direction.

The fact that these assumptions are not always true

had been found in experiments about 60 years ago

by Orowan [E Orowan, The calculation of roll

pressure in hot and cold flat rolling. Proceedings of the

Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Vol. 150,

pp.140167, (1948)].

The Hitchcock formula:

2

16(l-v )FW

R

= l+

Ebh

R

where R is the radius of the deformed work roll, R is

the nominal work roll radius, FW is the roll force, E the

Youngs modulus of the rolls, b the width and h the

reduction, can be used only when the roll deformation

is small. In the following 20 years numerous works

have been devoted to include an influence function

millennium steel2k3

frequently employed, either because they are not

available or are considered unnecessary.

To further reduce unacceptable strip dimensions it is

vital to improve setup procedures by adding

appropriate models to the automation structure of

such mills. VAI has investigated new offline and online

modelling approaches to predict rolling force, rollflattening behaviour and roughness transfer in order

to improve the setup of skin-pass and temper mills.

While conventional models assume the shape of the

roll gap to be circular, this assumption no longer

holds true for temper rolling. To calculate the precise

roll force, the pressure distribution in the roll gap is

required.

VAI has developed and implemented sophisticated

algorithms in cooperation with the University of Linz,

the steel producer voestalpine Stahl and the Industrial

Competence Center for Mechatronic & Automation

(IKMA). These algorithms are the basis for setup

models that allow online calculation within a short

period of time (Figure 8).

The existing well-known roll-gap models developed

for hot and cold rolling, skin-pass, temper rolling and

foil rolling can be divided in three parts. Classical

models (before Fleck), thin-gauge models (Flecks

model) and improvements of thin-gauge models.

The most influencial work was done in the late

1980s by Fleck and Johnson [NA Fleck, KL

Johnson, Towards a new theory of cold rolling thin

foil. Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 29, No. 7, pp507524,

(1987)].

Classical models One of the most comprehensive

one-dimensional studies that covers hot and cold

rolling was developed by Orowan, but the equations

developed there do not allow analytical solution for

pressure distribution. [E Orowan, The calculation of

roll pressure in hot and cold flat rolling. Proceedings

of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Vol. 150,

pp140167, (1948)]. Therefore, there have been

attempts to make additional suggestions in order to

simplify the Orowan equation and to get some

approximate solutions, such as the model developed

by Bland and Ford [ DR Bland, H Ford, The calculation

of roll force and torque in cold strip rolling with

tensions, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 159, pp148153,

(1948)].

The model of Karman [TH v Karman, ZAMM 2,

pp.139141, (1925)], was developed along the

same lines as that of Orowan but uses some

additional suggestions and is a simplified variant of

Orowans model.

In all these models the equation of equilibrium in

the longitudinal direction for plastically deformed

material in the roll gap is derived. The elastic

deformation of the rolls is neglected or it is assumed

that the deformed profile of the rolls remained a

205

FINISHING PROCESSES

remains as the basic unknown, but is now independent

of the strip material behaviour in that part of the roll

bite, and as such is only dependent on the elastic

properties of the roll material. Unfortunately, as well as

the contact pressure, the length of this super-flattened

region is also unknown and must be found iteratively

by quite complex procedures.

The main structure of such a model is as follows:

the contact length between strip and roll is divided

into five zones in which the classical Orowan

equilibrium equation and the Treca yield criterion are

applied to the plastic reduction zones on entry and

exit (before and after the contained plastic flow zone).

The associated surface friction is described by the

Coulomb (sliding) criteria. Elastic compression (entry)

and elastic recovery (exit) zones are taken into

account by the equations of plane strain elasticity

theory. Further compatibility conditions have to be

imposed on the interfaces of these regions to ensure

continuity of the contact pressure from one region to

the other. In all zones, except the central flat region,

the deformed roll shape is calculated by a Green (or

influence) function of type:

2

+a0

a20 - x2

+ const p()ln

d

2R

X

-a0

a

b(x)= b0 -

elastic zones)

millennium steel2k3

equilibrium equations of Orowan, but without success;

mostly due to a convergence problem in the vicinity of

neutral point where roll pressure peak occurs.

206

Thin-gauge models

In 1987, Fleck and Johnson published a theory for

cold rolling of thin foils that was an entirely new

approach to this subject. They were able to present a

theory that basically omitted the use of simplifying

presumptions on roll-flattening geometry, which for

older models can be considered as the main reason

for failure when applied to thin-gauge rolling.

In addition to the elastic and plastic zones upon

entry and exit to the roll bite, a key element was to

also introduce an intermediate zone called contained

plastic flow zone (Figure 9).

This approach takes into account the fact that the

work rolls can suffer extreme flattening in an

intermediate part of the contact region which, as an

upper limit, includes an infinite deformed roll radius,

yielding a flat roll surface parallel to the strip middle

plane. Since the flattened roll geometry is now

prescribed, the usual iteration to find a deformed roll

shape associated with a certain contact pressure

variable lower limit, expressed by the parameter a0

which is also part of the integrand, the solution of the

overall equilibrium equation can suffer considerable

convergence problems. These iterations also include

the adjustment of the transition positions from one

zone to the other, which have to be somehow

estimated at the start.

Whether five regions along the contact length

actually exist will depend on the rolling case under

consideration. This means the existence and physical

length of the central flat region must be found

during the equilibrium iteration, which can add

significantly to the solution time required. The

apparent feature of the model is that the physical

behaviour inside the roll gap is very close to reality,

which is documented by various excellent results in

the literature obtained by offline calculations. [NA

Fleck, KL Johnson, ME Mear, LC Zhang, Cold rolling

of foil. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical

Engineers. Vol. 206, pp119131, (1992)].

The quite stringent demands on solution time and

stability, however, still remain an obstacle for using

this model without further simplifications (and also

for online models).

Improvements on thin-gauge models

A large number of papers published during the past

ten years dealt with the subject of how to improve

FINISHING PROCESSES

value, Red = high value). Viewed from a cross-section of the strip

after stamping with the textured roll surface

approach with respect to an online use in temper

mills.

New VAI model

The models developed by VAI are based on the Fleck

theory but also take advantage of the approach

described by Le and Sutcliffe by omitting the

contained plastic flow region on the roll gap. A quite

extended offline version of this model includes a) the

contained plastic flow region and b) the roll flattening

contribution caused by roll-strip interface shear

stresses. The computation times achieved so far,

however, would not allow the model to be used

online.

Nevertheless, the offline version enabled the

release of some of the time-consuming assumptions

for an online model. It could be shown that very

similar results to those obtained by Le and Sutcliffe,

were obtained, in that the omission of the flat region

is possible, for more than 95 per cent of the temper

rolling cases of steel sheet material down to 0.2 mm

of exit thickness.

Consequently, advantage was taken from this

perception in the online version, which drastically

millennium steel2k3

computation time of the basic thin-gauge model

outlined above. Different attempts have been made

to improve the convergence, as well as to provide

smart re-formulations of some of the governing

equations. Since convergence is strongly influenced

by how the roll flattening is described, the use of

other types of influence functions was investigated.

[D Jortner, JF Osterle, CF Zorowski, An analysis of

cold strip rolling. Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 2,

pp179194, (1960)].

By combination with more refined calculation

procedures, ie, the finite element (FE) method based

with strong relaxation laws [P Gratacos, P

Montmitonnet, C Fromholz, JL Chenot, A plane-strain

elestoplastic finite-element model for cold rolling of

thin strip. Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 34, No.3,

pp195210, (1992)], or slab method-based, the

convergence stability was improved significantly.

However, depending on the degrees of freedom

used in such models, the computation time can still be

considerable. On more refined FE models [A

Hacquin, P Montmitonnet, JP Guillerault, A threedimensional semi-analytical model of rolling stand

deformation with finite element validation. European

J. of Mechanics, A/Solids, Vol. 17, pp79106,

(1998)], computation times of between 1 and 5 hours

have been reported, including between 100 and

2000 iterations very much dependent on the strip

material and applied pass reduction used in the

simulation (the harder the material and smaller the

reduction, the longer the computation time).

Interesting results have been obtained, as for

instance reported in the work of Domanti et al. [SA

Domanti, WJ Edwards, Interactions between roll

surface and cold rolling parameters. 2nd

International Conference on Modelling of Metal

Rolling Processes (1996)].

The model described is based on the Fleck theory,

but introduces a number of enhancements that

improved the convergence stability and greatly

reduced the computation time.

Also Zhang [LC Zhang, A simple approach for

cold rolling foil, computational mechanics from

concepts to computations. Southampton: AA

Bakema Publishers, pp283286, (1993)], was able

to reduce computation time significantly by using a

different friction law for the strip-roll interface. This

model, however, did not reproduce the results

obtained by Fleck et al, within the required accuracy

values. A recent paper by Le and Sutcliffe [HR Le,

MPF Sutcliffe, A robust model for rolling of thin strip

and foil. Int. Journal of Mechanical Sciences. Vol.

43, pp.14051419, (2001)], made the assumption

that the flat (contained plastic flow) region in the roll

gap was superfluous, without losing too much of the

accuracy required to describe the thin-gauge rolling

207

FINISHING PROCESSES

millennium steel2k3

208

that the effect of interface shear stress on roll

deformation cannot be neglected completely.

However, this was implemented by some basic

analytical work without adding too much

computational burden.

The online model hence includes only three zones

along the contact length: an elastic compression zone

on entry, a plastic compression and reduction zone

containing the neutral region of contact where the

strip sticks to the roll surface, and an elastic recovery

zone on exit to the roll bite. Important for temper

rolling (a non-circular arc formulation here is

indispensable) is that the model can reproduce,

whenever necessary, the extension of a neutral point

into a neutral region. This has considerable impact on

the accuracy of the predicted rolling forces and hence

is vital for a proper mill setup.

A new effect taken into account is the tangentialinduced deformation of the roll, which becomes more

important as the strip becomes thinner and harder. In

common non-circular arc models the roll is allowed to

displace in the radial direction only. In reality there is

also a deformation caused by the interface shear

stresses. When omitting the assumption of a

predefined flat region in the roll gap, the shear stressinduced roll deformation mainly derives the existence

of neutral zone instead of having only one single

neutral point. The formulae describing this

phenomenon in general were derived semianalytically, which has the advantage of having

respective displacement derivatives available without

a numerical burden.

A second effect taken into account for temper

rolling is related to the deformation work balance in

and on the interface planes of the roll gap. In temper

rolling the work rolls are roughened to provide a

desired roughness on the strip surface for various

purposes. The amount of deformation work required

to generate the impressions (craters) in the strip

in order to obtain reliable dependence of the roll

force on roll roughness (which usually is done by

modifying the coefficient of friction to meet an

observed roll force). This effect becomes more

important as the strip gets thinner because the area

(or volume) of influence inside the total strip crosssection seen in the rolling direction considerably

increases. Figure 10 shows an example obtained by

FE calculations and the equivalent plastic strain

distribution in a strip specimen close to the strip

surface. The equivalent plastic strain in conjunction

with the corresponding stresses can be used as

measure for the deformation work required to stamp

the strip surface by a roughness peak from the workroll surface. When knowing the roughness distribution

of the textured work roll (Ra, Rz and PC values are

used), one can predict the total amount of work and

hence make respective correction in the roll force

calculation.

The path of the tool stamping into the strip surface

(a roughness peak on the roll surface), can be plotted

as a so-called Hodograph (Figure 11). The shape of

this path depends on strip thickness, reduction,

rolling speed, roll radius and friction conditions and

allows investigation and classification of the process

of roughness transfer. [F Rechberger, Dressieren als

kombinierter Prge- und Walzvorgang, Doctoral

Thesis at the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Faculty

of Mechatronics, (2001)].

Further work on this topic has to be done in order

to fully understand the mechanisms and governing

laws of roughness transfer. Beside a closed-loop

control strategy, the useful implementation of which

very much depends on the accuracy of online

measured roughness, data from the strip surface, a

proper roughness evolution model for setup

purposes is the main objective behind this work.

The implementation of the new temper rolling model

in conjunction with a roll-stack model into a level-2

FINISHING PROCESSES

A great deal of emphasis has been placed on 2stand skin-pass technology for sheet material. This

technology enables independent control of

elongation and roughness transfer. In conjunction

with advanced surface texturing patterns, this is

becoming increasingly important for highest-quality

sheet applications in the automotive and appliance

industry.

In single-stand configurations maintaining

constant material properties and uniform surface

roughness is difficult, as both are mainly influenced

by the roll force.

This new mill concept is being realised by VAI

together with SALZGITTER AG in Germany (Figure

12). An optimised mechanical setup, coupled with an

advanced control strategy, enables this mill to process

the entire product range from micro-alloyed, highstrength to extra soft, extra deep drawing quality

(EDDQ) steel grades. This high-performance mill,

including material handling, threading and the rolling

process, operates fully automatically.

Key design features include:

Shape-meter roll at mill exit for flatness control

Laser speedmeter at mill entry, interstand and mill

exit for elongation control

Online roughness measurement at mill exit

Entry bridle with tension measurement cells,

interstand tension measurement roll and

shapemeter roll with tension measurement cells for

strip tension measurement

X-ray gauge at mill exit

Online surface inspection.

Key operational aspects include:

Rolling operation with very small rolling forces (300

kN per mill stand) for interstitial-free (IF) steel grades

Rolling operation with very large rolling forces

steel grades

Rolling with only one mill stand is possible.

Mixed operation modes:

> Dry skin-pass rolling on one mill stand and wet

skin-passing on the other mill stand

> Smooth or textured (sand blasted, electro-beam,

or electro-discharge textured) work rolls can be used

on one or both stands

Rewinding operation with installed or removed

work rolls on one or on both mill stands in forward

and reverse direction.

Concluding remarks

On the basis of VAI R&D and implementation

activities in the field of temper and skin-pass rolling,

the following conclusions can be made:

Wet-skin passing can be fully substituted by dry-skin

passing for uncoated material

Ever increasing production demands require a lowfriction mill with high technological standards and

the need of a wide adjustment range for elongation

and flatness control

SmartCrown represents an ideal solution for the

stringent flatness requirements of a modern skinpass mill

New models for new materials must consider the

roll deformation more accurately and the stamping

effect for roughness transfer.

Acknowledgements

Part of the development work was sponsored by the

joint venture IKMA (Industrial Competence Center for

Mechatronics & Automation). The authors wish to

express their grateful acknowledgement for this

support to IKMA, the local government of Upper

Austria and the Republic of Austria.

Gerhard Finstermann is Vice President Cold Band,

Gregor Nopp is Head of Proposals/Engineering Cold

Rolling Mills, Norman Eisenkck is Project Manager,

Technology Cold Rolling and Georg Keintzel is Project

Manager Technological Controls, Automation, all at

VOEST-ALPINE Industrieanlagenbau GmbH & Co

(VAI), Linz, Austria.

millennium steel2k3

process controls for setup on temper mills. This is a

major step forward to achieve highest quality demands

on tempered and skin-passed sheet material in a

reproducible manner, and will substantially contribute

to reduce yield losses on high value added material.

209