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dq Theory for Synchronous Machine

with Damper Winding

Relevance to Synchronous Machine

dq means direct and quadrature. Direct axis is aligned with


the rotors pole. Quadrature axis refers to the axis whose
electrical angle is orthogonal to the electric angle of direct
axis.
b axis

qd

q axis

q axis

d axis

qmq
qmq

qm

qa

g max

ror,min

qm

a axis
ror,max

g min

c axis

P
qm
2
P

qr qm q qm e
2
2

qm e

qd
qa

ris

a axis

Parks Transformation

Stator quantities (Sabc) of current, voltage, or flux can be


converted to quantities (Sdq0) referenced to the rotor.
This conversion comes through the K matrix.
S dq0 KS abc

where

or

S abc K 1S dq0

S dq 0

Sd
Sa
S q , S abc Sb
S 0
S c

cosq m e 2 / 3
cosq m e 2 / 3
cosq m e
2
K sin q m e sin q m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3
3
1 / 2

1/ 2
1/ 2
cosq m e
sin q m e
1

K 1 cosq m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3 1
cosq m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3 1

(MITs notation)

sin q r sin q r 2 / 3 sin q r 2 / 3


2
K cosq r cosq r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3
3
1 / 2

1/ 2
1/ 2
sin q r
cosq r
1

K 1 sin q r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3 1
sin q r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3 1

(Purdues notation)

Voltage Equations (1)


Under motor reference convention for currents
(i.e. the positive reference direction for currents is into the machine):
For stator windings

d
v abc R S i abc abc
dt
1

K K 1v dq0 KR S K 1i dq0

d
K 1 dq0
dt
d
K K 1 dq0
dt

v dq0 R S K 1i dq0

1 0 0
R S Rs 0 1 0
0 0 1

d
d

v dq0 KR S K 1 i dq0 KK 1 dq0 K K 1 dq0


dt
dt

v dq0 R S i dq0

d
d

dq0 K K 1 dq0
dt
dt

Voltage Equations (2)


We derive the derivative of K-1:
cosq m e
0
sin q m e
cosq r
d 1
K m e sin q m e 2 / 3 cosq m e 2 / 3 0 r cosq r 2 / 3
dt
sin q m e 2 / 3 cosq m e 2 / 3 0
cosq r 2 / 3

me

dq me

dt

Then, we get
0
d

K K 1 r
dt

r
0
0

0
0
0

sin q r
0
sin q r 2 / 3 0
sin q r 2 / 3 0

dq r
P
me m
dt
2

And for stator voltage, we


get
d

R
i

q r
s d dt d
vd

v R i d
d r
q s q dt q

v0
d

R
i

s 0
0

dt

Voltage Equations (3)


For rotor windings:

We assume the rotor has field winding (magnetic field along d axis),
one damper with magnetic field along d axis and one damper
with magnetic field along q axis.

v fkd kq R r i fkd kq

v fkd kq

d
fkd kq
dt

v f
0
0

R f

Rr 0
0

fkd kq

0
Rkd
0

f

kd

kq

0
Rkq

Voltage Equations (4)


In summary:

R
i

q
r
d
s d
dt

d
vd Rs iq d r
q
v
dt

q
d

R
i

v0 s 0 dt 0

d
v
f
R f i f
f

dt
0

R
i

0
k
k
k

d d

dt d

d
kq
Rk q ik q

dt

Dynamical Equations for Flux Linkage


d vd
v
q q
d 0

dt f
k
d
k q

Let
dqf

we have

d

q
0

f
k
d
k q

d dqf
dt

Rs id qr
Rs iq d r

v0 Rs i0

v f Rf if

Rk d ik d

Rk q ik q

vd
v
q

Rs id qr
Rs iq d r

v0 Rs i0

v f Rf if

Rk d ik d

Rk q ik q

The derivations so far are valid for both linear and nonlinear models.

Flux Linkage vs. Current (1)

The next step is to relate current to flux linkage through


inductances. For salient pole rotor, the inductances can
be approximately expressed as

L ss
L abcf T
L sr

Laa Lab Lac


L sr
L L L
L

ss
ba
bb
bc L sr

L rr
Lca Lcb Lcc

L L L L cos 2q
ls
A
B
me
aa

L
cos
2
q

bb
ls
A
B
me
3

Lcc Lls LA LB cos 2q m e


3

Laf Lak Lak


d
q

Lbf Lbkd Lbkq L rr


L L

L
cf
ck
ck
d
q

Lf

Lkd f
L
kq f

L fkd L fkq

Lkd Lkd kq
Lkq kd Lkq

L L L L cos 2q
ls
A
B
r
aa

or:
L

L
cos
2
q

bb
ls
A
B
r
3


qr qm e
2 L L L L cos 2q 2
cc
ls
A
B
r
3

Flux Linkage vs. Current (2)

1
2

L
cos
2
q

ba
A
B
ab
2
3

1
L

LA LB cos2q r
bc
cb
2

1
2

L
cos
2
q

ca
A
B
r
ac
2
3

1
2

L
cos
2
q

me

ba
A
B
ab
2
3

1
L

LA LB cos2q m e
bc
cb
2

1
2

L
cos
2
q

ca
A
B
me
ac
2
3

L L L cosq
fa
sf
me
af

L
cos
q

bf
fb
sf
me
3

Lcf L fc Lsf cosq m e


3

or:
qr qm e

L L L sin q
fa
sf
r
af

L
sin
q

bf
fb
sf
3

L
sin
q

cf
fc
sf
3

Flux Linkage vs. Current (3)

L L L sin q
kd a
sk d
r
akd

L
sin
q

bkd
kd b
sk d
r
3

Lckd Lkd c Lskd sin q r


3

L L L cosq
kd a
sk d
me
akd

Lbkd Lkd b Lskd cosq m e


3

Lckd Lkd c Lskd cosq m e


3

or:

Lak Lk a Lsk sin q m e


q
q
q

Lbkq Lkqb Lskq sin q m e


3

Lckq Lkq c Lskq sin q m e


3

qr qm e

Lak Lk a Lsk cosq r


q
q
q

L
cos
q

bkq
kqb
sk q
r
3

Lckq Lkq c Lskq cosq r


3

Flux Linkage vs. Current (4)


L f Llf Lm f

Lkd Llkd Lm kd

Lkq Llkq Lm kq
L fk Lk f
d
d
L fkq Lkq f 0

Lkd kq Lkq kd 0

Note: Higher order harmonics are neglected in the above expressions.

Ref: 1. A. E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, Jr., and S. D. Umans, Electric Machinery,


6th Edition, pages 660-661.
2. P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk, and S. D. Sudhoff,
Analysis of Electric Machinery and Drive Systems, 2nd Edition, pages 52
and 195.

Flux Linkage vs. Current (5)


This matrix can be transformed into dq form and used to
find flux linkage.
i abc
abc
L ss L sr i
From abcf Labcf i abcf with abcf
L abcf LT L abcf i fk k

r
sr
fk k

d q

abc L ss i abc L sr i fkd kq

dq0 Lss K 1i dq0 Lsr i fkd kq

dq0 KLss K 1 i dq0 KLsr i fkd kq

fkd kq LTsr i abc Lrr i fkd kq

fkd kq LTsr K 1i dq0 Lrr i fkd kq

dqf Ldqf i dqf

where dqf

dq0

fkd kq

L dqf

KL ss K 1 KL sr
T 1

L rr
L sr K

i dqf

i dq0

i
fkd k q

Inductance Matrix in dq Frame


Through derivations, we have

L dqf

where

and

From

0
Ld
0
Lq

0
0
3
0
Lsf
2

3 L
0
2 skd

3
0
Lskq

Ld Lls Lm d
Lq Lls Lm q

3
Lm d ( LA LB )
2
3
Lm q ( LA LB )
2

0
0
L0

Lsf
0
0

Lskd
0
0

Lf

L fkd

Lkd f

Lkd

L0 Lls

dqf Ldqf i dqf

0
Lskq
0

Lkq

L dqf

KL ss K 1 KL sr
T 1

L
K
L
rr
sr

d Ld id Lsf i f Lskd ikd


L i L i
q q
sk q k q
q
0 L0i0

L i 3 L i L i
f f
sf d
fkd k d
f
2

3
kd Lkd ikd Lskd id L fkd i f
2

L i 3 L i
kq kq
sk q
kq
2 q

Dynamical Equation in terms of Current


For linear model
from

di dqf
dt
where

d dqf
dt

1
Ldqf
V

vd Rs id qr
v R i
s q
d r
q
v0 Rs i0

R
i
f f
f

Rk ik

d
d

Rkq ik q

and

dqf Ldqf i dqf


dynamical equation
in terms of current

d Ld id Lsf i f Lsk ik
d

q Lq iq Lsk ik
q

Power

Electrical instantaneous Input Power on Stator can also be


expressed through dq0 theory.

pin vaia vbib vcic vTabci abc vTdq0 (K 1 )T K 1i dq0

1 0 0
3
1 T
1
(K ) K 0 1 0
2
0 0 2
3
pin vd id vqiq 2v0i0
2

Torque
From

R
i

q r
s d dt d
vd

v R i d
d r
q s q dt q

v0
d

R
i

s 0
0

dt

3
pin vd id vqiq 2v0i0
2

we have

dq
d0 3 P
3
3 dd
2
2
2

pin Rs id i q 2i0 id
iq
2i0
m (d iq q id )
2
2 dt
dt
dt 2 2

Copper Loss

Magnetic Power in
Windings

Therefore, electromagnetic torque on rotor

Te

pm ech

3P
(d iq qid )
22

Mechanical Power

pm ech

Equivalent Circuit on d Axis (1)


d axis of stator, field winding and d axis damper of rotor can form an equivalent
circuit.
Let

Ld Lls Lm d

L f Llf Lm f
Lkd Llkd Lm kd
From L 3 C N
2
md
d
a

Lm f

2
Cd N 2f

Lsf Cd N a N f
Lm kd Cd N k2d

Cd

8 0

g
Dl
(
1

)
2
g av P
2

N a , N f and N k are effective number of turns of


d
armature, field and d axis
damper windings, respectively.

Lsk d Cd N a N kd
L fkd Cd N f N kd

(Details @ Inductance for SM.ppt)

Equivalent Circuit on d Axis (2)


Define

Lsf

2
i
if
Lm d
3
'
f

N f
if

and i

'
kd

Lskd
Lm d

ikd

2 N kd

ikd

3 Na
dikd

di f
did
vd Rs id qr Ld
Lsf
Lskd
dt
dt
dt
d (id i 'f ik' d )
did
Rs id qr Lls
Lm d
dt
dt
Define
N a
'
v f Nv f and N
Nf
dikd
di f 3
did
v f Rf i f Lf
Lsf
L fkd
dt 2
dt
dt
Nv f NR f i f NLlf

di f
dt

NLm f

dikd
did
3
NLsf
NL fkd
dt 2
dt
dt

di f

'
di f
did N a 3 N a
3 2 ' 3 2 di f
Nv f N R f i f N Llf
Lsf
Lm d

L fkd

dt
dt N f 2 N kd
2

2
dt

dik'
d
dt

Equivalent Circuit on d Axis (3)


v 'f R 'f i 'f L'lf
where

di 'f
dt

3 N a
'
Rf
2 N f

dt

Rf

3 N a
L
2 N f

Llf

0 Rkd ikd Lkd

dikd

'
lf

From

Lm d

d (id i 'f ik' d )

Rkd ikd Llkd

L fkd
Lm d

2 N f N kd

3 N a2

di f
did
3
Lskd
L fkd
dt
2
dt
dt
dikd
dikd 3
di f
did
Lm kd
Lskd
L fkd
dt
dt
2
dt
dt

2 Lm d

3 Lsk
d

N a

N
kd

above

next page

Equivalent Circuit on d Axis (4)


3 N a
0
2 N kd


R i' 3 Na
kd kd 2 N k

0R i L

dik' d

3 N a
'
Rkd
2 N kd

R
kd

3 N a

2 N kd

L
lkd

' '
kd kd

'
lkd

'

2
dik' d 3 N a
dik' d
di
di
N
3
a
L
L

Lm d d
L fkd f
lkd
m kd

dt
2 N kd
dt
dt 2 N f N kd
dt

dt

Lm d

d (id i 'f ik' d )


dt

where

L'lkd

Lm d
Lm kd

Lm d
L fkd

3 N a

2 N kd
3 N a2

2 N N
f

kd

Equivalent Circuit on d Axis (5)


From

d (id i 'f ik' d )


did
vd Rs id qr Lls
Lm d
dt
dt
v R i L
'
f

' '
f f

'
lf

0 Rk' d ik' d L'lkd

di 'f
dt
'
kd

di

dt

Lm d

Lm d

d (id i 'f ik' d )


dt

d (id i 'f ik' d )


dt

we get

ik' d
im d id i 'f ik' d

d Ld id Lsf i f Lsk ik
d

Llsid Lm dim d

Equivalent Circuit on q Axis (1)


q axis equivalent circuit and q axis damper equivalent circuit
can be combined:
Let

Lq Lls Lm q
Lkq Llkq Lm kq

From

3
Cq N a2
2
Cq N k2q

Lm q
Lm kq

Lsk q Cq N a N k

Cq

8 0

Dl

(
1

)
2
g av P
2

N s and N k are effective number of turns of


d
stator and q axis damper
windings, respectively.

(Details @ Inductance for SM.ppt)

Equivalent Circuit on q Axis (2)


vq Rs iq d r Lq
Rs iq d r Llq
Rs iq d r Llq

From

diq
dt
diq
dt
diq
dt

Lsk q
Lm q
Lm q

0 Rkq ikq Lkq


Rkq ikq Llkq

dikq
dt
diq

Lsk q

dikq

dt
dt
d (iq ik' q )
dt

where

ik' d

Lsk q
Lm d

ik q

N k q
ik q

N
a

dikq

diq
3
Lskq
dt
2
dt
dikq
dikq 3
diq
Lm kq
Lskq
dt
dt
2
dt

2 Lm q N

a
3 Lsk N k
q

above

next page

Equivalent Circuit on q Axis (3)


3 N a
0
2 N kq


R i' 3 Na
kq kq 2 N k

0 Rk' q ik' q L'lkq

dik' q
dt

Lm q

dik' q 3 N a
L

lk q

dt
2 N kq

dik' q
diq
L

L
mq
m kq dt
dt

d (iq ik' q )
dt

where
2

3 N a
'
Rk q
2 N k q

R
kq

3 N a

2 N k q

L
lkq

'
lk q

Lm q
Lm kq
Lm q
L fkq

3 N a

2 N kq

3 N a2

2 N N
f

kq

Equivalent Circuit on q Axis (4)


From vq Rs iq d r Llq
0 Rk' q ik' q L'lkq

diq
dt

dik' q
dt

Lm q

Lm q

d (iq ik' q )
dt

d (iq ik' q )
dt

we get

ik' q
im q iq ik' q

q Lq iq Lsk ik
q

Llsiq Lm qim q

Equivalent Circuit on 0 Axis


0 axis

v0 Rs i0 L0

di0
dt
This circuit is not necessary
for Y connected windings
since i0=0.

Dynamical Equations from


Equivalent Circuits (1)
vd Rsd id r q Llsd
vq Rsq iq r d Llsq
0 Rk' d ik' d L'lkd
0 Rk' q ik' q L'lkq
v 'f R 'f i 'f L'lf
v0 Rs 0i0 Lls 0

where

dik' d
dt
dik' q
dt
di 'f
dt
di0
dt

im d id i 'f ik' d
im q iq ik' q

did
di
Lm d m d
dt
dt
diq
di
Lm q m q
dt
dt

Lm d
Lm q
Lm d

dim d
dt
dim q
dt

dim d
dt

Dynamical Equations from


Equivalent Circuits (2)
The equations can be written in matrix form as:
L

where
Llsd Lm d

0
L
Lm d
Lm d

id
i
q
i0
I '
if
ik'
'd
ik q

dI
V
dt

0
Llsq Lm q
0
0
0
Lm q

or
0
0
Lls 0
0
0
0

vd
v
q

dI
L1V
dt
Lm d
0
0
L'lf Lm d
Lm d
0

Lm d
0
0
Lm d
L'lkd Lm d
0

Rsd id r q
Rsq iq r d

v0 Rs 0i0

v 'f R 'f i 'f

'
'

Rk d ik d

Rk' q ik' q

Lm q

L'lkq Lm q

dq Theory for Synchronous Machine


without Damper Winding

Relevance to Synchronous Machine

dq means direct and quadrature. Direct axis is aligned with


the rotors pole. Quadrature axis refers to the axis whose
electrical angle is orthogonal to the electric angle of direct
axis.
b axis

qd

q axis

q axis

d axis

qmq
qmq

qm

qa

g max

ror,min

qm

a axis
ror,max

g min

c axis

P
qm
2
P

qr qm q qm e
2
2

qm e

qd
qa

ris

a axis

Parks Transformation

Stator quantities (Sabc) of current, voltage, or flux can be


converted to quantities (Sdq0) referenced to the rotor.
This conversion comes through the K matrix.
S dq0 KS abc

where

or

S abc K 1S dq0

S dq 0

Sd
Sa
S q , S abc Sb
S 0
S c

cosq m e 2 / 3
cosq m e 2 / 3
cosq m e
2
K sin q m e sin q m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3
3
1 / 2

1/ 2
1/ 2
cosq m e
sin q m e
1

K 1 cosq m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3 1
cosq m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3 1

(MITs notation)

sin q r sin q r 2 / 3 sin q r 2 / 3


2
K cosq r cosq r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3
3
1 / 2

1/ 2
1/ 2
sin q r
cosq r
1

K 1 sin q r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3 1
sin q r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3 1

(Purdues notation)

Voltage Equations (1)


Under motor reference convention for currents
(i.e. the positive reference direction for currents is into the machine):
For stator windings

d
v abc R S i abc abc
dt
1

K K 1v dq0 KR S K 1i dq0

d
K 1 dq0
dt
d
K K 1 dq0
dt

v dq0 R S K 1i dq0

1 0 0
R S Rs 0 1 0
0 0 1

d
d

v dq0 KR S K 1 i dq0 KK 1 dq0 K K 1 dq0


dt
dt

v dq0 R S i dq0
For field winding:

d
d

dq0 K K 1 dq0
dt
dt

v f Rf i f

d
f
dt

Voltage Equations (2)


We derive the derivative of K-1:
cosq m e
0
sin q m e
cosq r
d 1
K m e sin q m e 2 / 3 cosq m e 2 / 3 0 r cosq r 2 / 3
dt
sin q m e 2 / 3 cosq m e 2 / 3 0
cosq r 2 / 3

me

dq me

dt

Then, we get
0
d

K K 1 r
dt

r
0
0

0
0
0

sin q r
0
sin q r 2 / 3 0
sin q r 2 / 3 0

dq r
P
me m
dt
2

And for voltage, we get


d

R
i

q r
s d dt d
vd

d
v Rs iq q d r
dt
q

d
v0

R
i

s 0
0

dt
v
f

d
Rf if f

dt

Dynamical Equations for Flux Linkage


d vd

d q vq

dt 0

f
Let

dqf

we have

d

q

0

f

Rs id qr
Rs iq d r

v0 Rs i0

v f Rf i f

vd
v
q
V

d dqf
dt

Rs id qr
Rs iq d r

v0 Rs i0

v f Rf i f

The derivations so far are valid for both linear and nonlinear models.

Flux Linkage vs. Current (1)

The next step is to relate current to flux linkage through


inductances. For salient pole rotor, the inductances can
be approximately expressed as
L ss L sf
L abcf T

L
L
sf
f

Laa Lab Lac


L ss Lba Lbb Lbc
Lca Lcb Lcc

L L L L cos 2q
ls
A
B
me
aa

L
cos
2
q

bb
ls
A
B
me
3

Lcc Lls LA LB cos 2q m e


3

Laf

L sf Lbf
Lcf

L L L L cos 2q
ls
A
B
r
aa

or:
L

L
cos
2
q

bb
ls
A
B
r
3


qr qm e
2 L L L L cos 2q 2
cc
ls
A
B
r
3

Flux Linkage vs. Current (2)

1
1
2
2

L
L

L
L

L
L

L
L
cos
cos
2
2
q
q

ab
ba
ba
A
A
B
B
me
r
ab

2
2
3
3

1
1
Lbc Lcb LA LB cos2q m e
Lbc Lcb LA LB cos2q r
2
2

1
1
2
2

L
L

L
L

L
L

L
L
cos
cos
2
2
q
q

ca
ca
A
A
B
B
me
r
ac
ac
2
2
3
3

or:

L L L sin q
L L L cosq

fa
sf
r
fa
sf
me
af
qr qm e
af
2

L
sin
q

bf
fb
sf
r

Lbf L fb Lsf cosq m e


3

L
sin
q

cf
fc
sf
r

Lcf L fc Lsf cosq m e


3

Note: Higher order harmonics are neglected.


Ref: 1. A. E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, Jr., and S. D. Umans, Electric Machinery,
6th Edition, pages 660-661.
2. P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk, and S. D. Sudhoff,
Analysis of Electric Machinery and Drive Systems, 2nd Edition, page 52.

Flux Linkage vs. Current (3)


This matrix can be transformed into dq0 form and used to
find flux linkage.
i abc
L ss L sf
abc
From abcf Labcf i abcf with abcf L abcf LT L i abcf i
f
f
sf
f

abc Lss i abc Lsf i f

dq0 L ss K 1i dq0 L sf i f

dq0 KL ss K 1 i dq0 KL sf i f

f LTsf i abc L f i f

f LTsf K 1i dq0 L f i f

dqf Ldqf i dqf

where dqf

dq0

L dqf

KL ss K 1 KL sf
T 1

L
K
L
sf
f

i dqf

i dq0

if

Inductance Matrix in dq0 Frame


Through derivations, we have

L dqf

where

and

From

Ld
0

0
3
Lsf
2

0
Lq
0

0
0
L0

Lsf
0
0

Lf

L dqf

KL ss K 1 KL sf
T 1

L
K
L
sf
f

Ld Lls Lm d
Lq Lls Lm q
L0 Lls
3
Lm d ( LA LB )
2
3
Lm q ( LA LB )
2

dqf Ldqf i dqf

q
0

Ld id Lsf i f
Lq iq
Lls i0
3
L f i f Lsf id
2

Dynamical Equation in terms of Current


For linear model
from

di dqf
dt

d dqf
dt

1
Ldqf
V

and

dqf Ldqf i dqf


dynamical equation
in terms of current

where

vd
v
q
V

Rs id qr
Rs iq d r

v0 Rs i0

v f Rf i f

d Ld id Lsf i f
q Lq iq

Power

Electrical instantaneous Input Power on Stator can also be


expressed through dq0 theory.

pin vaia vbib vcic vTabci abc vTdq0 (K 1 )T K 1i dq0

1 0 0
3
1 T
1
(K ) K 0 1 0
2
0 0 2
3
pin vd id vqiq 2v0i0
2

Torque
From

R
i

q r
s d dt d
vd

v R i d
d r
q s q dt q

v0
d

R
i

s 0
0

dt

3
pin vd id vqiq 2v0i0
2

we have

dq
d0 3 P
3
3 dd
2
2
2

pin Rs id i q 2i0 id
iq
2i0
m (d iq q id )
2
2 dt
dt
dt 2 2

Copper Loss

Magnetic Power in
Windings

Therefore, electromagnetic torque on rotor

Te

pm ech

3P
(d iq qid )
22

Mechanical Power

pm ech

Equivalent Circuits (1)


d

R
i

q r
d Ld id Lsf i f
s d dt d

vd

d
q Lq iq
v Rs iq q d r
dt
q
0 Lls i0

d
v0

R
i

s 0
0
L i 3 L i

dt
f f
sf d
v f
f

2
d
Rf if f

dt

di f
did
d axis
vd Rs id qr Ld
Lsf
dt
dt

Equivalent Circuits (2)


q axis

0 axis

vq Rs iq d r Lq

v0 Rs i0 L0

diq
dt

di0
dt
This circuit is not necessary
for Y connected windings
since i0=0.

Equivalent Circuits (3)


Field winding

v f Rf i f Lf

di f
dt

di
3
Lsf d
2
dt

Combined Equivalent Circuit on d Axis (1)


d axis equivalent circuit and field winding equivalent circuit can be combined:

Ld Lls Lm d

L f Llf Lm f
From

3
Cd N a2
2
Cd N 2f

Lm d
Lm f

Cd

8 0

g
Dl
(1
)
2
g av P
2

N a and N f are effective number of


Lsf Cd N a N f
turns of armature and
(Details @ InductanceSM.ppt)
field windings.

L
N
Let N a 2 Lm d sf
3 Lsf
Lm f
N f
di f
did
vd Rs id qr Ld
Lsf
dt
dt
Lsf
2i f
'
'
d
(
i

i
)
di
if
if
d
f
Rs id qr Lls d Lm d
Lm d
3N
dt
dt

Combined Equivalent Circuit on d Axis (2)


v f Rf i f Lf

di f

dt

Nv f NR f i f NLlf

di
3
Lsf d
2
dt

di f
dt

NLm f

if

3 '
Ni f
2

di f

Lsf
2 Lm d
N

3 Lsf
Lm f

di
3
NLsf d
dt 2
dt

'
di f
di
3 2 ' 3 2 di f
Nv f N R f i f N Llf
Lsf
Lm d d
dt
dt
2

2
dt

v 'f R 'f i 'f L'lf

di 'f
dt

Lm d

d (id i 'f )
dt

v 'f Nv f
3 2
N Rf
2
3
L'lf N 2 Llf
2

R 'f

Combined Equivalent Circuit on d Axis (3)


From

d (id i 'f )
did
vd Rs id qr Lls
Lm d
dt
dt
v R i L
'
f

' '
f f

'
lf

di

'
f

dt

Lm d

d (id i )
'
f

dt

we get

im d id i 'f

d Ld id Lsf i f
Lls id Lm dim d

v 'f Nv f

if

3 '
Ni f
2

dq Theory for Permanent Magnet


Synchronous Machine (PMSM)

Relevance to PM Machine

dq means direct and quadrature. Direct axis is aligned with


the rotors pole. Quadrature axis refers to the axis whose
electrical angle is orthogonal to the electric angle of direct
axis.
b axis

qd

q axis

qmq

qm

d axis

qa
a axis

P
qm
2
P

qr qm q qm e
2
2

qm e
c axis

Parks Transformation

Stator quantities (Sabc) of current, voltage, or flux can be


converted to quantities (Sdq0) referenced to the rotor.
This conversion comes through the K matrix.
S dq0 KS abc

where

or

S abc K 1S dq0

S dq 0

Sd
Sa
S q , S abc Sb
S 0
S c

cosq m e 2 / 3
cosq m e 2 / 3
cosq m e
2
K sin q m e sin q m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3
3
1 / 2

1/ 2
1/ 2
cosq m e
sin q m e
1

K 1 cosq m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3 1
cosq m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3 1

(MITs notation)

sin q r sin q r 2 / 3 sin q r 2 / 3


2
K cosq r cosq r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3
3
1 / 2

1/ 2
1/ 2
sin q r
cosq r
1

K 1 sin q r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3 1
sin q r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3 1

(Purdues notation)

Voltage Equations (1)


Under motor reference convention for currents
(i.e. the positive reference direction for currents is into the machine):
For stator winding

d
v abc R S i abc abc
dt
1

K K 1v dq0 KR S K 1i dq0

d
K 1 dq0
dt
d
K K 1 dq0
dt

v dq0 R S K 1i dq0

1 0 0
R S Rs 0 1 0
0 0 1

d
d

v dq0 KR S K 1 i dq0 KK 1 dq0 K K 1 dq0


dt
dt

v dq0 R S i dq0

d
d

dq0 K K 1 dq0
dt
dt

Voltage Equations (2)


We derive the derivative of K-1:
cosq m e
0
sin q m e
cosq r
d 1
K m e sin q m e 2 / 3 cosq m e 2 / 3 0 r cosq r 2 / 3
dt
sin q m e 2 / 3 cosq m e 2 / 3 0
cosq r 2 / 3

me

dq me

dt

Then, we get
0
d

K K 1 r
dt

r
0
0

0
0
0

sin q r
0
sin q r 2 / 3 0
sin q r 2 / 3 0

dq r
P
me m
dt
2

And for voltage, we get


d

R
i

q r
s d dt d
vd

v R i d
d r
q s q dt q

v0
d

R
i

s 0
0

dt

Dynamical Equations for Flux Linkage


d vd Rs id qr
d

R
i

q
q
s q
d r

dt
0

v0 Rs i0
Let

vd Rs id qr
V vq Rs iq d r

v0 Rs i0

d
dq0 q
0
we have

d dq0
dt

The derivations so far are valid for both linear and nonlinear models.

Flux Linkage vs. Current (1)

The next step is to relate current to flux linkage through


inductances. For salient pole rotor, the inductances can
be approximately expressed as
Laa Lab Lac
L abc Lba Lbb Lbc
Lca Lcb Lcc

L L L L cos 2q
ls
A
B
me
aa

L
cos
2
q

bb
ls
A
B
me
3

Lcc Lls LA LB cos 2q m e


3

L L L L cos 2q
ls
A
B
r
aa

or:
L

L
cos
2
q

bb
ls
A
B
r
3


qr qm e
2 L L L L cos 2q 2
cc
ls
A
B
r
3

Note: Higher order harmonics are neglected.

Flux Linkage vs. Current (2)

1
2

L
cos
2
q

me

ba
A
B
ab
2
3

1
L

LA LB cos2q m e
bc
cb
2

1
2

L
cos
2
q

ca
A
B
me
ac
2
3

1
2

L
cos
2
q

ba
A
B
ab
2
3

1
L

LA LB cos2q r
bc
cb
2

1
2

L
cos
2
q

ca
A
B
r
ac
2
3

or:

qr qm e

Note: Higher order harmonics are neglected.

Ref: 1. A. E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, Jr., and S. D. Umans, Electric Machinery,


6th Edition, pages 660-661.
2. P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk, and S. D. Sudhoff,
Analysis of Electric Machinery and Drive Systems, 2nd Edition, page 52,
also pages 264-265.

Flux Linkage vs. Current (4)

This matrix can be transformed into dq0 form and used to


find flux linkage.
abc L abci abc PMabc

dq0 L abcf K 1i dq0 PMabc

K K 1 dq0 KL abc K 1i dq0 K PMabc

dq0 KL abcK 1 i dq0 K PMabc

dq0 Ldq0i dq0 PMdq0

where
cos(q m e)

sin(q r )

or:
PMabc PM cos(q m e 2 / 3)
PMabc PM sin(q r 2 / 3)
cos(q m e 2 / 3) q r q m e
sin(q r 2 / 3)
2

Inductance Matrix in dq0 Frame

Therefore, we get the following inductance matrix in dq0


frame:
PM
Ld 0 0
L dq0 KL abcK 1 0 Lq 0
PMdq0 K PMabc 0
0 0 L0
0
where

Ld Lls Lm d
Lq Lls Lm q
L0 Lls

and

From

3
Lm d ( LA LB )
2
3
Lm q ( LA LB )
2

dq0 Ldq0i dq0 PMdq0

d Ld id PM

q Lqiq
L i
0
ls 0

Dynamical Equation in terms of Current


For linear model from

di dq0
dt
where

d dq0
dt

1
Ldq
0V

vd Rs id qr
V vq Rs iq d r

v0 Rs i0

and

dq0 Ldq0i dq0 PMdq0


dynamical equation
in terms of current

d Ld id PM
q Lqiq

L dq0

Ld
0
0

0
Lq
0

0
0
L0

(vd Rs id r Lqiq ) / Ld
id

(
v

R
i

L
i

)
/
L
q
q
s q
r d d
r PM
q
dt
i0

(v0 Rs i0 ) / L0
1
i

(ia ib ic ) 0 , only need to consider


For Y connected winding, since 0
3
the first two equations for id and iq.

Power

Electrical instantaneous Input Power on Stator can also be


expressed through dq0 theory.

pin vaia vbib vcic vTabci abc vTdq0 (K 1 )T K 1i dq0

1 0 0
3
1 T
1
(K ) K 0 1 0
2
0 0 2
3
pin vd id vqiq 2v0i0
2

Torque
From

3
pin vd id vqiq 2v0i0
2

we have

R
i

q r
s d dt d
vd

v R i d
d r
q s q dt q

v0
d

R
i

s 0
0

dt

dq
d0 3 P
3
3 dd
2
2
2

pin Rs id i q 2i0 id
iq
2i0
m (d iq q id )
2
2 dt
dt
dt 2 2

Copper Loss

Magnetic Power in
Windings

Mechanical Power

pm ech

Therefore, electromagnetic torque on rotor

Te

pm ech

3P

(d iq qid )
22

d Ld id PM
q Lqiq

3P
Te
PM iq ( Ld Lq )id iq
22

Dynamical Equations of Motion


dm
J
Te TL Tdam p
dt
dq m
m
dt
where

3P
Te
PM iq ( Ld Lq )id iq KT iq
22
KT
For round rotor machine,

Tdamp Dmm

Te 3P

PM ( Ld Lq )id
iq
4

Ld Lq

torque constant

3P
Te
PM iq
4

3P
KT
PM
4

Dm is combined damping coefficient of rotor


and load.