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# dq Theory for Synchronous Machine

## dq means direct and quadrature. Direct axis is aligned with

the rotors pole. Quadrature axis refers to the axis whose
electrical angle is orthogonal to the electric angle of direct
axis.
b axis

qd

q axis

q axis

d axis

qmq
qmq

qm

qa

g max

ror,min

qm

a axis
ror,max

g min

c axis

P
qm
2
P

qr qm q qm e
2
2

qm e

qd
qa

ris

a axis

Parks Transformation

## Stator quantities (Sabc) of current, voltage, or flux can be

converted to quantities (Sdq0) referenced to the rotor.
This conversion comes through the K matrix.
S dq0 KS abc

where

or

S abc K 1S dq0

S dq 0

Sd
Sa
S q , S abc Sb
S 0
S c

cosq m e 2 / 3
cosq m e 2 / 3
cosq m e
2
K sin q m e sin q m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3
3
1 / 2

1/ 2
1/ 2
cosq m e
sin q m e
1

K 1 cosq m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3 1
cosq m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3 1

(MITs notation)

## sin q r sin q r 2 / 3 sin q r 2 / 3

2
K cosq r cosq r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3
3
1 / 2

1/ 2
1/ 2
sin q r
cosq r
1

K 1 sin q r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3 1
sin q r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3 1

(Purdues notation)

## Voltage Equations (1)

Under motor reference convention for currents
(i.e. the positive reference direction for currents is into the machine):
For stator windings

d
v abc R S i abc abc
dt
1

K K 1v dq0 KR S K 1i dq0

d
K 1 dq0
dt
d
K K 1 dq0
dt

v dq0 R S K 1i dq0

1 0 0
R S Rs 0 1 0
0 0 1

d
d

dt
dt

v dq0 R S i dq0

d
d

dq0 K K 1 dq0
dt
dt

## Voltage Equations (2)

We derive the derivative of K-1:
cosq m e
0
sin q m e
cosq r
d 1
K m e sin q m e 2 / 3 cosq m e 2 / 3 0 r cosq r 2 / 3
dt
sin q m e 2 / 3 cosq m e 2 / 3 0
cosq r 2 / 3

me

dq me

dt

Then, we get
0
d

K K 1 r
dt

r
0
0

0
0
0

sin q r
0
sin q r 2 / 3 0
sin q r 2 / 3 0

dq r
P
me m
dt
2

get
d

R
i

q r
s d dt d
vd

v R i d
d r
q s q dt q

v0
d

R
i

s 0
0

dt

## Voltage Equations (3)

For rotor windings:

We assume the rotor has field winding (magnetic field along d axis),
one damper with magnetic field along d axis and one damper
with magnetic field along q axis.

v fkd kq R r i fkd kq

v fkd kq

d
fkd kq
dt

v f
0
0

R f

Rr 0
0

fkd kq

0
Rkd
0

f

kd

kq

0
Rkq

In summary:

R
i

q
r
d
s d
dt

d
vd Rs iq d r
q
v
dt

q
d

R
i

v0 s 0 dt 0

d
v
f
R f i f
f

dt
0

R
i

0
k
k
k

d d

dt d

d
kq
Rk q ik q

dt

## Dynamical Equations for Flux Linkage

d vd
v
q q
d 0

dt f
k
d
k q

Let
dqf

we have

d

q
0

f
k
d
k q

d dqf
dt

Rs id qr
Rs iq d r

v0 Rs i0

v f Rf if

Rk d ik d

Rk q ik q

vd
v
q

Rs id qr
Rs iq d r

v0 Rs i0

v f Rf if

Rk d ik d

Rk q ik q

The derivations so far are valid for both linear and nonlinear models.

## The next step is to relate current to flux linkage through

inductances. For salient pole rotor, the inductances can
be approximately expressed as

L ss
L abcf T
L sr

L sr
L L L
L

ss
ba
bb
bc L sr

L rr
Lca Lcb Lcc

L L L L cos 2q
ls
A
B
me
aa

L
cos
2
q

bb
ls
A
B
me
3

3

d
q

## Lbf Lbkd Lbkq L rr

L L

L
cf
ck
ck
d
q

Lf

Lkd f
L
kq f

L fkd L fkq

Lkd Lkd kq
Lkq kd Lkq

L L L L cos 2q
ls
A
B
r
aa

or:
L

L
cos
2
q

bb
ls
A
B
r
3

qr qm e
2 L L L L cos 2q 2
cc
ls
A
B
r
3

1
2

L
cos
2
q

ba
A
B
ab
2
3

1
L

LA LB cos2q r
bc
cb
2

1
2

L
cos
2
q

ca
A
B
r
ac
2
3

1
2

L
cos
2
q

me

ba
A
B
ab
2
3

1
L

LA LB cos2q m e
bc
cb
2

1
2

L
cos
2
q

ca
A
B
me
ac
2
3

L L L cosq
fa
sf
me
af

L
cos
q

bf
fb
sf
me
3

3

or:
qr qm e

L L L sin q
fa
sf
r
af

L
sin
q

bf
fb
sf
3

L
sin
q

cf
fc
sf
3

L L L sin q
kd a
sk d
r
akd

L
sin
q

bkd
kd b
sk d
r
3

3

L L L cosq
kd a
sk d
me
akd

3

3

or:

q
q
q

3

3

qr qm e

q
q
q

L
cos
q

bkq
kqb
sk q
r
3

3

L f Llf Lm f

Lkd Llkd Lm kd

Lkq Llkq Lm kq
L fk Lk f
d
d
L fkq Lkq f 0

Lkd kq Lkq kd 0

## Ref: 1. A. E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, Jr., and S. D. Umans, Electric Machinery,

6th Edition, pages 660-661.
2. P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk, and S. D. Sudhoff,
Analysis of Electric Machinery and Drive Systems, 2nd Edition, pages 52
and 195.

## Flux Linkage vs. Current (5)

This matrix can be transformed into dq form and used to
i abc
abc
L ss L sr i
From abcf Labcf i abcf with abcf
L abcf LT L abcf i fk k

r
sr
fk k

d q

where dqf

dq0

fkd kq

L dqf

KL ss K 1 KL sr
T 1

L rr
L sr K

i dqf

i dq0

i
fkd k q

## Inductance Matrix in dq Frame

Through derivations, we have

L dqf

where

and

From

0
Ld
0
Lq

0
0
3
0
Lsf
2

3 L
0
2 skd

3
0
Lskq

Ld Lls Lm d
Lq Lls Lm q

3
Lm d ( LA LB )
2
3
Lm q ( LA LB )
2

0
0
L0

Lsf
0
0

Lskd
0
0

Lf

L fkd

Lkd f

Lkd

L0 Lls

0
Lskq
0

Lkq

L dqf

KL ss K 1 KL sr
T 1

L
K
L
rr
sr

## d Ld id Lsf i f Lskd ikd

L i L i
q q
sk q k q
q
0 L0i0

L i 3 L i L i
f f
sf d
fkd k d
f
2

3
kd Lkd ikd Lskd id L fkd i f
2

L i 3 L i
kq kq
sk q
kq
2 q

For linear model
from

di dqf
dt
where

d dqf
dt

1
Ldqf
V

vd Rs id qr
v R i
s q
d r
q
v0 Rs i0

R
i
f f
f

Rk ik

d
d

Rkq ik q

and

## dqf Ldqf i dqf

dynamical equation
in terms of current

d Ld id Lsf i f Lsk ik
d

q Lq iq Lsk ik
q

Power

## Electrical instantaneous Input Power on Stator can also be

expressed through dq0 theory.

## pin vaia vbib vcic vTabci abc vTdq0 (K 1 )T K 1i dq0

1 0 0
3
1 T
1
(K ) K 0 1 0
2
0 0 2
3
pin vd id vqiq 2v0i0
2

Torque
From

R
i

q r
s d dt d
vd

v R i d
d r
q s q dt q

v0
d

R
i

s 0
0

dt

3
pin vd id vqiq 2v0i0
2

we have

dq
d0 3 P
3
3 dd
2
2
2

pin Rs id i q 2i0 id
iq
2i0
m (d iq q id )
2
2 dt
dt
dt 2 2

Copper Loss

Magnetic Power in
Windings

Te

pm ech

3P
(d iq qid )
22

Mechanical Power

pm ech

## Equivalent Circuit on d Axis (1)

d axis of stator, field winding and d axis damper of rotor can form an equivalent
circuit.
Let

Ld Lls Lm d

L f Llf Lm f
Lkd Llkd Lm kd
From L 3 C N
2
md
d
a

Lm f

2
Cd N 2f

Lsf Cd N a N f
Lm kd Cd N k2d

Cd

8 0

g
Dl
(
1

)
2
g av P
2

## N a , N f and N k are effective number of turns of

d
armature, field and d axis
damper windings, respectively.

Lsk d Cd N a N kd
L fkd Cd N f N kd

## Equivalent Circuit on d Axis (2)

Define

Lsf

2
i
if
Lm d
3
'
f

N f
if

and i

'
kd

Lskd
Lm d

ikd

2 N kd

ikd

3 Na
dikd

di f
did
vd Rs id qr Ld
Lsf
Lskd
dt
dt
dt
d (id i 'f ik' d )
did
Rs id qr Lls
Lm d
dt
dt
Define
N a
'
v f Nv f and N
Nf
dikd
di f 3
did
v f Rf i f Lf
Lsf
L fkd
dt 2
dt
dt
Nv f NR f i f NLlf

di f
dt

NLm f

dikd
did
3
NLsf
NL fkd
dt 2
dt
dt

di f

'
di f
did N a 3 N a
3 2 ' 3 2 di f
Nv f N R f i f N Llf
Lsf
Lm d

L fkd

dt
dt N f 2 N kd
2

2
dt

dik'
d
dt

## Equivalent Circuit on d Axis (3)

v 'f R 'f i 'f L'lf
where

di 'f
dt

3 N a
'
Rf
2 N f

dt

Rf

3 N a
L
2 N f

Llf

dikd

'
lf

From

Lm d

L fkd
Lm d

2 N f N kd

3 N a2

di f
did
3
Lskd
L fkd
dt
2
dt
dt
dikd
dikd 3
di f
did
Lm kd
Lskd
L fkd
dt
dt
2
dt
dt

2 Lm d

3 Lsk
d

N a

N
kd

above

next page

3 N a
0
2 N kd

R i' 3 Na
kd kd 2 N k

0R i L

dik' d

3 N a
'
Rkd
2 N kd

R
kd

3 N a

2 N kd

L
lkd

' '
kd kd

'
lkd

'

2
dik' d 3 N a
dik' d
di
di
N
3
a
L
L

Lm d d
L fkd f
lkd
m kd

dt
2 N kd
dt
dt 2 N f N kd
dt

dt

Lm d

dt

where

L'lkd

Lm d
Lm kd

Lm d
L fkd

3 N a

2 N kd
3 N a2

2 N N
f

kd

From

did
vd Rs id qr Lls
Lm d
dt
dt
v R i L
'
f

' '
f f

'
lf

di 'f
dt
'
kd

di

dt

Lm d

Lm d

dt

## d (id i 'f ik' d )

dt

we get

ik' d
im d id i 'f ik' d

d Ld id Lsf i f Lsk ik
d

Llsid Lm dim d

## Equivalent Circuit on q Axis (1)

q axis equivalent circuit and q axis damper equivalent circuit
can be combined:
Let

Lq Lls Lm q
Lkq Llkq Lm kq

From

3
Cq N a2
2
Cq N k2q

Lm q
Lm kq

Lsk q Cq N a N k

Cq

8 0

Dl

(
1

)
2
g av P
2

## N s and N k are effective number of turns of

d
stator and q axis damper
windings, respectively.

vq Rs iq d r Lq
Rs iq d r Llq
Rs iq d r Llq

From

diq
dt
diq
dt
diq
dt

Lsk q
Lm q
Lm q

Rkq ikq Llkq

dikq
dt
diq

Lsk q

dikq

dt
dt
d (iq ik' q )
dt

where

ik' d

Lsk q
Lm d

ik q

N k q
ik q

N
a

dikq

diq
3
Lskq
dt
2
dt
dikq
dikq 3
diq
Lm kq
Lskq
dt
dt
2
dt

2 Lm q N

a
3 Lsk N k
q

above

next page

3 N a
0
2 N kq

R i' 3 Na
kq kq 2 N k

dik' q
dt

Lm q

dik' q 3 N a
L

lk q

dt
2 N kq

dik' q
diq
L

L
mq
m kq dt
dt

d (iq ik' q )
dt

where
2

3 N a
'
Rk q
2 N k q

R
kq

3 N a

2 N k q

L
lkq

'
lk q

Lm q
Lm kq
Lm q
L fkq

3 N a

2 N kq

3 N a2

2 N N
f

kq

## Equivalent Circuit on q Axis (4)

From vq Rs iq d r Llq
0 Rk' q ik' q L'lkq

diq
dt

dik' q
dt

Lm q

Lm q

d (iq ik' q )
dt

d (iq ik' q )
dt

we get

ik' q
im q iq ik' q

q Lq iq Lsk ik
q

Llsiq Lm qim q

## Equivalent Circuit on 0 Axis

0 axis

v0 Rs i0 L0

di0
dt
This circuit is not necessary
for Y connected windings
since i0=0.

## Dynamical Equations from

Equivalent Circuits (1)
vd Rsd id r q Llsd
vq Rsq iq r d Llsq
0 Rk' d ik' d L'lkd
0 Rk' q ik' q L'lkq
v 'f R 'f i 'f L'lf
v0 Rs 0i0 Lls 0

where

dik' d
dt
dik' q
dt
di 'f
dt
di0
dt

im d id i 'f ik' d
im q iq ik' q

did
di
Lm d m d
dt
dt
diq
di
Lm q m q
dt
dt

Lm d
Lm q
Lm d

dim d
dt
dim q
dt

dim d
dt

## Dynamical Equations from

Equivalent Circuits (2)
The equations can be written in matrix form as:
L

where
Llsd Lm d

0
L
Lm d
Lm d

id
i
q
i0
I '
if
ik'
'd
ik q

dI
V
dt

0
Llsq Lm q
0
0
0
Lm q

or
0
0
Lls 0
0
0
0

vd
v
q

dI
L1V
dt
Lm d
0
0
L'lf Lm d
Lm d
0

Lm d
0
0
Lm d
L'lkd Lm d
0

Rsd id r q
Rsq iq r d

v0 Rs 0i0

'
'

Rk d ik d

Rk' q ik' q

Lm q

L'lkq Lm q

## dq Theory for Synchronous Machine

without Damper Winding

## dq means direct and quadrature. Direct axis is aligned with

the rotors pole. Quadrature axis refers to the axis whose
electrical angle is orthogonal to the electric angle of direct
axis.
b axis

qd

q axis

q axis

d axis

qmq
qmq

qm

qa

g max

ror,min

qm

a axis
ror,max

g min

c axis

P
qm
2
P

qr qm q qm e
2
2

qm e

qd
qa

ris

a axis

Parks Transformation

## Stator quantities (Sabc) of current, voltage, or flux can be

converted to quantities (Sdq0) referenced to the rotor.
This conversion comes through the K matrix.
S dq0 KS abc

where

or

S abc K 1S dq0

S dq 0

Sd
Sa
S q , S abc Sb
S 0
S c

cosq m e 2 / 3
cosq m e 2 / 3
cosq m e
2
K sin q m e sin q m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3
3
1 / 2

1/ 2
1/ 2
cosq m e
sin q m e
1

K 1 cosq m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3 1
cosq m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3 1

(MITs notation)

## sin q r sin q r 2 / 3 sin q r 2 / 3

2
K cosq r cosq r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3
3
1 / 2

1/ 2
1/ 2
sin q r
cosq r
1

K 1 sin q r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3 1
sin q r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3 1

(Purdues notation)

## Voltage Equations (1)

Under motor reference convention for currents
(i.e. the positive reference direction for currents is into the machine):
For stator windings

d
v abc R S i abc abc
dt
1

K K 1v dq0 KR S K 1i dq0

d
K 1 dq0
dt
d
K K 1 dq0
dt

v dq0 R S K 1i dq0

1 0 0
R S Rs 0 1 0
0 0 1

d
d

## v dq0 KR S K 1 i dq0 KK 1 dq0 K K 1 dq0

dt
dt

v dq0 R S i dq0
For field winding:

d
d

dq0 K K 1 dq0
dt
dt

v f Rf i f

d
f
dt

## Voltage Equations (2)

We derive the derivative of K-1:
cosq m e
0
sin q m e
cosq r
d 1
K m e sin q m e 2 / 3 cosq m e 2 / 3 0 r cosq r 2 / 3
dt
sin q m e 2 / 3 cosq m e 2 / 3 0
cosq r 2 / 3

me

dq me

dt

Then, we get
0
d

K K 1 r
dt

r
0
0

0
0
0

sin q r
0
sin q r 2 / 3 0
sin q r 2 / 3 0

dq r
P
me m
dt
2

d

R
i

q r
s d dt d
vd

d
v Rs iq q d r
dt
q

d
v0

R
i

s 0
0

dt
v
f

d
Rf if f

dt

## Dynamical Equations for Flux Linkage

d vd

d q vq

dt 0

f
Let

dqf

we have

d

q

0

f

Rs id qr
Rs iq d r

v0 Rs i0

v f Rf i f

vd
v
q
V

d dqf
dt

Rs id qr
Rs iq d r

v0 Rs i0

v f Rf i f

The derivations so far are valid for both linear and nonlinear models.

## The next step is to relate current to flux linkage through

inductances. For salient pole rotor, the inductances can
be approximately expressed as
L ss L sf
L abcf T

L
L
sf
f

L ss Lba Lbb Lbc
Lca Lcb Lcc

L L L L cos 2q
ls
A
B
me
aa

L
cos
2
q

bb
ls
A
B
me
3

## Lcc Lls LA LB cos 2q m e

3

Laf

L sf Lbf
Lcf

L L L L cos 2q
ls
A
B
r
aa

or:
L

L
cos
2
q

bb
ls
A
B
r
3

qr qm e
2 L L L L cos 2q 2
cc
ls
A
B
r
3

## Flux Linkage vs. Current (2)

1
1
2
2

L
L

L
L

L
L

L
L
cos
cos
2
2
q
q

ab
ba
ba
A
A
B
B
me
r
ab

2
2
3
3

1
1
Lbc Lcb LA LB cos2q m e
Lbc Lcb LA LB cos2q r
2
2

1
1
2
2

L
L

L
L

L
L

L
L
cos
cos
2
2
q
q

ca
ca
A
A
B
B
me
r
ac
ac
2
2
3
3

or:

L L L sin q
L L L cosq

fa
sf
r
fa
sf
me
af
qr qm e
af
2

L
sin
q

bf
fb
sf
r

3

L
sin
q

cf
fc
sf
r

3

## Note: Higher order harmonics are neglected.

Ref: 1. A. E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, Jr., and S. D. Umans, Electric Machinery,
6th Edition, pages 660-661.
2. P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk, and S. D. Sudhoff,
Analysis of Electric Machinery and Drive Systems, 2nd Edition, page 52.

## Flux Linkage vs. Current (3)

This matrix can be transformed into dq0 form and used to
i abc
L ss L sf
abc
From abcf Labcf i abcf with abcf L abcf LT L i abcf i
f
f
sf
f

## abc Lss i abc Lsf i f

dq0 L ss K 1i dq0 L sf i f

dq0 KL ss K 1 i dq0 KL sf i f

f LTsf i abc L f i f

f LTsf K 1i dq0 L f i f

where dqf

dq0

L dqf

KL ss K 1 KL sf
T 1

L
K
L
sf
f

i dqf

i dq0

if

## Inductance Matrix in dq0 Frame

Through derivations, we have

L dqf

where

and

From

Ld
0

0
3
Lsf
2

0
Lq
0

0
0
L0

Lsf
0
0

Lf

L dqf

KL ss K 1 KL sf
T 1

L
K
L
sf
f

Ld Lls Lm d
Lq Lls Lm q
L0 Lls
3
Lm d ( LA LB )
2
3
Lm q ( LA LB )
2

q
0

Ld id Lsf i f
Lq iq
Lls i0
3
L f i f Lsf id
2

For linear model
from

di dqf
dt

d dqf
dt

1
Ldqf
V

and

## dqf Ldqf i dqf

dynamical equation
in terms of current

where

vd
v
q
V

Rs id qr
Rs iq d r

v0 Rs i0

v f Rf i f

d Ld id Lsf i f
q Lq iq

Power

## Electrical instantaneous Input Power on Stator can also be

expressed through dq0 theory.

## pin vaia vbib vcic vTabci abc vTdq0 (K 1 )T K 1i dq0

1 0 0
3
1 T
1
(K ) K 0 1 0
2
0 0 2
3
pin vd id vqiq 2v0i0
2

Torque
From

R
i

q r
s d dt d
vd

v R i d
d r
q s q dt q

v0
d

R
i

s 0
0

dt

3
pin vd id vqiq 2v0i0
2

we have

dq
d0 3 P
3
3 dd
2
2
2

pin Rs id i q 2i0 id
iq
2i0
m (d iq q id )
2
2 dt
dt
dt 2 2

Copper Loss

Magnetic Power in
Windings

Te

pm ech

3P
(d iq qid )
22

Mechanical Power

pm ech

d

R
i

q r
d Ld id Lsf i f
s d dt d

vd

d
q Lq iq
v Rs iq q d r
dt
q
0 Lls i0

d
v0

R
i

s 0
0
L i 3 L i

dt
f f
sf d
v f
f

2
d
Rf if f

dt

di f
did
d axis
vd Rs id qr Ld
Lsf
dt
dt

## Equivalent Circuits (2)

q axis

0 axis

vq Rs iq d r Lq

v0 Rs i0 L0

diq
dt

di0
dt
This circuit is not necessary
for Y connected windings
since i0=0.

Field winding

v f Rf i f Lf

di f
dt

di
3
Lsf d
2
dt

## Combined Equivalent Circuit on d Axis (1)

d axis equivalent circuit and field winding equivalent circuit can be combined:

Ld Lls Lm d

L f Llf Lm f
From

3
Cd N a2
2
Cd N 2f

Lm d
Lm f

Cd

8 0

g
Dl
(1
)
2
g av P
2

## N a and N f are effective number of

Lsf Cd N a N f
turns of armature and
(Details @ InductanceSM.ppt)
field windings.

L
N
Let N a 2 Lm d sf
3 Lsf
Lm f
N f
di f
did
vd Rs id qr Ld
Lsf
dt
dt
Lsf
2i f
'
'
d
(
i

i
)
di
if
if
d
f
Rs id qr Lls d Lm d
Lm d
3N
dt
dt

## Combined Equivalent Circuit on d Axis (2)

v f Rf i f Lf

di f

dt

Nv f NR f i f NLlf

di
3
Lsf d
2
dt

di f
dt

NLm f

if

3 '
Ni f
2

di f

Lsf
2 Lm d
N

3 Lsf
Lm f

di
3
NLsf d
dt 2
dt

'
di f
di
3 2 ' 3 2 di f
Nv f N R f i f N Llf
Lsf
Lm d d
dt
dt
2

2
dt

di 'f
dt

Lm d

d (id i 'f )
dt

v 'f Nv f
3 2
N Rf
2
3
L'lf N 2 Llf
2

R 'f

From

d (id i 'f )
did
vd Rs id qr Lls
Lm d
dt
dt
v R i L
'
f

' '
f f

'
lf

di

'
f

dt

Lm d

d (id i )
'
f

dt

we get

im d id i 'f

d Ld id Lsf i f
Lls id Lm dim d

v 'f Nv f

if

3 '
Ni f
2

## dq Theory for Permanent Magnet

Synchronous Machine (PMSM)

Relevance to PM Machine

## dq means direct and quadrature. Direct axis is aligned with

the rotors pole. Quadrature axis refers to the axis whose
electrical angle is orthogonal to the electric angle of direct
axis.
b axis

qd

q axis

qmq

qm

d axis

qa
a axis

P
qm
2
P

qr qm q qm e
2
2

qm e
c axis

Parks Transformation

## Stator quantities (Sabc) of current, voltage, or flux can be

converted to quantities (Sdq0) referenced to the rotor.
This conversion comes through the K matrix.
S dq0 KS abc

where

or

S abc K 1S dq0

S dq 0

Sd
Sa
S q , S abc Sb
S 0
S c

cosq m e 2 / 3
cosq m e 2 / 3
cosq m e
2
K sin q m e sin q m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3
3
1 / 2

1/ 2
1/ 2
cosq m e
sin q m e
1

K 1 cosq m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3 1
cosq m e 2 / 3 sin q m e 2 / 3 1

(MITs notation)

## sin q r sin q r 2 / 3 sin q r 2 / 3

2
K cosq r cosq r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3
3
1 / 2

1/ 2
1/ 2
sin q r
cosq r
1

K 1 sin q r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3 1
sin q r 2 / 3 cosq r 2 / 3 1

(Purdues notation)

## Voltage Equations (1)

Under motor reference convention for currents
(i.e. the positive reference direction for currents is into the machine):
For stator winding

d
v abc R S i abc abc
dt
1

K K 1v dq0 KR S K 1i dq0

d
K 1 dq0
dt
d
K K 1 dq0
dt

v dq0 R S K 1i dq0

1 0 0
R S Rs 0 1 0
0 0 1

d
d

dt
dt

v dq0 R S i dq0

d
d

dq0 K K 1 dq0
dt
dt

## Voltage Equations (2)

We derive the derivative of K-1:
cosq m e
0
sin q m e
cosq r
d 1
K m e sin q m e 2 / 3 cosq m e 2 / 3 0 r cosq r 2 / 3
dt
sin q m e 2 / 3 cosq m e 2 / 3 0
cosq r 2 / 3

me

dq me

dt

Then, we get
0
d

K K 1 r
dt

r
0
0

0
0
0

sin q r
0
sin q r 2 / 3 0
sin q r 2 / 3 0

dq r
P
me m
dt
2

d

R
i

q r
s d dt d
vd

v R i d
d r
q s q dt q

v0
d

R
i

s 0
0

dt

## Dynamical Equations for Flux Linkage

d vd Rs id qr
d

R
i

q
q
s q
d r

dt
0

v0 Rs i0
Let

vd Rs id qr
V vq Rs iq d r

v0 Rs i0

d
dq0 q
0
we have

d dq0
dt

The derivations so far are valid for both linear and nonlinear models.

## The next step is to relate current to flux linkage through

inductances. For salient pole rotor, the inductances can
be approximately expressed as
Laa Lab Lac
L abc Lba Lbb Lbc
Lca Lcb Lcc

L L L L cos 2q
ls
A
B
me
aa

L
cos
2
q

bb
ls
A
B
me
3

## Lcc Lls LA LB cos 2q m e

3

L L L L cos 2q
ls
A
B
r
aa

or:
L

L
cos
2
q

bb
ls
A
B
r
3

qr qm e
2 L L L L cos 2q 2
cc
ls
A
B
r
3

1
2

L
cos
2
q

me

ba
A
B
ab
2
3

1
L

LA LB cos2q m e
bc
cb
2

1
2

L
cos
2
q

ca
A
B
me
ac
2
3

1
2

L
cos
2
q

ba
A
B
ab
2
3

1
L

LA LB cos2q r
bc
cb
2

1
2

L
cos
2
q

ca
A
B
r
ac
2
3

or:

qr qm e

## Ref: 1. A. E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, Jr., and S. D. Umans, Electric Machinery,

6th Edition, pages 660-661.
2. P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk, and S. D. Sudhoff,
Analysis of Electric Machinery and Drive Systems, 2nd Edition, page 52,
also pages 264-265.

## This matrix can be transformed into dq0 form and used to

abc L abci abc PMabc

## dq0 Ldq0i dq0 PMdq0

where
cos(q m e)

sin(q r )

or:
PMabc PM cos(q m e 2 / 3)
PMabc PM sin(q r 2 / 3)
cos(q m e 2 / 3) q r q m e
sin(q r 2 / 3)
2

## Therefore, we get the following inductance matrix in dq0

frame:
PM
Ld 0 0
L dq0 KL abcK 1 0 Lq 0
PMdq0 K PMabc 0
0 0 L0
0
where

Ld Lls Lm d
Lq Lls Lm q
L0 Lls

and

From

3
Lm d ( LA LB )
2
3
Lm q ( LA LB )
2

d Ld id PM

q Lqiq
L i
0
ls 0

## Dynamical Equation in terms of Current

For linear model from

di dq0
dt
where

d dq0
dt

1
Ldq
0V

vd Rs id qr
V vq Rs iq d r

v0 Rs i0

and

## dq0 Ldq0i dq0 PMdq0

dynamical equation
in terms of current

d Ld id PM
q Lqiq

L dq0

Ld
0
0

0
Lq
0

0
0
L0

(vd Rs id r Lqiq ) / Ld
id

(
v

R
i

L
i

)
/
L
q
q
s q
r d d
r PM
q
dt
i0

(v0 Rs i0 ) / L0
1
i

## (ia ib ic ) 0 , only need to consider

For Y connected winding, since 0
3
the first two equations for id and iq.

Power

## Electrical instantaneous Input Power on Stator can also be

expressed through dq0 theory.

## pin vaia vbib vcic vTabci abc vTdq0 (K 1 )T K 1i dq0

1 0 0
3
1 T
1
(K ) K 0 1 0
2
0 0 2
3
pin vd id vqiq 2v0i0
2

Torque
From

3
pin vd id vqiq 2v0i0
2

we have

R
i

q r
s d dt d
vd

v R i d
d r
q s q dt q

v0
d

R
i

s 0
0

dt

dq
d0 3 P
3
3 dd
2
2
2

pin Rs id i q 2i0 id
iq
2i0
m (d iq q id )
2
2 dt
dt
dt 2 2

Copper Loss

Magnetic Power in
Windings

Mechanical Power

pm ech

## Therefore, electromagnetic torque on rotor

Te

pm ech

3P

(d iq qid )
22

d Ld id PM
q Lqiq

3P
Te
PM iq ( Ld Lq )id iq
22

## Dynamical Equations of Motion

dm
J
Te TL Tdam p
dt
dq m
m
dt
where

3P
Te
PM iq ( Ld Lq )id iq KT iq
22
KT
For round rotor machine,

Tdamp Dmm

Te 3P

PM ( Ld Lq )id
iq
4

Ld Lq

torque constant

3P
Te
PM iq
4

3P
KT
PM
4

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