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CHAPTER 1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
Every living thing requires food. Not just any living creature, even inanimate
objects also require energy. Like a car needs gasoline as a food ingredient that is used
to produce energy. Moreover, people who are living things, require that food is one of
the characteristics and needs of every human being. None of the creatures on this
earth who does not need food. Can you predict what happens if a person does not eat
for three days? The answer would be easy to predict. That person would have to be
very weak energy. What also happens when humans suffer from hunger in the long
term? Clearly visible man will look very thin and susceptible to disease. If prolonged
starvation, what happens is death.
Food is needed by the body to keep the body healthy. Besides the food we eat to
function as an energy source. In the case the conversion of starch digestion and other
carbohydrates into glucose which is then "burned" to produce energy. While the
energy is hot, some are altered in muscle cells into energy for movement.
The total length of the digestive tract through which the food is 10 meters.
This is 6-7 times longer than the average human height and so awesome to put into
our bodies. How long channel that can be placed inside the human body? Answer this
question once again revealed a special design in the creation of our bodies.
1.2 Formulation of The Problem
1.2.1

Any structure of digestion in the human body?

1.2.2

Any function that food?

1.2.3

State the function of each of the human digestive organs?

DIGESTTIVE SYSTEM

1.2.4

The process of what happens in the human digestive system?

1.2.5

Any disorder that occurs in the human digestive?

1.3 Purpose
1.3.1

Knowing the structure of human digestion.

1.3.2

Knowing the function of each of the organs of digestion.

1.3.3

Knowing the process that occurs in the digestion of food.

1.3.4

Knowing illness incurred in the digestive system.

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CHAPTER 2. DISCUSSION
The human digestive system is a collection of digestive organs in charge of
digesting food into simpler forms to be absorbed by the body. The digestive organs
such as the gastrointestinal tract and digestive gland. Any food that can be absorbed
by the body that have important functions in the body. Our bodies can not absorb
food in the form of what we eat. These foods should be converted into a small form
again, even in the form of simple compounds. In order to obtain simple compounds
that can be absorbed by the body, the food we eat has to go through a series of
digestive process.
The process of digestion includes inserting food, digestion, and absorption.
Digestion of food in humans is extracellular, which occurs outside the cell,
specifically in the digestive tract. The food in the body has a function and nutrients as
follows:
2.1 The function of food in the body
a. As a source of energy
If someone does not eat within a few hours, his body will feel weak and
underpowered. However, some SSAT after eating, the body will feel fresh and
powerful back. It shows that the food is needed as an energy source. The
energy stored in food is chemical energy. In the body, the chemical energy
will be transformed into energy through a series of metabolic reactions bibs.
What is all the food it produces energy? The answer is no. Energy generated
from foods containing carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. But among the three,
carbohydrates are the main energy source.

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b. As a component of the body's building blocks


If, described the human body is made up of biomolecules. Among other
things, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, nucleic acids, and vitamins. The
compounds had been a constituent of cellular components of the body. To sort
the components was necessary resources from outside the body arrives in the
form of food. In addition, the components of damaged cells must also be
replaced. To replace and build parts of the body before, needed food.
c. As the body against environmental protection
Nutrients can serve as a protective body of an unfavorable environment.
Fat is used to protect the body from the cold. Some vitamins function as an
antioxidant compound. Minerals, potassium, and sodium are used to maintain
the balance of the cell osmotic pressure. To neutralize foreign substances
(antigens), to form a protein antibodies. These proteins are formed from
amino acid source. (Sobotta, 2007)
2.2 Nutrients required by the body
a. Carbohydrate
Carbohydrates are the main food polysaccharides, disaccharides and
monosaccharides. Starch and polysaccharide derivatives is the only one that is
digested in the human gastrointestinal tract. Namely disaccharide lactose
(milk sugar) and sucrose (table sugar) also digested, along monosaccharides
are fructose and glucose.

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b. Protein
Contains amino acids (essential and non-essential). Protein requirement
for adults is 1 gram / kg. Weight / day. If the requirements are redundant, then
the excess will be excreted through the kidneys in the form of urea.
c. Vitamin
Required in very small amounts, does not produce energy. Lack of
vitamin A deficiency can lead to disease. There are 2 kinds of vitamins,
namely vitamins are water soluble and fat-soluble vitamins
d. Fat
Required as a solvent of some vitamins, as "fat pad" (protective body
tissue) and large energy producers (9.3 calories / g). Needs fat for adults is 0.5
to 1 gram / kg. Mass Agency / day.
e. Mineral
Assist the process of metabolism, such as magnesium, which are crucial
for the body, especially for muscle relaxation and nerve tissue.
f. The Water
Approximately 70% of the human body is composed of water. Body
fluids (eg, blood, saliva, sweat, and urine). Mainly composed of water. All
cells, including bone cells and muscles also contain water. Thus, water plays
an important role for the continuity of human life. People can survive for two
months without eating, but can not live more than a few days without water.
Although it does not contain the nutrients and calories, the role of water is

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very large. First, water is a solvent for compounds that the body needs.
Second, water is the venue for all the metabolic processes of the body. Third,
water is a transport for all compounds the body.

The digestion process in humans can be divided into two kinds, namely:
1. Digestion mechanics, is the process of changing food from rough shape into
small shapes or smooth. This process is done by using a tooth in the mouth.
2. Digestion chemical, is the process of changing food of complex substances
into substances that are much simpler with the enzyme, which occur from the
mouth, stomach, and intestine. Enzymes are chemical substances produced by
the body that serves to speed up chemical reactions in body.

The process of digestion in humans involves the digestion of food equipment.


Tools of digestion in humans are organs that function to digest the food we eat. Tools
food digestion distinguished on the digestive tract and digestive gland.
The function of the digestive tract are:
a. Ingestion is the entry of food into the mouth.
b. Cutting and grinding food done mechanically by the teeth. The food is then
mixed with saliva before swallowing (swallowing).
c. Peristalsis is the involuntary smooth muscle contraction waves that move
ingested food through the digestive tract.
d. Digestion is a chemical hydrolysis (decomposition) of large molecules into
smaller molecules so that absorption can take place.
e. Absorption is the movement of the end product of the lumen digestive tract into
the blood and lymphatic circulation that can be used by the body cells.

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f. Egesti (defecation) is the process of elimination of residual substances that are


not digested, also bacteria, in the form of feces from the digestive tract.

2.3 General structure of the Digestive tract


Digestive tract is composed of hollow tubes with diameters varying lumen,
which is surrounded by a wall with four main layers, namely:
a. Mucosal
Mucosal layer is the layer in direct contact with food, composed of epithelial
tissue that covers the connective tissue. In this layer there are also goblet cells that
produce mucus to moisten the surface of the food in the digestive tract. In the
stomach and intestines, this highly developed part to expand the absorption surface.
b. Submucosal
Submucosal layer composed of connective tissue that connects muscle tissue
with mucosal tissue. In this network there are many blood vessels, lymph vessels and
nerve tissue.
c. Muscularis externa
As the name implies, this layer is composed of two layers of smooth muscle
tissue, which are arranged in layers in a circular (circular), and the outer layer is
arranged in a longitudinal (lengthwise). Contraction of these two muscle layers
regularly cause peristalsis movement.

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d. Serous
Is a thin layer composed of loose connective tissue rich in blood vessels and
lymph vessels and fat tissue and epithelial layer of flattened as a coating (mesotel).
The main function of the epithelium lining the gastrointestinal tract is a selectively
permeable barrier between the contents of the gastrointestinal tract and tissues,
facilitate transfor and digestion of food, improve digestion and absorption of products
it produces hormones that affect the activity of the digestive system. The cells in this
layer produces mucus (mucus) or are involved in the digestion or absorption of food.
Many limfonoduli in the lamina propria and submucosal layers protect the organism
(together epithelium) of bacterial invasion.
Digestive tract is a channel that receives food from outside and prepare to be
absorbed by the body by the digestive process (mastication, swallowing and
pencempuran) with enzymes and liquid substances which spread from mouth (oris) to
the anus.
2.4 Sequence channel digestion

Figure 2.1: gastrointestinal tract in humans

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a. Oris (mouth)
In the mouth of the digestive process occurs both physical and chemical
perpetually. The whole cavum oris limited by the mucosa membrane with stratified
squamous epithelium. Cavum oris front side is limited by a gap called the labium
rima oris superior et inferior as walls. Lateral cavum oris limited by the lower cheek
and floor of the mouth with the tongue there and as the roof is the palate. While the
dorsal side there is a relationship with pharynk which is called faucia hole. The roof
of the mouth consists of the hard palate and soft palate are lined by stratified
epithelium similar sprawl.
1. Hard palate (hard palate), composed of editorials palate and maxillary bone
front door, and more to the back consists of two bones of the palate.
2. The soft palate (the soft palate), which is located behind the hanging folds that
can move, composed of fibrous tissue and mucous membranes.
3. Palatine uvula is a small cone-shaped protrusion that extends downward from
the center of the lower limit of the soft palate.
Mucous membranes of the mouth covered with multi-layered epithelium,
located beneath the glands that secrete mucus smooth. This membrane is rich in blood
vessels and also contains sensory nerve endings end. On the outside of the mouth is
covered by skin and on the inside is covered by mucous membranes (mucosa).

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Figure 2.2: The parts of the mouth


In the mouth there is:
1. Tooth
In the digestive system to help in the process of cutting teeth, tore and grind food
into small particles.
Teeth are of two kinds, namely:
a. Deciduous teeth, began to grow in children aged 6-7 months. At the age of 2.5
years the number of 20 pieces is also called milk teeth
b. Permanent teeth (permanent teeth), grown on r umu 6-18 years, the numbers
are 32 pieces

Figure 2.3: From left to right = incisor, canine, premolare, and Molare

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1. incisors (incisors) for cutting food,


2. canine teeth (canines) to decide the food is hard and tough,
3. molars (premolare and Molare) serves to chew foods that have been cut.
Each tooth consists of pieces that stand out above the gingiva (gums), part of
the crown (corona), one or more nerve roots below the gingival that hold the tooth in
the socket bone called alveoli. Corona is covered by a very hard enamel, both these
coatings meet in the neck (cervical tooth). The inside of the tooth containing other
material called dentin, which surrounds the cavity containing the network known as
the pulp cavity. Pulp cavity extends to the apex of the root (root canal), where an
estuary (apical foramen) allows entry and exit of blood vessels, lymph vessels, and
nerves of the pulp cavity. Ligament (periodontal membrane) is collagen fibrous
structure that is embedded in tooth cementum which serves to hold tightly to the bone
socket (alveolar). (Guyton, AC and Hall, 1996)

Image 2.4: The structure of a tooth

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2. Tongue
The tongue is skeletal muscle mass is covered by mucous membrane the
structure varies according to the region observed. Tongue serves to feel the taste
of food, to mix food being chewed, as well as to assist in the process of
swallowing food. Muscle fibers crossing each other in the three fields that join
the files, usually separated by connective tissue. Tightly attached to the mucous
membranes in the muscle, because the connective tissue of the lamina propria
infiltrate into the gaps between bundles of muscle. At the bottom surface of the
tongue mucosa slippery. The dorsal surface of the tongue irregular, dianterior
covered many small bumps called papillae which are used to sense food into the
mouth. A third of the posterior part of the dorsal surface of the tongue is
separated from the two-thirds of the V-shaped boundary anteriornyaoleh Behind
this boundary surface of the tongue small lymphocytes groups: small groups
limfonodulli and the lingual tonsil, with limfonodulli gathered around
invaginations (crypts) from, mucous membranes.

Figure 2.5: The tongue of man who used to feeling

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3. Gland Saliva
Salivary glands (salivary) glands have ducts is called ductal wartoni and duct
stensoni. Salivary glands (salivary) produced in the oral cavity. In the vicinity of
the oral cavity there are 3 pieces of salivary glands namely:
a. Parotid gland, located at the bottom front of the ear in the mastoid process of
the left and right mandibular os, duct called ductal stensoni. This duct out of
the parotid gland leading to the oral cavity through the cheek
b. Submaxillary gland, located under the rear of the oral cavity, duct called
ductal wartoni
c. Sublingual gland, located beneath the mucous membranes of the oral cavity
basis, empties into the base of the oral cavity
These three pairs of glands produce saliva 1.2 liters a day whose function is to
assist in the process of digestion, namely as to wet food so Medah digested. In saliva
also contained ptialin and amylase enzymes that function memcah starch into
maltose. Also in salivary immunoglobulin A, which contained also serves to lower
the amount of bacteria that enter the mouth.

Figure 2.6: The salivary glands

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b. The pharynx (throat)


A transition between the oral cavity, respiratory system and digestive system,
forming a connection between the nasal and pharyngeal. Pharynx lined by flattened
epithelium-lined mucosa types, except in areas that are not part respiration experience
friction. This last area is covered by stratified cylindrical ciliated epithelial goblet
cell. Pharynx has tonsils, pharynx mucosa has many small mucous glands in the
dense connective tissue. Constructors and longitudinal muscular pharynx located
outside this layer.
Pharynx consists of:
1. Nasopharynx (superior part), have the same height with the nose. In
nasopharyngeal tube that connects the pharynx leads to the eardrum space.
2. Oropharynx (media section), equal parts by mouth. This section bounded
forward to at the root of the tongue.
3. Laringofaring (inferiorly), part of the same height as the larynx. This section
connects the oropharynx with the larynx.

Figure 2.7: part of the pharynx


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Ingestion (deglutisi) move food from the pharynx to the esophagus.


Swallowing action includes three phases:
1. Phase voluntary
Tongue pressed hard palate when the jaws are closed and direct bolus toward
the oropharynx.
2. Pharyngeal phase
Bolus of food in the pharynx stimulating receptors that send impulses to the
oropharyngeal swallowing center in the medulla and lower brain stem. Reflex
that occurs is closing all holes except the esophagus so that food can enter.
3. Phase esophagus
Lower esophageal sphincter, a narrow area of the smooth muscle in the lower
end of the esophagus in a tone that is a constant contraction, relaxation after a
peristaltic wave and allows food pushed into the stomach. Sphincter then
contraction to prevent regurgitation (reflux) of gastric contents into the
esophagus.

Figure 2.8: Phase ingestion in the pharynx to the esophagus

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c. Esophagus (gullet)
The esophagus is the tube that connects the throat to the stomach, approximately
25 cm in length, ranging from the pharynx to the entrance cardiac under the hull. The
esophagus is located behind the trachea and in front of the spine, after a penetrating
thoracic diaphragm into the abdomen connects to the stomach. Esophagus mainly
serves to deliver material that is eaten from the pharynx to the stomach. Most are in
mediastium, after going through the diaphragm into the abdominal cavity to the
stomach empties. He lined by stratified epithelium layer of flattened without horns.
Preformance submucosal mucous glands are grouped small, ie esophageal gland. In
the lamina propria are grouped near the gastric glands called esophageal cardia glands
also produce mucus. At the distal end of the esophagus, muscle layer composed of
smooth muscle fibers, in the middle there is a mix of striped muscle fibers (order) and
smooth muscle fibers, the proximal end there is a skeletal muscle fiber. Only part of
the esophagus in the peritoneal cavity is covered by serosa. The rest was covered in a
layer of connective tissue called the adventitia Linggar.

Figure 2.9: Cross section of the esophagus


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d. Ventricle (stomach)
Gastric or stomach is shaped enlargement of the digestive tract as a bag. In the
empty space inside is not much bigger than the space intestine. Food and beverages
will esophagus empties into the cardia. On the left cardia, ventriculus wall slightly
enlarged, where there ventriculli fundus. Side of the curve on the right and left
respectively referred to as carvatura minor and major carvatura. Both sides of this
limit anterior surface facies and facies posterior. The biggest part is the corpus
ventriculli that continue themselves with narrow called the pylorus ventriculli.
Furthermore ventriculli pylorus will lead in the duodenum.

Anatomy
Gastric located oblig from left to right as they intersect at right upper abdomen

below the diaphragm. In an empty stomach tube shaped like the letter J and when
fully shaped like a giant avocado. Normal capacity of the stomach of one to two
liters. Anatomically divided into the
fundus of the stomach, corpus and
antrum pylorus.

Figure 2.10: Structure of the anatomy of the


stomach.
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The composition of the stomach lining from inside to outer, consisting of:
1. Mucous membrane lining. when the stomach is emptied, this layer will folds
called rugae.
2. Circular muscle layer (auricular musculus)
3. Layer oblique muscle (musculus obliqus)
4. Muscle layer length (longitudinal musculus)
5. Connective tissue layer / serosa (peritoneum)

Figure 2.11: The cross section of the stomach wall


The function of the stomach, according to Price, Sylvia, A, et al, (1995)
namely:
1) Motor function consisting of:

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a. The function of the reservoir. Storing food until the food is slowly digested
and move the gastrointestinal tract.
b. Mixing function. Break down food into small particles and mixed with gastric
juice through muscle contractions that enveloped him.
c. The function of gastric emptying. Regulated by the opening of the pyloric
sphincter, which is governed by the viscosity, volume, acidity, osmotic
activity, physical condition, as well as by emotion, drugs and labor. Gastric
emptying is regulated by neural and hormonal factors.
2) The function of digestion and secretion

Digest protein by pepsin and HCl, starch by amylase and fat by lipase.

Synthesis and release of gastrin.

Secretion of intrinsic factor enables the absorption of vitamin B12 from the
distal part of the small intestine.

Mucus secretion., As protector of the stomach and lubrication of food to be


easily transported.

In addition to mechanical digestion, chemical digestion occurs in the stomach


with the help of chemical compounds produced by the stomach. Chemical
compounds produced gastric it is:
1. Cloride acid (HCl)
Is a strong acid that can dissolve the zinc. The role of hydrochloric acid is change
pepsinogen into pepsin. Pepsinogen is a form of the enzyme pepsin that are not yet
active. In addition, hydrochloric acid can also kill the germs that enter with food.
Hydrochloric acid causes gastric pH is low (acidic). So in Intestine no carbohydrate
digestion.

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2. Pepsin
Are enzymes that initiate the hydrolysis of proteins into short polypeptides.
Pepsin break peptide bonds adjacent to a particular amino acid, so cut up proteins into
smaller polipetida.
3. Lipase
Break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol. However lipase produced very
little.
4. Renin
Functioning precipitate milk protein (casein) of milk. Without renin, casein can
not digest so it slip by.
Within a day of the stomach produces 3 liters of gastric juice. So that is not
digested by the stomach wall gastric juice, gastric wall covered by a thick layer of
mucus. Kalauoun ingested, gastric replace damaged cells with millions of new cells
every minute. The presence of gastric ulcer, injury to the lining of the stomach,
caused mainly by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and acid-tolerant can be treated
with such antibiotic. However peptic ulcers can get worse if pepsin and acid damage
the surface faster than regeneration.
Approximately every 20 seconds, the stomach contents are mixed through the
work of smooth muscle contraction. As a result of the mixing and the action of the
enzyme, the new food ingested nutrients will be mush known as acid kim. In most of
his time, the stomach will be closed at one end. The opening of the esophagus to
intestine, normally dilated heart hole only when a bolus is driven by peristalsis up.
Sometimes backflow of stomach acid kim into the lower end of the esophagus will
cause a burning sensation in the heart. (If backflow it is a persistent problem, ulcers
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can develop in the esophagus). Heart hole will open occasionally with the coming
wave of peristalsis which sends bolus. At the opening of the stomach smooth keusus
there pyloric sphincter, which helps regulate the flow of kim into the small intestine.
It takes 2 to 6 hours after eating to singe stomach because kim flowed a little.
e. Intestinal minor (intestine fine): duodenum (intestine 12 fingers), jejenum
and Ileum

Anatomy
Small bowel or intestine minor is a complex tube, folds, and extending from

the pylorus for the valve ileocecal (cecum), is the longest canal where the process of
digestion and absorption of products of digestion. The length of the small intestine in
people living about 12 feet (3.6 m) and almost 22 feet (6.6 m) in cadaveric (due to
relaxation).

Figure 2.12: part human intestine.

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The small intestine is composed of:


a. The duodenum
Also called intestine 12 fingers, approximately 25 cm long, horseshoe-shaped
curve to the left, the arch there are pancreas. On the right side there are duodenal
mucus membranes of a hill called the papilla of Vateri. In the papilla of Vateri
empties bile duct (choledochal duct) and pancreatic duct (pancreatic duct). Duodenal
wall has a layer that contains a lot of mucous glands. Brunner glands that function to
produce sap intestine.

Figure 2.13: Part of the duodenum


b. jejunum and ileum
Jejunum and ileum has a length of about 6 m. two-fifths of the top is the
jejunum with a length of 23 m and a length of 4-5 m ileum with. indentation jejunum
and ileum attached to the posterior abdominal wall by means of a fan-shaped fold of
peritoneum known as the mesentery. The root of the mesentery allow exit and entry
of the branches of the superior mesenteric artery and veins, lymph vessels and nerves
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into the space between the two layers of peritoneum which forms the mesentery. The
connection between the jejunum and ileum did not have clear boundaries. The lower
end of the ileum associated with the cecum through the hole named orifice
ileosekalis. This orifice is reinforced by the sphincter ileosekalis and in this section
there sekalis valvula valve which serves to prevent fluid in the ascending colon did
not go back into the ileum.

Figure 2.15: part of the ileum

Physiology
Chemical digestion of food in the small intestine occurs in alkaline conditions.

The process is as follows:


a. Foods derived from the acidic conditions of the stomach and will be
neutralized by bicarbonate from the pancreas.
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b. Food is now in the small intestine and then digested in accordance substance
content. Food from the group of carbohydrates are digested by pancreatic
amylase into the disaccharide. Disaccharide later elaborated by disakaridase
into monosaccharides, ie glucose. Glukaosa products of digestion and then
absorbed by the small intestine, and circulated throughout the body by the
bloodstream.
c. Food from the group after dilambung digested proteins into peptones, peptone
will then be described by the enzyme trypsin, chymotrypsin, and Erepsin into
amino acids. Amino acids and then absorbed by the intestine and circulated
throughout the body by the bloodstream.
d. The food from the fat group, will first be dissolved (emulsified) by the liver
bile produced into granules and fat (fatty droplets). Fat droplets then described
by lipase into fatty acids and glycerol. Fatty acids and glycerol then absorbed
by the intestine and circulated to the heart by lymph vessels.

Figure 2.16: Cross-section of Human Intestinal Smooth


Absorption of food takes place entirely digested in the small intestine through
two channels, namely capillary blood vessels and lymphatics adjacent to the surface
of the intestinal villi. A villus contains lacteals, vascular epithelium and muscle tissue

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are tied together by lymphoid tissue and the basement membrane covered entirely
covered by epithelium. Because out of the villi of the intestinal wall, then come into
contact with liquid food and fat that is absorbed into the lacteals then walk through
the lymph vessels into the blood capillaries in the villi and the portal vein to the liver
brought to undergo some changes.
The function of the small intestine include:
1. Receive substances already digested food to be absorbed through the blood
capillaries and lymphatics,
2. Absorb protein in the form of amino acids,
3. Carbohydrates are absorbed in the form of monosaccharides.
In the small intestine are intestinal lymph glands that produce the perfect
food:
1. Enterokinase, activate proteolytic enzymes,
2. Eripsin, enhance protein digestion into amino acids,
a. Lactase convert lactose into monosaccharides,
b. Mengubahmaltosa maltose into monosaccharides,
c. Sucrose convert sucrose into monosaccharides.

f. Intestinal major (intestine Large)


The large intestine or colon-shaped hollow muscular tube with a length of
about 1.5 m (5 ft) extending from the cecum to the anal canal. The diameter of the
large intestine is certainly larger than the small intestine, which is about 6,5cm (2.5
inches), but the closer anus smaller diameter. The large intestine is divided into three
regions, namely: the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and.
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Colonic function is:


a. Absorb water during the digestive process.
b. Place it produces vitamin K, and vitamin H (biotin) as a result of symbiosis
with gut bacteria, for example E.coli.
c. Forming faecal mass
d. Encourage the rest of the food products of digestion (feces) out of the body.
Didefekasi stools from the body.

Figure 2.17: The cross section of major intestinal


1. Cecum
Under the appendix vermiformis cecum are shaped like a worm that is also
called the appendix, length 6 cm. Entirely covered by the peritoneum, easy to move
despite not having mesentrium and can be felt through the abdominal wall to the
people who are still alive.
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2. Ascending colon
Length 13 cm, located at the bottom right side of the abdomen, stretching
upwards from the bottom of the ileum to the liver. Under careful curved to the left,
this arch is called the hepatic flexure, transverse colon followed as.
3. Transverse colon
+ 38 cm in length, stretching from the ascending colon to the descending
colon are under the abdomen, right side there is a hepatic flexure and the left are the
splenic flexure.
4. Descending colon
+ 25 cm in length, located under the left side of the abdomen lengthwise from
top to bottom and front to the splenic flexure to the left ileum, concatenated with the
sigmoid colon.
5. Sigmoid colon
The sigmoid colon is a continuation of the descending colon, located in the
pelvic cavity tilted to the left, its shape resembles the letter S, associated with the
lower end of the rectum.
g. Rectum and Anus
A disposal pit feces from the body. Before being discharged through the anus,
feces collected prior to the rectum. If the stool is ready to be discarded, the sphincter
muscle of the rectum regulate the opening and closing of the anus. Rectal sphincter
muscles that make up the existing 2, namely smooth muscle and striated muscle.

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Figure 2:18: The structure of the anus and rectum


The anus is part of the digestive tract that connects the rectum to the outside
world (outside air). Located in the pelvic floor, the walls are reinforced by 3
sphincter:

The internal anal sphincter (top), work is not according to the will,

Levator ani sphincter, work also is NO according to the will,

The external anal sphincter (lower), working for the will.


Defecation (bowel) is preceded by transport stool in the rectum resulting rectal

wall tension resulting stimulus for defecation reflex, whereas other intestinal muscles
to contract. M. Levator ani voluntarily relaxation and stress caused by the muscles of
the abdomen.

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2.5 Digestive Gland


a. Salivary gland

Glands (glands) parotid

Glands (glands) submaxillary

Glands (glands) sublingual

b. Gastric lymph nodes

Cardiacae glands, produce mucus

Gastricae glands, produce pepsin and gastric acid (HCl)

Pyloricae glands, produce hormones

c. Heart
Liver or liver is the largest organ in our body, brown, and weighs + 1 kg. Its
location, in the upper right abdominal cavity below the diaphragm. The liver is
divided into two main layers: the upper surface convex, located below the diaphragm
and below the surface uneven and show fissures tranversus indentation.
Longitudinal fissure separates the right and left hemisphere at the top of the
heart, liver further divided into 4 parts: the right lobe, lobe kirir, kaudata lobe, and
the lobe Quadratus . hepatic artery , out of the aorta and give 1/5 of blood to the
liver, the blood has a saturation 95% - 100%, goes to the liver will form a network of
capillary after meeting with venous capillaries, finally emerged as the hepatic vein.
Vena porta , which is formed from the splenic and superior vena mesentrika 4/5
deliver blood to the heart. Blood has a saturation of 70%, because some of the oxygen

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has been taken up by the lymph and intestines. This blood to carry nutrients to the
liver that has been absorbed by the intestinal mucosa and smooth. The magnitude of
approximately 1 mm in diameter. Separated from one another by connective tissue
that makes blood vessels branch into the liver, portal vein branch of the hepatic artery
and bile duct by a bandage wrapped together and form a port channel.
Blood coming from the portal vein, close contact with the liver cells and each
lobule disaluri by a blood vessel or capillary hepatic sinusoid. Fine blood vessels
running between the liver lobules, called venous interlobuler . From the side branches
into the material capillary lobules, which lobuler vein . The blood vessels in other
veins drain blood called sublobuler veins , which together form the hepatic vein and
directly into the inferior vena cava vene. Bile is formed in a small cell in between
cells in the liver through the bile capillaries smooth / korekuli .
The materials include glycogen fat, vitamins, iron, oil-soluble vitamins, or fat
stored in the liver. The liver helps maintain body temperature because of the breadth
of this organ and the number of metabolic activity that takes place resulting in a lot of
blood flow through this organ which raises body temperature.

Figure 2.19: Structure of the liver

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d. Gall bladder
An eggplant-shaped bag and a muscular membrane, located in senuah lobes
on the bottom surface of the liver to the front edge, 8-12 cm long, with a capacity of
60 cm 3 . bile layer consists of an outer layer of serous / parietal, striped muscle layer,
the inner layer of mucous / visceral also called mucous membranes.
Cystic duct, approximately 3.5 cm in length running from the curve of
hepatic bile ducts associated with bile duct into the duodenum form. Sterkobilin give
color to the urine called urobilin. gallbladder or gallbladder is a small muscular sac
that serves to store bile (greenish-yellow digestive fluid produced by the liver). The
bile flow from the liver through the left and right hepatic duct, and the two combine
to form The main hepatic duct. The main hepatic duct joins the channel from the
gallbladder (cystic duct) formed the main bile duct. The main bile duct into the
intestine at the top of the sphincter of Oddi, which is located a few centimeters below
the hull. About half the bile laid within hours- hours eating and flowed through the
cystic duct into the gallbladder. The rest flows directly into the main bile duct,
leading to the small intestine. If we eat, the gallbladder to contract and empty the bile
into the intestine to help digest fats and certain vitamins.
Parts of the gallbladder:

Felea bladder fundus, is part of the most recent gall bladder after bladder felea
corpus.

Fundus felea bladder, part of the gall bladder that contains bile.

Bladder neck, the neck of the gallbladder is the first channel entry of bile into
the gallbladder,

Cystic duct, approximately 3.25 cm in length running from the neck of the
gallbladder and continued with hepatic duct, forming bile duct into the
duodenum.
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Hepatic duct, the duct out of the neck.

Koledoktus duct, the duct that carries into the duodenum.

Figure 2.20: Part bile


Bile, a fluid that is secreted daily by the liver cells are produced every day
500-1000 cc, secretion runs continuously, the amount of production increased during
the digestion of fats.
e. Pancreas
A set of nodes that are structurally very similar to the salivary glands, length
approximately 15 cm, width 5 cm from the duodenum to the spleen and weighs an
average of 60-90 grams. Lie in the ventral pancreas lumbar belqakang I and II in the
stomach.
Part of the pancreas: head of the pancreas, located on the right side of the
abdominal cavity and in the curve of the duodenum were circling. Body of the
pancreas, a major part of this organ, located behind the stomach and in front of the
first vertebra umbalis. The tail of the pancreas, part spiky left touching the spleen.
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Results of pancreatic secretion:

The hormone insulin, the hormone insulin into the blood flowed directly
without passing through the duct. Gland cells that produce insulin, including
cell = cell endocrine glands. A collection of these cells are shaped like islands,
called islands of Langerhans.

Pancreatic juice. The cells that produce pancreatic juice includes exocrine
glands. Pankereas sap is sent into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct.
This duct empties into the papilla of Vater which is located on the wall of the
duodenum.
The pancreas receives blood from the arteries pankreatika and drain the

blood to the inferior vena cava through the vein pankreatika. Pancreatic tissue
composed of lobules of secretory cells arranged around the subtle channels. This
channel from the connection tiny channels of lobules located in the pancreatic tail and
runs through the body of the pancreas from left to right. This small channel to receive
channels from other lobules and then come together to form the main channel
wirsungi duct. (Faradillah, Word, and Anita, 2009)

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Figure 2.21: The cross section and pancreas


Pancreatic function:

Exocrine function, forming pancreatic juice containing enzymes and


electrolytes.

Endocrine function, a small group of cells that form the epithelium of the
small islands or islands of Langerhans, which together form an endocrine
organ that secretes insulin.

The function of the external secretion, pancreatic fluid flowed into the
duodenum which is useful for the process of digestion in the intestine.

Function of internal secretion, secretion produced by the islands of


Langerhans itself directly channeled into the bloodstream. Secretions called
hormones insulin and glucagon. Hormones are brought into the network to
help the metabolism of carbohydrates.

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2.6 Digestive System Disorders

Appendicitis : Appendicitis.

Diarrhea : Highly liquid stool that is too fast due to peristalsis.

Constipation : Difficulties in the process of defecation (bowel movements)

Maldigesti : Much to eat or eat a substance that

Parotitis : Infection of the parotid gland is also called Mumps

Gastritis : Inflammation "on the wall of the stomach, generally caused by

stimulates the stomach.

Helicobacter pylori infection

Xerostomia: the production of saliva, which is very little

Caries : Dental caries (cavity) are decayed areas in the teeth, which occurs as
a result of a process that gradually dissolve the enamel (the outer surface of
the tooth hard) and continues to expand into the inside of the tooth. If not
treated by a dentist, dental caries will continue to grow and eventually lead to
tooth loss.

Depending on the location, tooth decay can be divided into:


1. Decay slippery surface / flat
A type of decay of the most preventable and reversible, the slowest growth. A
caries begins as a white spot where bacteria dissolve the calcium of the email. This
type of decay is usually started at the age of 20-30 years.
2. Decompotion holes and grooves
Usually starts at teens, on a fixed gear and growing fast. Formed on the back
teeth, which is in the narrow grooves in the surface of the teeth to chew and the part
dealing with the cheek teeth. This area is difficult to clean because the curve is
narrower than the hairs on the toothbrush.
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3. Decompotion tooth root


Starting as a bone-like tissue, which wraps the root surface (cementum). Usually
occurs in late middle age. This decay occurs because patients often have difficulty in
cleaning the tooth root area and because of the sugar-rich foods. Root rot is the most
difficult type of decay is prevented.
4. Decompotion in the email
Decay occurs in the outermost layer of the teeth and hard, grow slowly. After
penetrating into the second layer (dentine, softer), the decay will spread faster and get
into the pulp (the innermost layer of the tooth that contains nerves and blood vessels).
It takes 2-3 years to penetrate the enamel, but the journey from the dentin to the pulp
only takes 1 year. because it is derived from the root decay in dentin can damage a
variety of tooth structure in a short time.
Things that favor the occurrence of dental caries:

sensitive teeth, the tooth that contains little fluorine or have holes,
indentations and grooves that hold the plaque

bacteria, the mouth contains large amounts of bacteria, but only certain types
of bacteria that cause tooth decay. The most frequent is the bacterium
Streptococcus mutans

leftovers.

Under normal circumstances, there are bacteria in the mouth. These bacteria
convert all foods (especially sugar and carbohydrates) into acid. Bacteria, acid,
food debris and saliva combine to form a sticky substance called plaque on the
teeth. plaque is most prevalent in the back molars. If not cleaned, the plaque will

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form a mineral called tartar (calculus, tartar). Plaque and calculus can irritate the
gums causing gingivitis.
Disorders of the digestive system may be caused by the wrong diet, bacterial
infections, and digestive tract disorders. Among these disorders are diarrhea,
constipation, stomach ulcers, peritonitis, colic, until the infection of the appendix
(appendicitis).
a. Diarrhea
If kim from the stomach flows into the intestine too quickly then defecation
becomes more frequent with feces that contain a lot of water. Such a situation is
called diarrhea. The cause of diarrhea among other anxiety (stress), certain foods, or
organisms that injure the intestinal wall. Diarrhea in a long time leads to loss of water
and mineral salts, resulting in dehydration.
b. Constipation (constipation)
Constipation occurs when Kim went into the intestine very slowly. As a
result, the water is too much absorbed by the intestine, the stool becomes hard and
dry. Constipation is caused by consuming less food in the form of fibrous plant and
meat eaters.
Several other disorders of the digestive system are as follows: peritonitis; is an
inflammation of the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum). Another annoyance is
indigestion from eating foods that stimulate the stomach, such as alcohol and chili
resulting in pain called colic. While the excessive production of HCl can cause
friction on the walls of the stomach and intestines, causing pain called gastric ulcers.
Friction is more pronounced when the stomach is empty due to irregular eating that
will ultimately lead to bleeding in the stomach. Other disorders of the stomach is

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gastritis or inflammation of the stomach. Can also be infected, causing inflammation


of the appendix is called appendicitis.
1. Goitre
Disease Mumps (Mumps or parotitis) is an infectious disease where someone is
infected by a virus (paramyxovirus) which attacks the salivary glands (parotid)
between the ear and jaw, causing swelling of the neck or cheek bottom. As for those
who are at greater risk for suffering or contracting this disease are those who use or
consume certain drugs to suppress the thyroid gland hormones and their iodine
deficiency in the body.
2. Xerostomia

Picture 2.24: Xerostomia


Xerostomia is a term for diseases of the oral cavity characterized by low
production of saliva. Dry mouth conditions that make food less digested properly.

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3. Gastric
Gastric wall mucus shrouded in which also contained the enzyme. If the defense
is damaged mucus, digestive enzymes will eat small portions of the surface layer of
the stomach. The results of this activity is the occurrence of peptic ulcers. Peptic
ulcers cause perforation of the stomach wall so that the stomach contents fall in the
abdominal cavity. Most gastric ulcer is caused by certain types of bacterial infections.
Peptic ulcers occur because of sores on the inside of the stomach wall. Then regularly
is highly recommended to reduce the risk of peptic ulcers.

Figure 2.23: bacterial cause of peptic ulcers

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4. Appendicitis
The appendix is appendicitis or intestinal tract clogged edges and protruding from
the early part of the colon or cecum (cecum). The appendix magnitude around the
little hands and is located in the lower right abdomen. The structure like other parts of
the intestine. However, it contains a lot of mucus glands that secrete mucus
constantly.

Picture 2.24 Appendictis


Obsrtuksi appendix that causes mucus produced mucosal unstoppable, the longer
the more unstoppable mucus and suppress the appendix wall edema and stimulate the
tunica serosa and visceral peritoneum. Therefore, the same as the gut innervation
appendix that thoracic X then the stimulus is perceived as pain around umblikus.
Mucus collected was then infected by the bacteria into pus, then raised venous
flow disturbances, whereas arterial undisturbed, resulting widespread inflammation
and about peritomium local parietal, causing pain right under, a condition called acute
suppurative appendicitis with. If then the flow is disrupted arteries arise allergens and
this is called the gangrenous appendicitis. If the wall has an acute appendix burst,
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called appendicitis perforation. When the adjacent bowel omentum can surround the
inflamed appendix or perforation will arise a local time, a condition termed as
appendicitis abscess. In the child - the child because the omentum is short and thin,
relatively longer appendix, the appendix wall thinner and endurance are still lacking,
as well as in the elderly because it has no blood vessel disorders, the perforation
occurs more rapidly. If this resolves infiltrates appendicitis symptoms disappear and
then arise in the future then there is a chronic appendicitis (Junaidi; 1982).
5. Gallstones

Picture 2.25: Gallstones


Gall stones are crystals deposited in the gallbladder or in the bile ducts. Stone
found in the gallbladder is called cholelithiasis, while stones in the bile ducts called
koledokolitiasis.
Gallstones are formed from cholesterol deposits, the pigment bilirubin and
calcium salts are hardened, but most gall bladder stones are formed from cholesterol.
In the gall bladder, stones can cause inflammation called acute kolestitis, this is
because of the broken gallstones in the bile ducts that cause pain. Stones through the

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gallbladder can be caught in the liver and bile ducts, thereby stopping the flow of bile
into the digestive tract. (Chandrasoma and Taylor, 2006)

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CHAPTER 3. CLOSING
3.1 Conclusion

The human digestive system is a collection of digestive organs in charge of


digesting food into simpler forms to be absorbed by the body.

The digestive organs such as the gastrointestinal tract and digestive gland.

The digestion process in humans can be divided into two kinds, namely:
1. Digestion mechanical
2. Digestion chemical

The composition of the digestive tract consists of:


a) Oris (mouth)
b) The pharynx (throat)
c) Esophagus (gullet)
d) Ventricle (stomach)
e) Minor intestine (small intestine): duodenum (intestine 12 fingers),
jejenum and Ileum
f) Major intestine (colon):
g) Cecum
o Ascending colon
o Transverse colon
o Descending colon
o Sigmoid colon
h) Rectum
i) Anus

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Digestive gland consists of:


1. Salivary gland
o Glands (glands) parotid
o Glands (glands) submaxillary
o Glands (glands) sublingual
o Gastric lymph nodes
2. Heart
3. Gall bladder
4. Pancreas

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REFFERENCES

Budianto, Anang. 2005. Guidance to Anatomy II. Surakarta : Keluarga besar asisten
anatomi FKUNS.
Chandrasoma san Taylor. 2006. Ringkasan Patologi Anatomi, E/2. Jakarta : EGC
Faradillah, Firman, dan Anita. 2009. Gastro Intestinal Track Anatomical Aspect.
Surakarta : Keluarga Besar Asisten Anatomi FKUNS.
Guyton, AC dan Hall. 1996. Buku Ajar Fisiologi Kedokteran, Ed ke-9. Jakarta : EGC
Sobotta. 2007. Atlas Anatomi Manusia, jilid 1,2,3. Jaakarta : EGC
Syaifuddin,

Drs.

2006.

ANATOMI

FISIOLOGI

UNTUK

MAHASISWA

KEPERAWATAN E/3. Jakarta : Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC

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