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Pythagoras theorem

, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras's theorem, is a relation


in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. It states that the
square of the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the
squares of the other two sides. The theorem can be written as an equation relating the
lengths of the sides a, b and c, often called the "Pythagorean equation":[1]

where c represents the hypotenuse and a and b the lengths of the triangle's other
two sides.
Although it is often argued that knowledge of the theorem predates him,[citation needed] the
theorem is named after the ancient Greek mathematician Pythagoras (c. 570 c. 495
BC) as it is he who, by tradition, is credited with its first recorded proof .He was
a Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, and founder of the religious movement
called Pythagoreanism. Most of the information about Pythagoras was written down
centuries after he lived, so very little reliable information is known about him.
Pythagoras made influential contributions to philosophy and religion in the late 6th
century BC. He is often revered as a great mathematician, mystic, and scientist and is
best known for the Pythagorean theorem which bears his name. However, because
legend and obfuscation cloud his work even more than that of the other pre-Socratic
philosophers, one can give only a tentative account of his teachings, and some have
questioned whether he contributed much to mathematics or natural philosophy

Fundamental thorem of calculus


Gottfried Leibniz was a German mathematician who developed the present day
notation for the differential and integral calculus though he never thought of the
derivative as a limit. His philosophy is also important and he invented an early
calculating machine.
Leibniz is credited, along with Sir Isaac Newton, with the discovery of calculus (that
comprises differential and integral calculus). According to Leibniz's notebooks, a
critical breakthrough occurred on November 11, 1675, when he employed integral
calculus for the first time to find the area under the graph of a function y = (x).[56] He
introduced several notations used to this day, for instance the integral sign
representing an elongated S, from the Latin word summa and the d used
for differentials, from the Latin word differentia. This cleverly suggestive notation for
the calculus is probably his most enduring mathematical legacy. Leibniz did not
publish anything about his calculus until 1684.[57] The product rule of differential
calculus is still called "Leibniz's law". In addition, the theorem that tells how and when
to differentiate under the integral sign is called the Leibniz integral rule
Theorem
The fundamental theorem of calculus is a theorem that links the concept of
the derivative of a function with the concept of the integral.

The first part of the theorem, sometimes called the first fundamental theorem of
calculus, is that the definite integration of a function[1] is related to its antiderivative,
and can be reversed by differentiation. This part of the theorem is also important
because it guarantees the existence of antiderivatives for continuous functions.[2]
The second part, sometimes called the second fundamental theorem of calculus, is
that the definite integral of a function can be computed by using any one of its
infinitely many antiderivatives. This part of the theorem has key practical applications
because it markedly simplifies the computation of definite integrals.
For a continuous function y = f(x) whose graph is plotted as a curve, each value
of x has a corresponding area function A(x), representing the area beneath the curve
between 0 and x. The function A(x) may not be known, but it is given that it represents
the area under the curve.
The area under the curve between x and x + h could be computed by finding the area
between 0 and x + h, then subtracting the area between 0 and x. In other words, the
area of this sliver would be A(x + h) A(x).

The fundamental theorem of algebra


The fundamental theorem of algebra states that every non-constant singlevariable polynomial with complex coefficients has at least one complex root. This
includes polynomials with real coefficients, since every real number is a complex
number with zero imaginary part.
Equivalently (by definition), the theorem states that the field of complex
numbers is algebraically closed.
The theorem is also stated as follows: every non-zero, singlevariable, degree n polynomial with complex coefficients has, counted
with multiplicity, exactly nroots. The equivalence of the two statements can be proven
through the use of successive polynomial division.
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (/as/; German: Gau, pronounced [as] (
listen); Latin: Carolus Fridericus Gauss) (30 April 1777 23 February 1855) was
a German mathematician, who contributed significantly to many fields,
including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential
geometry, geodesy, geophysics, electrostatics,astronomy, Matrix theory, and optics.

Gauss pursued his studies at the University of Gottingen. While there he submitted a
proof that every algebraic equation has at least one root or solution. This theorem had
challenge

Four squares theorem


Lagrange's four-square theorem, also known as Bachet's conjecture, states that
any natural number can be represented as the sum of four integersquares.

where the four numbers


are integers. For illustration, 3, 31 and 310
can be represented as the sum of four squares as follows:

This theorem was proven by Joseph Louis Lagrange in 1770.


Joseph-Louis Lagrange (born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia [1][2][3] (also reported
as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrangia[4]), 25 January 1736 in Turin, Piedmont-Sardinia; died 10
April 1813 in Paris) was an Italian Enlightenment Eramathematician and astronomer.
He made significant contributions to the fields of analysis, number theory, and
both classical and celestial mechanics.
In 1766, on the recommendation of Euler and d'Alembert, Lagrange succeeded Euler
as the director of mathematics at the Prussian Academy of
Sciences in Berlin, Prussia, where he stayed for over twenty years, producing
volumes of work and winning several prizes of the French Academy of Sciences.
Lagrange's treatise on analytical mechanics (Mcanique Analytique, 4. ed., 2 vols.
Paris: Gauthier-Villars et fils, 188889), written in Berlin and first published in 1788,
offered the most comprehensive treatment of classical mechanics since Newtonand
formed a basis for the development of mathematical physics in the nineteenth
century.

Infitude of primes
Euclid's theorem is a fundamental statement in number theory that asserts that there
are infinitely many prime numbers. There are several well-known proofs of
the theorem.
Euclid offered the following proof published in his work Elements (Book IX,
Proposition 20),[1] which is paraphrased here.
Consider any finite list of prime numbers p1, p2, ..., pn. It will be shown that at least one
additional prime number not in this list exists. Let P be the product of all the prime
numbers in the list: P = p1p2...pn. Let q = P + 1. Then q is either prime or not:

If q is prime, then there is at least one more prime than is in the list.
If q is not prime, then some prime factor p divides q. If this factor p were on our
list, then it would divide P (since P is the product of every number on the list);
but p divides P + 1 = q. If p divides P and q, then p would have to divide the
difference[2] of the two numbers, which is (P + 1) P or just 1. Since no prime
number divides 1, this would be a contradiction and so p cannot be on the list.
This means that at least one more prime number exists beyond those in the list.

This proves that for every finite list of prime numbers there is a prime number not on
the list, and therefore there must be infinitely many prime numbers.
Euclid
Euclid /; Greek: Eukleids; fl. 300 BC), sometimes called Euclid of
Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclid of Megara, was a Greek mathematician,
often referred to as the "Father of Geometry". He was active in Alexandria during the
reign of Ptolemy I (323283 BC). His Elements is one of the most influential works in
the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for
teaching mathematics (especially geometry) from the time of its publication until the
late 19th or early 20th century.[1][2][3] In the Elements, Euclid deduced the principles of
what is now called Euclidean geometry from a small set of axioms. Euclid also wrote
works onperspective, conic sections, spherical geometry, number theory and rigor.

Pythagoras

Pythagoras theoram

Gottfreid lebinz

Fundamental theorem of algebra

Lagrange

Infinitude of primes