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in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. It states that the

square of the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the

squares of the other two sides. The theorem can be written as an equation relating the

lengths of the sides a, b and c, often called the "Pythagorean equation":[1]

where c represents the hypotenuse and a and b the lengths of the triangle's other

two sides.

Although it is often argued that knowledge of the theorem predates him,[citation needed] the

theorem is named after the ancient Greek mathematician Pythagoras (c. 570 c. 495

BC) as it is he who, by tradition, is credited with its first recorded proof .He was

a Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, and founder of the religious movement

called Pythagoreanism. Most of the information about Pythagoras was written down

centuries after he lived, so very little reliable information is known about him.

Pythagoras made influential contributions to philosophy and religion in the late 6th

century BC. He is often revered as a great mathematician, mystic, and scientist and is

best known for the Pythagorean theorem which bears his name. However, because

legend and obfuscation cloud his work even more than that of the other pre-Socratic

philosophers, one can give only a tentative account of his teachings, and some have

questioned whether he contributed much to mathematics or natural philosophy

Gottfried Leibniz was a German mathematician who developed the present day

notation for the differential and integral calculus though he never thought of the

derivative as a limit. His philosophy is also important and he invented an early

calculating machine.

Leibniz is credited, along with Sir Isaac Newton, with the discovery of calculus (that

comprises differential and integral calculus). According to Leibniz's notebooks, a

critical breakthrough occurred on November 11, 1675, when he employed integral

calculus for the first time to find the area under the graph of a function y = (x).[56] He

introduced several notations used to this day, for instance the integral sign

representing an elongated S, from the Latin word summa and the d used

for differentials, from the Latin word differentia. This cleverly suggestive notation for

the calculus is probably his most enduring mathematical legacy. Leibniz did not

publish anything about his calculus until 1684.[57] The product rule of differential

calculus is still called "Leibniz's law". In addition, the theorem that tells how and when

to differentiate under the integral sign is called the Leibniz integral rule

Theorem

The fundamental theorem of calculus is a theorem that links the concept of

the derivative of a function with the concept of the integral.

The first part of the theorem, sometimes called the first fundamental theorem of

calculus, is that the definite integration of a function[1] is related to its antiderivative,

and can be reversed by differentiation. This part of the theorem is also important

because it guarantees the existence of antiderivatives for continuous functions.[2]

The second part, sometimes called the second fundamental theorem of calculus, is

that the definite integral of a function can be computed by using any one of its

infinitely many antiderivatives. This part of the theorem has key practical applications

because it markedly simplifies the computation of definite integrals.

For a continuous function y = f(x) whose graph is plotted as a curve, each value

of x has a corresponding area function A(x), representing the area beneath the curve

between 0 and x. The function A(x) may not be known, but it is given that it represents

the area under the curve.

The area under the curve between x and x + h could be computed by finding the area

between 0 and x + h, then subtracting the area between 0 and x. In other words, the

area of this sliver would be A(x + h) A(x).

The fundamental theorem of algebra states that every non-constant singlevariable polynomial with complex coefficients has at least one complex root. This

includes polynomials with real coefficients, since every real number is a complex

number with zero imaginary part.

Equivalently (by definition), the theorem states that the field of complex

numbers is algebraically closed.

The theorem is also stated as follows: every non-zero, singlevariable, degree n polynomial with complex coefficients has, counted

with multiplicity, exactly nroots. The equivalence of the two statements can be proven

through the use of successive polynomial division.

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (/as/; German: Gau, pronounced [as] (

listen); Latin: Carolus Fridericus Gauss) (30 April 1777 23 February 1855) was

a German mathematician, who contributed significantly to many fields,

including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential

geometry, geodesy, geophysics, electrostatics,astronomy, Matrix theory, and optics.

Gauss pursued his studies at the University of Gottingen. While there he submitted a

proof that every algebraic equation has at least one root or solution. This theorem had

challenge

Lagrange's four-square theorem, also known as Bachet's conjecture, states that

any natural number can be represented as the sum of four integersquares.

are integers. For illustration, 3, 31 and 310

can be represented as the sum of four squares as follows:

Joseph-Louis Lagrange (born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia [1][2][3] (also reported

as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrangia[4]), 25 January 1736 in Turin, Piedmont-Sardinia; died 10

April 1813 in Paris) was an Italian Enlightenment Eramathematician and astronomer.

He made significant contributions to the fields of analysis, number theory, and

both classical and celestial mechanics.

In 1766, on the recommendation of Euler and d'Alembert, Lagrange succeeded Euler

as the director of mathematics at the Prussian Academy of

Sciences in Berlin, Prussia, where he stayed for over twenty years, producing

volumes of work and winning several prizes of the French Academy of Sciences.

Lagrange's treatise on analytical mechanics (Mcanique Analytique, 4. ed., 2 vols.

Paris: Gauthier-Villars et fils, 188889), written in Berlin and first published in 1788,

offered the most comprehensive treatment of classical mechanics since Newtonand

formed a basis for the development of mathematical physics in the nineteenth

century.

Infitude of primes

Euclid's theorem is a fundamental statement in number theory that asserts that there

are infinitely many prime numbers. There are several well-known proofs of

the theorem.

Euclid offered the following proof published in his work Elements (Book IX,

Proposition 20),[1] which is paraphrased here.

Consider any finite list of prime numbers p1, p2, ..., pn. It will be shown that at least one

additional prime number not in this list exists. Let P be the product of all the prime

numbers in the list: P = p1p2...pn. Let q = P + 1. Then q is either prime or not:

If q is prime, then there is at least one more prime than is in the list.

If q is not prime, then some prime factor p divides q. If this factor p were on our

list, then it would divide P (since P is the product of every number on the list);

but p divides P + 1 = q. If p divides P and q, then p would have to divide the

difference[2] of the two numbers, which is (P + 1) P or just 1. Since no prime

number divides 1, this would be a contradiction and so p cannot be on the list.

This means that at least one more prime number exists beyond those in the list.

This proves that for every finite list of prime numbers there is a prime number not on

the list, and therefore there must be infinitely many prime numbers.

Euclid

Euclid /; Greek: Eukleids; fl. 300 BC), sometimes called Euclid of

Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclid of Megara, was a Greek mathematician,

often referred to as the "Father of Geometry". He was active in Alexandria during the

reign of Ptolemy I (323283 BC). His Elements is one of the most influential works in

the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for

teaching mathematics (especially geometry) from the time of its publication until the

late 19th or early 20th century.[1][2][3] In the Elements, Euclid deduced the principles of

what is now called Euclidean geometry from a small set of axioms. Euclid also wrote

works onperspective, conic sections, spherical geometry, number theory and rigor.

Pythagoras

Pythagoras theoram

Gottfreid lebinz

Lagrange

Infinitude of primes

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