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U. E. Arslan, Z. Arvasi and G. Onarl

Abstract

We introduce the notion of an induced 2-crossed module, which extends the notion of an induced crossed module (Brown and Higgins).

Introduction

Induced crossed modules were defined by Brown and Higgins [3] and studied

further in paper by Brown and Wensley [5, 6]. This is looked at in detail in a

book by Brown, Higgins and Sivera [4]. Induced crossed modules allow detailed

computations of non-Abelian information on second relative groups.

To obtain analogous result in dimension 2, we make essential use of a 2crossed module defined by Conduche [7].

A major aim of this paper is to introduce induced 2-crossed modules

{ (L) , (M ) , Q, 2 , 1 }

which can be used in applications of the 3-dimensional Van Kampen Theorem,

[1].

The method of Brown and Higgins [3] is generalized to give results on

{ (L) , (M ) , Q, 2 , 1 } . However; Brown, Higgins and Sivera [4] indicate

a bifibration from crossed squares, so leading to the notion of induced crossed

square, which is relevant to triadic Hurewicz theorem in dimension 3.

Preliminaries

Throughout this paper all actions will be left. The right actions in some references will be rewrite by using left actions.

1.1

Crossed Modules

Crossed modules of groups were initially defined by Whitehead [12, 13] as models

for (homotopy) 2-types. We recall from [10] the definition of crossed modules

of groups.

A crossed module, (M, P, ), consists of groups M and P with a left action

of P on M , written (p, m) 7 p m and a group homomorphism : M P

CM 1)

(p m) = p (m) p1

and

(m)

CM 2)

n = mnm1

satisfies CM1.

If (M, P, ) and (M , P , ) are crossed modules, a morphism,

(, ) : (M, P, ) (M , P , ),

of crossed modules consists of group homomorphisms : M M and : P P

such that

(i) =

and

(ii) (p m) =

(p)

(m)

for all p P, m M.

Crossed modules and their morphisms form a category, of course. It will usually be denoted by XMod. We also get obviously a category PXMod of precrossed

modules.

There is, for a fixed group P , a subcategory XMod/P of XMod, which has

as objects those crossed modules with P as the base, i.e., all (M, P, ) for this

fixed P , and having as morphisms from (M, P, ) to (M , P , ) those (, ) in

XMod in which : P P is the identity homomorphism on P.

Some standart examples of crossed modules are:

(i) normal subgroup crossed modules (i : N P ) where i is an inclusion of

a normal subgroup, and the action is given by conjugation;

(ii) automorphism crossed modules ( : M Aut(M )) in which

(m) (n) = mnm1 ;

(iii) Abelian crossed modules 1 : M P where M is a P -module;

(iv) central extension crossed modules : M P where is an epimorphism

with kernel contained in the centre of M.

Induced crossed modules were defined by Brown and Higgins in [3] and

studied further in papers by Brown and Wensley [5, 6].

We recall from [4] below a presentation of the induced crossed module which

is helpful for the calculation of colimits.

1.2

be a crossed module. We define a subgroup

(N ) = N Q P = {(n, p) | v(n) = (p)}

is a commutative diagram

(N )

// N

v

P

// Q

diagonal, i.e. p (n, p) = ((p ) n, p pp1 ). It is easy to see that this gives a paction. Since

(n, p)(n1 , p1 )(n, p)1 = nn1 n1 , pp1 p1

= v(n) n1 , pp1 p1

= (p) n1 , pp1 p1

= v(n,p) (n1 , p1 ),

we get a crossed module (N ) = ( (N ), P, v) which is called the pullback

crossed module of N along . This construction satisfies a universal property,

analogous to that of the pullback of groups. To state it, we use also the morphism

of crossed modules

: (N ) N .

,

Theorem 2 For any crossed module M = (M, P, ) and any morphism of

crossed modules

(h, ) : M N

there is a unique morphism of crossed P -modules h : M (N ) such that

the following diagram commutes

MF

F

Fh

F""

(N )

N

v

P

%%//

// Q.

: XMod/Q XMod/P

which is a pullback functor. This functor has a left adjoint

: XMod/P XMod/Q

which gives a induced crossed module as follows.

1.3

Definition 3 For any crossed P -module M = (M, P, ) and any homomorphism : P Q the crossed module induced by from should be given

by:

(i) a crossed Q-module (M) = ( (M ),Q, ),

(ii) a morphism of crossed modules (f, ) : M (M) , satisfying the

dual universal property that for any morphism of crossed modules

(h, ) : M N

there is a unique morphism of crossed Q-modules h : (M ) N such that the

diagram

22 N

x<<

h

h x

x

x

// (M )

M

f

P

// Q

commutes.

Now we briefly explain this from Brown and Higgins, [3] as follows, (see also

[2]).

Proposition 4 Let : M P be a crossed P -module and let : P Q be a

morphism of groups. Then the induced crossed Q-module (M ) is generated,

as a group, by the set M Q with defining relations

(i) (m1 , q)(m2 , q) = (m1 m2 , q),

(ii) (p m, q) = (m, q(p)),

(iii) (m1 , q1 )(m2 , q2 )(m1 , q1 )1 = (m2 , q1 (m1 )q11 q2 )

for m, m1 , m2 M, q, q1 , q2 Q and p P.

The morphism : (M ) Q is given by (m, q) = q(m)q 1 , the

action of Q on (M ) by q (m, q1 ) = (m, qq1 ), and the canonical morphism

: M (M ) by (m) = (m, 1).

The crossed module ( (M ), Q, ), thus defined in Proposition 4, is called

the induced crossed module of (M, P, ) along .

If : P Q is epimorphism the induced crossed module ( (M ), Q, )

has a simplier description.

Proposition 5 ([3], Proposition 9) If : P Q is an epimorphism, and :

M P is a crossed module, then (M )

= M/[K, M ], where K =Ker, and

[K, M ] denotes the subgroup of M generated by all k mm1 for all m M, k K.

Two-Crossed Modules

homotopy 3-types.

with an action of P on all three groups and a mapping

{, } : M M L

which is often called the Peiffer lifting such that the action of P on itself is by

conjugation, 2 and 1 are P -equivariant.

1 m0 1

PL1 : 2 {m0 , m1 } = m0 m1 m1

m1

0

PL2 :

{2 l0 , 2 l1 } = [l0 , l1 ]

m0 m1 m1

0

PL3 : {m0 , m1 m2 } =

{m0 , m 2 } {m0 , m1 }

1 m0

{m0 m1 , m2 } =

m0 , m1 m2 m1

{m1 , m2 }

1

PL4 :

a) {2 l, m} = l m l1

b) {m, 2 l} = m l 1 m l1

p

PL5 :

{m0 , m1 } = {p m0 ,p m1 }

for all m, m0 , m1 , m2 M, l, l0 , l1 L and p P. Note that we have not specified

that M acts on L. We could have done that as follows: if m M and l L,

define

m

l = l 2 l1 , m .

From this equation (L, M, 2 ) becomes a crossed module.

We denote such a 2-crossed module of groups by {L, M, P, 2 , 1 } .

A morphism of 2-crossed modules is given by a diagram

L

f2

// M

f1

L

// M

// P

f0

// P

where f0 1 = 1 f1 , f1 2 = 2 f2

f1 (p m) =

f0 (p)

f1 (m) , f2 (p l) =

f0 (p)

f2 (l)

and

{, } (f1 f1 ) = f2 {, }

for all m M, l L and p P.

These compose in an obvious way giving a category which we will denote

by X2 Mod. There is, for a fixed group P , a subcategory X2 Mod/P of X2 Mod

which has as objects those crossed modules with P as the base, i.e., all

{L, M, P, 2 , 1 } for this fixed P , and having as morphism from {L, M, P, 2 , 1 }

to {L , M , P , 2 , 1 } those (f2 , f1 , f0 ) in X2 Mod in which f0 : P P is the

identity homomorphism on P.

are:

Suppose we have a 2-crossed module

L 2 M 1 P,

with extra condition that {m, m } = 1 for all m, m M. The obvious thing to

do is to see what each of the defining properties of a 2-crossed module give in

this case.

(i) There is an action of P on L and M and the s are P -equivariant. (This

gives nothing new in our special case.)

(ii) {, } is a lifting of the Peiffer commutator so if {m, m } = 1, the Peiffer

identity holds for (M, P, 1 ) , i.e. that is a crossed module;

(iii) if l, l L, then 1 = {2 l, 2 l } = [l, l ] , so L is Abelian

and,

(iv) as {, } is trivial 1 m l1 = l1 , so M has trivial action on L.

Axioms PL3 and PL5 vanish.

Examples of 2-Crossed Modules

M , generated by the Peiffer commutators

hm, m i = mm1 m1 1 m m

for all m, m M. Then

hM, M i 2 M 1 P

is a 2-crossed module with the Peiffer lifting {m, m } = hm, m i, [11].

2. Any crossed module gives a 2-crossed module. Given (M, P, ) is a crossed

module, the resulting sequence

LM P

is a 2-crossed module by taking L = 1. This is functorial and XMod can be considered to be a full category of XMod2 in this way. It is a reflective subcategory

since there is a reflection functor obtained as follows:

M

P, (c.f. [10]).

and there is an induced crossed module structure on 1 :

Im2

Another way of encoding 3-types is using the noting of a crossed square by

Guin-Walery and Loday, [9] .

Definition 6 A crossed square is a commutative diagram of group morphisms

L

N

// M

v

// P

(1) the maps f and u are P -equivariant and g, v, v f and g u are crossed

modules,

(2) f h(x, y) = xg(y) x1 , u h(x, y) =v(x) yy 1 ,

(3) h(f (z), y) = z g(y) z 1 , h(x, u(z)) =v(x) zz 1 ,

(4) h(xx , y) =v(x) h(x , y)h(x, y), h(x, yy ) = h(x, y)g(y) h(x, y ),

(5) h(t x,t y) =t h(x, y)

for x, x M , y, y N , z L and t P .

It is a consequence of the definition that f : L M and u : L N are

crossed modules where M and N act on L via their images in P . A crossed

square can be seen as a crossed module in the category of crossed modules.

Also, it can be considered as a complex of crossed modules of length one

and thus, Conduche [8], gave a direct proof from crossed squares to 2-crossed

modules. This construction is the following:

Let

f

// M

L

u

N

// P

crossed modules, the mapping cone of this square is a 2-crossed module

L 2 M N 1 P,

where 2 (z) = (f (z)1 , u(z)) for z L, 1 (x, y) = v(x)g(y) for x M and

y N, and the Peiffer lifting is given by

{(x, y), (x , y )} = h(x, yy y 1 ).

Of course, the construction of 2-crossed modules from crossed squares gives a

generic family of examples.

extends a pullback crossed module defined by Brown-Higgins, [3]. The importance of the pullback is that it enables us to move from crossed Q-module to

crossed P -module, when a morphism of groups : P Q is given.

Definition 7 Given a 2-crossed module {H, N, Q, 2 , 1 } and a morphism of

groups : P Q, the pullback 2-crossed module can be given by

(ii) given any morphism of 2-crossed modules

(f2 , f1 , ) : {B2 , B1 , P, 2 , 1 } {H, N, Q, 2 , 1 } ,

there is a unique (f2 , f1 , idP ) 2-crossed module morphism that commutes the

following diagram:

(B2 , B1 , P, 2 , 1 )

h

(f2 ,f1 ,idPh

) h h

h

(f2 ,f1 ,)

h h

ssh h h

// (H, N, Q, 2 , 1 )

( (H), (N ), P, 2 , 1 )

(idH , ,)

or more simply as

B2 G

B1 G

f2

//

yy H

y

y

G

y

yyyy

G

yyyyyidH

y

f2

G##

y

yy

2

(H)

// N

<y<

y

G

yy

G

yy

y

f1

G## yy

1

(N )

f1

// Q.

P GGG

x;;

GGGG

xx

GGGG

x

x

GGG

x

idP GG

GG xxx

P

monomorphism of groups then

2

1

H

(N )

P

(N ) = N Q P = {(n, p) | 1 (n) = (p)}

for all n N and p P.

Proof. Since 1 2 = 1, we have

(H) = {(h, p) | (p) = 1, }

= H ker

= H. Thus we can define a

morphism

2 : H (N )

given by 2 (h) = (2 h, 1), the action of (N ) on H by (n,p) h = n h, and the

morphism 1 : (N ) P is given

p) = p, the action of P on (N )

by p1 (n, (p)

p

(p)

1

and H by (n, p ) =

n, pp p

and h =

h respectively. Since

p

2 (h)

and

=

=

=

=

=

=

1 (p (n, p ))

(2 (h) , 1)

((p) 2 (h) , p1p1 )

((p) 2 (h), 1)

(2 (p) h , 1)

(2 (p h) , 1)

2 (p h)

= 1 (p) n, pp p1

= pp p1

= p1 (n, p ) p1

= p 1 (n, p ) ,

As 1 2 (h) = 1 (2 h, 1) = 1,

H (N ) P

is a normal complex of groups. The Peiffer lifting

{, } : (N ) (N ) H

is given by {(n, p) , (n , p )} = {n, n }.

PL1:

1 1 (n,p)

1

(n, p) (n , p ) (n, p)

(n , p )

p

= (n, p) , (n , p ) n1 , p1 n1 , p1

= (n, p) , (n , p ) n1 , p1 (p) n1 , pp1

p1

= nn n1 , pp p1 1 (n) n1 , pp1 p1

1

1 1

= nn n1 1 (n) n1 , pp

p pp p

1 1 (n) 1

= nn n

n

,1

= (2 {n, n } , 1)

= 2 {n, n }

= 2 {(n, p) , (n , p )} .

PL2:

{2 h, 2 h } =

=

=

{(2 h, 1) , (2 h , 1)}

{2 h, 2 h }

[h, h ] .

10

(ii)

(idH , , ) : {H, (N ), P, 2 , 1 } {H, N, Q, 2 , 1 }

or diagrammatically,

idH

(N )

// N

P

// Q

Suppose that

(f2 , f1 , ) : {B2 , B1 , P, 2 , 1 } {H, N, Q, 2 , 1 }

is any 2-crossed modules morphism

B2

f2

// B1

// P

f1

H

// N

// Q.

(f2 , f1 , idP ) : {B2 , B1 , P, 2 , 1 } {H, (N ), P, 2 , 1 }

B2

f2

// B1

f1

H

// (N )

// P

idP

// P

where f2 (b2 ) = f2 (b2 ) and f1 (b1 ) = (f1 (b1 ), 1 (b1 )) which is an element in

(N ). First let us check that (f2 , f1 , idP ) is a 2-crossed modules morphism.

For b1 , b1 B1 , b2 B2 , p P

idP (p)

f2

(b2 ) =

=

=

=

p

f2 (b2 )

(p)

f2 (b2 )

f2 (p b2 )

f2 (p b2 ) .

Similarly

idP (p)

f1 (b1 )

11

{, } (f1 f1 ) (b1 , b1 )

{, } ((f1 (b1 ), 1 (b1 )) , (f1 (b1 ), 1 (b1 ))

{f1 (b1 ), f1 (b1 )}

{, } (f1 f1 ) (b1 , b1 )

f2 {, } (b1 , b1 )

f2 {b1 , b1 }

f2 {b1 , b1 }

f2 {, } (b1 , b1 ) .

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

idH f2 = f2

and f1 = f1 .

: X2 Mod/Q X2 Mod/P

which gives our pullback 2-crossed module.

Corollary 9 Given a 2-crossed module {H, N, Q, 2 , 1 } and a morphism

: P Q of groups, there is a pullback diagram

idH

H

2

(N )

// N

1

P

// Q

3.1

subgroup and a morphism : P Q of groups. The pullback 2-crossed module

is

{{1} , G, Q, 1, i} = {{1}

(G), P, 2 , 1 } o

n , 1

=

{1} , (G), P, 2 , 1

as,

(G)

= {p P | (p) = g} = 1 (G) E P.

12

{1}

{1}

2 =1

1 (G)

// G

P

// Q.

({1})

= {p P | (p) = 1} = ker

= {1}

and so {{1}, {1}, P, 2, 1 } is a pullback 2-crossed module.

Also if is an isomorphism and G = Q, then (Q) = Q P.

Similarly when we consider examples given in Section 1, the following diagrams are pullbacks.

{1}

{1}

{1}

(Q)

// Q

N Ker

// N

Aut(P )

{1}

Aut

// Aut(Q)

P

// Q

concept of induced is given for crossed modules by Brown-Higgins in [3]. We

will extend it to induced 2-crossed modules.

: P Q, the induced 2-crossed module can be given by

(i) a 2-crossed module {L, M, P, 2 , 1 } = { (L) , (M ) , Q, 2 , 1 }

(ii) given any morphism of 2-crossed modules

(f2 , f1 , ) : {L, M, P, 2 , 1 } {B2 , B1 , Q, 2 , 1 }

13

then there is a unique (f2 , f1 , idQ ) 2-crossed modules morphism that commutes

the following diagram:

(L, M, P, 2 , 1 )

WWWWW

WWW(

WWW,WW,)

(f2 ,f1 ,)

WWWW

WWW++

_

o

o

_

_

_

_

_

( (L), (M ), Q, 2 , 1 )

(B2 , B1 , Q, 2 , 1 )

(f2 ,f1 ,idQ )

or more simply as

f2

// B2

L GG

x;;

GG

GG

x

GG

x f2

G##

2

(L)

2

f1

// B1

2

MG

;

;

GG

x

GG

x

GG

x

GG

## x f1

1

(M )

1

// Q.

P G

x

GG

GG

xxxxx

x

x

GG

x

xxxxxidQ

GGG

## xxxx

Q

The following result is an extention of Proposition 4 given by Brown-Higgins

in [3].

2

module where (M ) is generated as a group, by the set M Q with defining

relations

(m, q) (m , q) = (mm , q)

(p m, q) = (m, q(p))

and (L) is generated as a group, by the set L Q with defining relations

(l, q) (l , q) = (ll , q)

(p l, q) = (l, q(p))

for all l, l L, m, m , m M and q, q , q Q. The morphism 2 : (L)

(M ) is given by 2 (l, q) = (2 l, q) the action of (M ) on (L) by

(m,q)

(l, q) = (m l, q) , and the morphism 1 : (M ) Q is given by 1 (m, q) =

14

(m, qq ) and q (l, q ) = (l, qq ).

Proof. As 1 2 (l, q) = 1 (2 l, q) = q (1 2 l) q 1 = q (1) q 1 = 1,

2

(L) (M ) Q

is a complex of groups. The Peiffer lifting

{, } : (M ) (M ) (L)

given by {(m, q), (m , q)} = ({m, m } , q) .

PL1:

1 1 (m,q)

1

(m, q) (m , q) (m, q)

(m , q)

mm m1 , q

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

1 (m,q)

(ii)

( , , ) : {L, M, P, 2 , 1 } { (L) , (M ) , Q, 2 , 1 }

or diagrammatically,

// (L)

2

M

// (M )

1

P

m , q1 (m)q 1 q

1

mm m1 , q m

, q1 (m)

(m) 1

1

mm m1 , q

m ,q

1 1 (m) 1

mm m (

m ), q

(2 {m, m } , q)

2 ({m, m } , q)

2 {(m, q) , (m , q)} .

mm m1 , q

PL2:

{2 (l, q) , 2 (l , q)} = {(2 l, q) , (2 l , q)}

= ({2 l, 2 l } , q)

= ll l1 l1 , q

= (l, q) (l , q) l1 , q l1 , q

1

1

= (l, q) (l , q) (l, q) (l , q)

= [(l, q) , (l , q)] .

The rest of axioms of 2-crossed module is given in appendix.

m1 , q

// Q

15

Suppose that

(f2 , f1 , ) : {L, M, P, 2 , 1 } {B2 , B1 , Q, 2 , 1 }

is any 2-crossed modules morphism. Then we will show that there is a 2-crossed

modules morphism

(f2 , f1 , idQ ) : { (L) , (M ) , Q, 2 , 1 } {B2 , B1 , Q, 2 , 1 }

2

(L)

f2

// (M )

idQ

f1

B2

// Q

// B1

// Q.

can see this easily as follows:

f2 (q (l, q )) =

=

=

=

f2 (l, qq )

qq

f2 (l)

q

f2 (l)

(f2 (l, q )) .

f1 (2 l, q)

q

(f1 (2 l))

q

((2 f2 ) (l))

2 (q (f2 l))

2 (f2 (l, q))

(2 f2 ) (l, q)

(f1 2 ) (l, q) =

=

=

=

=

=

f2 {, } = {, } (f1 f1 ) .

morphism of groups. Then there is an induced diagram

L

// (L)

M

// (M )

P

// Q.

16

simplier description.

epimorphism with Ker=K. Then

(L)

= L/[K, L] and (M )

= M/[K, M ],

where [K, L] denotes the subgroup of L generated by {k ll1 | k K, l L} and

[K, M ] denotes the subgroup of M generated by {k mm1 | k K, m M }.

Proof. As : P Q is an epimorphism, Q

= P/K. Since Q acts on

L/[K, L] and M/[K, M ], K acts trivially on L/[K, L] and M/[K, M ], Q

= P/K

acts on L/[K, L] by q (l[K, L]) = pK (l[K, L]) = (p l) [K, L] and M/[K, M ] by

q

(m[K, M ]) = pK (m[K, M ]) = (p m) [K, M ] respectively.

1

2

M/[K, M ] Q

L/[K, L]

the action of M/[K, M ] on L/[K, L] by m[K,M] (l[K, L]) = (m l) [K, L]. As

1 2 (l[K, L]) = 1 (2 (l[K, L])) = 1 (2 (l) [K, L]) = 1 (2 (l)) K = 1K

= 1Q ,

2

M/[K, M ] Q is a complex of groups.

L/[K, L]

The Peiffer lifting

given by {m[K, M ], m [K, M ]} = {m, m } [K, L].

PL1:

2 {m[K, M ], m [K, M ]} =

=

=

=

=

=

=

2 {m, m } [K, L]

(2 {m, m }) [K, M ]

mm m1 1 m m1 [K, M ]

mm m1 [K, M ] 1 m m1 [K, M ]

m[M, K]m [K, M ]m1 [K, M ] 1 m m1 [K, M ]

m[K, M ]m [K, M ]m1 [K, M ] (1 mK) m1 [K, M ]

1 1 (m[K,M])

1

m[K, M ]m [K, M ] (m[K, M ])

(m [K, M ]) .

PL2:

{2 (l[K, L]) , 2 (l [K, L])}

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

{2 (l)[K, M ], 2 (l )[K, M ]}

{2 (l), 2 (l )} [K, L]

[l, l ][K, L]

ll l1 l1 [K, L]

(l[K, L]) (l [K, L]) l1 [K, L] l1 [K, L]

1

1

(l[K, L]) (l [K, L]) (l[K, L]) (l [K, L])

17

( , , ) : {L, M, P, 2 , 1 } {L/[K, L], M/[K, M ], Q, 2, 1 }

or diagrammatically,

// L/[K, L]

2

M

// M/[K, M ]

1

P

// Q

Suppose that

(f2 , f1 , ) : {L, M, P, 2 , 1 } {B2 , B1 , Q, 2 , 1 }

is any 2-crossed modules morphism. Then we will show that there is a unique

2-crossed modules morphism

(f2 , f1 , idQ ) : {L/[K, L], M/[K, M ], Q, 2, 1 } {B2 , B1 , Q, 2 , 1 }

L/[K, L]

f2

B2

// M/[K, M ]1

idQ

f1

// B1

// Q

// Q

f2 (k ll1 ) = f2 (k l)f2 (l1 ) = f2 (k l)f2 (l)1 =

(k)

f2 (l)f2 (l)1 =

f2 ([K, L]) = 1B2 and similarly f1 ([K, M ]) = 1B1 , thus f2 and f1 are well

defined.

First let us check that (f2 , f1 , idQ ) is a 2-crossed modules morphism. For

l[K, L] L/[K, L], m[K, M ] M/[K, M ] and q Q,

f2 (q (l[K, L])) = f2 pK (l[K, L])

= f2 ((p l)[K, L])

= f2 (p l)

= (p) f2 (l)

= pK f2 (l[K, L])

= q f2 (l[K, L]).

18

f1 2 (l[K, L]) = f1 (2 (l) [K, M ])

= f1 (2 (l))

= 2 (f2 (l))

= 2 f2 (l[K, L])

and 1 f1 = idQ 1 and

f2 {, } (m[K, M ], m [K, M ]) = f2 {m[K, M ], m [K, M ]}

= f2 ({m, m }[K, L])

= f2 {m, m }

= f2 {, }(m, m )

= {, } (f1 f1 ) (m, m )

= {f1 (m), f1 (m )}

= {f1 (m[K, M ]), f1 (m [K, M ])}

= {, } (f1 f1 ) (m[K, M ], m [K, M ]) .

So (f2 , f1 , idQ ) is a morphism of 2-crossed modules. Furthermore; following

equations are verified.

f2 = f2 and f1 = f1 .

So given any morphism of 2-crossed modules

(f2 , f1 , ) : {L, M, P, 2 , 1 } {B2 , B1 , Q, 2 , 1 } ,

then there is a unique (f2 , f1 , idQ ) 2-crossed modules morphism that commutes

the following diagram:

(L, M, P, 2 , 1 )

WWWWW

WWWW(

WWW,WW,)

(f2 ,f1 ,)

WWWWW

WWW++

(f2 ,f1 ,idQ )

19

or more simply as

f2

// B

L JJ

t:: 2

JJ

t

JJ

t

J

JJ

t

f

2

J$$

2

L/[K, L]

2

f1

// B1

2

MJ

:

:

t

JJ

t

JJ

t

JJ

JJ

t

$$ t f1

1

M/[K, M ]

1

// Q.

P JJ

t

JJ

tttt

JJ

ttttt

t

JJ

t

t

tt

JJ

Q

Then { (L), (M ), Q, 2 , 1 } is isomorphic to induced 2-crossed module of

L 2 M 1 P with .

module, let T be the left transversal of (P ) in H, and let B be the free product

of groups LT (t T ) each isomorphic with L by an isomorphism l 7 lt (l L)

and C be the free product of groups MT (t T ) each isomorphic with by M by

an isomorphism m 7 mt (m M ) . Let q Q act on B by the rule q (lt ) = (p l)u

and similarly q Q act on C by the rule q (mt ) = (p m)u , where p P, u T ,

and qt = u(p). Let

: BC

lt 7 2 (l)t

and the action of C on B by

and

(mt )

: CQ

mt 7 t (1 m) t1

(L) = B and (M ) = C

and the Peiffer lifting C C B is given by {mt , mt } = {m, m }t .

20

injection, an alternative description of the general (L) (M ) Q can

be obtained by a combination of the two constructions of Proposition 13 and

Proposition 15.

Now consider an arbitrary push-out square

{L0 , M0 , P0 , 2 , 1 }

// {L1 , M1 , P1 , 2 , 1 }

{L2 , M2 , P2 , 2 , 1 }

// {L, M, P, 2 , 1 }

(1)

P is the push-out of the group morphisms P1 P0 P2 . (This is because the

functor

{L, M, P, 2 , 1 } 7 (M/ , P, 1 )

from two crossed module to crossed module has a right adjoint (N, P, ) 7

{1, N, P, 1, } and the forgetful functor (M/ , P, 1 ) 7 P ) from crossed

module

to group where is the normal closure in M of the elements 1 m m mm1 m1

for m, m M has a right adjoint P 7 (P, P, Id).) The morphisms i :

Pi P (i = 0, 1, 2) in (1) can be used to form induced 2-crossed H-modules

Bi = (i ) Li and Ci = (i ) Mi . Clearly {L, M, P, 2 , 1 } is the push-out in

X2 Mod/P of the resulting P -morphisms

(B1 C1 P ) (B0 C0 P ) (B2 C2 P )

can be described as follows.

Proposition 17 Let (Bi Ci P ) be a 2-crossed P -module for i = 0, 1, 2

and let (L M P ) be the push-out in X2 Mod/P of P -morphisms

(1 ,1 ,Id)

(B1 C1 P ) oo

(2 ,2 ,Id)

// (B2 C2 P )

(B0 C0 P )

{, } : C C B

and the induced action of P on B and C. Then L = B/S, where S is the normal

closure in B of the elements

1

{ (b) , (b )} [b, b ]

1

1 cc c1

{c, c c } {c, c }

{c, c }

1 1 1

{cc , c } (c) {c , c }

c, c c c

1 1

{ (b) , c} c b1

b

(c) 1 1 c 1

b

{c, (b)}

( b)

1

p

{c, c } {p c,p c }

21

1

cc1 c1

{c, c } (c) c1

for b, b B, c, c , c C and p P.

In the case when {L2 , M2 , P2 , 2 , 1 } is the trivial 2-crossed module {1, 1, 1, id, id}

the push-out {L, M, P, 2 , 1 } in () is the cokernel of the morphism

{L0 , M0 , P0 , 2 , 1 } {L1 , M1 , P1 , 2 , 1 }

Cokernels can be described as follows.

Proposition

18 Q/P is

the push-out of the group morphisms 1 P Q.

, 2 , 1 be the induced from {A, G, P, 2 , 1 } by P Q/P . If

Let

A

,

G

,

Q/

P

1, 1, Q/P , id, 1 and

B/ P , B , H/ P , H , Q/P , 2 , 1

are the induced from {1, 1, 1, id, id} and {B, H, Q, 2 , 1 } by 1 Q/P and the

epimorphism Q Q/P then the cokernel of a morphism

(, , ) : {A, G, P, 2 , 1 } {B, H, Q, 2 , 1 }

is coker ( , ) , Q/P , 2 , 1 where ( , ) is a morphism of

(A , G ) B/ P , B , H/ P , H .

Appendix

1

PL3: a) (n,p)(n ,p )(n,p) {(n, p) , (n , p )} {(n, p) , (n , p )}

1

1

= (nn n ,pp p ) {n, n } {n, n } as definition of {, }

1

= nn n {n, n } {n, n }

as (n,p) h = n h

= {n, n n }

as {H, N, Q, 2 , 1 } X2 Mod

= {(n, p) , (n n , p p )}

as definition of {, }

= {(n, p) , (n , p ) (n , p )} .

n

o

1

1 (n,p)

(n, p) , (n , p ) (n , p ) (n , p )

{(n , p ) , (n , p )}

p

= (n, p) , n n n1 , p p p1

{(n , p ) , (n , p )} as definition of 1

1 p

= n, n n n

{n , n }

as definition of {, }

(p)

{n , n }

as p h = (p) h

= n, n n n1

1 (n)

{n , n }

as (n, p) (N ) , (p) = 1 (n)

= n, n n n1

= {nn , n }

as {H, N, Q, 2 , 1 } X2 Mod

= {(nn , pp ) , (n , p )}

= {(n, p) (n , p ) , (n , p )}

b)

22

PL4:

=

=

=

=

=

=

{(2 h, 1) , (n, p)} {(n, p) , (2 h, 1)}

{2 h, n} {n, 2 h}

h 1 (n) h1

h (p) h1

h p h1

h 1 (n,p) h1 .

PL5:n

as definition of 2

as definition of {, }

as {H, N, Q, 2 , 1 } X2 Mod

as (n, p) (N ), (p) = 1 (n)

as p h = (p) h

as definition of 1

(n, p) ,p (n , p )

n

o

1

1

( p )

(p )

=

n, p p (p )

n , p p (p )

n

o

(p ) (p )

n,

n

=

= (p ) {n, n }

= p {n, n }

= p {(n, p) , (n , p )}

i)

idH (p h) =

=

=

(p n, p ) =

=

=

by

(n, p) =

(p )

by definition of {, }

by {H, N, Q, 2 , 1 } X2 Mod

by p h = (p) h

definition of {, }

(p)

h

idH (h)

(p) n, pp p1

(p)

n

(p)

(n, p )

(p)

and (1 ) (n, p )

ii) ( 2 ) (h) = (2 h)

= (2 h, 1)

= 2 (h)

= 2 (idH h)

= (2 idH ) (h)

for (n, p ) (N ), h H, and p P.

{, } ( ) ((n, p), (n , p )) =

=

=

=

=

=

for all (n, p), (n , p ) (N ).

n, p pp1

=

=

=

=

=

1 ( (n, p ))

1 (n)

(p )

(1 (n, p ))

(1 ) (n, p )

{, } ( (n, p), (n , p ))

{, } (n, n )

{n, n }

idH ({n, n })

idH ({(n, p), (n , p )})

idH {, } ((n, p), (n , p ))

23

PL3:

a)

{(m, q) , (m , q) (m , q)}

= {(m, q) , (m m , q)}

=

({m, m m } , q)

=

=

=

=

b)

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

PL4:

a)

=

=

=

=

=

b)

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

PL5:

q

as (m, q) (m , q) = (mm , q)

as definition of {, }

{m, m } {m, m } , q

1

mm m

{m, m } , q ({m, m } , q)

(mm m1 ,q) ({m, m } , q) ({m, m } , q)

(m,q)(m ,q)(m,q)1

{(m, q) , (m , q)} {(m, q) , (m , q)}

mm m1

as {L, M, P, 2 , 1 } X2 Mod

as (m, q) (m , q) = (mm , q)

as

(m,q)

(l, q) = (m l, q)

{(m, q) (m , q) , (m , q)}

{(mm , q) , (m , q)}

({mm

, m } , q)

1 (m)

m, m m m1

{m , m } , q

1

m, m m m1 , q {m , m } , q1 (m)q q

m, m m m

, q ({m , m } , 1 (m, q)q)

1 (m,q)

m, m m m1 , q

({m , m } , q)

o1 (m,q)

n

(m, q) , (m , q) (m , q) (m , q)1

{(m , q) , (m , q)}

as (m, q) (m , q) = (mm , q)

as definition of {, }

as {L, M, P, 2 , 1 } X2 Mod

as (p m, q) = (m, q(p))

as definition of 1

as q (m, q) = (m, q q)

as definition of {, }

{(2 l, q) , (m, q)}

as definition of 2

({2 l, m}, q)

as definition of {, }

lm l1 , q

as

{L, M, P, 2 , 1 } X2 Mod

(l, q) m l1 , q

as (l, q) (l , q) = (ll , q)

(m,q)

1

(l, q)

(l, q)

as (m,q) (l, q) = (m l, q)

{(m, q) , 2 (l, q)}

{(m, q) , (2 l, q)}

as definition of 2

({m, 2 l} , q)

as definition of {, }

m 1 (m) 1

l

l

,q

as {L, M, P, 2 , 1 } X2 Mod

as (l, q) (l , q) = (ll , q)

(m l, q) 1 (m) l1 , q

m

1

p

( l, q) l , q1 (m)

as ( m, q) = (m, q(p))

m

1

1

( l, q) l , q1 (m)q q

(m l, q) l1 , 1 (m, q) q

as definition of 1

(m,q) 1

(m l, q) 1

l ,q

as q (l, q) = (l, q q)

(m,q)

(l, q) 1 (m,q) (l, q)1

as (m,q) (l, q) = (m l, q)

{(m, q) , (m , q)} =

=

=

=

({m, m } , q)

({m, m } , q q)

{(m, q q), (m , q q)}o

n

q

(m, q) ,q (m , q)

as definition of {, }

as q (m, q) = (m, q q)

as definition of {, }

as

(m, q) = (m, q q)

24

(p l) =

=

=

=

=

(2 ) (l)

(p l, 1)

as definition of

(l, 1(p)) as (p l, q) = (l, q (p))

(l, (p)1)

(p)

(l, 1) as q (l, q) = (l, q q)

(p)

(l) as definition of

= 2 ( (l))

= 2 (l, 1)

as definition of

= (2 l, 1)

as definition of 2

= (2 l)

as definition of

= ( 2 ) (l)

p

( m) = (p m, 1)

as definition of

(m, 1(p)) as (p m, q) = (m, q (p))

= (m, (p)1)

= (p) (m) as definition of

(1 ) (m) = 1 ( (m))

as definition of

= 1 (m, 1)

1

= 1 (1 (m)) 1

as definition of 1

= (1 (m))

= (1 ) (m)

The proof of proposition 13:

PL3:

a)

{m[K, M ], m [K, M ]m [K, M ]}

= {m[K, M ], (m m ) [K, M ]}

= {m,

m m } [K, L]

mm m1

=

=

=

=

(mm m1 [K,M]) ({m, m }[K, L])({m, m })[K, L]

(mm m1 [K,M]) {m[K, M ], m [K, M ]} {m[K, M ], m [K, M ]}

(m[K,M]m [K,M](m[K,M])1 ) {m[K, M ], m [K, M ]} {m[K, M ], m [K, M ]}

=

=

=

=

=

=

{(mm ) [K, M ], m [K, M ]}

{mm

, m } [K, L]

1

1 (m)

m,

m

m

m

{m

,

m

}

[K, L]

(m)

1

1

L]

{m , m } [K, L]

m, m m m [K,

1

[K, M ] 1 (m) {m , m

o } [K, L]

nm[K, M ], m m m

b)

1 (m)

o1 (m)K

{m , m } [K, L]

o1 (m[K,M])

1

m[K, M ], m [K, M ]m [K, M ] (m [K, M ])

({m , m } [K, L])

m[K, M ], m [K, M ]m [K, M ] (m [K, M ])

PL4:

a)

=

=

=

=

=

{2 (l) ,m} [K, L]

lm l1 [K, L]

l[K, L] m l1 [K, L]

l[K, L]m[K,M] l1 [K, L]

1

l[K, L]m[K,M] (l[K, L])

= {m, 2 (l)} [K,

L]

= m l1 (m) l1 [K, L]

= (m l) [K, L] 1 (m) l1 [K, L]

= m[K,M] (l[K, L]) 1 (m)K l1 [K, L]

1

= m[K,M] (l[K, L]) 1 (m[K,M]) (l[K, L])

PL5:

q

{m[K, M ], m [K, M ]} =

=

=

=

=

=

=

pK

{m[K, M ], m [K, M ]}

({m, m } [K, L])

(p {m, m }) [K, L]

{p m,p m } [K, L]

p

p

{(

m ) [K, M ]}

pKm) [K, M ], ( pK

(m[K, M ]) , (m [K, M ])

{q (m[K, M ]) ,q (m [K, M ])}

pK

25

26

References

[1] R. Brown, Groupoids and Van Kampens Theorem, Proc. London Math.

Soc. (3) 17 (1967), 385-401.

[2] R. Brown, Groupoids and Crossed Objects in Algebraic Topology Homology, Homotopy and Applications, 1 (1999), no.1, 1-78.

[3] R. Brown and P. J. Higgins, On the Connection Between the Second Relative Homotopy Groups of Some Related Spaces, Proc. London Math. Soc.,

(3) 36 (2) (1978), 193-212.

[4] R. Brown, P. J. Higgins and R. Sivera, Nonabelian Algebraic Topology,

European Mathematical Society Tracts in Mathematics, Vol. 15, (2010).

[5] R. Brown and C. D. Wensley, On Finite Induced Crossed Modules, and

The Homotopy 2-Type of Mapping Cones, Theory and Applications of Categories, (3) 1 (1995), 54-71.

[6] R. Brown and C. D. Wensley, Computation and Homotopical Applications

of Induced Crossed Modules, Journal of Symbolic Computation, 35, (2003),

59-72.

[7] D. Conduche, Modules Croises Generalises de Longueur 2., J. Pure. Appl.

Algebra 34, (1984), 155-178.

[8] D. Conduche, Simplicial Crossed Modules and Mapping Cones, Georgian

Mathematical Journal, 10, (2003), 623-636.

[9] D.Guin-Walery and J.-L. Loday, Obstructions `a lExcision en K-Theorie

Algebrique, Springer Lecture Notes in Math., 854, (1981), 179-216.

[10] T. Porter,

The Crossed Menagerie:

An Introduction to

Crossed Gadgetry and Cohomolgy in Algebra and Topology,

http://ncatlab.org/timporter/files/menagerie10.pdf

[11] J. F. Martins, Homotopies of 2-crossed Complexes and the Homotopy

Category of Pointed 3-types, preprint, (2010).

[12] J.H.C. Whitehead, Combinatorial Homotopy I and II, Bull. Amer.

Math. Soc.,55, (1949), 231-245.

[13] J.H.C. Whitehead, Combinatorial Homotopy II, Bull. Amer. Math.

Soc.,55, (1949), 453-456.

U. Ege Arslan, Z. Arvasi and G. Onarl

Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences

Eskisehir Osmangazi University

26480 Eskisehir/Turkey

e-mails: {uege,zarvasi, gonarli} @ogu.edu.tr

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