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7

P e r io d

Ca

Fr

(2 2 3 )

F r a n c iu m

133
87

Cs

C a e s iu m

85
55

Rb

R u b id iu m

Ra

Ti

Hf

La
Unq

A c tin id e
e le m e n ts

Ta

59

Pr

58

(2 3 1 )

232

238

U r a n iu m

Pa

P r o ta c tin iu m

T h o r iu m

Th

144
92

141
91

N e o d im iu m

P r a s e o d y m iu m

140
90

Nd

60

(2 6 3 )

Unh

U n n i lh e x iu m

184
106

T u n g s te n

96
74

M o

M o ly b d e n u m

52
42

Cr

C h r o m iu m

24

C e r iu m

(2 6 2 )

Ce

(2 6 1 )

U n n il p e n t iu m

Unp

181
105

T a n ta lu m

93
73

Nb

N io b iu m

51
41

V a n a d iu m

23

U n n ilq u a d iu m

178
104

Ac

(2 2 7 )

A c tin iu m

139
89

H a f n iu m

91
72

L a n th a n u m

89
57

Z ir c o n iu m

Zr

48
40

Y ttr iu m

45
39

T it a n iu m

Sc

S c a n d iu m

22

21

L a n th a n id e
e le m e n ts

(2 2 6 )

R a d iu m

137
88

Ba

B a r iu m

88
56

Sr

S tr o n tiu m

40
38

C a lc iu m

24
20

39
37

P o t a s s iu m

23
19

M a g n e s iu m

M g

9
12

B e r y liu m

S o d iu m

Na

7
11

L ith iu m

Be

Li

H
H y d ro g e n

Tc

Np

(2 3 7 )

N e p tu n iu m

(1 4 7 )
93

P r o m e th iu m

Pm

61

186

Re

R h e n iu m

(9 9 )
75

T e c h n e tiu m

55
43

M n

M anganese

25

Pu

(2 4 2 )

P lu to n iu m

150
94

S a m a r iu m

Sm

62

190

O s

O s m iu m

101
76

Ru

R u th e n iu m

56
44

Iro n

Fe

26

A to m ic N u m b e r
S ym bol
Nam e
M o la r m a s s in
g m o l 1

K ey

G ro u p

Ir

Am

(2 4 3 )

A m e r ic iu m

152
95

E u r o p iu m

Eu

63

192

Ir id iu m

103
77

Rh

R h o d iu m

59
45

Co

C o b a lt

27

Ni

Pd

Pt

Cm

(2 4 7 )

C u r iu m

157
96

G a d o lin iu m

G d

64

195

P la t in u m

106
78

P a lla d iu m

59
46

N ic k e l

28

Cu

S ilv e r

G o ld

Bk

(2 4 5 )

B e r k e liu m

159
97

T e r b iu m

Tb

65

197

Au

108
79

Ag

6 3 .5
47

C opper

29

T H E P E R IO D IC T A B L E

Z in c

Cd

Hg

Cf

(2 5 1 )

C a lifo r n iu m

163
98

D y s p r o s iu m

Dy

66

201

M e rc u ry

11 2
80

C a d m iu m

6 5 .4
48

Zn

30

Si

Al

In

Ti

Es

(2 5 4 )

E in s te in iu m

165
99

H o lm iu m

Ho

67

204

T h a ll iu m

11 5
81

In d iu m

70
49

G a

G a lliu m

27
31

A lu m in iu m

T in

Lead

Fm

(2 5 3 )

F e r m iu m

167
100

E r b iu m

Er

68

207

Pb

11 9
82

Sn

73
50

G e

G e r m a n iu m

28
32

S ilic o n

12
14

C a rb o n

11
13

B o ro n

Bi

M d

(2 5 6 )

M e n d e le v iu m

169
101

T h u liu m

Tm

69

209

B is m u th

122
83

Sb

A n t im o n y

75
51

As

A r s e n ic

31
33

P h o s p h o ru s

14
15

N itr o g e n

Te

Po

No

(2 5 4 )

N o b e liu m

173
102

Y tte r b iu m

Yb

70

(2 1 0 )

P o lo n iu m

128
84

T e l lu r iu m

79
52

Se

S e le n iu m

32
34

S u lp h u r

16
16

O xygen

Cl

At

Lr

(2 5 7 )

L a w r e n c iu m

175
103

L u t e tiu m

Lu

71

(2 1 0 )

A s ta tin e

127
85

Io d in e

80
53

Br

B r o m in e

3 5 .5
35

C h lo r in e

19
17

F lu o r in e

Xe

Rn

(2 2 2 )

R adon

131
86

Xenon

84
54

Kr

K ry p to n

40
36

Ar

A rg o n

20
18

N eon

Ne

10

He
H e liu m

1.

2.
When concentrated sulfuric acid is added to solid sodium bromide, bromine is
produced. When concentrated sulfuric acid is added to solid sodium chloride, no chlorine is
produced.
The reason for this difference is
A

sulfuric acid is a strong acid.

hydrogen chloride is a weak acid.

the chloride ion is a weaker reducing agent than the bromide ion.

bromine is less volatile than chlorine.


(Total 1 mark)

3.
Compound X is a white solid. On heating this compound, a colourless, acidic gas is the only
gaseous product. A flame test is carried out on the solid residue and a reddish flame is observed.
Compound X is
A

calcium nitrate.

calcium carbonate.

magnesium carbonate.

strontium nitrate.
(Total 1 mark)

4.

Which of the following does not apply to the elements Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba in Group 2 of the
Periodic Table?
A

Their oxides, MO, are all basic.

Their metal hydroxides, M(OH)2, become more soluble down the group.

Their oxides, MO, react with water to form the metal hydroxide, M(OH) 2.

Their carbonates, MCO3, all decompose on gentle heating.


(Total 1 mark)

5.

Which of the following statements about the elements in Group 7 is incorrect?


A

They all show variable oxidation states in their compounds.

They all form acidic hydrides.

Electronegativity decreases as the group is descended.

They all exist as diatomic molecules.


(Total 1 mark)

6.

What are the products, other than water, when chlorine is passed through cold, dilute aqueous
sodium hydroxide solution?
A

NaCl and NaClO

NaClO and NaClO3

NaCl and NaClO3

NaClO and NaClO4


(Total 1 mark)

7.

When solutions of iodine are titrated with aqueous sodium thiosulfate solution, Na 2S2O3(aq),
the thiosulfate ions are oxidized to
2

S2O4

S2O6

S2O8

S4O6

(Total 1 mark)

13.

Going down Group 1 from lithium to rubidium


A

the radius of the atom decreases.

the radius of the ion decreases.

the first ionization energy decreases.

the polarizing power of the ion increases.


(Total 1 mark)

15.

Which of the following could not be an element in Group 2?


A

An element with an oxide which forms a solution of pH 10.

An element with an insoluble sulfate.

An element with a chloride which is liquid at room temperature.

An element with a carbonate which decomposes on heating.


(Total 1 mark)
3

16. 20 cm of sulfuric acid, concentration 0.25 mol dm , was neutralized in a titration with barium
3
hydroxide, concentration 0.50 mol dm . The equation for the reaction is
Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) BaSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)
(a)

The volume of barium hydroxide required was


3

10 cm

20 cm

25 cm

40 cm

3
3
3

(1)

(b)

During the titration, the barium hydroxide was added until it was present in excess. The
electrical conductivity of the titration mixture
A

increased steadily.

decreased steadily.

increased and then decreased.

decreased and then increased.


(1)
(Total 2 marks)

17.

Which of the following trends occurs going down the elements in Group 2?
A

The solubility of the hydroxides increases.

The first ionization energy increases.

The solubility of the sulfates increases.

The stability of the carbonates to heat decreases.


(Total 1 mark)

18.

Which of the following is not a true statement about hydrogen iodide?


A

It forms steamy fumes in moist air.

It dissolves in water to form an acidic solution.

It forms a cream precipitate with silver nitrate solution.

It forms dense white smoke with ammonia.


(Total 1 mark)

19.

Chemical reactions may involve


A

oxidation

reduction

no change in oxidation number

disproportionation

Which of the terms above best describes what happens to the chlorine in the following
reactions?
(a)

Cl2(g) + H2O(l) HCl(aq) + HOCl(aq)


4

A
B
C
D
(1)

(b)

Cl2(g) + 2Na(s) 2NaCl(s)


A
B
C
D
(1)

(c)

NaCl(s) + H2SO4(l) HCl(g) + NaHSO4(s)


A
B
C
D
(1)
(Total 3 marks)

20. Magnesium nitrate, Mg(NO3)2, decomposes when it is heated. One product is the brown gas,
nitrogen dioxide.
(a)

(i)

Write an equation for this reaction. State symbols are not required.
(2)

(ii)

Calcium nitrate decomposes in a similar way to magnesium nitrate, but at a higher


temperature.
Explain why the two nitrates have different stability to heat.
(2)

(b) Sodium nitrate decomposes to give different products to magnesium nitrate. Write an
equation for the decomposition of sodium nitrate. State symbols are not required.
(1)

(c)

A student suggested that the structure of the nitrate ion, NO 3 , is

Scientists have found that the bonds between nitrogen and oxygen in the nitrate ion are all
the same length. Is the students suggestion supported by this evidence? Explain your
answer.
(1)

21.

This question is about some reactions of halogens and halide ions.


(a)

(i)

When chlorine is added to a solution containing bromide or iodide ions, a colour


change occurs. What solvent would you add to the mixture to confirm the identity
of the halogen produced?
(1)

(ii)

Give the result for the test with this solvent in a reaction in which bromine is
produced.
(1)

(b)

(i)

Solid potassium bromide and potassium iodide can be distinguished by their


reactions with concentrated sulfuric acid.
Potassium bromide reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid initially to produce
hydrogen bromide. This reacts further, as shown below, to produce a sharp
smelling gas and a brown fuming liquid.
2HBr(g) + H2SO4(l) SO2(g) + Br2(l) + 2H2O(l)
Show, by use of oxidation numbers for sulfur, that the sulfuric acid has been
reduced.
(2)

(ii)

State TWO observations, which would differ from those with potassium bromide,
when potassium iodide reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid.
(2)

(iii)

One product of the reaction with potassium iodide is hydrogen sulfide, H 2S. How
does this show that iodide ions are more powerful reducing agents than bromide
ions?

(1)(c)In areas where the natural concentration of fluoride ions in rocks is low,
some water authorities add fluoride to the water supply to improve the dental health of children. An
alternative would be to supply free fluoride tablets.
Give ONE reason why it could be considered more ethical to supply free fluoride tablets
rather than to add fluoride compounds to the water supply.
(1)
(Total 8 marks)
)

30.

What would be the colour of the solution when iodine is dissolved in a hydrocarbon solvent?
A

Grey

Brown

Yellow

Purple
(Total 1 mark)
6

31.

Starch is often used as an indicator in titrations between sodium thiosulfate and iodine solutions.
What colour change would you see at the end-point as sodium thiosulfate is added to iodine
solution in the presence of starch?
A

Yellow to colourless

Colourless to yellow

Blue-black to colourless

Colourless to blue-black
(Total 1 mark)

32.

Which of the following statements is true?


A

Calcium hydroxide is more soluble in water than magnesium hydroxide.

Chlorine is more electronegative than fluorine.

Iodine is a stronger oxidizing agent than bromine.

The first ionization energy of barium is greater than that of strontium.


(Total 1 mark)

33.

Iodine can react with sodium hydroxide solution to form NaIO3(aq), according to the equation
below.
3I2(aq) + 6NaOH(aq) 5NaI(aq) + NaIO3(aq) + 3H2O(l)
Which of the statements about the reaction is false?
A

The oxidation number of some iodine atoms goes up.

At high temperatures NaIO(aq) also forms.

Sodium ions are spectator ions.

The oxidation number of some iodine atoms goes down.


(Total 1 mark)

35.

Calcium oxide, known as quicklime, is produced by the thermal decomposition of calcium


carbonate, found naturally in limestone.
(a)

(i)

Explain what is meant by the term thermal decomposition.


(2)

(ii)

Write an equation for the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate, including


state symbols.
(1)

(iii)

Other Group 2 carbonates can also undergo thermal decomposition. Describe and
explain the trend in thermal stability of carbonates down Group 2.
(3)

(b)

0.121 g of an impure sample of quicklime was dissolved in 50.0 cm of hydrochloric


3
acid, concentration 0.100 mol dm . The excess hydrochloric acid was titrated with
3
3
sodium hydroxide solution, concentration 0.100 mol dm , and 18.0 cm was needed to
just neutralize the acid. The indicator used was methyl orange.
7

The equations for the reactions involved are shown below.


CaO(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l)
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
(i)

What colour would the indicator be at the end-point?


(1)

(ii)

Calculate the number of moles of hydrochloric acid that reacted with the sodium
hydroxide solution.
(1)

(iii)

Calculate the number of moles of hydrochloric acid originally added to the


quicklime. Use this answer and your answer to (b)(ii) to calculate the number of
moles of quicklime that reacted with the hydrochloric acid.
(2)

(iv)

Calculate the percentage purity of the sample of quicklime. Give your answer to
three significant figures.
(2)

(c)

(i)

Describe how to carry out a flame test on the impure sample of quicklime to
confirm that it contains calcium ions.
(3)

(ii)

If the flame test gave a green colour, in addition to the expected brick red flame,
which Group 2 metal is also likely to be present?
(1)
(Total 16 marks)

38.

Which of these metal hydroxides is the most soluble in water?


A

Barium hydroxide

Calcium hydroxide

Magnesium hydroxide

Strontium hydroxide
(Total 1 mark)

39.

Which of these metals will give a lilac flame colour?


A

Sodium

Calcium

Potassium

Magnesium
(Total 1 mark)

40.

Which of these statements about fluorine is not correct?


A

It is a gaseous element at room temperature and pressure.

It can react with chloride ions to form chlorine.


8

It forms salts with Group 1 metals.

It is less electronegative than chlorine.


(Total 1 mark)

41.

What is the oxidation number of oxygen in dioxygen difluoride, O2F2?


A

+1

+2
(Total 1 mark)

42.

Which concentrated acid should be used to dissolve a carbonate of a Group 2 metal to carry out
a flame test?
A

ethanoic acid

hydrochloric acid

nitric acid

sulfuric acid
(Total 1 mark)

43.

What colour does a barium salt give in a flame test?


A

colourless

green

red

yellow-red
(Total 1 mark)

44.

Separate flame tests are carried out with lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and
strontium salts. How many of these metal ions would colour the flame red?
A

4
(Total 1 mark)

45. A Group 2 element reacts vigorously with water to produce a soluble hydroxide, which forms a
white precipitate when neutralised by sulfuric acid and forms a carbonate which is very stable to heat.
The element could be
9

magnesium

calcium

strontium

barium
(Total 1 mark)

46.

The Group 2 metals, considered in order of increasing atomic number, show a decrease in
A

first ionisation energy

nuclear charge

chemical reactivity

ionic radius
(Total 1 mark)

47.

When a Group 1 metal nitrate is heated, brown fumes are observed. The metal could be
A

lithium

sodium

rubidium

caesium
(Total 1 mark)

48.

Which of the following statements is FALSE?


A

iodine is more electronegative than bromine.

fluorine is more electronegative than chlorine.

metallic elements tend to react by loss of electrons.

chlorine is more electronegative than sulfur.


(Total 1 mark)

49.

Chlorine was used in swimming pools as a bactericide.


The amount of chlorine present can be determined by adding excess potassium iodide solution
to a known volume of swimming pool water. This reacts to form iodine:

Cl2(aq) + 2I (aq) I2(aq) + 2Cl (aq)


The amount of iodine formed is then found by titration with sodium thiosulfate solution of
known concentration.
The ionic equation for the reaction between iodine and sodium thiosulfate in aqueous solution is

10

I2(aq) + 2S2O3 (aq) S4O6 (aq) + 2I (aq)


A student carried out the determination of chlorine in a sample of swimming pool water.
A record of the measurements obtained is given below:
3

Volume of water sample tested

= 1000 cm

Final reading of burette

16.3 cm

Initial reading of burette

7 cm

Volume added from burette

9.3 cm

3
3
3
1

Concentration of sodium thiosulfate solution = 0.00500 mol dm

(a)

(i)

The record of measurements reveals faults both in the procedure and the recording
of measurements. State one fault in each of these.
Procedure .........................................................................................................
Recording of measurements .............................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Calculate the number of moles of sodium thiosulfate used in the titration.


(1)

(iii)

Use your answer to (ii) to calculate the number of moles of iodine which reacted.
(1)

(iv)

Deduce the concentration of chlorine, in mol dm , in the swimming pool water.


(1)

(b)

The disinfecting action of chlorine in swimming pools is due to the presence of chloric(I)
acid, HClO, formed by the reaction of chlorine with water.
In many swimming pools, chemicals other than chlorine are used to form chloric(I) acid.
This is partly because the use of chlorine gas causes much more corrosion of metal parts
in swimming pools than does chloric(I) acid.
Compounds used to chlorinate swimming pool water in this way include calcium
chlorate(I) and chlorine dioxide.
(i)

State and explain the type of reaction that occurs when chlorine attacks a metal,
using the example of iron.
(2)

(ii)

Suggest one other reason why the use of chlorine is undesirable in swimming
pools.
(1)

(iii)

Give the formula for calcium chlorate(I).


(1)

(iv)

Chlorine dioxide, ClO2, undergoes a disproportionation reaction when it reacts


with water.
11

4ClO2 + 2H2O HClO + 3HClO3


Explain, in terms of oxidation numbers, why this is a disproportionation reaction.
(2)

(c)

Discuss and explain the science communitys advice that CFCs should no longer be used
in aerosols, foams and refrigerants. Support your answer with one or more equations.
(6)
(Total 17 marks)

51.

(a)

State the flame colours of


(i)

barium
(1)

(ii)

strontium
(1)

(b)

When barium is burnt in excess oxygen a compound containing 81.1% barium and 18.9%
of oxygen is formed.
Calculate the empirical formula of this compound.
(2)

(c)

(i)

Write the equation for the reaction of barium with water. Do not include any state
symbols..
(1)

(ii)

When a small piece of barium is added to water, the barium gets smaller and
eventually disappears.
State TWO other observations you could make.
(2)

(iii)

What would be the effect of adding a piece of blue litmus paper and a piece of red
litmus paper to the aqueous product of the reaction in (ii)?
Red litmus .........................................................................................................
Blue litmus ........................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

52.

(a)

Write the equations to show the action of heat on the following solid nitrates. State
symbols are not required.
(i)

lithium nitrate, LiNO3.


(2)

(ii)

caesium nitrate, CsNO3.


(1)

(b)

The solubilities of the sulphates and hydroxides of calcium and barium are shown below.
Use the information in the table to answer the questions that follow.
12

(i)

Substance

Solubility

Substance

Solubility

CaSO4

slightly soluble

Ca(OH)2

slightly soluble

BaSO4

insoluble

Ba(OH)2

soluble

Both calcium and barium metals react with water to give the metal hydroxide and
hydrogen gas.
What difference would you expect to see after calcium metal and barium metal
have reacted with water?
(2)

(ii)

The reaction between barium metal and excess dilute sulphuric acid stops after a
very short time. Suggest an explanation for this.
(2)

(c)

Suggest the solubility in water of radium sulphate. Put a cross ( ) in the correct box.
A

Very soluble

Soluble

Slightly soluble

Insoluble
(1)

(d)

Write the ionic equation for the reaction of calcium metal with dilute hydrochloric acid.
Include state symbols in your equation.
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

53.

(a)

Define reduction in terms of change in oxidation number.


(1)

(b)

The reaction between solid sodium halides and concentrated sulphuric acid changes as the
group is descended.
(i)
NaCl

Complete the balancing of the equation for the reaction of sodium bromide with
concentrated sulphuric acid.
+

2NaBr +
8NaI

H2SO4

NaHSO4 + HCl

H2SO4 NaHSO4 + SO2 + Br2 + H2O


9H2SO4

8NaHSO4 + H2S + 4I2 + 4H2O


(1)

(ii)

Write the oxidation numbers of sulphur in the following:


H2SO4

..................................

NaHSO4 ..................................
13

SO2

..................................

H2S

..................................
(2)

(iii)

Use the changes in oxidation number of sulphur in the reactions in (i) to show that
the halides become more powerful reducing agents as the group is descended.
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

54.

(i)

Define the term enthalpy of hydration, Hhyd, of an ion.


(2)

(ii)

The table below gives some information about the sulphates of the Group 2 elements
magnesium and barium.
sulphate

lattice energy
/ kJ mol

hydration
enthalpy of cation
1
/ kJ mol

MgSO4

2874

1920

BaSO4

2374

1360

solubility
3

/ mol dm
1.83

9.43 10

Use the lattice energy and hydration enthalpy values to explain the difference in the
solubility of the two salts.
(4)
(Total 6 marks)

55.

This question is about the manufacture of bromine from bromide ions found in seawater.
(a)

In the first step, chlorine gas is bubbled into acidified seawater. This converts the bromide
ions to bromine. The low pH prevents hydrolysis of the liberated bromine.
(i)

Complete and balance the equation for the hydrolysis of bromine with water which
is a disproportionation reaction.
Br2(aq) + H2O(l)

.......H (aq) + .......................... + .........................


(2)

(ii)

What is the meaning of the symbol

?
(1)

(iii)

Explain, using oxidation numbers, why this reaction is known as


disproportionation.
(2)

(iv)

Write the ionic equation, including state symbols, for the reaction of chlorine gas
with bromide ions.
(2)

(b)

In the second step, air is blown through the reaction mixture to remove the bromine as a
vapour which is then mixed with sulphur dioxide gas and water vapour.
14

The unbalanced equation for this reaction is Br2 + H2O + SO2 H + Br + SO4
(i)

Identify the elements which are oxidised and reduced and give their oxidation
numbers.
Element oxidised

........................

Oxidation number initial

........................ final ........................

Element reduced

........................

Oxidation number initial

........................ final ........................


(2)

(ii)

Using this information, or otherwise, balance the equation.


Br2 +

H2O +

SO2

H +

Br +

SO4

(1)
(Total 10 marks)

56.

(a)

Complete and balance an equation for each of the following reactions. Do not include
state symbols.
(i)

Ba +

H2O

...............................................
(1)

(iii)

NaCl +

H2SO4 ...............................................
(1)

(b)

State the flame colours produced by compounds of:


(i)

barium .................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

lithium ................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Explain how compounds of elements in Groups 1 and 2 produce colours in the flame test.
(3)

(d)

When potassium is burnt in excess oxygen, a compound is produced that contains 54.9 %
potassium.
Calculate the percentage of oxygen present and hence calculate the empirical formula of
this compound.
(3)
(Total 10 marks)

57.

(a)

Hydrogen chloride can be prepared by reacting concentrated sulphuric acid with solid
sodium chloride.
Write an equation for the reaction which occurs. State symbols are not required.
(2)

15

(b)

When concentrated sulphuric acid is added to solid sodium bromide, the products of the
reaction include sulphur dioxide and bromine.
2H2SO4 + 2NaBr Br2 + SO2 + 2H2O + Na2SO4
Sulphur and bromine change oxidation number in this reaction.
(i)

Write the oxidation numbers at the start and the end of the reaction.
Sulphur changes from ..................... to .....................
(1)

Bromine changes from ..................... to .....................


(1)

(ii)

Explain why the numbers in the balanced equation are consistent with the changes
in oxidation number.
(2)

(c)

The boiling points of three hydrogen halides are shown below


Hydrogen halide

(i)

Boiling point
/K

Hydrogen chloride

188

Hydrogen bromide

206

Hydrogen iodide

238

Explain the trend in boiling point of the three hydrogen halides.


(2)

(ii)

Predict a value for the boiling point of hydrogen fluoride. Explain your reason for
choosing this value.
Predicted value ......................................
Explanation
(3)
(Total 11 marks)

58.

Flame tests were performed on the following compounds of calcium and sodium.
(i)

State the flame colour in each case:


calcium hydroxide ......................................................................................................
sodium hydroxide .......................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Explain the origin of the colours obtained in flame tests.


(Total 5 marks)

62.

(a)

Calcium reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide and hydrogen.


Write the equation for this reaction. Give TWO observations that could be made during
16

this reaction.
Equation
(4)

(b) State the trend in the solubility of the Group 2 hydroxides, as the atomic mass of the
Group 2 element increases.
(1)

(c)

(i)

Show that the following data are consistent with the empirical formula CaN 2O6.
Symbol of element

% by mass

Ca

24.4

17.1

58.5

(2)

(ii)

Explain why the thermal stability of the Group 2 nitrates increases as the atomic
number of the Group 2 element increases.
(3)
(Total 10 marks)

63.

(a)

Define the term oxidising agent in terms of electron transfer.


(1)

(b)

(i)

Suggest which halogen is the strongest oxidising agent.


(1)

(ii)

What is the physical state of bromine at room temperature?


(1)

(c)

State the appearance of a gas evolved when concentrated sulphuric acid is added to solid
sodium bromide.
(1)

(d)

Give the oxidation number of chlorine in each of the following species.

ClO ......................................................................

ClO3 ......................................................................
(2)

(e)

Chlorine reacts with sodium hydroxide.


Write an ionic equation for this reaction and explain, in terms of oxidation numbers, why
this is a disproportionation reaction.
Equation
Explanation
(4)

17

(f)

(i)

Write an equation, including state symbols, to show the process that occurs when
the first electron affinity of chlorine is measured.
(2)

(ii)

Explain why the second electron affinity of chlorine would be endothermic.


(2)
(Total 14 marks)

65.

Domestic bleaches contain sodium chlorate(I), NaOCl.


(a)

Write the ionic equation to show the disproportionation of the chlorate(I) ion. Use
oxidation numbers to explain the meaning of the term disproportionation in this reaction.
(3)

(b)

Domestic bleaches are dilute solutions of sodium chlorate(I). The amount of ClO ions in
a sample can be found by reacting it with excess acidified potassium iodide solution.

ClO + 2I + 2H I2 + Cl + H2O
The iodine produced is then titrated with standard sodium thiosulphate solution.
3

10.0 cm of a domestic bleach was pipetted into a 250 cm volumetric flask and made
up to the mark with distilled water.
3

A 25.0 cm portion of the solution was added to excess acidified potassium iodide
solution in a conical flask.
3

This mixture was titrated with 0.100 mol dm sodium thiosulphate solution, using
starch indicator added near the end point.
3

The mean titre was 12.50 cm .


(i)

Give the colour change you would see at the end point.
(1)

(ii)

The equation for the reaction between iodine and thiosulphate ions is
2

2S2O3 + I2 S4O6 + 2I

Calculate the amount (moles) of chlorate(I) ions in 1.00 dm of the original bleach.
(5)

(iii)

Use the equation below to calculate the mass of chlorine available from 1.00 dm
of the original bleach. Give your answer to 3 significant figures.

ClO + Cl + 2H Cl2 + H2O


(1)

(c)

Sodium thiosulphate can be used to remove the excess chlorine from bleached fabrics.
2

S2O3 + 4Cl2 + 5H2O 2SO4

+ 10H + 8Cl

By considering the change in oxidation number of sulphur, explain whether chlorine or


iodine is the stronger oxidising agent when reacted with thiosulphate ions.
(2)
18

(d)

Starch-iodide paper can be used to test for chlorine. It contains starch and potassium
iodide.
Explain the reactions taking place when a piece of damp starch-iodide paper is put in a
gas jar of chlorine. State what you would see.
(2)
(Total 14 marks)

67.

Magnesium oxide is a basic oxide which produces an alkaline solution with water. Write an
2
equation to show how the oxide ion, O , acts as a base in the reaction with water.
(Total 1 mark)

68.

(a)

Complete the following table.


Physical state at room
temperature

Element

Colour

chlorine
bromine
iodine
(3)

(b)

(i)

Write the equation for the reaction between concentrated sulphuric acid and solid
potassium chloride, KCl.
(1)

(ii)

When potassium bromide, KBr, reacts with concentrated sulphuric acid, bromine
and sulphur dioxide are produced.
Give the oxidation numbers of bromine and sulphur in the reactants and products.
Hence identify the oxidising agent, giving a reason for your choice.
KBr .................

H2SO4 .................

Br2 .................

SO2 .................
(4)
(Total 8 marks)

69.

(a)

(i)

Potassium superoxide contains 54.9 % potassium by mass.


Show that the empirical formula of this compound is KO2.
(3)

(ii)

Give the oxidation number of oxygen in the compound KO2.


(1)

(b)

Which of potassium nitrate or lithium nitrate has the higher thermal stability?
Explain your answer.

19

(3)
(Total 7 marks)

72.

You may find the following table useful in answering the question below.
Element

Electronegativity

Hydrogen

2.1

Oxygen

3.5

Draw a diagram to show a hydrogen bond between two water molecules and explain why it
forms.
Diagram
Explanation ..........................................................................................................................
(Total 4 marks)

73.

(a)

Hydrogen iodide, HI, has a boiling temperature of 35 C, and hydrogen chloride, HCl, a
boiling temperature of 85 C.
(i)

Draw a dot and cross diagram of a hydrogen iodide molecule (showing outer shell
electrons only).
(2)

(ii)

Explain why hydrogen iodide has a higher boiling temperature than hydrogen
chloride.
(3)

(b)

Hydrogen iodide and hydrogen chloride react with water to form acidic solutions.
(i)

Write the equation for the reaction of hydrogen iodide with water.
(1)

(ii)

State why the solution formed is acidic.


(1)

(c)

(i)

Excess dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with a lump of calcium oxide, CaO, to form
an aqueous solution of calcium chloride.
Write the equation for this reaction, including state symbols.
(2)

(ii)

In a similar reaction with dilute sulphuric acid and a lump of calcium oxide, the
reaction stops after a short time even though some calcium oxide remains. State
why the reaction stops so quickly.
(1)
(Total 10 marks)

74.

Name a metal, in Group 1 or 2, which has compounds that do not give a colour to the flame in a
flame test.
(Total 1 marks)

75.

This question is about strontium and some of its compounds.


20

(a)

Complete the electronic configuration of the strontium atom, using s,p,d notation.
Use the Periodic Table as a source of data.
2

1s 2s .............................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

(i)

Write a balanced equation which represents the change that corresponds to the first
ionisation energy of a strontium atom. Include state symbols in the equation.
(2)

(ii)

The first ionisation energy of strontium is marked on the grid below. Estimate and
plot the next THREE ionisation energies for strontium.

(2)

(c)

Suggest why strontium compounds are used in distress flares and fireworks.
(1)

(d)

Give the formula of


(i)

the strontium ion in strontium compounds .......................................................


(1)

(ii)

strontium hydroxide. .........................................................................................


(1)

(e)

Write balanced equations for the following reactions, including state symbols.
(i)

Strontium with water to produce strontium hydroxide and a gaseous product.


(2)

(ii)

Solid strontium hydroxide with dilute hydrochloric acid.


(2)

(f)

Estimate the pH of a saturated aqueous solution of strontium hydroxide.


(1)
21

(Total 14 marks)

76.

(a)

(i)

Write the ionic half-equation to show the oxidation of calcium, Ca, to calcium ions,
2+
Ca .
(1)

(ii)

Write the ionic half-equation to show the reduction of water to hydrogen, H 2, and

hydroxide ions, OH .
(1)

(iii)

Combine the two ionic half-equations above to produce an equation which shows
the effect of adding calcium to water.
(1)

(iv)

State what you would expect to see when calcium is added to water.
(2)

(b)

State the trend in solubility of the hydroxides of the Group 2 elements as the atomic
number increases.
(1)

(c)

Write an equation to show the reaction between sodium and chlorine, to produce sodium
chloride.
(Total 8 marks)

77.

(a)

Identify a halogen which, at room temperature, is:


a solid ....................................................................................................................................
a liquid ..................................................................................................................................
a gas ......................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Explain why the hydrogen halides, such as hydrogen chloride, HCl, are:
(i)

water soluble
(2)

(ii)

acidic in aqueous solution


(1)

(c)

By consideration of intermolecular forces, explain why the boiling temperature of


hydrogen fluoride, HF, is higher than that of hydrogen iodide, HI.
(2)

(d)

Deduce the oxidation number of chlorine in the following:

ClO ......................................................................................................................

ClO3 ......................................................................................................................
(2)
22

(Total 10 marks)

83.

(a)

Deduce the oxidation number of iodine in the following species.


(i)

I2O7 .............................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

IO 4 ..............................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

2+

Iodine, I2, can be reduced to iodide ions, I , by tin(II) ions, Sn , which are themselves
4+

oxidised to tin(IV) ions, Sn .


(i)

Construct the oxidation and reduction half-equations for the above system.
(2)

(ii)

Use the above half-equations to construct the overall ionic equation for the
reaction.
(Total 5 marks)

89.

Consider the following equations

(a)

Cl2 + 2I I2 + 2Cl

Cl2 + 2Br Br2 + 2Cl

3ClO ClO3 + 2Cl

From these equations identify


a species acting as a reducing agent in equation B.
(1)

(b)

Describe what you would see when the reaction in A occurs.


(2)

(c)

(i)

Define disproportionation.
(1)

(ii)

Select one of the equations above as an example of disproportionation and show,


by the use of oxidation numbers, how this reaction fits the definition.
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

90.

(a)

Calcium and magnesium react vigorously with dilute hydrochloric acid but with dilute
sulphuric acid the calcium stops reacting even though the magnesium continues.
(i)

Write a balanced equation for the reaction between magnesium metal and dilute
hydrochloric acid. Include all state symbols.
(2)

(ii)

Calcium reacts slightly more vigorously than magnesium with dilute hydrochloric
acid. Suggest, in terms of atomic structure, why this is so.
23

(2)

(iii)

Suggest why calcium stops reacting with dilute sulphuric acid after a few seconds
even though it did react initially.
(2)

(b)

(i)

Write balanced chemical equations for the thermal decomposition of potassium


nitrate and calcium nitrate. Do not include state symbols.
Potassium nitrate
(1)

Calcium nitrate
(2)

(ii)

State the relative thermal stability of potassium nitrate and calcium nitrate and
explain how it is related to the sizes and charges of the ions involved.
(5)
(Total 14 marks)

93.

(a)

Bromine is a p-block element Define the term p-block element.


(1)

(b)

(i)

Give the colour and physical state of bromine at room temperature,


Colour

Physical state ...


(2)

(ii)

State what you would see when aqueous bromine is added to a solution of
potassium iodide.
(1)

(c)

Aqueous bromine will oxidise Fe


(i)

2+

ions to Fe

3+

ions.

Write the ionic half-equation for the reduction of bromine to bromide ions.
(1)

(ii)

Write the ionic half-equation for the oxidation of Fe

2+

ions to Fe

3+

ions.
(1)

(iii)

Hence write the overall ionic equation for the reaction of Fe

2+

ions with bromine.


(1)

(d)

Chlorine and bromine react with aqueous sodium hydroxide in a similar way at
room temperature.
(i)

Write the equation for the reaction of bromine with aqueous sodium hydroxide.
(2)

(ii)

What type of reaction is this?


(1)

(e)

Potassium bromide, KBr, reacts with potassium bromate, KBrO 3, in the presence of
dilute sulphuric acid to form bromine, potassium sulphate and water.
24

5KBr + KBrO3 + 3H2SO4 3Br2 + 3K2SO4 + 3H2O


(i)

Give the oxidation numbers of bromine in


KBr .. KBrO3 .... Br2 .....
(3)

(ii)

Which substance in this reaction is the oxidising agent? Give a reason for your
choice.
Substance: .
Reason: ..
(2)
(Total 15 marks)

96.

(a)

Complete the following table:


Element

State at room temperature

Chlorine

Gas

Bromine
Iodine
(2)

(b)

Describe how you could use solutions of silver nitrate and ammonia to distinguish a
solution of sodium iodide from a solution of sodium bromide.
(4)
(Total 6 marks)

97.

(a)

Complete and balance the following equations:


(i)

Ca + O2 .....................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Na2O + H2O ...............................................................................................


(1)

(iii)

Na2O + HCl ...............................................................................................


(2)

(b)

State and explain the trend in thermal stability of the carbonates of the Group 2 elements
as the group is descended.
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

100. (a)

Hydrogen chloride can be made from sodium chloride and concentrated sulphuric acid.
Write a balanced chemical equation to represent this reaction.
(1)

(b)

(i)

How would you confirm that a solution said to be HCl(aq) contained chloride ions?
(3)
25

(ii)

Hydrogen chloride is soluble in water. Explain why the solution is acidic.


(2)

(c)

(i)

Give a chemical test for chlorine, stating what you would do and what you would
see.
(2)

(ii)

Hydrogen chloride can be oxidised to chlorine by lead(IV) oxide, PbO 2. Write the
oxidation numbers of lead and of chlorine in the boxes provided.
PbO

+ 4H Cl

PbC l2 + C l

+ 2H 2O

(2)

(d)

Sodium iodide reacts with concentrated sulphuric acid to give iodine, not hydrogen
iodide. Explain why iodides react differently from chlorides in this case.
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

102. (a)

(i)

State how a flame test would distinguish between samples of calcium nitrate,
Ca(NO3)2 and barium nitrate, Ba(NO3)2.
(2)

(ii)

Explain the origin of the flame colour.


.(3)

(b)

Write the equation for the action of heat on barium nitrate.


(2)

(c)

(i)

What is meant by the term polarising power as applied to cations?


(2)

(ii)

Give two factors which affect the polarising power of cations.


(2)

(iii)

Use this information to explain why it is easier to decompose magnesium nitrate


than barium nitrate by heating.
(3)
(Total 14 marks)

103. Barium and magnesium are both in Group 2 of the Periodic Table. Several bottles on the Group
2 shelf of the chemicals store had damaged labels.
(a)

Two bottles are clearly labelled sulphate. The solid in bottle A dissolves easily in water
but none of the solid in bottle B appears to dissolve when added to water.
Which of these two bottles contains barium sulphate?...............................................
(1)
26

(b)

Bottle C, labelled magnesium carbonate, contains a white powder. When heated this
powder produces a colourless gas that turns limewater cloudy.
State whether this label is correct and explain your answer.
(2)

(c)

Describe a test to show that the solid in bottle D is barium hydroxide and not magnesium
hydroxide.
(3)

(d) Bottle E is clearly labelled magnesium nitrate. When a sample of the chemical is
heated it gives off a brown gas and a gas that relights a glowing splint.

Give the name of each of the gases formed and write an equation for this chemical
reaction.
(4)
(Total 10 marks)

105. (a)

The compounds lithium chloride, sodium bromide and potassium iodide can be
distinguished from one another by the use of flame tests.
(i)

Complete the following table.


Compound

Flame colour

Lithium chloride
Sodium bromide
Potassium iodide

(3)

(ii)

Explain the origin of the colours in flame tests.


(2)

(b)

These compounds can also be distinguished from one another by the use of concentrated
sulphuric acid.
(i)

State what would be seen when concentrated sulphuric acid is added to separate
solid samples of each of these compounds.
Lithium chloride...............................................................................................
Sodium bromide...............................................................................................
Potassium iodide..............................................................................................
(4)

(ii)

Write an equation, including the state symbols, for the reaction between solid
lithium chloride and concentrated sulphuric acid.
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

106. (a)

Seawater contains aqueous bromide ions. During the manufacture of bromine, seawater is
27

treated with chlorine gas and the following reaction occurs:

2Br + Cl2 Br2 + 2Cl


(i)

Explain the term oxidation in terms of electron transfer.


(1)

(ii)

Explain the term oxidising agent in terms of electron transfer.


(1)

(iii)

State which of the elements chlorine or bromine is the stronger oxidising agent and
explain the importance of this in the extraction of bromine from seawater, as
represented in the equation above.
(2)

(b)

When sodium chlorate(I), NaClO, is heated, sodium chlorate(V) and sodium chloride are
formed.
(i)

Write the ionic equation for this reaction.


(2)

(ii)

What type of reaction is this?


(1)

(c)

During one process for the manufacture of iodine the following reaction occurs:
+

2IO3 + 5SO2 + 4H2O I2 + 8H + 5SO 4


(i)

Deduce the oxidation number of sulphur in:


SO2................................................................................................................
2

SO 4 .............................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Use your answers to part (c)(i) to explain whether SO2 has been oxidised or
reduced in the above reaction.
(1)

(iii)

Name a reagent that could be used to confirm that a solution contains iodine, and
state what would be seen.
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

108. (a)

Define the term oxidation number.


(2)

(b)

The equation below shows the disproportionation of chlorine.


Cl2(g) + H2O(l) HClO(aq) + HCl(aq)
.............
(i)

.............

.............

Underneath the chlorine-containing species write the oxidation number of chlorine


in each case.
(1)
28

(ii)

Use these oxidation numbers to explain the term disproportionation.


(2)

(c)

Explain why hydrogen chloride forms an acidic solution when dissolved in water.
(2)

(d)

Outline how aqueous silver nitrate followed by aqueous ammonia may be used in the
identification of chloride, bromide and iodide ions in aqueous solution.
(6)
(Total 13 marks)

110. (a)

When solid calcium nitrate is heated, brown fumes of nitrogen dioxide, NO 2, are seen and
the solid remaining after decomposition is calcium oxide.
(i)

Write a balanced equation for the thermal decomposition of calcium nitrate.


(2)

(ii)

Describe the changes you would see when cold water is added drop by drop to cold
calcium oxide and give the chemical equation for the reaction.
(3)

(iii)

State whether barium nitrate will decompose more easily or less easily than
calcium nitrate on heating with a Bunsen burner.
(1)

(iv)

Account for the trend in the thermal stability of the nitrates of the elements in
group 2.
(3)

6.
(b) Nitrogen monoxide, NO, is formed when nitrate ions, NO 3 , in acidic solution are
reduced by silver metal.

(i)

Calculate the oxidation number of nitrogen in NO and in NO 3

In NO...............................................................................................................

In NO 3 .............................................................................................................

(2)

(ii)

Balance the half-equation for the reduction of nitrate ions, NO 3 , in acidic solution.

NO 3 + .............H+ + ........e NO + ........H2O


(2)

(iii)

Write the half-equation for the oxidation of silver metal, Ag, to silver ions, Ag .
(1)

29

(iv)

Hence deduce the full ionic equation for the reaction between silver metal and
nitrate ions in acidic solution. State symbols are not required.
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

16.

Which of the following could not be an element in Group 2?


A

An element with an oxide which forms a solution of pH 10.

An element with an insoluble sulfate.

An element with a chloride which is liquid at room temperature.

An element with a carbonate which decomposes on heating.


(Total 1 mark)

17.

This question is about the following compounds.


A

Barium carbonate

Lithium nitrate

Potassium bromide

Potassium nitrate

(a)

Which compound gives a green colour in a flame test?


A
B
C
D
(1)

(b)

Which compound gives a lilac colour in a flame test and does not decompose on heating?
A
B
C
D
(1)
(Total 2 marks)

20.

The concentration of iodine in solution can be measured by titration with sodium thiosulfate
solution.
2

I2(aq) + 2S2O3 (aq) 2I (aq) + S4O6 (aq)


(a)

Name a suitable indicator which could be used for this titration.


(1)

30

(b)

The amount of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere can be measured by passing a known
volume of air through iodine solution. Sulfur dioxide converts iodine to iodide ions.
2

SO2(g) + I2(aq) + 2H2O(l) SO4 (aq) + 4H (aq) + 2I (aq)


3

In an experiment, 100 m of air were passed through 100 cm of iodine, concentration


3
0.0100 mol dm . The remaining iodine was titrated with sodium thiosulfate solution and
3
3
reacted with 12.60 cm of sodium thiosulfate, concentration 0.100 mol dm .
(i)

How many moles of iodine were present in the solution of the iodine at the start of
the experiment?
(1)

(ii)

How many moles of iodine remained in the solution at the end of the experiment?
(2)

(iii)

Calculate the number of moles of iodine which reacted with the sulfur dioxide, and
hence the number of moles of sulfur dioxide in 100 m3 of air.
(2)

(iv)

The European Commission recommend exposure to sulfur dioxide in air should be


6
less than 350 micrograms (350 10 g) per cubic metre.
Calculate whether the sulfur dioxide in this sample of air was within this limit. One
mole of sulfur dioxide has mass 64.1 g.
(2)

(c)

Explain whether the changes below would or would not improve the experimental
procedure for measuring the concentration of sulfur dioxide in air used in (b).
(i)

The 100 cm of iodine was divided into 25 cm samples before titration.


(1)

(ii)

The concentration of sodium thiosulfate used to titrate the iodine was changed from
3
3
0.100 mol dm to 0.050 mol dm .
(2)

(iii)

150 m of air was passed through the iodine. The solutions used were of the same
concentrations as in the original experiment.
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

35.

(a)

Lithium chloride, potassium carbonate and sodium iodide can be distinguished using
flame tests. Complete the table below.
Formula
lithium chloride
potassium carbonate
sodium iodide

Flame colour

LiCl
K2CO3
NaI
(2)

(b)

Explain the origin of the colours in the flame test.

(c)

Write equations for the following reactions. Do not include state symbols.

(2)
31

(i)

Lithium chloride and concentrated sulphuric acid.


(1)

(ii)

Sodium iodide solution and silver nitrate solution.


(1)
(Total 6 marks)

39.

Calcium nitrate decomposes on strong heating.


(a)

Balance the equation for the reaction which takes place.


Ca(NO3)2(s) CaO(s) + NO2(g) + O2(g)
(1)

(b)

A little water is added to the solid product of this reaction and the mixture is tested with
full-range pH indicator paper.
(i)

What colour will the indicator paper turn?


(1)

(ii)

Write the formula of the ion responsible for turning the indicator paper this colour.
(1)
(Total 3 marks)

40.

(a)

What colour do lithium compounds produce during a flame test?

(b)

In what way do the electronic transfers taking place in the production of a flame colour
differ from those occurring when lithium atoms ionise?

(1)

(1)
(Total 2 marks)

43.

(a)

Write an equation for the reaction of calcium with oxygen to form calcium oxide, CaO.

(b)

Draw a dot and cross diagram of calcium oxide, CaO, showing all the electrons.
Indicate the charges clearly on your diagram.

(1)

(2)

(c)

(i)

Name the compound formed when calcium oxide reacts with water.
(1)

(ii)

Which pH or pH range would include the pH of a saturated solution of the product


of this reaction?
pH

04

56

89

1014

(1)
(Total 5 marks)

44.

The element iodine can be produced from the mineral Chile saltpetre, which contains sodium
iodate, NaIO3. The iodate ions are converted to iodine in a two-step process.
Ionic equations for the reactions are shown below.

Step 2

IO3 (aq) + 3HSO3(aq) I (aq) + 3HSO4 (aq)

Step 1

IO3 (aq) + 5I (aq) + 6H (aq) 3I2(aq) + 3H2O(l)

32

(a)

(i)

Describe a test you could carry out to confirm the presence of iodide ions in a
solution. Indicate the result of the test.
Test
Result
(2)

(ii)

Identify the TWO elements in Step 1 which show a change of oxidation number
during the reaction.
Give their initial and final oxidation numbers.
First element ........................................

Second element ...................................

Initial oxidation number ......................

Initial oxidation number .....................

Final oxidation number .......................

Final oxidation number ......................


(3)

(iii)

The equation for Step 1 shows that 1 mole of iodate ions, IO3 , reacts with 3 moles
of hydrogensulphite ions, HSO3. Show that your answers to (ii) agree with this
ratio.
(1)

(b)

An experiment was carried out to determine the concentration of the iodine prepared in
Step 2
3

A 10.0 cm portion of the iodine solution was titrated with sodium thiosulphate solution
3
of concentration 0.0100 mol dm . The volume of sodium thiosulphate solution added at
3
the end-point was 24.0 cm .
The equation for the reaction is
I2(aq) + 2Na2S2O3(aq) 2NaI(aq) + Na2S4O6(aq)

(i)

What piece of apparatus would you use to measure out the 10.0 cm portion?
(1)

(ii)

Suggest a suitable indicator to show the end-point of this titration. State the colour
change you would see.
Indicator .................................................................................................................
From .........................................................to ........................................................
(2)

(iii)

Calculate the number of moles of sodium thiosulphate used in the titration.


(1)

(iv)

Calculate the number of moles of iodine which reacted with the sodium
thiosulphate solution.
(1)

(v)

Calculate the concentration, in mol dm , of the iodine solution.

33

(1)
(Total 12 marks)

48.

(a)

(i)

Complete the electron configuration of an aluminium atom.


2

1s .......................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

(i)

Write the half-equation for the oxidation of aluminium metal to aluminium


3+
ions, Al .
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Write the half-equation for the reduction of oxygen gas to oxide ions, O .
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

Combine these two half-equations to produce the redox equation for the reaction of
aluminium with oxygen to form aluminium oxide.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

51.

Magnesium oxide is a basic oxide which produces an alkaline solution with water. Write an
2
equation to show how the oxide ion, O , acts as a base in the reaction with water.
...............................................................................................................................................
(Total 1 mark)

52.

This question is concerned with some redox reactions of iodine.


(a)

Iodide ions can be converted into iodine using chlorine.


In the laboratory this can be carried out by adding an aqueous solution of chlorine to one
of sodium iodide.
(i)

Write an ionic equation, with state symbols, but omitting spectator ions, for the
reaction which takes place.
(2)

34

(ii)

A hydrocarbon solvent is added to the reaction mixture, which is then shaken for a
few minutes, and the layers allowed to settle. What colour is this hydrocarbon
layer?
(1)

(iii)

The procedure above is repeated using an aqueous solution of sodium bromide,


instead of sodium iodide. Give the colour of the hydrocarbon layer in this case.
(1)

(b)

Iodine molecules can be converted into iodide ions using sulphur dioxide. An
unbalanced equation is given below.

I2(aq) + SO2(aq) + H2O(l) I (aq) + SO4 (aq) + H (aq)


(i)

Give the oxidation number of

iodine in I2

............

iodine in I

sulphur in SO2

............

sulphur in SO4

............
2

............
(2)

(ii)

Identify, with a reason, the reducing agent in this reaction.


(1)

(iii)

Use the information above, or any other means, to balance the equation below.

I2(aq) +

SO2(aq) +

H2O(l)

(aq) +

SO4 (aq) +

H (aq)
(1)

(c)

The reaction between iodine and sulphur dioxide can be used to estimate the
concentration of sulphur dioxide, which is used as a preservative in wines.
In such a determination, a sample of red wine was treated with activated charcoal in order
3
to decolorise it. After filtration to remove the activated charcoal, 25.0 cm portions of the
3
decolorised wine were titrated with 0.00100 mol dm aqueous iodine, using starch as the
3
indicator. An average titre of 12.2 cm was obtained.
(i)

Why is there a need to decolorise the red wine before samples are titrated?
(1)

(ii)

What is the colour change at the end-point of this titration?


(1)

(iii)

Use the information above and the balanced equation in (b)(iii) to calculate:

the number of moles of iodine used in each titration

the number of moles of sulphur dioxide with which this iodine reacted

the concentration, in mol dm , of sulphur dioxide in the red wine.

(3)

(iv)

Suggest why the use of activated charcoal leads to an inaccurate estimate of the
sulphur dioxide content of the wine.
35

(1)
(Total 14 marks)

53.

(a)

(i)

State and explain the trend in solubility in water of the Group 2 hydroxides.

(b)

The dissolving of sparingly soluble calcium hydroxide in water can be shown by the
equilibrium reaction

(4)

2+

Ca(OH)2(s) + (aq)
Ca (aq) + 2OH (aq)
H = 16.2 kJ mol
State and explain the effect on the solubility of calcium hydroxide of
(i)

increasing the temperature


(3)

(ii)

adding sodium hydroxide solution.


(3)

(c)

When concentrated sulphuric acid is added to solid calcium chloride, one acidic gas is
given off.
When concentrated sulphuric acid is added to solid calcium bromide, three gases are
given off.
Identify the three gases given off in the reaction with calcium bromide. Explain why only
one gas is given off in the reaction with calcium chloride.
(4)
(Total 18 marks)

54.

(a)

Describe TWO observations which can be made when crystals of hydrated magnesium
nitrate are heated.
Observation 1 ................................................................................................................
Observation 2 ................................................................................................................
.
(2)

(b)

Name ONE of the gases evolved. Describe a test for this gas to confirm its identity and
give the result.
Name of gas ..................................................................................................................
Test and result ...............................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

55.

(a)

(i)

Give the formula of the ion which causes an aqueous solution to be alkaline.
(1)

(ii)

Explain why a 0.1 mol dm solution of ammonia has a lower pH than a


3
0.1 mol dm solution of sodium hydroxide.
(1)

(b)

Using the letters P, Q and R arrange the following in order of increasing pH


de-ionised water

0.1 mol dm
ethanoic acid

0.1 mol dm
hydrochloric acid
36

R
(1)

(Total 3 marks)

59. (a) A few crystals of potassium iodide were put into a test tube with a similar quantity of
phosphoric acid, H3PO4. The mixture was warmed. Misty white fumes were seen at the mouth of the
test tube.
(i)

Give the name or formula of the misty white fumes which formed in this reaction.
(1)

(ii)

Write a balanced equation for the reaction. State symbols are not required.
H3PO4 +

KI

+
(2)

(iii)

A sample of the misty white fumes was collected and dissolved in water.
What reagent would be used to confirm the identity of the halide ion present in the
solution? State what you would expect to see when it is used.
Reagent ..................................................................................................................
Observation ............................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

If potassium iodide crystals are reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid, a complicated
reaction occurs in which a mixture of gases is produced.
(i)

What would you see, other than misty white fumes, when this reaction occurs?
Give ONE observation.
(1)

(ii)

One of the gases in the mixture is hydrogen sulphide, H 2S. It can be identified by
holding a piece of filter paper soaked in a solution of lead nitrate, Pb(NO 3)2, or
lead ethanoate, (CH3CO2)2Pb, in the gas.
What would be observed if hydrogen sulphide is present?
(1)

(iii)

Suggest the name of the lead compound which forms in this reaction, using Stock
notation.
(1)

(iv)

The equation below shows how hydrogen sulphide could be produced from
sulphuric acid in a redox reaction.
9H2SO4 + 8KI H2S + 8KHSO4 + 4H2O + 4I2
Which element is oxidised in the reaction and which is reduced? Justify your
answer by calculating oxidation numbers.

Element oxidised .................................

37

Initial oxidation number ....................... Final oxidation number ......................


Element reduced ..................................
Initial oxidation number ....................... Final oxidation number ......................
(3)

(c)

An experiment was carried out to measure the purity of a sample of potassium iodide.
1.75 g of impure potassium iodide was dissolved in water, and excess chlorine was passed
through the solution. The following reaction occurred.
Cl2(g) + 2KI(aq) I2(aq) + 2KCl(aq)
The solution was warmed to drive off the excess chlorine and was then made up to
3
250 cm in a volumetric flask. A titration was used to measure the concentration of iodine
in the solution.
(i)

What solution could be used in a titration to measure the concentration of iodine?


(1)

(ii)

Name a suitable indicator and state the colour change at the end-point of this
titration.
Indicator .................................................................................................................
Colour change from ......................................

to ...............................................
(2)

(iii)

A titration showed that the solution contained 4.8 10

moles of iodine, I2, in a

25 cm sample. Calculate the number of moles of potassium iodide, KI, which


were in the original impure sample.
(1)

(iv)

Calculate the percentage purity of the potassium iodide.


Use the Periodic Table as a source of data.
(2)
(Total 17 marks)

61.

(a)

Hydrogen iodide, HI, has a boiling temperature of 35 C, and hydrogen chloride, HCl, a
boiling temperature of 85 C.
(i)

Draw a dot and cross diagram of a hydrogen iodide molecule (showing outer shell
electrons only).
(2)

(ii)

Explain why hydrogen iodide has a higher boiling temperature than hydrogen
chloride.
(3)

(b)

Hydrogen iodide and hydrogen chloride react with water to form acidic solutions.
(i)

Write the equation for the reaction of hydrogen iodide with water.
(1)

(ii)

State why the solution formed is acidic.


(1)
38

(c)

(i)

Excess dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with a lump of calcium oxide, CaO, to form
an aqueous solution of calcium chloride.
Write the equation for this reaction, including state symbols.
(2)

(ii)

In a similar reaction with dilute sulphuric acid and a lump of calcium oxide, the
reaction stops after a short time even though some calcium oxide remains. State
why the reaction stops so quickly.
(1)
(Total 10 marks)

66.

Hydrochloric acid, formed when hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water, can be converted to
chlorine using an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide:

(i)

2HCl(aq) + H2O2(aq) Cl2(g) + 2H2O(l)


Give the oxidation numbers of
chlorine in HCl ..........

chlorine in Cl2 ..........

oxygen in H2O2 ..........

oxygen in H2O ..........


(2)

(ii)

Name the reducing agent in this reaction.

(iii)

Explain why the oxidation numbers you have given in (i) are consistent with the fact that
two moles of hydrochloric acid react with one mole of hydrogen peroxide.

(1)

(1)
(Total 4 marks)

67.

Balance this equation showing how magnesium nitrate decomposes when heated.
Mg(NO3)2(s) MgO(s) + NO2(g) + O2(g)
(Total 1 mark)

68.

In the manufacture of beer, brewers often add small amounts of salts of Group 2 elements to the
water used. These salts influence the chemical reactions during the brewing process.
Two such salts are calcium sulphate and magnesium sulphate.
(a)

A flame test can be used to confirm that a sample of a salt contains calcium ions.
(i)

Describe how you would carry out a flame test.


(3)

(ii)

A positive test results in a brick-red flame colour. Describe the changes that occur
in calcium ions to produce a colour.

(iii) Impurities in the salt may lead to other colours being observed in the flame.
What metal ion is likely to be present if a yellow flame is seen?
(1)

70.

Iodine is obtained from three sources: sea water, seaweed and nitrate ores.
(a)

(i)

Sea water containing iodide ions is concentrated, and then chlorine gas is bubbled
through the solution.
Write the balanced ionic equation, including state symbols, for the reaction
between chlorine gas and iodide ions.
(2)

39

(ii)

What is the final colour of the solution at the end of this reaction?
(1)

(b)

In nitrate ores, iodine occurs in the form of iodate ions, IO 3 .

The first step of the process to extract iodine involves reaction of iodate ions with sulphur
2
dioxide gas to form iodide ions and sulphate ions, SO 4 .
(i)

State the oxidation number of iodine in

iodide ions, I ....................................................................................................

iodate ions, IO 3 ................................................................................................

(1)

(ii)

State the oxidation number of sulphur in


sulphur dioxide, SO2 ........................................................................................
2
sulphate ions, SO 4 ..........................................................................................

(1)

(iii)

Balance the ionic equation for the reaction between iodate ions and sulphur dioxide
gas to produce iodide ions and sulphate ions.
IO 3 (aq) + .......SO (g) + .......H O(l) I(aq) + ....... SO 24 (aq) + .......H+(aq)
2
2

(2)c)

(i)
The next step is to add a small quantity of a solution containing iodate ions. These react with the iodide ions
present to form an iodine solution.

Iodine can be extracted from this solution by the addition of a hydrocarbon solvent
and separation of the hydrocarbon solution using a separating funnel.
Draw a diagram of a separating funnel and its contents. Indicate which is the

hydrocarbon layer and state its colour. [Density of the hydrocarbon is 0.660 g cm
3
]
Colour of hydrocarbon layer .............................................................................

(3)

(ii)

How might solid iodine be obtained from the hydrocarbon layer?


(1)
(Total 11 marks)

71.

This question is about phosphine, PH3, and ammonia, NH3.


(a)

Which compound has the stronger van der Waals forces?


Justify your answer.
(1)

40

(b)

(i)

The boiling points of ammonia and phosphine are:


Ammonia
Phosphine

240 K
185 K

Name the intermolecular force responsible for the higher boiling point of ammonia.
(1)

(ii)

Use displayed formulae to show this intermolecular bond between two ammonia
molecules.
Clearly mark and label the bond angle between the molecules.
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

74.

(a)

Draw a dot-and-cross diagram for a magnesium ion.


Show ALL the electrons present and give the charge on this ion.(2)

(b)

Why do salts containing magnesium ions give no colour in a flame test?


(1)
(Total 3 marks)
(2)

78.

This question is about a mixture, M, which contains 80% of potassium bromide, KBr,
and 20% of potassium chloride, KCl, by mass.
(a)

When concentrated sulphuric acid was added to mixture M and the mixture gently
warmed, four different gases were given off.
(i)

What would happen to moist universal indicator paper when held in this mixture of
gases?

(ii)

What would you see if a glass rod, dipped into concentrated ammonia solution, was
held in these gases?
(1)

(b)

(iii)

Which of these gases would be responsible for turning potassium dichromate(VI)


solution from orange to green?

(i)

What would you see when silver nitrate solution is added to a solution of mixture
M?
(1)

(ii)

After adding silver nitrate solution to a solution of mixture M in (b)(i),


concentrated ammonia solution is added.
What would you see? Justify your answer.
(2)

(c)

The graph below shows how the solubilities of potassium bromide and potassium
chloride vary with temperature.

41

120

P o ta s s iu m b ro m id e

S o lu b ility
100
in
w a te r
/g p e r 1 0 0 g
o f w a te r
80

60
P o ta s s iu m c h lo rid e

40

20

(i)

20

40
60
T e m p e ra tu re / C

80

100

What is meant by a saturated solution?


(2)

(ii)

125 g of mixture M, containing 80% KBr and 20% KCl by mass, was added to
100 g of boiling water to make a solution.
Calculate the masses of KBr and KCl present in mixture M.
Use your calculation and the graph to predict which crystals will form on cooling
to 20 C, and what will be left in the solution.
(Total 11 marks)

83.

(a)

A few crystals of potassium bromide were dissolved in water in a test tube. A few
drops of aqueous chlorine solution were then added and a colour change was observed.
(i)

What colour are potassium bromide crystals?


(1)

(ii)

What colour was the solution after the chlorine solution had been added?
(1)

(iii) Write a balanced ionic equation for the reaction of bromide ions with chlorine
solution.
Do not include spectator ions in your equation.
42

(1)

(iv)

What would you expect to see if the contents of the test tube were shaken with a
small quantity of a hydrocarbon solvent and then allowed to settle?
(2)

(b)

(i)

Hydrogen bromide can be made by bubbling hydrogen sulphide gas into liquid
bromine.
The equation for the reaction is:
2H2S(g) + 3Br2(l) 4HBr(g) + S2Br2(l)
Two elements show changes in oxidation number during this reaction.
Identify these elements, stating their original and final oxidation numbers.
First element.......................................
Initial oxidation number.............. Final oxidation number .........................
Second element ..................................
Initial oxidation number.............. Final oxidation number .........................
(3)

(ii)

The equation shows that 2 moles of hydrogen sulphide molecules react with 3
moles of bromine molecules. Show how your answers to (i) agree with this ratio.
(1)
(Total 14 marks)

91.

The following table was used to record the results of experiments in which aqueous solutions of
halogen elements were added to aqueous solutions of potassium halides.

(a)

(i)

The ticked box indicates that a reaction occurred when bromine solution was added
to potassium iodide solution.
Place ticks in appropriate empty boxes to indicate the other experiments in which
you would expect reactions to have occurred.
(1)

(ii)

Give ONE observation you would expect to make when bromine solution is added
to potassium iodide solution.
(1)

(iii)

Write a balanced ionic equation for the reaction in (ii).


(Omit or delete any spectator ions).
1)
43

(iv)

Select ONE of the products of the reaction in (ii).


Describe a test you could carry out to confirm its identity, indicating the result of
the test.
Product ...............................................................................................................
Test .....................................................................................................................
Result..................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Iodine and its compounds are quite expensive and it is sometimes worthwhile recovering
this element from solutions containing iodide ions. This can be done by adding a solution
of potassium dichromate acidified with sulphuric acid. Iodine is then precipitated and can
be separated from the mixture.
An unbalanced ionic equation for the reaction is:
2

Cr2O7 (aq) + H (aq) + I (aq) 2Cr

(i)

3+

(aq) + I2 (s) + H2O (l)

Identify the two elements which show a change of oxidation number during the
reaction, giving their initial and final oxidation numbers.
First element.......................................
Initial oxidation number..............

Final oxidation number ..............................

Second element ..................................


Initial oxidation number..............

Final oxidation number ...............................


(3)

(ii)

Using oxidation numbers (or otherwise), balance the equation:


2

Cr2O7 + ........H + ........I 2Cr

3+

+ ........I2 + ........H2O
(1)

(c)

The halogen elements have a wide variety of commercial and industrial uses.
Bromine, for example, is extracted from sea water and used to make compounds such
as bromomethane, CH3Br, an insecticide.
(i)

Why must strict precautions be taken if it is necessary to transport bromine from


the extraction plant to another manufacturing site?
(1)

(ii)

Suggest ONE environmental concern arising from the use of gaseous


bromomethane to destroy insects in a grain store.
(1)
(Total 11 marks)

92.

(a)

Complete and balance the following equations:


44

(i)

Ca + O2 .....................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Na2O + H2O ...............................................................................................


(1)

(iii)

Na2O + HCl ...............................................................................................


(2)

(b)

State and explain the trend in thermal stability of the carbonates of the Group 2 elements
as the group is descended.
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

93.

(a)

(i)

State how a flame test would distinguish between samples of calcium nitrate,
Ca(NO3)2 and barium nitrate, Ba(NO3)2.
(2)

(ii)

Explain the origin of the flame colour.


(3)

(b)

Write the equation for the action of heat on barium nitrate.


(2)

(c)

(i)

What is meant by the term polarising power as applied to cations?


(2)

(ii)

Give two factors which affect the polarising power of cations.


(2)

(iii)

Use this information to explain why it is easier to decompose magnesium nitrate


than barium nitrate by heating.
(3)
(Total 14 marks)

94. Barium and magnesium are both in Group 2 of the Periodic Table. Several bottles on the Group
2 shelf of the chemicals store had damaged labels.
(a)

Two bottles are clearly labelled sulphate. The solid in bottle A dissolves easily in water
but none of the solid in bottle B appears to dissolve when added to water.
Which of these two bottles contains barium sulphate?...............................................
(1)

(b)

Bottle C, labelled magnesium carbonate, contains a white powder. When heated this
powder produces a colourless gas that turns limewater cloudy.
State whether this label is correct and explain your answer.
(2)

(c)

Describe a test to show that the solid in bottle D is barium hydroxide and not magnesium
hydroxide.

(d)

Bottle E is clearly labelled magnesium nitrate. When a sample of the chemical is


heated it gives off a brown gas and a gas that relights a glowing splint.

(3)

Give the name of each of the gases formed and write an equation for this chemical
45

reaction.
(4)
(Total 10 marks)

96.

(a)

The compounds lithium chloride, sodium bromide and potassium iodide can be
distinguished from one another by the use of flame tests.
(i)

Complete the following table.


Compound

Flame colour

Lithium chloride
Sodium bromide
Potassium iodide
(3)

(ii)

Explain the origin of the colours in flame tests.


(2)

(b)

These compounds can also be distinguished from one another by the use of concentrated
sulphuric acid.
(i)

State what would be seen when concentrated sulphuric acid is added to separate
solid samples of each of these compounds.
Lithium chloride...............................................................................................
Sodium bromide...............................................................................................
Potassium iodide..............................................................................................
(4)

(ii)

Write an equation, including the state symbols, for the reaction between solid
lithium chloride and concentrated sulphuric acid.
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

46