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Barinas Power Plant

Fuel Systems

El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Fuel Systems

LIQUID FUEL SYSTEM

El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Learning Objectives
Upon completion of this training, participants will be
able to:
Identify the basic system components and trace the
liquid fuel delivery path.
Describe the basic principles of operation for the fuel
pump, bypass valve, and the pressurizing and drain
valve.
Describe the purpose and operation of the air assist
system.

El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel System


PURPOSE
Provides clean, high pressure, regulated fuel to the fuel
nozzles.
REQUIREMENTS
Specification:
TPM FR-1 specifies liquid fuel requirements for
stationary gas turbines.
Clean fuel is essential to prevent fuel nozzle clogging.
Clogged nozzles will result in a poor spray pattern that
affects temperature distribution and leads to hotsection distress.
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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel System


BASIC GROUPS
Fuel Forwarding (External)
Gas Generator (at the power unit)

El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel System


FUEL FORWARDING SYSTEM
PURPOSE
Pre-conditions fuel for delivery to the gas generator
(power unit) mounted system components.
COMPONENTS
Fuel Storage Tank
AC and DC powered pumps
Heated Fuel Filters
Flowmeter and Fire Valve
Fuel Heater
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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel System


PUMPS
AC powered centrifugal pumps provide full flow at
maximum power.
Optional DC pump provides flow to start one gas
generator and accelerate to minimum power.
Wire mesh strainer mounted in-line acts to protect
from large foreign objects.
Bypass
orifice
recirculates
requirements drop.

fuel

when

flow

El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel System


FILTERS
10 micron nominal
FIRE VALVE
Magnetically held open. Will close in the event of an
enclosure fire.
FUEL HEATER
Fuel recirculates to the storage tank to provide warm
fuel delivery at start.
Heater turns off after gas generator starts.
Heaters turned back on after shut down.
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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel System

FUEL FORWARDING SYSTEM - TYPICAL


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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components


PURPOSE
Supplies high-pressure metered fuel to the combustion
section.
COMPONENTS AND SUBSYSTEMS
Gas generator driven Main Fuel Pump.
Liquid Fuel Throttle Valve (Modulating Valve).
Bypass Valve.
Pressurizing and Dump Valve.
Fuel Manifolds and Fuel Nozzles.
Air Assist.
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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components

BASIC LIQUID FUEL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components


MAIN FUEL PUMP
Driven by gas generator through accessory gearbox.
Centrifugal "boost" stage located opposite the drive
end. Boost stage is driven through a gear train and
has a shear section.
Boost pressure passes through a 60x60 mesh filter.
Filter will bypass if it becomes clogged.
Positive displacement gear stage provides discharge
to the Liquid Fuel Throttle Valve.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components


Internal pressure relief valve provides bypass for low
flow conditions.
Adjusted to limit pressure to a
maximum of 835-845 psig.
Bypass from throttle valve returns to the pump and
enters same path as boost stage discharge.
Pressure taps are provided at key locations for
instrumenting pump to check performance.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components


BYPASS VALVE
LOCATION
Installed in line between throttle valve and P&D valve.
FEATURES
Redundant shutoff for liquid fuel supply.
125 VDC solenoid operated.
Energized - valve opens to let fuel flow to P&D.
De-energized - spring pressure closes valve to let fuel
flow bypass.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components


Electrical signal from Free Turbine (N3)
N3 overspeed = Shutdown.
Loss of N3 signal = Shutdown.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components


PRESSURIZING AND DUMP VALVE
LOCATION
Mounted on Diffuser at 6 o'clock position. Contains a
pressurizing section and a drain (dump) section.
PURPOSE
Supplies fuel to the primary nozzles during light off
and start.
Provides air assist through secondary nozzles.
Provides fuel to secondary nozzles at high power
settings.
Drains fuel manifolds at shutdown.
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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components


OPERATION
Metered fuel passes through mesh filter.
Fuel pressure (125 psi) from throttle valve acts on
piston and closes drain poppet.
Fuel pressure opens the pressurizing valve and fuel
flows through the primary outlets.
Air assist pressure for fuel atomization during start is
provided
through
secondary
outlets
until
approximately 5200 RPM N2.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components


At about 250 psig, fuel pressure opens the
pressurizing valve further to provide fuel flow through
the secondary outlets for high power operation.
At shutdown, pressure signal from throttle valve drops
and lets spring pressure open the overboard drain.
Pressurizing valve closes and primary sections of fuel
manifolds drain while air assist purges the secondary.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components


AIR ASSIST
PURPOSE
Improves fuel atomization during starting by injecting
high pressure air into the secondary flow section of
fuel system. This helps fuel mixture lightoff at cold
start when using typical marine standard fuels.
Purges secondary manifold at shutdown.
COMPONENTS
Filter
Solenoid
Check valve
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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components


OPERATION
As the start sequence begins, fuel will only be supplied
through the primary path.
A signal from the fuel control energizes the solenoid,
permitting high pressure filtered air to flow upstream
and unseat the check valve.
From the check valve, air flows through the secondary
section of P&D valve and into the secondary supply to
the fuel nozzles.
After lightoff, the fuel control de-energizes the
solenoid at about 5200 N2 RPM to shut off the air
supply. Check valve seats to prevent fuel from flowing
to the air assist system.
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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components


FUEL NOZZLES AND COMBUSTION FUEL SUPPLY
PURPOSE
Deliver precisely measured fuel spray to combustion
chambers for atomization and ignition.
DESCRIPTION
Two manifolds each having four nozzle clusters.
48 Nozzles, arranged in clusters of six for each
combustion chamber.
Nozzles fit in stator swirler guides on dome of
chamber.
Two fuel paths, primary and secondary.
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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components


Primary flow is constant during operation. Secondary
flow occurs during high power operation.
The constant primary flow cools the secondary
discharge area to reduce coking that could occur when
fuel is not flowing at lower power.
Air blast from HPC flows through stator swirlers to
atomize the fuel.
Nozzles are precision manufactured to
tolerances to produce optimal spray pattern.

close

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components

COMBUSTION FUEL SUPPLY


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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Liquid Fuel Sys. - Gas Generator Components

LIQUID FUEL NOZZLE


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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Fuel Systems

GAS FUEL SYSTEM

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Learning Objectives
Upon completion of this training, participants
will be able to:
Identify the basic system components and trace the
gas fuel delivery path.
Describe the basic safety features of the fire valve and
redundant shutoffs.
Describe the features of the throttle valve.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System


PURPOSE
Provides gaseous fuel delivery system used in place of
liquid fuel.
COMPONENTS
Fire Valve.
Strainer.
Flowmeter.
Shutoff Valves.
Throttle Valve (Modulating Valve).
Fuel Manifolds and Nozzles.
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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System

BASIC GAS FUEL SYSTEM


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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System


FIRE VALVE
PURPOSE
Emergency shutoff for system protection.
LOCATION
As close as possible to the access door.
DESCRIPTION
Held "open" by 125 VDC power supply.
If temperature exceeds 450F inside the enclosure
valve will close.
Must be manually reset using lever on valve once
activated.
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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System

35

El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System


STRAINER
PURPOSE
Prevents foreign matter from entering components in
the system.
LOCATION
Installed in line between the Fire Valve and the shutoff
valve.
Has cleanable mesh screen.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System


FLOWMETER
PURPOSE
Provides an accurate indication of gas flow rate to the
engine controller for comparison to power level
requirements.
LOCATION
Located in line before the shutoff valves.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System


DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
This unit is a highly accurate turbine fuel flow meter. It
is delivered factory calibrated and certified for specific
flows and temperature ranges.
Turbine rotation inside the flowmeter generates an
electrical signal that is proportional to gas flow.
The signal is supplied to the control system where it is
used to make decisions to adjust the throttle valve.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System

TYPICAL GAS FLOW METER


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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System


SHUTOFF VALVES
PURPOSE
Emergency (redundant) shutoff for the gas fuel supply.
Closes when there is a power failure, EGT over limits, or
N3 overspeed occurs.
DESCRIPTION
Solenoid operated spring poppet valve that uses gas
line pressure to seat and unseat.
Located in line between flowmeter and throttle valve.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System


OPERATION
During normal operation, solenoid is powered to
activate a plunger which opens a vent. Gas escapes
from back side of piston through the vent. Piston
unseats and gas flows through supply line.
When power is removed, solenoid releases plunger
and vent closes. Gas flows to back side of piston and
works with spring pressure to close the valve and stop
gas flow.
Automatically signaled by the control system. Also
can be manually controlled from a switch on operator
control panel.
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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System


FUEL THROTTLE VALVE (MODULATING VALVE)
PURPOSE
Controls flow of gas fuel to the engine.
DESCRIPTION
Installed in-line after the gas shutoff valves. Uses
electrical power to increase or decrease fuel flow in
response to the SPC2A control.
Three sections:
Actuator and feedback
Throttle
Bypass
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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System


OPERATION
Electric motor drives gear train to position the throttle
valve.
Feedback potentiometer (variable resistor)
provides valve position and rate of change to prevent
overshoot.
Minimum light-off flow for starting is provided through
a by-pass orifice.
A second by-pass orifice was previously used for 100
psi operation in conjunction with a solenoid. Now
blocked off and not used.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System


EXTERNAL FUEL MANIFOLDS
PURPOSE
Provide the flowpath for gas fuel to enter the internal
fuel manifolds and fuel nozzles.
DESCRIPTION
External manifolds feed gas from throttle valve to four
sets of internal manifolds

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System

GAS FUEL EXTERNAL MANIFOLDS (Typical)


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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System


INTERNAL FUEL MANIFOLDS
PURPOSE
Provide the flowpath for gas fuel between the external
fuel manifolds and the fuel nozzles.
DESCRIPTION
Each internal manifold has two clusters of six nozzles.
Nozzles fit into swirler guides on dome of chamber.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System

50

El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System


FUEL NOZZLES
PURPOSE
Mixes gas fuel with compressor discharge air in the
combustion chamber for ignition.
DESCRIPTION
Nozzles fit into swirler guides on dome of chamber.
Air blast from HPC flows through stator swirlers and
mixes with gas flow.
Nozzles are precision manufactured to produce
optimal discharge and resulting flame pattern.
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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System


Field maintenance is limited to complete nozzle
replacement.
Always replace nozzles in complete sets to assure
equal supply and flame pattern.

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Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Gas Fuel System

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Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Fuel Systems

DUAL FUEL SYSTEM

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Learning Objectives
Upon completion of this training, participants will be
able to:
Describe the purpose, function, and operation of the
dual fuel system.
Highlight the special purpose solenoid valves.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Dual Fuel System


PURPOSE
Permits selection for operation on either liquid or gas
fuels.
DESCRIPTION
The liquid and gas systems function independently as
selected. Their function and operation are essentially
the same as the previously described separate liquid
and gas systems.
Most components are assembled on a fuel skid plate
as a modular unit.
External fuel manifolds and the fuel nozzles are
unique, permitting delivery of either fuel type.
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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Dual Fuel System


OPERATION
Usually starts are made on gas fuel. Transfers to
liquid (or gas) are made at a stabilized IDLE.
Starts can also be made in the liquid fuel mode.
An electrically controlled clutch disengages the liquid
fuel pump when gas fuel operation is selected.
Liquid fuel recirculates to the supply tank during gas
fuel operation

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Dual Fuel System


SPECIAL SOLENOID VALVES
GAS ASSIST VALVES
Introduce gas fuel to the gas section of the fuel
manifolds to improve light off during a liquid fuel start.
LIQUID MANIFOLD PURGE
Opens during gas fuel operation to provide gas flow
through the liquid fuel section of the fuel manifolds.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Dual Fuel System


LIQUID SUPPLY VENT
Opens at shutdown to drain the liquid fuel supply
between shutoff valve No. 2 and the check valve.
LIQUID MANIFOLD DUMP
Opens at shutdown to drain the liquid fuel supply
between the check valve and the fuel nozzles.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Dual Fuel System

TYPICAL DUAL FUEL SYSTEM


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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Dual Fuel System


ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED CLUTCH
PURPOSE
Permits disengagement of liquid fuel pump drive during
gas fuel operation. Reduces running time and wear on
fuel pump.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Dual Fuel System

FUEL PUMP CLUTCH


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Barinas
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Dual Fuel System


MANIFOLDS AND TUBES
Gas supply manifolds are identical to the gas fuel
system.
Elbow connectors to the internal manifolds are "tee"
fittings.
Liquid fuel tubes introduce liquid fuel supply at the
"tee" fittings.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Dual Fuel System

DUAL FUEL SUPPLY CONNECTION


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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
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Dual Fuel System


DUAL FUEL NOZZLE
PURPOSE
Atomizes fuel for combustion.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Dual Fuel System

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Dual Fuel System


FUEL PLATE ASSEMBLY
PURPOSE
Provides clean, high pressure, regulated fuel to the fuel
nozzles.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
Plant

Dual Fuel System

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Barinas
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Dual Fuel System

69

El FurrialPower
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Water Injection System


PURPOSE
Mixes and injects de-mineralized water into the fuel
system.
This aids in controlling combustion
temperature for reduced Nitrogen Oxide (Nox)
emissions.
OPERATION
LIQUID FUEL
Water is injected directly into the fuel distribution
block where it "mixes" with liquid fuel and the flow is
delivered through the normal liquid fuel system.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
PowerPlant
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Water Injection System


GAS FUEL
During gas fuel operation the fuel shut off valve is
blocking liquid flow from the main fuel pump. Water is
injected and delivered to the fuel nozzles using the
same liquid fuel path and mixes with the gas fuel at the
fuel nozzles.
SHUTDOWN
Dump solenoid opens to drain water from system. 25
psi air purge makes sure all water is removed from
system.

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El FurrialPower
Barinas
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Plant

Water Injection System

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Plant

Are there any questions?


Review the sections learning objectives.

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