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# Analytical Modal Analysis

Todays Objectives:
Students will be able to:
a) Find the homogeneous or steady state solution using
analytical modal analysis

class tomorrow!

Vibrations

## Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Mechanical Engineering

Vibrations

Overview (from
Rose-Hulman
Institute of Technology
Pete Mechanical
Avitabile)Engineering

## Analytical Modal Analysis

(MDOF free and forced vibration)
EOM

## Solve the eigenvalue problem

For eigenvalues:
For eigenvectors:
Mass normalize the eigenvectors:
Form the modal matrix:

Vibrations

## Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Mechanical Engineering

(1)

## Modal analysis (cont.)

Apply a coordinate transformation

## Into (1) gives:

[M ][ ]{q&&}+ [K ][ ]{q} = {F }

## Premultiply by []T gives:

[ ]T [M ][ ]{q&&}+ [ ]T [K ][ ]{q} = [ ]T {F }

Gives:
Notes:

## we get n uncoupled differential equations!

qi(t) is called a principle coordinate of, if [] is mass normalized, a
normal coordinate

Vibrations

## Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Mechanical Engineering

## Modal analysis (cont.)

Then uncoupled equations are:
q&&i +i2 qi = Qi

## How do we fine Ai and Bi?

qi (t ) = qiH (t ) + qiP (t )

Particular solution
(depends on RHS)
Homogeneous solution
=Aicosit + Bisinit

Vibrations

## Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Mechanical Engineering

## Initial conditions for normal coordinates

We need q(0) and q& (0)
Recall:
But if we mass normalize the modes we have
So
So we get

{q(0)} =
{q& (0)} =

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## Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Mechanical Engineering

{x(t )} = [ ]{q(t )}

1.
2.

## Find EOM [M ]{&x&}+ [K ]{x} = {F }

Solve the eigenvalue problem to find frequencies and modes
[ ] and [ ]
2 [M ]{X } = [K ]{X }

## Mass normalize the modes

[ ]T [M ][ ] = [I ]
3.

## Apply coordinate transformation (basically any motion can

{x(t )} = [ ]{q(t )}
be considered as a superposition of the normal modes)
2
Obtain the decoupled equations of motion: q&&i +i qi = Qi

4.
5.

so [ ] [K ][ ] = [ ]

## Find the generalized force: Qi(t) = []T{F(t)}

Find the initial conditions for {q(t)}: {q (0 )} and {q& (0 )}

## Solve the decoupled equations and apply ICs to find qi(t)

Transform back to find {x(t)}

{x(t )} = [ ]{q(t )}
Vibrations

## Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Mechanical Engineering

Example
The 3-DOF system shown is found to have the natural frequencies
x2

x1

= 1.0
2
1

x3

22 = 3.0
32 = 4.0

## 0.2886 0.5 0.4083

[] = 0.5774 0 0.4083 and mass matrix [M] =
0.2886 0.5
0.4083

2 0 0
0 2 0

0 0 2

a) Using modal analysis determine the time response of each mass if the system is given the initial
conditions
x1 (0) = x&1 (0) = x& 2 (0) = x& 3 (0) = 0

and

x 2 ( 0) = x 3 ( 0) = 1

Vibrations

## Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Mechanical Engineering