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Analytical Modal Analysis

Todays Objectives:
Students will be able to:
a) Find the homogeneous or steady state solution using
analytical modal analysis

Note: Bring your laptop to


class tomorrow!

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Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology


Mechanical Engineering

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Overview (from
Rose-Hulman
Institute of Technology
Pete Mechanical
Avitabile)Engineering

Analytical Modal Analysis


(MDOF free and forced vibration)
EOM

[M ]{&x&}+ [C ]{x&}+ [K ]{x} = {F }

Solve the eigenvalue problem


For eigenvalues:
For eigenvectors:
Mass normalize the eigenvectors:
Form the modal matrix:

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Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology


Mechanical Engineering

(1)

Modal analysis (cont.)


Apply a coordinate transformation

Into (1) gives:

[M ][ ]{q&&}+ [K ][ ]{q} = {F }

Premultiply by []T gives:

[ ]T [M ][ ]{q&&}+ [ ]T [K ][ ]{q} = [ ]T {F }

Gives:
Notes:

we get n uncoupled differential equations!


qi(t) is called a principle coordinate of, if [] is mass normalized, a
normal coordinate

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Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology


Mechanical Engineering

Modal analysis (cont.)


Then uncoupled equations are:
q&&i +i2 qi = Qi

We know how to solve this!!

How do we fine Ai and Bi?

qi (t ) = qiH (t ) + qiP (t )

Particular solution
(depends on RHS)
Homogeneous solution
=Aicosit + Bisinit

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Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology


Mechanical Engineering

Initial conditions for normal coordinates


We need q(0) and q& (0)
Recall:
But if we mass normalize the modes we have
So
So we get

{q(0)} =
{q& (0)} =

One we find {q(t)} we can find {x(t)} by transforming back


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Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology


Mechanical Engineering

{x(t )} = [ ]{q(t )}

Summary of Analytical Modal Analysis


1.
2.

Find EOM [M ]{&x&}+ [K ]{x} = {F }


Solve the eigenvalue problem to find frequencies and modes
[ ] and [ ]
2 [M ]{X } = [K ]{X }

Mass normalize the modes

[ ]T [M ][ ] = [I ]
3.

Apply coordinate transformation (basically any motion can


{x(t )} = [ ]{q(t )}
be considered as a superposition of the normal modes)
2
Obtain the decoupled equations of motion: q&&i +i qi = Qi

4.
5.

so [ ] [K ][ ] = [ ]

Find the generalized force: Qi(t) = []T{F(t)}


Find the initial conditions for {q(t)}: {q (0 )} and {q& (0 )}

Solve the decoupled equations and apply ICs to find qi(t)


Transform back to find {x(t)}

{x(t )} = [ ]{q(t )}
Vibrations

Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology


Mechanical Engineering

Example
The 3-DOF system shown is found to have the natural frequencies
x2

x1

= 1.0
2
1

x3

22 = 3.0
32 = 4.0

and the mass normalized modal matrix:

0.2886 0.5 0.4083


[] = 0.5774 0 0.4083 and mass matrix [M] =
0.2886 0.5
0.4083

2 0 0
0 2 0

0 0 2

a) Using modal analysis determine the time response of each mass if the system is given the initial
conditions
x1 (0) = x&1 (0) = x& 2 (0) = x& 3 (0) = 0

and

x 2 ( 0) = x 3 ( 0) = 1

b) What is the stiffness matrix for this problem?


Vibrations

Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology


Mechanical Engineering