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AP European History Review by Patrick Abejar |1

Notes for College Board Advanced Placement Examination

EUROPEAN HISTORY
CONDENSED NOTES VERSION
by Patrick Abejar
GOOD LUCK TO EVERYBODY!!!!

***CH #s DO NOT CORRESPOND W/ EACH OTHER SINCE 2 TEXTBOOKS WERE USED TO WRITE THESE NOTES

Chapter 12: Recovery and Rebirth: The Age of the Renaissance


MEANING AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE
-

1350-1550 (approximation)
In the Middle Ages, classical culture was lacking
Jacob Burckhardt- Italy was the birthplace of modern world
Jacob Burckhardt- Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860)
perfecting individual
secularism
Middle Ages and Renaissance, different: economic, political, and social life
Renaissance Italy- urban society
Renaissance, age of recovery (Black Death)
Renaissance focused on individual ability
well rounded (luomo universale)
Italian Renaissance available to upper class

THE MAKING OF RENAISSANCE SOCIETY


Economic Recovery
- Venetian Flanders Fleet (Venice England Netherlands)
- Hanseatic League of Merchants; German coast towns by 1500; Monopoly in Northern European Trade (timber, fish,
grain, metals, honey, wines)
- Bruges- city where Flanders and Hans meet
- New industries
- printing
- mining
- metallurgy
- Florence
- Medici family
- cloth production commerce
- real estate
- banking
- House of Medici bank
- Medici rule collapsed (poor leadership)
- 1492- French expelled Medici from Florence

Social Changes in the Renaissance


-

inherited social class structure from Middle Ages


1st clergy; 2nd nobility; 3rd peasants
Nobility (2-3%)
- military officers
- political post
- for European aristocrats, The Book of the Coutier by Baldassare Castiglione)
1) Impeccable character, grace talent, and noble birth (Fundamental Native Endowments)
2) Cultivate certain achievements (participage in military and bodily exercises)

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3) Classroom education (unlike Middle Age Knights)
- Continued to dominate European life socially and politically

The Family in Renaissance Italy


- Extended household of parents/children/servants
- Families could dominate entire urban district (i.e. Strozzi, Rucellai, Medici)
- Crime affected entire family
- Dowry was important (money from wife to husband)
- Father-Husband was the center of the family; he had authority over all children
- Adulthood came when the father emancipated the child by a judge
- Wives controlled the household
- Deadly childbirth- 10% mothers dead; 50% of children died before reaching age 20
- Many children as possible to ensure male heir
- Difference sex guidelines for females than males
- Prostitution allowed

ITALIAN STATES IN THE RENAISSANCE


The Five Major States
1) Francesco Sforza (Milan) died 1447, one of the condottieri seized control- taxes and big revenues were
collected
2) Venice by oligarchy composed of merchant-aristocrats- protected food supply and overland trade routes
3) Florence (in Tuscany) small merchant oligarchy; 1434- Cosimo de Medici took control in 1436, Lorezono
(1469-1492)- domination of city
4) Papal State- during great Schism, independence of Urbino Bologna; Ferrara
5) Naples- France vs. Aragonese; backwards monarchy

Independent City-States
- Federigo da Montefeltro (Urbino 1444- 1482)
- Classical Education/ Humanism School
- Fighting Skills
- Condottiere
- not a brilliant general but reliable and honest
- Urbino- intellectual center
- His wife, Battista Sforza, was trained in Greek and Latin
- Isabelle dEste (Mantua)
- court was important center of art/learning in Renaissance

Warfare in Italy
- balance of power between states & Peace of Lodi
- Battlefield was in Italy (France vs. Spain)
- Causes of war
- breakdown of balance of power
- Ludovico Sforza (Milan) invited French to intervene in Italian politics
- Charles VIII invaded in 1494 (France)
- Italy asked Spain for help
- Love for own states instead of whole Italy
- Italy wasnt unified until 1870

The Birth of Modern Diplomacy


- Diplomatic system from Italian Renaissance
- Diplomats to each state (especially during wars)

[Niccolo] Machiavelli and the New Statecraft


- Entered service of Florentine (1498) after Medici was expelled
- Made many diplomatic missions to France/Germany
- As a result of the Spanish victory in Italy, the Medici regained power in Florence
- Wrote The Prince (1513)
- Stated how a ruler should behave, opposing Christian moral principles

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- understand human nature
- Casare Borgia (model of Machiavellis ideas)

THE INTELLECTUAL RENAISSANCE IN ITALY


-

Two characteristics of the Italian Renaissance: individualism & secularism


Humanism is the most important literary movement associated with the Renaissance

Italian Renaissance Humanism


- Humanism- based on Roman and Greek works
- Humanists studied the liberal arts (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy or ethics, and history)
- Most humanists were laymen
- Petrarch (1304-1374)- father of Italian Renaissance humanism
- Petrarch was the first intellectual to characterize the Middle Ages as a period of darkness
- Leonardo Bruni- first to gain thorough knowledge of Greek works

Chapter 13: Reformation and Religious Warfare in the Sixteenth Century


INTRODUCTION
-

On April 18, 1520 Luther defended his works against the Catholic church in Worms, Germany
Zwinglianism, Calvinism, Anabaptism, and Anglicanism followed Luther

PRELUDE TO REFORMATION
-

Before Luther, northern Renaissance humanism wanted to reform Christianity

Christian or Northern Renaissance Humanism


- Focused on the sources of early Christianity
- Found that the religion was made complex by theoretical arguments in the Middle Ages
- Supported schools because they thought that they would bring an a religious feeling/reform
- They believed that to change society, they must first change the human beings who compose it

Erasmus
-

Lifespan of Desiderius Erasmus: 1466-1536 (born in Holland)


His Handbook of the Christian Knight (1503) showed his preoccupation with religion
His concept of religion was the philosophy of Christ
Emphasized inner piety rather than sacraments, pilgrimages, fats, etc.
Wanted to return Christianity to its earliest (translated earliest Greek to vulgate Latin)
Criticized the clergys abuses by satirizing them in The Praise of Folly (1511)
Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched. However, Erasmus disagreed with Luther for breaking
away from the church, but Erasmus just wanted reform

Thomas More
-

Lifespan of Thomas More: 1478-1535


Trained in law, Latin, and Greek
Friend of Erasmus
Translated Greek into Latin
Spent many hours in prayer and private devotions
Utopia (1516)- Greek for nowhere; socially- cooperation and reason; economic- communistic (no
private property); had social relations, recreation, and travel
Opposed Englands break with the Roman Catholic Church

Church and Religion on the Eve of the Reformation


-

People wanted reform because of corruption within the Catholic Church


The high positions in the clergy were usually held by the wealthy people
Some bishops, archbishops, and cardinals took more than one church position to get more money
People thought salvation could only be achieved by respecting relics, and buying indulgences
The Imitation of Christ by Thomas a Kempis- Truly, at the day of judgment we shall not be examined by what we have
read, but what we have done; not how well we have spoken, but how religiously we have lived.

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MARTIN LUTHER AND THE REFORMATION IN GERMANY
-

The Protestant Reformation began with a typical medieveal question: What must I do to be saved?
Luther split with the church and destroyed the unity of western Christendom

The Early Luther and the Rise of Lutheranism


-

Focused on assurance of salvation


Disagreeing with the Catholic religion, Luther stated that good works do not get one into heaven
The bible was the chief guide to religious truth
Protestants believed in justification by faith and the bible as the chief guide
Luther created the Ninety-Five Theses, which were complaints against the Catholic church, especially indulgences
Leipzig Debate (July 1519)- wanted Luther to deny the authority of the pope
Luthers Pamphlets: wanted the German princes to disregard the Catholic church, get create a German church; rejected
the Catholic sacraments; clergy could marry; monasteries needed to be reformed; faith brings salvation, not good works
Luther was excommunicated out of the church in January 1521
Luther refused to recant his works and beliefs to Emperor Charles V (Holy Roman Empire)
Edict of Worms: Luther was an outlaw, and his works were burned; people were after him to send him to the emperor
Luther returned to Wittenberg in Electoral Saxony (1522) to organize a reformed church
Luther faced problems in the Peasants War: Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants pamphlet by
Luther wanted the German princes to maintain order of the peasants (which helped spread Lutheranism)

Church and State


-

Lutheran Church: transubstantiation was denied, where Jesus was already present in the host
In the Lutheran faith, the bible settled all religious affairs, rather than the pope in the Catholic religion
In 1530, the German states that converted to Lutheranism had appointed officials regulate matters of worship
A new Lutheran service was created: German liturgy on a Biblical reading, preaching the word of God, and song

GERMANY AND THE REFORMATION RELIGION AND POLITICS


-

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V hoped to preserve the Catholic faith throughout his Empire

The French, the Papacy, and the Turks


-

Charles V dealt with territorial issues over his empire and France with Valois king of France, Francis I (1515-1547)
which Charles V couldnt easily deal with Lutheranism
Charles V wanted help from the papacy, but Pope Clement VII sided with Francis I (France)
Pope Clement came to terms with Charles V, and by 1530, Charles V stood supreme over much of Italy
Suleiman the Magnificent (Ottoman Turk Ruler, 1520-1566) killed King Louis of Hungary, Charles Vs brother-in-law
Turks got control of territory up until Vienna where they were repulsed in 1529

Politics in Germany
-

The separate states had become independent of each other and some converted to Lutheranism
Diet of Augsburg in 1530- German states should return to the Catholic church by April 15, 1531, refused by the
Protestant Schmalkaldic League
1532-1535 Charles had to fight off a Turkish, Arab, and Barbary attack on Italy and Spain; Charles also had to fight two
Habsburg-Valois Wars as well; Charles then resolved to make peace with the Turks and Francis I, which he was left with
one problem, to keep Catholicism in his empire
The Schmalkaldic Wars (1546-1547) was fought between Charles Vs German, Dutch, Italian, and Spanish troops to
fight with the Protestants, so that Catholicism may be kept in the empire; Charles V was winning; however, the German
Charles V abandoned German affairs to his brother, Ferdinand; abdicated in 1556
Peace of Augburg- (1555) acknowledged an equal legal standing between Lutheranism and Catholicism; German rulers
could choose the religion of their subject

THE SPREAD OF THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION


The Zwinglian Reformation
-

Zwingli began his Reformation in Switzerland


Zwingli wanted the state to supervise the church
Relics, images, paintings, and decorations were removed from the church
The new liturgy included: scripture reading; prayer; sermons
There was no music involved in the church

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Zwingli was afraid of others trying to counteract his reform, which Zwingli planned to resolve by trying to build league
with Luther, the Swiss and the German reformers, however he was unsuccessful since his ideas disagreed with Luthers
ideas
Zwingli thought that the bible should be taken figuratively, whereas Luther thought that the bible should be taken
literally

The Radical Reformation: The Anabaptists


-

Didnt want the state involved in religion, but wanted radical reform
Anabaptism was especially attractive to the peasants, weavers, miners, and artisans (those who were drastically affected
by economic changes during the reformation)
Had adult baptism (rather than infant baptism)
Tried to return early Christianity
All believers are considered equal
All Christians (except women) were considered priests
Believed in complete separation from church and state
Anabaptists did not participate in government
Anabaptists were persecuted both by Protestants and Catholics, who both viewed them as dangerous radicals
A number of Anabaptists were found in Munster

The Reformation in England


-

King Henry VIII wasnt able to get a divorce from Catherine of Aragon from the Roman Catholic Church
Henry VIII created a separate sect of Christianity, the Church of England (Anglican Church)
Act of Supremacy- made the King of England head of the Church of England
King Henry VIIIs succession line was Edward VI (Protestant), Mary (Catholic), Elizabeth (Moderate Protestant)
Queen Mary attempted to restore England to a complete Catholic state (through violent demonstrations)
Elizabeth was considered to be a politique (one who puts the state before his/her religion) since she did not follow
through with the same demonstrations as her sister, Mary

John Calvin and Calvinism


-

John Calvin (1509-1564) was the founder of Calvinism


Inspired by Martin Luther
Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)- secured Calvins reputation as one of the new leaders of Protestantism
Calvin agreed with justification by faith
Predestination was the belief in Calvinism that before birth, God already decided if you are going to heaven (the elect),
or going to hell (the reprobate)
He has once for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation, and whom he would condemn to destruction.
John Calvin
Three tests that might indicate salvation: open profession of faith; decent and godly life; participation in baptism and
communion
Calvinists believe they are doing Gods work on earth
Ecclesiastical Ordinances- Calvinists constitution
Geneva was the headquarters of Calvinism

THIRTY YEARS WAR (1608-1648)


-

Religious disputes were present; that Calvinism wasnt included in the Peace of Augsburg
After the Protestant Reformation, the Catholics felt that their power was lessening
Protestants Afraid of the Council of Trent
In determining the outcome of the war politics became more important
Ended with the Treaty of Westphalia (1648)- Allowed for German princes to choose whether their people would be
Catholics, Lutherans, or Calvinists

Chapter 13: European State Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

FRANCE (House of Bourbon)


-

Henry IV allows for religious freedoms within France


Edict of Nantes- allowed Hugenots to live peacefully in France with Catholics
Paris is worth the mass. Henry IV willing to convert to get the throne of France (Machiavellian characteristic)
Louis XIV creates a strong French state (not comparable to modern-day France)

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-

Louis XIV builds Versailles (his palace), a costly project; he allows nobles to stay to distract them from their daily living
and to avoid revolts against him
Louis XIV creates the Edict of Fontenbleau which made Catholicism the only religion in France, removing Hugenots
who favored Henry IVs Edict of Nantes more
Louis XIV makes his army constantly fight wars

ENGLAND (House of Stuart)


1603 James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England
- People angered by too much spending
1604 Hampton Court conference
1611 Publication of the authorized, or King James, version of the English Bible
- Feared by the public (small print book)
1625 Charles I becomes English monarch
1628 Petition of Right
- Limit the Power of the King
- Charles I does not agree upon the Petition of Right
1629 Charles I dissolves Parliament and embarks on eleven years of personal rule
1640 April- May, Short Parliament; November, Long Parliament convenes
1642 Outbreak of the Civil War
1649 Charles I executed
1649-1660 Various attempts at a Puritan Commonwealth
- Military dictatorship by Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell
1660 Charles II restored to the English throne
1670 Secret Treaty of Dover between France and England
1672 Parliament passes the Test Act
- Test Act: only Anglicans could be elected to high positions, such as the monarch of England
1678 Popish Plot
- Titus Oates planned to murder King Charles II so that James II would immediately become king
1685 James II becomes king of England
- The next heir breaks the Test Act
1688 Glorious Revolution
- Minimal blood shed, William and Mary are the English monarch, replacing the Stuarts
1707 Act of Union between England and Scotland
1713 Treaty of Utrecht ends the War of the Spanish Succession
- Outside of England: A Bourbon is on the thrown of Spain
1714 George I becomes king of Great Britain and establishes the Hanoverian dynasty
1721-1742 Robert Walpole dominates British politics
1727 George II becomes king of Great Britain
(- The Hanoverian Dynasty was the same dynasty during the American Revolution)

NETHERLANDS
-

The basis of Dutch power during their Golden Age was their economic prosperity.
Their economic prosperity was based on:
o high urban consolidation
o transformed agriculture
o extensive trade
o finance
o overseas commercial empire.
The republics political decline was caused by the lack of a monarch, which other European nations governments had.

PRUSSIA (House of Hohenzollern)


RISE OF PRUSSIA
-

Prussia rose as a major political power beginning with Fredrick William, The Elector.
Fredrick Williams territory, in Pomerania and East Prussia, were being fought on by Sweden and Poland.
Fredrick William modernized this area of his holdings by establishing a new royal bureaucracy as well.
Fredrick William was able to gain obedience to the Hohenzollerns (Junkers) by promising the nobles if they did pay
obedience to the family, then the nobles had the right to gain obedience from their serfs.

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CONSOLIDATION AND ARMY OF PRUSSIA
-

Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I made Fredrick I king in 1701 when he let his army help Leopold during the War of the
Spanish Succession.
Fredrick William I built up the Prussian military drastically. (3rd or 4th largest in Europe)
Prussias population was thirteenth in Europe.

AUSTRIA (House of Habsburg)


-

Hard to consolidate because of its cultural diversity


An attempt to solve this problem was to create central councils all over the Habsburg territory.
The Habsburgs also developed control over the Mediterranean, while gaining the Balkan Peninsula and western Romania,
by aid of the Ottoman Turks.
Pragmatic Sanction- legal basis negotiated by the Emperor Charles VI for the Habsburg succession through his daughter
Maria Theresa

RUSSIA (House of Romanov)


WESTERNIZATION OF RUSSIAN CULTURE
- Visited Europe and emulated their civilization
- Movement of the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg
RUSSIA INTO A POWER
- Emulated European ship-building techniques
- Victory of the Great Northern War (Russia won Swedish ports)
RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH
- Original clergy was removed
- Holy Synod (government department) replaced the original clergy

Chapter 14: New Directions in Thought and Culture in the 16th and 17th Centuries
-

Established the new view of the universe


New scientific concepts
Developed, early concepts were incorrect

NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (1473-1543)


Polish Astronomer and Priest
-

Proved an earth-centered (geocentric) universe was incorrect, but a sun-centered (heliocentric) universe was correct
(adopted some of Ptolemys system)
Corrected epicycles and deferents to retrograde motion of views from earth
Planets farther away from the sun had longer orbital periods
Unorthodoxal thoughts
Later condemned from the Catholic Church
Wrote, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

TYCHO BRAHE (1546-1601)


Danish Astronomer
-

Theory on Mercury and Venus orbiting sun and sun orbiting earth
Constructed scientific instruments which he later made more extensive
Vast amount of astronomical data for later astronomers

JOHANNES KEPLER (1571-1630)


German Astronomer
-

Believed more of a heliocentric model than Copernicus did


Influenced by Renaissance Neoplatonism
Abandoned epicycles completely
Planets orbits were elliptical not circular
Used Copernicus sun-centered universe and Brahes data for planetary motion

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-

Wrote, The New Astronomy

GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642)


Italian Mathematician & Natural Philosopher
-

First turned a telescope on the heavens


o Found stars; mountains on the moon; spots moving across the sun; moons orbiting Jupiter
o Phases of Venus
o Moons of Jupiter were named after the Medicis
Mathematical Laws in the Universe
MATHEMATICS COULD MODEL ANYTHING

SIR ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727)


English Physicist, Astronomer, Mathematician, and Philosopher
-

Inertia applied to bodies at rest and at motion


Objects moved through mutual attraction
Force of gravity
Clockmaker Theory (Deism)
Wrote, The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy

FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626)


English Philosopher
-

Father of Empiricism
Urged contemporaries to strike out on their own in search of a new understanding of nature
Championed innovation and change
Plotting a new route to intellectual discovery
INDUCTIVE REASONING
Wrote, The Advancement of Learning
Wrote, Novum Organum
Wrote, The New Atlantis

RENE DESCARTES (1596-1650)


French Mathematician
-

Invented analytical geometry


Scientific method was based on deduction
Rejected scholarly thoughts/ education
Rejected mathematical models
Existing things can be:
o thinking things
o occupying space
Cartesian Dualism: separate mind/body
God was important
Famous Quote: I think, therefore I am.
Tried to deduce the existence of God
INDUCTIVE REASONING
Wrote, Discourse on Method
Wrote, Meditations

BLAISE PASCAL (1623-1662)


French Mathematician and Physical Scientist
-

Rejected skeptics and dogmatism


Allied with Jansenists
Reason was too weak to explain human nature/ destiny
Reason of heart of leap of faith could prevail religion
God exists

MARGARET CAVENDISH (1623-1673)


-

Natural Philosophers

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-

Argued with other men scientists and philosophers


Wrote, Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy
Wrote, Grounds of Natural Philsophy

THE VIEW OF WOMEN DURING THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION


[The results from Vesalius' human body dissection show that the] larger pelvic area "proved" that women were meant to be child
bearers, and the larger skull "demonstrated" the superiority of the male mind.
-

Women were viewed as sexually insatiable

Witch Hunt
-

80% of the witch hunt victims were women


Was inspired by male hatred and sexual fear of strong women
a conspiracy of males against females
Three groups of women were drawn by the witch-hunters attention:
o Widows
o Midwives
o Women Healers and Herbalists
The witch hunt ended by, science stating that women were not witches

Chapter 15: Society and Economy Under the Old Regime in the 18 th Century
ARISTOCRACY PRIVILIAGES POWER
-

Largest political, social, economic powers


Large estates
High citizens in the House of Commons/ Lords (British nobility controlled both)
Nobles didnt have to pay taxes or do labor
Collected feudal dues from tenants
Formed an Aristocratic resurgency
o Reaction to the monarchies controlling power
Hard to become a noble

STRUGGLE OF RURAL PEASANTS TO SURVIVE


-

French peasants- feudal dues


Russian serfs- 6 hours/ week
o barshcina
Peasant Rebellion
o Pugachevs Largest rebellion
o Mostly violent
Focused on property rather than people
Game Law
o Landowners were the only ones who could hunt
o Hunt only on property owned

FAMILY STRUCTURE
Northwestern Europe
- Married Couple family consisted of:
o Children, 2 generations
o Servants lived together
- Children left at early teens
Eastern Europe
- Bigger families, more people
- The house was the basic unit of production and consumption
-

Children were not valued


o economically not valued

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o
o

cost a lot
treated poorly

Nuclear Family consisted of: Parents and Children

GHETTOS AND THE STATUS OF EUROPEAN JEWS


-

Jewish communities: Amsterdam and other Western European cities


o intellectual life
o financial institutions
HOWEVER, most lived in Eastern Europe
Jewish population concentrated: Poland, Lithuania, and Ukraine
Catherine the Great of Russia (1762)- did not allow Jews in Russia, when others were allowed
Later, Catherine allowed Jews, however felt they needed protection against ordinances against them
Belorussian Jews Petition Catherine the Great
After the first partition in Poland, Jewish population increased in:
o Russia
o Prussia
o Austria
Jews were regarded as a kind of resident alien whose residence might well be temporary or changed at the whim or rulers.

Ghetto- separate communities in which Jews were required by law to live


o Old Regime Jew Community (separate from Non-European)
o Treated as a distinct people (religiously and legally)

Chapter 16: The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion
Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars
The War of Jenkinss Ear
-

Mid-eighteenth century- West Indies was the hotbed of trade reivalry and illegal smuggling
1731- Spaniards cut of English captain, Robert Jenkins ear
1738- Showed ear to British Parliament
Late 1739- Britain went to war with Spain
- Became the opening encounter to a series of European wars fought across the world until 1815

The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748)


-

December 1740- Frederick II seized Austria province, Silesia


- Shattered the Pragmatic Sanction and Balance of Power
Maria Theresas goal: preservation of Habsburg Empire
Maria Theresa recognized Hungary as most important
Maria Theresa won loyalty and support by giving privileges to nobility (preserved Habsburg Empire, but at the expense
of a centralized monarchy)
Hungary- troublesome
War ended in 1748 with Prussia had Silesia
Treaty of Utrecht- Spain renewed import slaves into the Spanish colonies

Austria
Great Britain

VERSUS

Prussia
France

The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756


-

France versus Great Britain- struggle in Ohio river valley


- Beginning of the French and Indian War
King George II (King of Great Britain, and Elector of Hanover)
George II thought Frederick II might attack Hanover because of the conflict in the New World
January 1756- Britain Prussia signed the Convention of Westminster (alliance against foreign troops into the German
states)

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George II feared a French attack on Hanover


Frederick II feared an alliance of Russia an Austria
May 1756, France and Austria signed a defensive alliance
France an Austria hoped to dismember Prussia

Austria
France

VERSUS

Prussia
Great Britain

The Seven Years War (1756-1763)


Frederick the Great Opens Hostilities
-

August 1756- Frederick II invades Saxony


- Response to Saxony, Austria, and France plotting to destroy Prussian power
Spring 1757- New alliance to destroy Prussia by Austria and France
- Joined by Sweden, Russia, and many small German states
Prussia was helped:
- The British helped finance Prussia
- 1762: Empress Elizabeth of Russia died (Successor) Tsar Peter made peace with Prussia
Treaty of Hubertusburg of 1763
- ended the continental conflict

William Pitts Strategy for Winning North America


-

William Pitt helped finance Frederick the Great


Used German conflict to distract France away from their colonies
Focused a lot on colonial warfare
Defeated the French in North America
The French military administration was corrupt, divided, and supplies werent sufficient enough
Income from the sale of captured sugar helped finance the British
The British captured French slave trade
Robert Clive defeated Frances Indian (India) allies in 1757- Battle of Plassey

The Treaty of Paris 1763


-

William Pitt was replaced by the earl of Bute


Britain received all of Canada, the Ohio River valley, and the eastern half of the Mississippi River valley
Prussia still had Silesia
Habsburg power depended now on Hungary
France was no longer a great colonial power
Spain remained intact
Great Britain was a world power

Chapter 17: The Age of Enlightenment


FORMATIVE INFLUENCES ON THE ENLIGHTENMENT
Causes of the Enlightenment
o Newtonian Worldview
o Political Stability/ Commercial Prosperity of Great Britain after 1688
o Administrative and Economic Reform in France after the Wars of Louis XIV
o Consolidation of a print culture

Ideas of Newton and Locke


Newton proved that nature was rational (mathematically and mechanically); Thinkers applied this to society, which they
reasoned society should be organized rationally
Newton encouraged others to study nature directly (by experience), avoiding metaphysics and supernaturalism
John Locke used experience to explain human psychology
Locke- An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)
tabula rasa- the concept created by John Locke, that all humans enter life as a blank slate; only experience shapes character
Locke rejected that sin permanently flawed humans beings; They can take charge of their own destiny.

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The Example of British Toleration and Political Stability
After the Glorious Revolution in Great Britain (1688), it was an example of an Enlightened society
o Religious Toleration (except Unitarians and Roman Catholics)
o Freedom of the Press
o Political Power was more in Parliament, rather than a monarchy
o Courts protected citizens from arbitrary government action
o Army was small
o Less regulation over the economy
Provided for economic prosperity, political stability, and a loyal citizenry

The Emergence of a Print Culture


print culture- a culture in which books, journals, newspapers, and pamphlets had achieved a status of their own
Books, journals, magazines, and daily newspapers increased sharply throughout Europe, especially Great Britain
Cause: Literacy increased throughout Europe.
Secular books were becoming more numerous than religious books.
Private and public libraries grew in number
Books were expensive, but they circulated ideas throughout the public
Coffeehouses became centers for discussing writing and ideas.
People could now make a living out of being an author.
Status for authors was based on merit and commercial competition, not hereditary and patronage.
Successful authors had their work for monarchs, nobles, the upper middle classes, and professional groups.
Less successful authors blamed a corrupt society for their lack of success (sometimes being radically extreme)
Secular literature was able to create a public opinion.
Continental European governments were afraid of the power of the new print culture.
o Books were censored, confiscated, and authors were imprisoned.

THE PHILOSOPHES
Philosophes- The eighteenth-century writers and critics who forged the new attitudes favorable to change. They sought to
apply reason and common sense to the institutions and societies of their day.
Famous Philosophes:
o Voltaire, Montesquieu, Diderot, DAlembert, Rousseau, Hume, Gibbon, Smith, Lessing, Kant
o German- University Professors; Others- London coffeehouses
Philosophes were not necessarily united. In fact some quarreled, and had tensions against each other.
Supported:
o The expansion of trade
o The improvement of agriculture and transport
o Invention of new machinery (enlarging businesses and commercial classes)
The Chief Bond among Philosophes included the desire to reform:
o Religion
o Political Thought
o Society
o Government
o Liberty

Voltaire- First Among the Philosophes


Offended the French monarchy and nobles through political poetry and plays (imprisoned in Bastille)
Escaped to England (avoiding an aristocrat), lived in exile
Visited the best literary circles in England, and observed its tolerant intellectual and religious climate
Letters on the English- praised the British, criticized the French
Published Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
His extremely popular plays, essays, histories, and stories Literary Dictator of Europe
Believed human society could and should be improved.
Attacked religious persecution and advocating toleration.

THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND RELIGION

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Voltaires cry, Crush the Infamous Thing, summed up the attitude of a number of philosophes towards the churches and
Christianity
Philosophes were challenging Europes most powerful institutions

Deism
Deism- A belief in a rational God who had created the universe, but then allowed it to function without his interference
according to the mechanisms of nature and a belief in rewards and punishments after death for human action.
An early deist work: Christianity Not Mysterious (1696) by John Toland (1670-1722), indicates the general tenor of their
religious outlook.
Deists promote religion as a natural and rational thing, rather than supernatural and mystical.
Deists creed, two major points: existence of God; God favors rational morality.

Toleration
Letter Concerning Toleration of 1689 and Treatise on Tolerance (1763), both by Voltaire
Religious fanaticism and the need for rational reform of judicial processes

Continuing Identifications
Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond dAlembert and the Encyclopedia: most monumental in print culture; Man is the unique point
to which we must refer everything, if we wish to interest and please amongst considerations the most arid and details the
most dry.; product of the collective effort of more than a hundred authors; included the most advance critical ideas of the
time on religion, government, and philosophy; numerous articles on manufacturing, canal building, ship construction, and
improved agriculture; designed to secularize learning
Cesare Beccaria: wrote On Crimes and Punishments, applied critical analysis to the problem of making punishments both
effective and just; attacked torture and capital punishment; the purpose of laws was not for God, but for the happiness of
human beings
Physiocrats: Eighteenth-century French thinkers who attacked the mercantilist regulation of the economy.
Adam Smith: wrote Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776); was considered to be the Father of
Modern Capitalism; disagreed with the concept of mercantilism; nations were needed upon each other
Baron de Montesquieu: wrote The Persian Letters- satirized institutions; satire was used to criticize; visited England, and
noted England as an enlightened example (like Voltaire); wrote Spirit of the Laws- no set of political laws could apply to all
peoples at all times and in all places; favored a monarchial government; division of power in government- checks and
balances
Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire: naturally explained the rise of Christianity
Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the General Will: hated the world and society in which he lived; wrote Discourse on the Moral
Effects of the Arts and Sciences- the process of civilization and the Enlightenment corrupted human nature; wrote Discourse
on the Origin of Inequality- blamed much of the evil in the world on the uneven distribution of property; wrote The Social
Contract (1762)- outlines political structure, more abstract than Montesquieus Spirit of the Laws; All men are born free, but
everywhere they are in chains.; most democratic of all the other Enlightenment thinkers
salons: (Paris) these gave the philosophes access to useful social and political contacts and a receptive environment to
circulate their ideas
Mary Wollstonecraft: wrote Vindication of the Rights of Woman- criticizes Rousseaus view of women, that Rousseau tried to
limit their experience and narrow their vision; against women being slaves of men; demanding women the liberty that males
had achieved in the Enlightenment

Enlightened Despots
Frederick II of Prussia
-

Correct to introduce the Enlightenment to Prussia (because he had Prussias loyalty)


Extensive religious toleration (allowed Catholics and Jews; Prussia was predominantly Lutheran)
Protected the Catholic living in Silesia
Frederick II also offered to build mosques for Turks willing to settle in Prussia
Made sure laws were rationalized
Partial Economic prosperity was obtained by allowing foreigners to work in Prussia.

Joseph II of Austria
-

Central authority on areas of political and social life


Religious toleration- extended to Lutherans, Calvinists, Greek Orthodox, and Jews
o Own places of worship, have schools, enter skilled trades, and hold public service positions

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-

With Roman Catholics, Joseph wanted to bring them under his control, and away from the clergy, but eight general
seminaries under the government replaced them.
Improve the economic status of his lands:
o abolishing internal tariffs
o encouraging road building
o improved river transport
Gave peasants more rights, and had the power of landlords moderated more than usual
Attempted equal taxation equal, however, it was unsuccessful with the nobles revolting against it.

Catherine II of Russia
-

Studied the philosophes books and works


Revise Russian laws and the government
Made friends with the nobles in order to stay on throne of Russia
Many rights and privileges (Charter of the Nobility)
Continue the growth of the economy
Favored the middle class trading, which helped Russia trade
Won territory from the Ottoman Turks which she was able to gain ports from.
Made the protector of the Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire.

Chapter 18: The French Revolution


The Crisis of the French Monarchy
Late 1780s- French royal government could not finance itself
Louis XVI called the Estates General to meet at the spark of the French Revolution
France was a rich nation with an impoverished government
The French monarchy wanted to tap the wealth of the nobility, while the Parlements stood in their way
Louis XV made Ren Maupeou to be chancellor- whose job was to break the Parlements and increase taxes on the nobility
Louis XVI dismissed Maupeou and restored the Parlements
Jacques Neckers report showed that the French financial troubles were not as bad as thought of (harder for the French
monarch to raise taxes)
Calonne made a tax that all landowners would have to pay (regardless of social status); Assembly of Notables didnt approve
his Reform Plan
Brienne wanted to reform the tax system, but the Parlement of Paris and Assembly of Clergy did not want to
The Parlements wanted to restore the privileges they had before Richelieu and Louis XIV

The Revolution of 1789


The Estates General Becomes the National Assembly
July 1788- The Estates General was called to settle the dispute between the French monarchy and the aristocracies
First Estate- Clergy; Second Estate- nobility; Third Estate- everybody else (represented by wealthy middle class)
What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has it been in the political order up to the present? Nothing. What does it ask?
To become something. Abb Siys (French priest)
Aristocracies attempts to limit the power of the Third Estate:
o Each estate should have an equal number of representatives
o Each estate should have one vote (1st and 2nd Estate by aristocrats outvoted the 3rd Estate)
The Royal council doubled the amount of representatives in the Estate General
The Cahiers de Dolances:
o were a list of grievances, which criticized: Government waste; Indirect taxes; Church taxes; Corruption
o called for: Periodic meetings of the Estates General; More Equitable taxes; More local control of administration;
Unified weights and measures; Free press
Third Estate creates the National Assembly (Second Estate voted to join the assembly)
Louis XVI closed the room where the National Assembly met
Tennis Court Oath- The National Assembly pledged to sit in a tennis court until they had given France a constitution
Estates General met, voting was done by individuals: The three estates shared liberal goals for improving the country

Fall of the Bastille


Louis XVI used forces in Paris and Versailles against the National Constituent Assembly

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Spring 1789- High prices of bread (staple crop for the poor) produced riots
July 14- crowds of small shopkeepers, tradespeople, artisans, and wage earners, marched to the Bastille to get weapons for
the militia; the militia stormed the Bastille, after a shot had been fired into the crowds
Results: The Bastille only had seven prisoners, but no political prisoners; Louis XVI acknowledge the events of the Bastille,
and visits Paris wearing the revolutionary cockade

The Great Fear and the Night of August 4


The Great Fear started from rumors that royal troops would be sent into the rural districts from the peasant disturbances
(rumored throughout the countryside)
o Burning of the chateaux
o Destruction of legal records and documents
o Refusal to pay feudal dues
**FALL OF THE OLD REGIME** August 4, 1789- French citizens were subjected to same and equal laws
o In attempt to stop the disorder, liberal nobles and clerics renounced their rights, and gave up some which included:
hunting and fishing rights; judicial authority; legal exemptions
Winter of 1788-1789- many people suffered from hunger; food riots

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen


French declaration- born and remain free and equal in rights
Natural rights- liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression
Governments existed to protect the natural rights; Due process of law and innocent until proven guilty; Freedom of religion
Two most powerful, universal political ideas of the declaration:
o Civic Equality- challenge the legal and social inequities of European life
o Popular Sovereignty- governments must be responsible to the governed

The Parisian Womens March on Versailles


Causes: Louis XVI stalled to ratifying the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, the aristocratic feudal renunciations
while Bread remained scarce and expensive
October 5- 7,000 Parisian women marched to Versailles demanding more bread
Results: Louis XVI was forced to return to the old palace of the Tuileries in Paris; Peace and stability was restored in France
until the summer of 1792 and the price of bread declined

The Reconstruction of France


Political Reorganization
Constitution of 1791- The National Constituent Assembly established a constitutional monarchy
Active citizens (those who paid taxes) were men who were able to choose electors to vote for members of the legislature
Olympe de Gouge created a Declaration of the Rights of Women (ironically addressed to Queen Marie Antionette)
o Women could own property and improved education for women
Created departments, districts, cantons, communes, and uniform courts

Economic Policy
June 14, 1791- Chapelier Law- forbade workers association (enacted by the National Constituent Assembly)
The National Constituent Assembly focused on fixing the royal debts
The Assembly decided to sell the French Roman Catholic Church lands to pay for the debt
o Resulted in inflation, religious schism, and civil war
assignats- Government bonds based on the value of confiscated church lands issued during the early French Revolution
(eventually became a currency; helped pay of debt); later the value of assignats fell, and inflation increased, putting stress on
the urban poor

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy


The Civil Constitution of the Clergy transformed the RCC in France into a branch of the secular state
The National Constituent Assembly required all clergy members to take an oath in the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Refractory clergy members were clergy members who did not take the oath
Refractory priests celebrated mass anyway as an angered reaction

Counterrevolutionary Activity

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migrs French aristocrats that moved to neighboring countries
Louis XVI and family dressed as servants and fled Paris but failed to escape France; soliders escorted the king back to Paris
Emperor Leopold II of Austria (Marie Antoinettes brother) and King Frederick William II Prussia want to help the French
Royal Family by means of threatening France for the safety of the royal family (meaningless since England doesnt help)

The End of the Monarchy: A Second Revolution


No National Constituent Assembly members allowed in the Legislative Assembly

Emergence of the Jacobins


Jacobins wanted a republic rather than a constitutional monarchy
Girondes were a group of Jacobins
Girondes opposed the counterrevolution and ordered the migrs to return or suffer loss of property; supported the Civil
Constitution of the Clergy or lose state pensions
King Louis XVI vetoed both acts
Girondists led the Legislative Assembly to go to war with Austria (believed that war preserves the revolution from enemies)
King Louis XVI imprisoned; had no power

The Convention and the Role of the Sans-Culottes


September Massacres: Paris Commune executed/ murdered 1,200 people in the city jails (assumed to be
counterrevolutionaries); The Convention declared France a republic
sans-culottes- without breeches; working people; more radical than the Girondists; comprised of the lower middle class;
anti-monarchical
Jacobins hated the aristocracy; favored an unregulated economy
More extreme Jacobins, Mountain, cooperated with the Parisian sans-culottes and the Paris Commune to overthrow the
monarchy; Girondists tried to spare Louis XVIs life, but later beheaded
Afterwards, the convention declared war on Great Britain, Holland, and Spain

The Reign of Terror


The Convention declared it would aid all peoples who wished to cast off aristocratic and monarchical oppression
First Coalition- governments attempting to protect their social structures, political systems, and economic interests against the
revolution
Reign of Terror- the period between the summer of 1793 and the end of July 1794 when the French revolutionary state used
extensive executions and violence to defend the Revolution and suppress its alleged internal enemies
The Committee of Public Safety: carried out the duties of the government; Dictatorship-like government; Most were
republicans who opposed the Girondists; Enjoyed working with the sans-culottes of Paris
Convention wanted to try to wage was internationally, but keep domestic support
August 23- Lazare Carnot issued the Leve en Masse (wanted young men to go into battle)
France was a Republic of Virtue according to Robespierre
Maximilien de Robespierre (1758-1794)- dominant figure on the Committee of Public Safety
Robespierre depended on the sans-culottes of Paris
De-Christianization:
o The Convention proclaimed a new calendar dating from the first day of the French Republic
o The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris is to be a Temple of Reason
o Robespierre opposed De-Christianization since he thought people would hate the republic because of it
The tribunals tried enemies of the republic (victims of the terror came from every social class, even the sans-culottes)
Law of 22 Prairial- permitted the revolutionary tribunal to convict suspect without hearing substantial evidence against them
Robespierre stated that other members of the government were conspiring against him and the revolution
Robespierre wanted to make another speech, he was later arrested
Jacobins supported Robespierres death since they feared being executed

The Thermidorian Reaction


Thermidorian Reaction- The reaction against the radicalism of the French Revolution that began in July 1794. Associated
with the end of terror and establishment of the directory. (9 Thermidor Year II)
Repealed the Law of 22 Pairial; Paris Commune was outlawed; Jacobins were executed (White Terror); people could go to
church; Women had less freedom

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Issued Constitution of the Year III: Rejected Constitutional Monarchies; Rejected Democracies
Legislature- Bicameral; Executive- Five person Directory
French Revolution- victory of the bourgeoisie
Treaty of Basel (March/June 1795)- peace with Prussia and Spain
France remained at war with Austria and Britain

Chapter 19: The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism


The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
Royalists wanted to restore the Bourbon monarchy, and were becoming successful
The antimonarchist Directory staged a coup detat on 18 Fructidor and placed themselves in opponent won legislative seats

Early Military Victories


France won against Austria, fighting for the Northern Italian provinces (Treaty of Campo Formio)
Wanted to attack Britain by attacking Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean (cut off trade with India)
The Second Coalition against France formed- Russia, Austria, the Ottoman Empire, Britain
o Russia and Austria defeated the French in Italy and Switzerland

The Constitution of the Year VIII


Abb Siys wanted a government based on confidence from below, power from above
Siys and Napoloeon launched a coup detat
Napoleon pushed Siys aside and created the Constitution of the Year VIII
o Male suffrage (democracy)
o Complicated system of checks and balances (republic system)
o Council of State
o Rule of one man, First Consul (Napoleon Bonaparte)

The Consulate in France (1799-1804)


Suppressing Foreign Enemies and Domestic Opposition
Napoleon made peace with Frances enemies
Treaty of Amiens- peace to Europe
Napoleon restored peace in France as well
Establishes a highly centralized administration
Employed secret police
Napoleon destroyed his enemies

Concordat with the Roman Catholic Church


Napoleon made an agreement with Pope Pius VII
Pope Pius agreed since he believed that democracy and equality are compatible with the RCC
Pius wanted religious dominance of the RCC
Concordat: Catholicism is the religion of the great majority of French citizens.

The Napoleonic Code


1802- Napoleon was declared Consul for life
Civil Code of 1804 = Napoleonic Code
o Safeguarded property
o Workers organizations were forbidden
o Workers had fewer rights than employers
o Fathers/husbands had more power than mothers/wives
o More conservative than liberal

Establishing a Dynasty
Napoleon thought that establishing a dynasty would make the new regime secure

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Napoleon crowned himself at his coronation

Napoleons Empire (1804-1814)


Conquering an Empire
British Naval Supremacy
British issued an ultimatum to France
Napoleon ignored it; Britain declared war in May 1803
William Pitt constructed the Third Coalition (Russia, Austria, and Great Britain)
Battle of Trafalgar- British destroyed French and Spanish fleets

Napoleonic Victories in Central Europe


Napoleon captured Vienna, Austria; defeated Russian and Austrian forces at Austerlitz
Treaty of Pressburg- won Austrian territory for France; Austria withdrew from Italy; Napoleon controlled everything north of
Rome; declared King of Italy
Napoleon formed the Confederation of the Rhine which dissolved the Holy Roman Empire; HRE Francis II was now
Emperor of Austria
Napoleon defeated Prussia and Russia; Napoleon controlled all of Germany

Treaty of Tilsit
Russia (Tsar Alexander I) forfeited; Prussia lost half its territory, other half saved by Alexander I
Prussia and Russia became allies of Napoleon I
Napoleon placed his family members on the thrones of Continental European countries

The Continental System


Napoleon planned to defeat Britain by cutting off trade with it and the entire continent (Berlin Decree- no allies trade with
Britain; Milan Decree of 1807- no neutral states trade with Britain)
British economy survived due to British markets in the Americas
The Continental System badly impacted continental Europe

European Response to the Empire


German Nationalism and Prussian Reform
German nationalists wanted their own country, they resisted Napoleons efforts
German nationalists did not like the German Princes who were on Napoleons side
Prussia trained groups of the military to evade the limit of men in the military placed by the French
Prussian generals were picked by merit rather than birth
This later lead Prussia to break from France in 1813

The Wars of Liberation


Spain
Napoleon used a revolt in Madrid to place his brother on the Spanish throne
Napoleon used Spain to cut of lines of communication with the British

Austria
Austria renewed war against France in 1809; hoped for a victory since France was distracted in Spain
Austria lost the war to France

The Invasion of Russia


Russian nobles disliked the Franco-Russian alliance because of
o The liberal politics of France
o Continental System prohibited timber sales to Britain
Russia withdrew from the Continental System and prepared for war

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Napoleon invaded Russia, but faced: terrible rains; fierce heat; shortages of food and water
Russia destroyed towns as Napoleon progressed through Russia, leaving his troops with no food
Napoleon returned home to France, loosing conquest of Russia

European Coalition
1813- patriotic pressures against Napoleon rose; coalitions formed
Battle of the Nations- combined armies of Napoleons enemies defeated him at Leipzig
Napoleon went to exile in Elba (off the coast of central Italy)

The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement


Territorial Adjustments
The Bourbon monarchy was restored back to France
All powers agreed that no single state should be allowed to dominate Europe
Prevent France from controlling Europe again
Strengthened states beside French borders
o North- Kingdom of the Netherlands: Belgium and Luxembourg
o South- port of Genoa for Piedmont
Prussia gained new territory along the Rhine river
Austria gained full control of Northern Italy
The Holy Roman Empire wasnt restored
Alexander I of Russia wanted all of Poland, Prussia wanted Saxony back
Austria was unwilling to give its territories away
Talleyrand (French representative) created a secret treaty with England and Austria to scare Prussia and Russia about
their territory

The Hundred Days and the Quadruple Alliance


Napoleon returned from Elba on March 1, 1815
The French preferred Napoleons rule over the Bourbons
Napoleon promised a liberal constitution and a peaceful foreign policy
Napoleon was defeated on June 18, 1815
Napoleon abdicated and was exiled to Saint Helena, and died in 1821
The Hundred Days- the period of Napoleons return
Alexander I of Russia proposed a Holy Alliance
o Austria and Prussia agreed, Castlereagh did not
The Quadruple Alliance was renewed on November 20, 1815
Congress of Viennas goals were to:
o Prevent another Napoleonic rule over Europe
o Arrange a lasting peace
The goals of the Congress of Vienna were achieved
Quadruple Alliance established a legal framework for treaties (made between states rather than monarchs)
The Congress of Vienna was criticized for ignoring nationalism, however its main goal was peace

Chapter 20: The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform


Political Ideologies of the 19th Century
Nationalism
An ideology that states a nation contains one shared:
o Language
o Tradition
o Customs
o History
Nationalism contradicted the settings the Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna wanted constitutional monarchies ruling each state rather than ethnicity

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Nationalists disagreed with multinational states such as the Austrian and Russian empires
Nationalists used print culture to spread (the above four) nationalistic ideas
o Print culture also helped to establish one language for everyone within the nation
Nationalists stated that unifications of German or Italian states would lead to administrative and economic efficiency
Some argued that nations were created by God (i.e. Poland is the suffering Christ)
Factors determining an ethnicity group a nation:
o large enough to support a viable economy
o significant cultural history
o national language
o military capacity to conquer other peoples or to establish and protect their own independence

Liberalism
Most nineteenth century liberals had their ideas from the Enlightenment. Liberals of the nineteenth century wanted:
o legal equality
o religious toleration
o freedom of the press
Liberals general goal was to have a political structure to prevent strong governments taking advantage of them
They wanted representation, such as parliaments or elected representatives
They also wanted constitutional governments
Conservatives disagreed with liberalist since constitutional governments were those of the French Revolution and Napoleonic
Europe
Liberals were usually:
o Educated
o Wealthy
o Associated with the professions or commercial life
o Excluded from the current political structure
Did not support democracy
Most economic goals came from working people who looked to Adam Smiths view on the economy
No regulation of the economy; desired a free economy
Favored the removal of international tariffs and internal barriers to trade

Conservatism
Conservatism in the nineteenth century was based on:
o legitimate monarchieso landed aristocracies
o established churches
Theoretical political and religious ideas were associated with thinkers like Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hegel
Disagreed with constitutional governments as it was present during the French Revolution and Napoleonic Europe
Political groups disliked them, especially the liberals, and the nationalists
Conservatives also knew that revolution in one country could spill into another

Liberalism throughout Europe


Great Britain
The Corn Laws and the Peterloo Massacre
(Corn = Domestically produced grain in Great Britain)
Parliament maintained high price on domestically produced grain in 1815
Government involvement within in the economy was against 19th century liberalism
People wanted Parliament to be reformed
Royal troops and the militia were brought to the meeting of reforming Parliament to ensure order
Later the militia moved into the audience which was the massacre, where people were killed and injured
Radical leaders were arrested

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The Six Acts Passed Afterwards


Forbade large unauthorized, public meetings
Raised the fines for seditious libel
Speeded up the trials of political agitators
Increased newspaper taxes
Prohibited the training or armed groups
Allowed local officials to search homes in certain disturbed counties

Germany
Carlsbad Decrees and the Burschenshaften (student associations)
Burschenshaften were the liberal student associations who dreamed of a united Germany
The German rulers did not agree with celebrations of the Burschenshaften students
March 1819- Karl Sand assassinated August von Kotzebue, a conservative
o Metternich used this as an excuse to encourage the Carlsbad Decrees which allowed university inspectors and
political censors
The secret German police of the German states could harass people going against the government

Russian Empire
Czar Alexander I refused to reform the Russian government
The Northern society was against this, so an army was lead against Alexander Is successor and son, Nicholas I in Saint
Petersburg
The Decembrist Revolt failed to achieve the constitutional government and serfdom they wanted
Nicholas I did not want to change anything in Russia, since the abolition of the serfdom would cause him to loose support for
the nobles
Nicholas had secret police who censored literature and political aspects as well.

European Revolutions of the Early 19th Century


Spanish Revolution
Ferdinand VII pledged for a constitutional government, however he ignored it
He then dissolved the Cortes (Spanish parliament) and ruled on his own
Britain had refused to be involved in continental affairs, however Austria, Prussia, and Russia agreed to support French
intervention in Spain
Protocol of Troppau- allowed stable governments to intervene in other countries experiencing revolution to keep order
- Austria restored the absolute rule in the Kingdom of Two Sicilies

Greek Revolution (1821)


Europe didnt know what to do about the instability in the Balkan possessions, and treatment of Christians within the Empire
France and Britain were concerned with the empires commerce and naval positions in the Mediterranean Sea
Treaty of London- Britain, France, and Russia agreed that Greek independence was a positive for them, so they helped
Greece reach their independence

Serbian Revolution
Serbia wanted independence from the Ottoman Empire
Serbian leader, Kara George attracted powers when he attacked the Ottoman Empire
Milos Obrenovitch was able to negotiate independence from the Ottoman Empire
Serbia maintain a relation with Russia, which were both Slavs and Eastern Orthodox nations

Polish Revolution
Poland was under Russian control after the Congress of Vienna
Poland was allowed the diet, which was its parliament
However, the Czar of Russia ruled as Polands king
News about revolution entered Poland, so the Polish diet declared a revolution and then later refused to acknowledge the
Czar of Russia to be the King of Poland

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Nicholas then issued the Organic Statue, which give Poland liberties, which the Russia government ignored

Chapter 21: Economic Advance and Social Unrest


Toward an Industrial Society
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and was a success because of the following:
o Natural resources
o Adequate capital
o Native technological skills
o A growing food supply
o A social structure that allowed considerable mobility
o Strong foreign and domestic demand for goods
o Britain recently invented machines for to produce more products at a faster rate
o Great Britain wasnt part of the Continental System (Napoleonic Europe); Britain had many colonial possessions
Industries included iron making, ship building, and china production
More people in western Europe lived in the cities; people in eastern Europe lived in rural areas
Irish famine (1845-1847)- small/no land for peasants
1820s-1840s: Railroad construction in England, Belgium, France, and Germany

The Labor Force


The textile industry was the only one to move into the factory setting for the first half of the century
Artisans wanted to keep their skills and go into a nonagricultural workforce; Artisans lost their trade to factories
Proletarianization- artisans and factory workers eventually came to participate in a wage-labor force in which their labor
became a commodity of the labor marketplace
Urban artisans entered the wage-labor force slower than factory workers
Artisans also worked the textile machines (which were lower prices than hand made)
The guild system protected the integrity of the craft and prosperity of the craftsmen, but liberals tried to ban guilds
confection- shoes, clothing, and furniture was produced at a standard size, rather than at a special size for the individual
Skills of workers became less valuable
Chartism- The first large-scale European working-class political movement. It sought political reforms that would favor the
interests of skilled British workers in the 1830s and 1840s; Six Points of the Charter included:
o Universal male suffrage
o Annual election of the House of Commons
o Secret ballot
o Equal electoral districts
o Abolition of property qualifications for
o The payment of salaries to members of the House of Commons
Parliament refused to pass the Charter

Family Structure and the Industrial Revolution


The individual family involved in textiles was the chief unit of production
The father, mother and children worked in textile production
Unmarried women and children accepted lower wages, and were less likely to form worker organizations or unions
Men were supervising people who didnt belong to their families
English Factory Act of 1833- forbade the employment of children under age nine; limited the workday of children age nine to
thirteen (nine hours a day); factory owner had to pay for two hours of education for children
The European familys role in industrialization changed from the chief consumers and producers, to just consumers

Women in the Early Industrial Revolution


Families could now live on the wages of the male spouse; women were associated with domestic duties
Many new jobs to women, but lowered the level of skills they needed to have
Women in factories were usually young, single, or widows
When women got married, they let their husband support them
The largest group of employed women in
o France worked on the land

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o England were domestic servants
o Western Europe domestic cottage industries (lace making, glove making, garment making)
Low wages of female workers encouraged some women to become prostitutes
Marriage was viewed as an economic partnership; children were an economic asset to the family

Problems of Crime and Order


Many who migrated to the cities faced social disappointment/unemployment and resorted to crime
New officers protected domestic security; upper & middle classes looked at police as protectors
Before the 19th century, people who committed minor crimes were housed in the same prison as people who committed more
serious crimes
Late 18th century- Britain sentenced serious criminals to transportation (New South Wales, Australia)
In 1840s, the goal of imprisonment became one to rehabilitate the prisoner
Europeans mimicked prisons models in the United States

Classical Economics
Thomas Malthus (1766-1834), Essay on the Principle of Population: the population must be less for part of the food supply
to handle
David Ricardo (1772-1823), Principles of Political Economy: Increased wages lead to more children

Government Policies Based on Classical Economics


People in France who had energy, did not necessarily have to be poor
Zollverein- a group of German states (except Austria) that all wanted to abolish internal tariffs and have a free trading union
utilitarianism- the theory associated with Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) that the principle of utility, defined as the greatest
good for the greatest number of people, should be applied to government, the economy, and the judicial system
Bentham and followers passed a new Poor Law through the reformed House of Commons; only workers got relief
Anti-Corn Law League wanted to repeal the tariff on foreign goods- helped Britain compete with other countries; lower
market prices; Sir Robert Peel had to repeal the Corn Laws due to the Irish Famine

Early Socialism
Early socialists liked industrialism
Wanted society to function more as a community rather than a conglomerate of atomistic, selfish individuals
utopian socialists- writers who questioned the structures and values of the existing capitalistic framework
Sympathetic to their economic concerns; unsympathetic to their views on free love and open family relationships.
Saint-Simonianism- Believed in government management of wealth, NOT redistribution of wealth
Owenism: Experimented- Gave workers housing, recreation, and children were given an education; parallelogram
communities where farmers and factory workers lived and worked together; (i.e. New Harmony, Indiana (failure))
Fourierism: Owens French counterpart; Believed that the industrial order ignored the passionate side of human nature;
Agrarian rather than industrial production would dominate these communities; People performed different tasks each day
(not only one fixed job)
o phalanxes- communities that liberated living replaced the boredom and dullness of industrial existence
Louis Blanc published The Organization of Labor
o Demanded an end to competition
o Did not want to form an entirely new society
Anarchism: Rejected both industry and the dominance of government; Auguste Blanqui- wanted to abolish capitalism

Marxism
Marxism- The theory of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that history is the result of class conflict, which will end in the
inevitable triumph of the industrial proletariat over the bourgeoisie and the abolition of private property and social class
Engels published, The Condition of the Working Class in England, which showed the negative view of industrial life
Communist Manifesto was a pamphlet made by Marx and Engels for the secret communist league
**MORE RADICAL THAN SOCIALISM** Communism called for the abolition of private property rather than the
rearrangement of society
Class Struggle- Marx believed that two social classes arguing lead to the rise of a new dominant social class (thesis vs.
antithesis = synthesis)
Marxs communist beliefs were based on the problems of capitalistic civilizations

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According to Marx, the proletariat came to liberate itself from its bondage to the capitalist mode of industrial production,
such as liberation would eventually amount to the liberation of all humanity
Previous class conflicts have usually been bourgeoisie vs. the proletariat
o The proletariat revolution would end with the proletariat victorious over the bourgeoisie

1848: Year of Revolutions


France: the Second Republic and Louis Napoleon
Secret political banquets were established to criticize the government
February 21, 1848 Government forbade political banquets
February 23, 1848 Finance Minister Guizot resigned; February 24, 1848 Louis Philippe abdicated
Liberals and Socialists wanted a government that would write a republican constitution
April 23, 1848- People elected conservatives and moderates to the National Assembly
o Radicals and socialists were feared by those in the provinces
Barricades appeared in Paris; The Conservative National Assembly destroyed the barricades
Voters thought Louis Napoleon would be a source of stability and greatness, so they elected him
December 1851- Louis Napoleon became Emperor Napoleon III of the Second French Empire after a coup
Middle class and working women were involved in pushing for womens rights (resulted in a failure)

The Habsburg Empire: Nationalism Resisted


Habsburg government rejected liberal institutions

The Magyar Revolt


March 3, 1848- Louis Kossuth (Magyar nationalist and member of Hungarian diet) attacked Austrian domination, and called
for the independence of Hungary
Emperor Ferdinand promised a moderately liberal constitution; Radical students were unsatisfied-formed democratic groups
Most serfs were emancipated by the Habsburg government (March 1848)
o They were feared by the Habsburgs since they burned documents, and manors
o Serfs now had little reason to support the revolution
Magyar leaders of the Hungarian March Revolution were liberals supported by nobles (wanted their liberties defended
against the central government in Vienna)
March Laws (by Hungarian Diet and passed by Emperor Ferdinand)- equality of: religion; jury trials; the election of the
lower chamber of the diet; relatively free press; payment of taxes by the nobility
Hungary wanted to annex the Romanians, Croatians, and Serbs
o These national groups resisted annexation ***NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM CLASH***

Czech Nationalism
Czech nationalists wanted Bohemia and Moravia to be an autonomous Slavic state
Wanted unified Slavic people freed from Ottoman, Habsburg, and German control
Germans eventually stopped Czech nationalism

Rebellion in Northern Italy


March 18- Revolt began in Milan
King Charles Albert of Piedmont wanted to annex Lombardy
o General Count Joseph Wenzel Radetzky suppressed the revolt (in July)
Hungarians were suppressed twice in attempts for independence

Italy: Republicanism Defeated


King Charles Albert of Piedmont failed to drive Austria out of the Italian peninsula
Republican nationalists from Italy wanted to unite Italy under a republican government (Mazzini and Garibaldi)
March 1849- King Charles renewed the wars against Austria
French attacked Rome and restored the pope
o France did not want a powerful state on its southern border
Pope Pius IX then became a conservative

Germany: Liberalism Frustrated


March 15, 1848- Disturbances broke out in Berlin

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King Frederick William IV wanted a Prussian constituent assembly to write a constitution; stated that Prussia would help
unify Germany
Frankfurt Parliament intended to write a moderately liberal constitution for a united Germany
Two choices of a united Germany:
o grossdeutsch: German states and Austria however, Austria rejected German unification
o kleindeutsch: German states without Austria
Crown of Germany was offered to Prussian King Frederick William IV; rejected offer since he believed in divine right
Frankfurt Parliament dissolved after the rejection of Frederick William IV

Chapter 22: The Age of Nation-States


The Crimean War (1853-1856)
Russia wanted to expand their influence over the Ottoman Empire
Russians wanted to protect the Orthodox Christians in the Empire; French wanted to protect the RCC
The Ottoman sultan (monarch) gave right to the RCC in the empire which angered the Russians
Summer 1853- Russia occupied Moldavia and Walachia (Ottoman provinces) claiming they needed to protect the Orthodox
o Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia
British and French opposed Russian expansion since they had economic interests in the Mediterranean
o France and Britain (allying the Ottoman Empire) declared war on Russia (March 28, 1854)
Tsar Nicholas I wanted Austria and Prussias help, but they had their own ambitions in the Balkans

Peace Settlement and Long-Term Results


Treaty of Paris- required Russia to surrender territory near the mouth of the Danube River; recognize the neutrality of the
Black Sea; renounce its claims to protect Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire
Concert of Europe was broken

Italian Unification
Camillo Cavour
Prime Minister of Piedmont
Italy was a nation-state under a constitutional monarchy
Machiavellian- force of arms and secret diplomacy
Was a conservative who moved towards a moderate liberal later
Favored ideas of the Enlightenment, classical economics, and utilitarianism
Rejected republicanism (Mazzinis ideas)
Believed that if Italy proved to be self-sufficient, Italy could govern themselves
Promoted:
o Free trade
o Railway construction
o Expansion of credit
o Agricultural Improvement
Material and economic bonds would unite the Italians
Capture Italians who believed in other forms of nationalism
Lead unification under Piedmont

French Sympathies
Helped the British and French during the Crimean War to gain attention
Impressed everyone at the Paris conference
Emperor Napoleon III and Cavour plotted to start a war in Italy against Austria (treaty in December 1858)

War with Austria


Piedmont was winning in its war with Austria
Napoleon III feared Piedmont winning too much
Napoleon III concluded peace with Austria
Parma, Modena, Tuscany, and the Romagna united with Piedmont

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Garibaldis Campaign
Garibaldi attempted to unify Italy under a republic (especially in the south)
Garibaldi was unsuccessful since Cavour
Italy was unified under a kingdom by Piedmont aided with the French

German Unification
Otto von Bismarck
Prussian representative to the German Confederation (1851-1859)
Reactionary/ Conservative
Opposed parliamentary government
Wanted a strong constitutional monarchy
Understood that Prussia and Germany must have a strong industrial base
Put more trust in power and action than in ideas
Moved against the liberal parliament
The Prussian constitution allowed the government to carry out its functions on the basis of previously granted taxes
Bismarck needed to find a way to bring support to the army and monarchy instead of the liberals

The Danish War (1864)


Wanted a kleindeutsch
Schleswig and Holstein were being planned to be combined into Denmark
Small German states made war with Denmark
Bismarck only wanted Prussia and Austria involved
Austria was in charge of Holstein and Prussia was in charge of Schleswig
Strategic political tactics:
o Gained support of Russia in helping suppress a Polish revolt
o Persuaded Napoleon III to promise neutrality in an Austro-Prussian conflict
o Bismarck promised Italy Venetia if it attacked Austria in support of Prussia

The Austro-Prussian War (1866)


Bismarck wanted the Prussian forces to be as obnoxious as possible to the Austrians
Austria lost the Austro-Prussian War (1866)
Treaty of Prague- Venetia: Austria France Italy; excluded the Austrian Habsburgs from Germany affairs; Prussia was
the only power in the German states

The North German Confederation


Prussia annexed Northern German states in 1867
States had their own local government, but the military forces were under federal control
President of North German Confederation was the King of Prussia, represented by a Chancellor
Bicameral legislature
o Bundesrat- upper house
o Reichstag- lower house
Supported a democratic franchise- more peasants would support conservatives
Bismarck had crushed the Prussian liberals by making the monarchy and the army the most popular institutions in the country

The Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire (1870-1871)


Bismarck wanted to complete unification with the north and southern states
Prince Leopold (Hohenzollern) was going to succeed Queen Isabella (Bourbon) II
France did not like the idea of a Hohenzollern Spain
Leopolds father renounced Leopolds candidacy for Spanish monarch
Bismarck wanted France to declare war on Germany for unification
Southern Germany joined Prussia in fighting off France
Germany was victorious and was declared the German Empire
The German Empire was rich in natural resources and talented citizens
The German Empire was a conservative creation

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France: From Liberal Empire to the Third Republic


The Paris Commune
Monarchists had power in the National Assembly and executive Adolphe Thiers
Parisians thought they were being betrayed by the National Assembly and wanted a new municipal government, the Paris
Commune
The Paris Commune governed Paris separately
The National Assembly surrounded Paris with an army
Marxists thought the Paris Commune was composed of proletariats and suppressed by bourgeoisie; however:
o The Paris Commune was composed of bourgeoisie
o It did not hold the concept of class conflict (Marxism)
o The Paris Commune wanted a nation of relativiely independent, radically democratic enclaves

The Third Republic


National Assembly turned into a republican government
The House of Orleans was going to succeeded the House of Bourbons until the House of Orleans refused; no heir was present
to either houses
The French elected a conservative president, Marshal Patrice MacMahon who was expected to prepare for a monarch
restoration
There was still no person to be the monarch
Chamber of Deputies was created
o Elected by universal male suffrage
o A Senate was chosen indirectly
o A President was elected by the two legislative houses

The Dreyfus Affair


A French military court found Captain Alfred guilty of passing secret information to the German army
However, the evidence was later revealed to be forged
This affair showed the conservative government did not protect the citizens rights of the republic

The Habsburg Empire


1866- Habsburgs lost all there land in Italy
Austria was no longer involved in German affairs
1867- Magyars and Austrians sign an agreement making Austria and Hungary a dual monarchy (Austria-Hungary/ The
Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen)
o Each state was independent
o The Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary ruled over the dual monarch
Magyars got their independence; made sure nationalities within Hungary stayed with Hungary
Austria-Hungary became influential to the Balkan Peninsula

Russia: Emancipation and Revolutionary Stirrings


The Crimean War pointed out that Russia was a backwards nation
Tsar Alexander II freed the serfs as he saw this was one of Russias major problems
Zemstvos- district assemblies mandates to deal with local issues such as education and social services
Alexander II introduced a written constitution with parliamentary bodies

Great Britain: Toward Democracy


The Second Reform Act (1867)
Working class- prosperity/ social respectability
Workers deserved the right to vote
Reform League- wanted parliament to act (extend franchise)
House of Commons was conservative; Benjamin Disraeli introduced a reform bill in 1867- allowed a large amount of
working-class voters into the electorate
Disraeli thought that the working class would support conservatism

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Disraeli thought the suburban middle class would be more conservative
William Gladstone was elected Prime Minister

Gladstones Great Ministry (1868-1874)


Competitive examinations for civil service replaced patronage
Anglican religious requirements for Oxford and Cambridge Universities were removed
Ballot Act of 1872- secret ballot
Education Act of 1870- the British government assumed the responsibility for establishing and running elementary schools
Mostly liberal reform

Disraeli in Office (1874-1880)


Gladstone (L) - individualism; free trade; competition to solve social problems
Disraeli (C) - paternalistic legislation to protect the weak and ease class antagonisms
Public Health Act of 1875- consolidate previous legislation on sanitation and reaffirmed the duty of the state to interfere with
private property to protect health and physical well-being
Artisan Dwelling Act of 1875- government provided housing for working class

The Irish Question


Ireland wanted home rule for their local government
Irish Roman Catholics didnt have to pay for Irish Protestant churches
Charles Stewart Parnell- Irish movement for a land settlement for home rule
Coercion Act- restore law and order to Ireland
Gladstone supported home rule for Ireland
Ireland was under English control

Chapter 25: Imperialism, Alliances, and War


Expansion of European Power and the New Imperialism
European nations thought that their civilization was better than other European/World nations
Britain had more territory compared to other countries colonial possessions
Imperialism- the policy of extending a nations authority by territorial acquisition or by establishing economic and political
hegemony over other nations
o Wanted to expand industrialism
o Imperialism achieved by loaning the country money or intimidation
Imperialism is the monopoly stage of capitalism. Lenin
o Stronger capitalist nations put out inefficient capitalist nations
Social Darwinism- the concept of Darwins theory of evolution applied onto nations; the strongest nations will survive versus
the smaller nations

The Russian Revolution


The March Revolution sprung about due to the collapse of the Russian government
Nicholas II was influenced by his German wife and Rasputin (who the Russian peasants disliked)
Peasant discontent was still present
1915- Tsar took personal command of armies in the German front; left with incompetent ministers ruling Russia

The Provisional Government


Strikes and worker demonstrations erupted in Petrograd (formerly Saint Petersburg)
March 15, 1917- Tsar Nicholas II abdicates
The Russian government went to the Duma formed a provisional government of Constitutional Democrats (Cadets) with
Western sympathies)
Other socialist groups included: Social Revolutionaries and Social Democrats
o They organized soviets (councils of workers and soldiers)
Mensheviks believed Russia had to have a bourgeoisie stage of development before it could have a revolution of the
proletariat

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o However, cadets failed to control reactionaries
The provisional government accepted the tsarist foreign policies
Moderate socialist, Alexander Kerensky, became the prime minister

Lenin and the Bolsheviks


Bolsheviks worked against the provisional government
Germany sent Lenin away from exile (in Switzerland) to Russia (anticipating that he would augment problems in the
revolutionary government)
Bolsheviks wanted the power to go to the soviets (planned a failed coup)
Trotsky was released from prison and led the powerful Petrograd soviet
Bolsheviks made a second coup which was a success
o Bolsheviks were now in control of Russia

The Communist Dictatorship


November and January- Bolshevik government nationalized the land
o Gave the land to the peasant proprietors
o Factory workers were put in charge of their plants
o Property of the banks became the states property
o The church was given to the state
Bolsheviks thought the war benefited only capitalism and they withdrew Russia from the war
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk- Russia gave up Poland, Finland, the Baltic states, and Ukraine
Bolsheviks paid a high war indemnity
Lenin believed the war and the Russian example would lead to communist governments all over Europe
o Red Russians- supported the civil war
o White Russians- didnt support the civil war
1921- Lenin and supporters were in firm control

Chapter 26: Political Experiments of the 1920s


The Soviet Experiment Begins
Most extensive and durable of the authoritarian governments- Soviet Union
Communist Party of the Soviet Union lasted 1917-1991
Communism was exportable- could ruin other countries political lives
o Soviet Union leaders wanted to spread communism

War Communism
Leon Trotsky (director of the Red Army) suppressed military opposition
White army fought the red army, but was unsuccessful
Cheka- secret police
Lenin stated that the Bolsheviks were the dictators of the proletariat
Political and economic administration was centralized
o The government confiscated and ran:
Banks
Transport system
Heavy industry
War communism aided the Red Army
Alliance of workers and peasants slogan- Peace, Bread, and Land
o Rebellions against the civil war
o The red army was able to crush the rebellion

The New Economic Policy


New Economic Policy (NEP)- heavy industry, transportation, and international commerce, the government would tolerate
private enterprise
Peasants could farm for profit
(Paid taxes like others)

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o
o

Sell grains on the open market


Positives: Countryside became more stable; More secure food supply to cities; Free enterprise flourished within
light industry and domestic retail trade
Negatives: No consumer goods for the peasants to purchase

Stalin Versus Trotsky


Trotskys Position
Left wing
Urged rapid industrialization financed through the expropriation of farm production
Agriculture should be collectivized and peasants should be made to pay for industrialization
Russia needed skills and wealth of other nations to succeed

Stalins Rise
Right wing
More brutal
Amassed power through his command of bureaucratic and administrative methods
Nikolai Bukharin- chief ideological voice of right wings
Position was based on decentralized economic planning and tolerating modest free enterprise and landholdings
Supported Bukharins position on economic development
Stalin believed in socialism in one country which he didnt need other countries to bring communism to Russia

The Third International


Bolsheviks wanted to be known as the international leaders of Marxism
Third International of the European socialist movement- Comintern
o The Bolsheviks were the model for socialism
o Bolsheviks saw social democrats as enemies
Lead to more fascism across Europe

Women and the Family in the Early Soviet Union


Communism and the Family by Alexandra Kollontai though that one could liberate both and women and men in a communist
type government
Few people agreed with Kollontai, though it was a popular idea

Family Legislation from Reform to Repression


Socialist family conditions:
o Freedom to divorce
o Marriage was not a religious ceremony
o Abortion was legalized
1920s and after- women could be involved in their parties

The Fascist Experiment in Italy


Fascism was a right-winged dictatorship (arose across Europe between the wars). Fascists believed the following:
Antidemocratic
Anti-Marxist
Antiparliamentary
Anti-Semitic

The Rise of Mussolini


Italian Fasci di Combattimento (Bands of Combat) were upset Italy did not receive Fiume after WWI; feared the spread of
socialism and inflation
Benito Mussolini was the leader of the Ialian Fasci di Combattimento
First liked the proletariat, later championed the nation
He thought nationalism would unite Italy together (rather than liberalism)
Wrote Il Popolo dItalia (The People of Italy)

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Postwar Italian Political Turmoil
Parliament stopped function and ministers ruled by decree
Gabriele DAnnunzio seized Fiume, but failed; this showed how military power could be put to use
Parliamentary and constitutional government was unable to deal with the turmoil (mostly social problems)
People believed that the social problems would lead to a communist revolution

Early Fascist Organization


Mussolini first supported factory occupations and land seizures
Middle class wanted order rather than justice
Mussolini saw that social groups were becoming nationalistic groups
Mussolinis fascist disrupted Socialist Party meetings and used violence against them

March on Rome
1921- Mussolini and 34 of his followers were elected to the Chamber of Deputies; later fascism grew
Mussolinis fascists were known as black shirts
Black Shirt March on Rome led for fascists to gain power (King Victor Emmanuel III did not stop them)
Mussolini was asked to become the prime minister
o Mussolini was chosen because he was already allies with people in the political system
People thought Mussolini being Prime Minister was going to be short

The Fascists in Power


November 23, 1922- Mussolini gain dictatorial authority for one year to bring order to local and regional government
1924- Mussolini and parliament changed the proportions voting law to who ever got the majority vote was awarded 2/3s of
the Chamber of Deputies seats
1924- Fascist gain complete control of the Chamber of Deputies; Parliament was ended
1925-1926 laws allowed Mussolini to rule by decree
Fascists gained control of the police force, terrorist squads, and militia
Italians liked Mussolini since they considered him to saved them from Bolshevism
Lateran Accord of February 1929- Roman Catholic Church and Italian state made peace with each other
o The Pope was the ruler of Vatican City
o Catholicism was the religion of the Italian state

Motherhood for the Nation in Fascist Italy


Fascism encouraged women to have children
The following were created:
o Maternity leaves
o Insurance
o Subsides of large families
o Dissemination of information about sound child-rearing practices
o Outlawed contraception and abortion
The government wanted Italian mothers to want children to learn fascism
25% of the Italian work force were women

Joyless Victors
Neither Britain or France experienced a shift to an authoritarian government

France: The Search for Security


New Alliances
After the Paris settlement, France was the leading power of Europe
The treaty wanted to keep Germany weak and establish eastern allies against Russia
France formed alliances with the Little Entente (Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia) and Poland
o Isolated Germany and the USSR
Germany and the USSR decided to create a diplomatic and economic relation

Quest for Reparations

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Prime Minister Raymond Poincar sent the French to take over German mining and manufacturing district, Ruhr
The British became more suspicious of the French, and sympathized with the Germans
Occupation of the Ruhr increased German and French inflation
Cartel de Cauches- leftist coalitions (lead by Edouard Herriot)
Inflation rose, but returned when conservatives came back into power

Great Britain: Economic Confusion


The First Labour Government
October 1922- Lloyd George was replaced with Andrew Bonar Law then later replaced by Stanley Baldwin
December 1923- King George V asked Ramsay MacDonald to form the first Labour ministry in British history
The Labour Party was democratic socialist, but nonrevolutionary
o MacDonald wanted extensive social reform rather than seizure of industry

The General Strike of 1926


Autumn 1924- The Labour Party was accused of being communists
Baldwin returned to office until 1929
1925- Conservative government returned to the gold standard
British tried to lower prices to cut down wages
o Coal miners went on strike; workers in other industries soon followed

Ireland
Nationalist rebellions were led by the Irish against the British for postponing the Irish Home Rule Bill (due to WWI)
British suppressed the rebellions
January 21, 1919- Irish independence was declared: Republic of Ireland
These notes are not complete and do not include the following:
Romantic Movement
Events leading up to World War I through Fall of the U.S.S.R. (Chapters 23, 24, 27-30)
The non-condensed version may include these (at a later date) and contains more in depth information, especially from The
French Revolution and the Economic Advance and Social Unrest Chapters.

Patrick J. A. Abejar 2006-2013. All rights reserved. Notes were based of textbooks, Western Civilization by Jackson J.
Spielvogel and Western Heritage by Donald Kagan et. al. AP, Advanced Placement and CollegeBoard are registered trademarks of
CollegeBoard, Inc.